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HEALTH STATUS OF THE ELDERLY IN SELECTED BARANGAYS OF THE CITY OF VIGAN

A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the Graduate School University of Northern Philippines Tamag, Vigan City

In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Master of Arts in Nursing

by

Raymund Christopher R. dela Pea

2010

CERTIFICATION This thesis entitled HEALTH STATUS OF THE ELDERLY IN SELECTED BARANGAYS OF THE CITY OF VIGAN, prepared and submitted by Raymund Christopher R. dela Pea, in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Arts in Nursing, has been examined and recommended for acceptance and approval for Oral Examination.

EDELYN A. CADORNA, Ph.D. Statistician

OFELIA R. ESPIRITU, Ed.D Critic

RAUL A. RAGUINDIN, MAN Adviser

APPROVAL SHEET

Approved by the Panel of Examiners on Oral Examination with a grade of .

CEFERINA S. AMBRE, Ed. D. Chairman

MA. LINDA Q. DUMLAO, MAN Member

MARJORIERIDAO, MAN Member

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree, Master of Arts in Nursing.

CEFERINA S. AMBRE, Ed. D. Dean, Graduate School

Date: Comprehensive Examination: Passed Date: November 21-22, 2009

ACKNOWLEDEGMENT

The researcher wishes to acknowledge with profound gratitude and appreciation the immeasurable assistance rendered by the following individuals, who in one way or another, have greatly contributed to the successful completion of this study. First and foremost, to our Almighty God, who showered His love and blessings and provided wisdom, courage and strength from the conceptualization up to the completion of this study. Dr. Lauro B. Tacbas, UNP President, for his incomparable leadership, concern and moral support. Dr. Ceferina S. Ambre, Dean of the Graduate School and the Chairman of the Panel Examiners, for her inspiration, sympathetic concern and encouragement. Mr. Raul A. Raguindin, the researchers adviser for his intellectual support, deep concern, guidance and encouragement for the accomplishment of the study. Dr. Ofelia R. Espiritu, the researchers cric, for her unselfish guidance, and valuable contribution in the refinement of this study. Dr. Ederlyn A. Cadorna, the researchers statistician, for her patience and for sharing her precious time and expertise in processing the data. Prof. Ma. Linda Q. Dumlao and Mrs. Marjorie Ridao, members of the panel of examiners, for their encouragement and valuable suggestions for the refinement of this study.

To all the elderly respondents and their families, for their cooperation and patience in and valuable contribution in the content validation of the questionnaire. Prof. Brigida F. de Leon, Dean of the College of Nursing, for her unending support, motivation and motherly guidance. Hon. Eva Marie S. Medina, Vigan City Mayor, and the Barangay Captains and Barangay Health Workers of Barangays V, VI and VIII, San Julian Sur, San Julian Norte, San Pedro Sur, San Pedro Norte, Salindeg and Mindoro, for granting the researcher permission to float questionnaires and helping in identifying and locating the respondents. To the relatives and friends of the researcher, for their fervent prayers, moral support and heartfelt concern. Lastly to his beloved parents, Mr. and Mrs. Jesus O. dela Pea, for the untiring and unselfish guidance, eternal love, fervent prayers and untold sacrifices that inspire the researcher to finish his work.

R.C.R.D.P

DEDICATION

This humble work of mine is dedicated to the following persons, who encouraged me to dream and taught me with love and understanding. My father whom I know is very proud of me even if he did not live long enough to see where I am right now. My mother, the wind beneath my wings, who believed in me and helped me overcome my doubts about my capacity. To my dear relatives especially to my grandmother, to my aunts and to my cousins, for all the help and support. To all my friends, for all the love and understanding. And above all, to our Almighty God, for all the blessings that He has showered me.

-Raymund

ABSTRACT This study examined the actual health status of the elderly in selected barangays of Vigan City and its relationship to some variables like socio-economic and health related factors. The dependent variables are the health status of the elderly along the following dimensions: physical, psychosocial, emotional and spiritual. The independent variables include the respondents socio-economic factors like sex, age, civil status, educational attainment, source of income and previous

employment/occupation, and the health related factors like lifestyle, health seeking behaviors, primary caregiver and health benefits received. The respondents of this study are the 306 elderly from Barangay V, Barangay VI, Barangay VIII, San Julian Sur, San Julian Norte, San Pedro Sur, San Pedro Norte, Salindeg and Mindoro, Vigan City. The study made used of the descriptive-correlational method of research. A questionnaire-checklist constructed by the researcher and validated by the pool of experts and translated to Iloko was the main tool in gathering data. Frequency count and percentages were used to describe the socio-economic and health related factors. Mean was used to describe the health status of the elderly. Bivariate correlation analysis was used to determine the extent of relationship between the actual health status and the socio-economic and health related factors of the elderly. Based on the findings of this study, the following conclusions were drawn: 1) Majority of the respondents are female, within the age bracket of 61-65, married,

finished elementary and were previously non-professionally employed and are financially supported by their children. Most respondents engage themselves in different forms of exercise like walking, jogging and running. Majority of them do not smoke and drink. However, a greater percentage of respondents dont go for regular medical and dental check-up at all. 2) The overall health status of the elderly is good. 3) The health status of the elderly is affected by their age, educational attainment, previous employment/occupation, exercise, drinking, eating meat, medical check-up, taking BP, taking vitamin supplements, taking herbal products, dental check-up, following doctors order, self medication and primary caregiver. 4) Sex, civil status, source of income, smoking, eating meals regularly, eating vegetables, eating fruits, drinking at least 8-10 glasses of water, visiting herbolarios and health benefits received have no significant effect on their health status. Based from the salient findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are forwarded: 1) The elderly must maintain their Good health status. Despite their age, they must always have the dynamism and courage to practice the latest trends in health maintenance and promotion. 2) There should be proper monitoring of their health habits by health agencies and organizations so that their good health will be maintained. 3) The Philippine government must provide more support to the Senior Citizens of the country by helping specifically in the strict observance and implementation of the newly approved Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2010 which provides a comprehensive health care and rehabilitation system to foster their capacity to attain a more meaningful and productive aging. 4) A similar study must be conducted using a wider scope integrating other variables which were

not used in this study such as family structure, presence of deformities and chronic illness.

TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE LIST OF TABLES CHAPTER I THE PROBLEM Introduction Statement of the Problem.... Scope and Delimitation of the Study. Theoretical Framework.. Conceptual Framework.. Operational Definition of Terms Hypothesis Methodology. Research Design Population of the Study Data Gathering Instrument Data Gathering Procedure Statistical Treatment of Data

II

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA Socio-economic Profile of the Respondents. Health Related Factors..

Health Status of the Elderly.. Relationship Between the respondents Health Status and Their Socio-economic and Health Related Variables..

III

SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary Findings. Conclusions Recommendations.

BIBLIOGRAPHY.. APPENDICES CURRICULUM VITAE

LIST OF TABLES TABLE 1 2 PAGE Distribution of the Respondents Distribution of the Elderly in Terms of Socio-Economic Factors 3 Distribution of the Elderly in Terms of Lifestyle 4 Distribution of the Elderly in Terms of Health Seeking Behavior.. 5 Distribution of the Elderly in Vigan City in Terms of Primary caregiver. 6 Distribution of the Elderly in Vigan City in Terms of Health Benefits Received.... 7 Mean Ratings Showing the Health Status of the Elderly Along Physical Dimension. 8 Mean Ratings Showing the Health Status of the Elderly Along Psychosocial Dimension. 9 Mean Ratings Showing Health Status of the Elderly Along Emotional Dimension. 10 Mean Ratings Showing the Health Status of the Elderly in Along Spiritual Dimension 11 Summary of the Health Status of the

Elderly in Vigan City. 12 Summary of the Health Status of the Elderly in Vigan City by Barangay.. 13 Correlation Between Health Status of the Elderly and Socio-Economic Variables.. 14 Correlation Between Health Status of the Elderly and Health-Related Variables.

Chapter I THE PROBLEM Introduction Elderly in our society are stereotyped. Aging is a natural process, but the changes associated with it are rarely viewed as natural or positive. Healthcare professionals commonly describe such changes as losses such as a loss of tissue elasticity or decrease in blood flow. In general, our society regards aging as a series of inevitable, negative events that a person must tolerate (Travis, 2002). Some of the myths, misconception and negative stereotypes about the older people stem from our cultures value and beliefs. Many people perceive older adults as senile, sick and incapable of making worthwhile contributions to society (Travis, 2002). The worlds elderly population is fast increasing, but there is scant information of their health needs in developing countries. The ages 60 and above is the fastest growing age group. Filipino culture, values and traditions dictate that the elderly people must be respected and cared for. In line with this, the updated Philippine Development Plan promotes the familys major role in providing care in the home. It stresses the development of family-oriented support systems to help curb the increase in the number of abandoned and neglected elderly. In addition, it considers the communitys role in providing additional support. It regards voluntary organizations, private

firms, or charities, as important resources in filling gaps wherein either the family or the governments provisions of services are insufficient. At present the countrys major programs are The Department Programs for the Elderly, Institutionalized Homes for the Aged and Retirement and other Benefits (National Economic and Development Authority, 1992). The elderly in the Philippines, those aged 60 and above account for a small portion of the population. Demographic trends, however, reveal an alarming increase in the elderly population. Based on the census, they represented 5.28 % and 5.26 % of the total population in 1980 and 1990, respectively. By the year 2030, the number is expected to double the 1990 data and reach more than 6.4 million (Untalasco, 1998). In Region I, the 1990 census reveals that the elderly composed 7 % of the total population compared to the national level of only 5 %. The Ilocos Region tops the list of regions with the biggest elderly population (Untalasco. 1998). There is, therefore, a need to pay attention to this phenomenon. The researcher took interest in conducting this study to determine the actual health status of the elderly in selected barangays of the City of Vigan. The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between the health status of the elderly and some socio-economic and health related factors. Four dimensions of health were measured using a structured questionnaire administered to elderly randomly selected in an urban community. The four health dimensions are physical, psychosocial,

emotional and spiritual while the socio-economic factors that were studied include age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, source of income and previous employment and heath related factors included lifestyle, health seeking behaviors, primary caregiver and health benefits received. It will gather suitable information that will be helpful in the formulation of policies and programs that are more responsive to the needs and problems of the elderly by both private and government sectors. As a member of the health care team, the data obtained from this study will serve as baseline data in formulating nursing care plans that would be suitable to the fragile health needs of the elderly. The data that will be gathered will also serve as baseline information for policy formulation by the health providers as well as the Local Government Unit specially the health program managers for them to come up with suitable programs and services that will meet the needs of the elderly people in the locality.

Statement of the Problem This study aims to examine and determine the relationship of socio-demographic characteristics to health status of the elderly in selected barangays of the City of Vigan. Specifically, it seeks to answer the following questions: 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of the following variables: A. Socio-economic Factors a) age, b) sex, c) civil status, d) educational attainment, e) source of income and f) previous employment/occupation? B. Health Related Factors a) lifestyle, b) heatlh seeking behaviors, c) primary caregiver and d) health benefits received? 2. What is the heath status of the respondents in terms of the following dimensions? a) physical, b) psychosocial

c) emotional and d) spiritual? 2. Is there a significant relationship between the health status of the respondents and socio-economic and health related variables? Scope and Delimitation of the Study The study aimed to determine the actual health status of the elderly of selected barangays of the City of Vigan. The study determined if the health status of the respondents is affected by some socio-demographic and health related factors. The dependent variable of the study is the health status of the respondents which includes their physical, psychosocial, emotional and spiritual dimensions. And the independent variables include the following: socioeconomic factors namely: age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, source of income and previous employment/occupation and the health related factors such as lifestyle, health seeking behaviors, primary caregiver and health benefits received. The population of the study was a total enumeration of 306 respondents taken from 12 selected barangays of Vigan City, namely: Barangay VIII, Barangay VI, Barangay V (Poblacion areas), San Julian Sur, San Julian Norte, San Pedro Sur, San Pedro Norte, Salindeg (Farmland areas) and Mindoro (Coastal area). The data in this study was limited to what was measured by the personal information sheet to be conducted by the researcher and the

questionnaire checklist made by the researcher. Data gathered were analyzed and interpreted using frequency count and percentages, mean and bivariate correlation analysis. Theoretical Framework This section deals with readings and studies related to the present study, which provided the researchers insights for conceptualizing this present study. On Health Status Traditionally health has been defined in terms of the presence or absence of disease. Nightingale defined health as a state of being well and using every power the individual possesses to the fullest extent. The World Health Organization (WHO) takes a more holistic view of health. Its constitution defines health as a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being, and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity. (Kozier, et al., 2004) On Physical Dimension Physical health and wellness is often regarded or measured through ones own physical strength, endurance and flexibility. Physical strength, per se, may mean the cardiovascular and muscular strength being possessed by an individual. Aside from those things, physical health may also cover the nutritional knowledge, exercise, and medical self or medical care and appropriate use of the medical system. Thus, the use of drugs or tobacco consumption or

the excessive use of alcohol are also integrated in this aspect of health, and therefore, the avoidance of these things may mean being healthy in a way.

Physical health and fitness is very essential to ones day-to-day existence. One has to be fit enough to carry on with lifes daily tasks. He who is not fit cannot do the duties expected of him because he does not

have the body requirement for it. Those individuals that are fitter physically are healthier and live better lives, considering that they are able to avoid several lifestyle diseases, especially heart disease and diabetes, which are possible to be prevented or minimized through exercise and

healthy lifestyle.

Aside from the cardiovascular and muscular strength previously mentioned, physical health is also commonly stated through these things: body composition, agility, balance, flexibility, muscular endurance, and speed. Ones body has to be strong enough to function well. Being physically weak hinders anyone from working the usual, thus leading to an unhealthy and unhappy life. (Luggen, 2009)

On Psychosocial Dimension

Psychosocial refers to one's psychological development in and interaction with a social environment. The individual is not necessarily fully aware of this relationship with his or her environment. It was first commonly used by psychologist Erik Erikson in his stages of social development.

Contrasted with social psychology, which attempts to explain social patterns unique internal processes that occur within the individual. It is usually used in the context of "psychosocial intervention," which is commonly used alongside psycho educational or psychopharmacological solutions for individual challenges in

interventions and points toward

interacting with an element of the social environment. (Luggen, 2009)

On Emotional Dimension Emotional health generally refers to feelings and moods you may feel sad, happy, worried, excited, frustrated, and fulfilled all in the same day. Like physical well-being, emotional (psychological) health is more than the absence of problems or illness.

Emotional healthy individuals are in touch or control in their feelings and can acknowledge and express them. Among the characteristics of emotionally healthy persons are the following:

Determination and effort to be healthy; flexibility and adaptability to a variety of circumstances; development of a sense of meaning in and affirmation of life; an understanding that the self is not the center of the universe; relating to compassion for others; the ability to be unselfish in serving or others; increased depth and satisfaction in intimate

relationships; and a sense

of control over the mind and the body that

enables the person to make healthGary S. Sy, 2009)

enhancing choices and decisions. (Dr.

On Spiritual Dimension Spirituality is unique to each individual. Your spirit usually refers to the deepest part of you, the part that lets you make meaning of your world. Your spirit provides you with the revealing sense of who you are, why you are here and what your purpose for living is. It is that innermost part of you that allows you to gain strength and hope.

Spiritual wellness may not be something that you think much of, yet its impact on your life is unavoidable. The basis of spirituality is discovering a sense of meaningfulness in your life and coming to know that you have a purpose to fulfill.

For some, spirituality may be equated with traditional religions such as Christianity, Hinduism or Buddhism. For others, it may mean growing in your personal relationships with others, or through being at peace with nature. (Thompson Rivers University, 2009)

On Socio-Economic Factors

On Age Aging is a simple fact of life and is a natural part of the life cycle. It is a complex process that accelerates growth wanes and continues relentlessly throughout life. As people get older, certain changes occur in

the body that eventually leads to the decline of many bodily functions. Taylor, et al (2005) as cited by Sumabat (2009), viewed elderly as those older than 65 years old. However, they divide older adult period as young old (ages 60-74), the middle old (ages 75-84) and the old-old (ages 85 years old and older). According to them during this life stage (elderly), both men and women undergo some degree of decline in overall functioning of the body and the body becomes less efficient sight and hearing becomes impaired and the senses of touch, taste and smell become less acute. As aging processes, there is less elasticity and more rigidity on all level physical, emotional and social aspects. On Sex According to Danter (2003) as cited by Sumabat (2009), Mother Nature tries to help even out the numbers by giving boys a head start at conception. One hundred and six boys are born for every 100 girls. As time passes male deaths increasingly outnumber women, so that by the time these babies have reached their thirties, the sexes are approximately equal in number. From that point on, the continuing higher male death rate leaves more women at any given age. If you live to be 95, there will be four women for every man your age. The gender gap is more pronounced in those who live 100 years or more. Among centenarians worldwide, women outnumber males nine to one. The mortality gap varies during other stages of life too. According to US Bureau of Census (2000), women have a longer life expectancy than men do. Estes (2005) pointed out also

that women in late adulthood generally become more involved and assume leadership roles in activities outside home and work, such as politics and other civic activities. On the other hand, men tend to become more aware and accepting of their nurturing and caring tendencies. Civil Status The marital status of older persons is an aspect of family structure that deeply affects their living arrangement, support systems and individual well-being. In some cases, support provided by an older woman to her husband may, on one hand, leave her physically and financially drained and lacking any support of her own when he dies. On the other hand, unbroken husband-wife families provide a continuity of the marital bond established through the life course. Thus, they constitute a multiple support system for spouses in terms of emotional, financial and social exchanges. The provision of care in coping with ill-health from chronic diseases and functional limitations becomes increasingly important at older ages. To a large extent, marital status also determines the living arrangement of older persons. While independent living arrangements generally characterize the situation for married couples in most developed world societies, it is far from universal in other regions of the world. Finally, it is frequently reported that married persons tend to enjoy higher levels of survival, mental health, and use of health services, social participation and satisfaction compared with older persons who never married (Myers, 1994).

Educational Attainment According to Hooyman and Kiyak (2002) as cited by Sumabat (2009), significant age-related declines in intelligence, learning and memory appear not to be inevitable. Many factors affect the ability of older people to learn and remember and to perform well in testing situations. Older adults who have higher levels of education, good sensory function, good nutrition and jobs that require complex problem-solving skills continue to demonstrate intelligence, memory and the capacity for learning. Crystallized intelligence that gained through education and lifelong experiences remains intact. Many older people continue to learn and participate in varied educational experiences. The intellectual dimension encompasses cognitive abilities, educational background and past experiences. These influence responses to teaching about health and reactions to nursing care during illness. They also play a major role in health behaviors. Examples of situations involving this dimension include a middle-aged man who quits taking his blood pressure medication after developing unpleasant side effects (Taylor, et. Al., 2005). According to Evio (2005), the level of education could influence cognitive ability of the aged, and hence, plays an important role in the knowledge and skill acquisition for a health life.

On Source of Income A lack of adequate income can affect an older adults ability to meet his or her needs, such as medical care, housing, nutrition, social and creative interest. Moreover, health needs of the lower and middle income segments of the elderly remain largely unmet and partially met (Taylor, 2005). The elderly have to depend on their limited savings or on the support of their children (American Journal on Geriatrics, 1999). Estes (2005) as cited by Sumabat (2009) also added that numerous socioeconomic conditions such as income and social support affect the nutrition of older adults. Furthermore, Taylor, et. al (2005) stated that older adults with reduced income may live inadequate housing in neighborhoods with heavy traffic and high crime rates. An older adults spouse and other family members are natural support systems that help the person maintain functional health independence. On Health Related Factors Lifestyle Several researchers have reported a relationship between healthy lifestyles and health status among older persons. Kaplan et al (1987) found that personal health practices were inversely associated with mortality among those aged 70 and over. Among the activities that older persons engage in to maintain good health, Brody (1985) listed: exercise, diet, keeping busy, socializing, avoiding worry, and visiting health

professionals; while Maloney (1984) reported: staying active, positive

outlook in life, exercise, nutrition, rest and relaxation, blood pressure monitoring, health checks ups, and self-discipline. Brown and McCreedy (1986) reported that age, sex, socioeconomic status, and marital status explained 7.2% of variance in number of health-protective practices among adults aged 55 and over. Health Seeking Behaviors Health promotion or health seeking behaviors is as important for the elderly as it is for other adults and children. Although 80% of people older than 65 years old have one or more chronic illness and many are limited in their activity, the elderly as a group experience significant gains from health promotion. The elderly are very health conscious, and most view their health positively and are willing to adopt practices that will improve their health and well-being. (Brunner et. al. 2004) Primary Caregiver According to Taylor et al (2004); most older adults prefer to live in their own home and find it difficult to move. Moving in with adult children creates changes in roles and responsibility. If the older adult is chronically ill or cognitively impaired, the family caregivers face the need for daily care giving, lack of freedom and emotional stress. Health Benefits Received Health needs assume considerable importance in old age. Certain disease has a higher prevalence rate in old age. Handicaps in physical

movement, hearing, and vision also increase. In the developing countries of Asia, the health needs of the lower and middle income segments of the elderly remain largely unmet and partially met. The elderly have to depend on their limited savings or on the support of their children. The bulk of this population is not covered by medical insurance. Private medical care has expanded but is beyond the means of most especially when hospitalization becomes necessary. Each country will have to devise a mix-supported affordable health care system, including community-based models run by non-government organizations not for profit. There are also health insurance schemes providing different packages of coverage with varied subscription rates and private medical and nursing care (American Journal on Geriatrics, 1999).

Conceptual Framework This study ventures to find out the relationship between the dependent variables which is the health status of the elderly and independent variables which is the socio-economic and health related factors. Independent Variables A. Socio Economic Factors a. Age b. Sex c. Civil status d. Educational attainment e. Source of income f. Previous employment/occupation Health Status of the Elderly in terms of the following dimensions: a. Physical b. Psychosocial c. Emotional B. Health Related Factors a. Lifestyle b. Health seeking behaviors c. Primary caregiver d. Health benefits received Figure 1. The Research Paradigm The research paradigm illustrates the relationship between the dependent variables which is the health status of the elderly in Vigan City and the independent variables which are the socio-economic and health related factors. d. Spiritual Dependent Variables

Operational Definition of Terms For a clearer understanding, the following terms will be operationally defined: Health Status. This refers to the health status of the respondents. It contains the four dimensions of health: physical, psychosocial, emotional and spiritual. Physical Dimension. This refers to the physical changes that an elderly undergoes and how they cope with it. Psychosocial Dimension. This refers to the psychosocial changes that the elderly experiences and how they cope with it. Emotional Dimension. This refers to the emotional changes that the elderly experiences and how they cope and deal with it. Spiritual Dimension. This refers to the spiritual aspect of the respondent and how they Elderly. This refers to the people who are approaching old age, 60 years old and above. Socio-economic Factors. This refers to the characteristics of the respondents such as age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, source of income and previous employment or occupation. Sex. This refers to the gender of the respondents whether they are male or female.

Civil status. This refers to the marital status of the respondents whether they are single, married or widowed. Educational attainment. This refers to the level of formal education the respondent has reached. In this study, educational attainment was categorized as no formal schooling, elementary level and others. Source of Income. This refers whether the respondents are receiving fixed pension, a regular monthly salary, dependent from children or dependent from a business income. Previous employment/occupation. This refers to the nature of the respondents past work or occupation. In this study, previous employment and skilled. Health Related Factors. This refers to variables related to the respondents health. In this study, health related factors included lifestyle, health seeking behaviors, primary caregiver and health benefits received. Lifestyle. This refers to the practices of the respondents that has something to do with their health and lifestyle such as exercise, smoking, drinking and diet. Health seeking behaviors. This refers to the practices of the respondents that has something to do with their health such as was categorized into professional, non-professional

regular medical check-up, regular BP taking, taking of vitamin and herbal supplements, etc. Primary caregiver. This refers to the respondents main provider of care. In this study primary caregiver include spouse, children, relatives, private nurse/caregiver etc. Health benefits received. This refers to the health benefits received by the respondents such as free medical-dental service, discount on diagnostic/laboratory fees, doctors fee, hospital bill, etc. Hypothesis Basing from the problems of the study, it is hypothesized that there is a significant relationship between the socio-demographic profile and health profile of the elderly. Methodology This section presents the research design used in this study, population and sample, data gathering instrument, data gathering procedure, and statistical treatment of data. Research Design. In this study, the descriptive-correlational method of research was employed wherein a questionnaire-checklist was the main tool in gathering data. The responses were analyzed, interpreted and summarized.

Population and Sample. There are 306 respondents of this study who are the elderly (60 years old and above) from selected barangays of Vigan City. Twelve barangays were selected, three from poblacion area, three from the farmland and one from the coastal area. Slovins formula was used in choosing the respondents.

n = ___ N__ 1 + Ne where: n = sample size N = population size e = margin of error (.04)

Table 1 shows the distribution of the respondents. Table 1 Distribution of the Respondents
Barangay Poblacion Barangays Barangay VIII Barangay VI Barangay V Farmland San Julian Sur San Julian Norte Bongtolan Bolala Salindeg Pantay Daya Pantay Laud Capangpangan Coastal Mindoro Total 161 152 138 119 136 44 72 130 66 44 86 149 1297 N n

38 36 33 28 32 10 17 31 16 10 20 35 306

Data Gathering Instrument. The researcher constructed a questionnaire-checklist which was used in this study and validated by the poll of experts and was translated from English to Iloko. The questionnaire-checklist consists of two parts. Part I displays the profile of the respondents along socio-economic factors such as age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, source of income and previous employment/occupation and their health related factors like lifestyle, health seeking behaviors, primary caregiver and health benefits received. Part II consists of the questionnaire on health status which includes the following dimensions: physical, psychosocial, emotional and spiritual. The following descriptive scale was used in the assessment of health status of the elderly: 5 Always 4 Often 3 Sometimes 2 Seldom 1 Never The following norms of arbitrarily set by the researcher were used in interpreting the actual health status of the elderly.

Numerical Rating 4.21 3.41 2.61 1.81 1.00 5.00

Descriptive Rating Always Often Sometimes Seldom Never

Descriptive Rating Very Good Good Fair Poor Very Poor

- 4.20 - 3.40 - 2.60 - 1.80

Data Gathering Procedure. The researcher made letters addressed to the City Mayor and Barangay Captains of Barangay V, Barangay VI, Barangay VIII, San Julian Sur, San Julian Norte, San Pedro Sur, San Pedro Norte, Salindeg and Mindoro, respectively for them to give permission to the reseacrvher to gather data from the respondents in their respective barangays. After asking permission from the concerned authorities, the researcher administered the questionnaire-checklist to the respondents through the help of the health worker of each barangay. Statistical Treatment. The following statistical tools were used to answer the questions raised in the study: 1. Frequency count and percentages was used to describe the profile of the respondents in terms of age, sex, civil status, educational attainment, source of income, previous employment/occupation 2. The mean was utilized to describe the respondents health status in terms of physical, psychosocial, emotional and spiritual dimensions.

3. Simple correlation analysis was used to determine the relationship between health status and socio-economic and health related factors of the elderly in selected barangays of the City of Vigan.

Chapter II PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTEPRETATION OF DATA This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of the data gathered to determine the health status of the elderly in Vigan City. Problem 1. What is the profile of the respondents in terms of: A. Socio-economic factors such as: a) age, b) sex, c) civil status, d) educational attainment, e) source of income and f) previous employment/occupation? B. Health Related Factors a) lifestyle, b) health seeking behaviors, c) primary caregiver and d) health benefits received? Socio-Economic Profile of the Respondents The socio-economic profile of the respondents is presented in Table 2.

Table 2 Distribution of the Elderly in Vigan City in Terms of Socio-Economic Variables Socio-Economic Variables Age Above 75 71-75 66-70 60-65 Total Sex Male Female Total Civil Status Widow/er Married Single Total Educational Attainment Post Graduate College Graduate College Level High School Graduate High School Level Elementary Graduate Elementary Undergraduate No Formal Schooling Total Source of Income Fixed Pension (From GSIS, SSS, Veterans, etc) Salary Assistance from children Income from business Others Previous Employment/Occupation Professional Non-Professional Skilled None Total f 41 56 55 154 306 116 190 306 89 178 39 306 9 55 8 69 11 129 7 18 306 102 37 136 36 32 55 187 62 2 306 % 13.4 18.3 18.0 36.2 100.0 37.9 62.1 100.0 29.1 58.2 12.7 100.0 2.9 18.0 2.6 22.5 3.6 42.2 2.3 5.9 100.0 33.3 12.1 44.3 11.8 10.5 18.0 61.0 20.3 0.7 100.0

Socio-Economic Profile Age. A greater percentage (154 or 36.2%) of the respondents belongs to the 61-65 age bracket. There are only 41 (13.4%) respondents who are more than 75 years old. This could be explained by Ericsons theory of generativity vs self absorption wherein in late adulthood, some people choose to be productive and some are already self-absorbed and withdraw themselves to the society. Sex. Most (190 or 62.1%) of the respondents are females and there are 116 (37.9%) who are males. This could be attributed to the fact that females are more participative than males. Civil Status. Most (178 or 58.2%) of the respondents are married, 89 (29.1%) are widow/widower and only 39 (12.7%) are single. The result shows that the doctrine of marriage among Bigueos is still very much respected and observed by the respondents. Educational Attainment. A greater number of the respondents (129 or 42.2% are elementary graduates. There are only nine (2.9%) who attained a post graduate degree. The result could be the effect of the colonization of the Spaniards where the elder child help their parents earn a living or the female children stays at home while the other siblings are sent to school. Further, this might also be due to the financial status of the respondents. Source of Income. Out of the 306 elderly, 136 (44.3%) of the respondents are financially supported by their children. Followed closely by those who are receiving fixed pension (102 or 33.3%). There are only 32 (10.5%) who are financed by their relatives abroad and depending on the help of the city government.

Previous Employment/Occupation. Most(187 or 61.0%) of the respondents previous nature of work is non-professional which includes housekeeping, farming and fishing. While those who are into weaving, pottery, manufacturing and carpentry or skilled got 62 or 20.3%. Health Related Factors The distribution of the respondents in terms of their health related factors on lifestyle is shown in Table 3. Table 3 Distribution of the Elderly in Vigan City in Terms of Lifestyle Health-Related Variables A. Lifestyle A. Exercise -Walking -Jogging -Running -Swimming -Others Frequency Everyday Once a week 2x a week 2x a month Never Total B. Smoking -Filter and without filter -without filter -filter -not smoking Total No, of sticks per day 16-20 11-15 6-10 1-5 f %

252 36 11 13 42 187 18 40 8 53 306 60 246 306 2 8 11 39

82.4 11.8 3.6 4.2 13.7 61.1 5.9 13.1 2.6 17.3 100.0 19.6 80.4 100.0 0.7 2.6 3.6 12.7

None Total C. Drinking -wine -beer -liquor -others No, of glasses per session 2 or more glasses 1 glass glass Others None Total Frequency Everyday Every other day 2x a week Once a week never Total D. Diet D.1. Eating meals regularly -always -sometimes -seldom -never Total D.2. Eating vegetables green vegetables - orange vegetables - dried beans & peas - others Frequency - always - sometimes - seldom - never Total D.3. Eating fruits in every meal - tree fruits - citrus fruits - tropical fruits - others Frequency

246 306 46 21 11 3 11 20 15 23 237 306 14 9 11 35 237 306

80.4 100.0 15.0 6.9 3.6 1.0 3.6 6.5 4.9 7.5 77.5 100.0 4.6 2.9 3.6 11.4 77.5 100.0

7 284 15 306 286 252 155 72 175 97 14 20 306 103 90 225 46

2.3 92.8 4.9 100.0 93.5 82.4 50.7 23.5 57.2 31.7 4.6 6.5 100.0 33.7 29.4 73.5 15.0

always sometimes seldom never Total

63 134 59 50 306 238 211 262 262 139 35 79 53 306

20.6 43.8 19.3 16.3 100.0 77.8 69.0 85.6 85.6 45.5 11.4 25.8 17.3 100.0

D.4. Eating meat - chicken - beef - pork - fish Frequency - always - sometimes - seldom - never Total D.5. Drinking at least 8-10 glasses of water everyday - yes - no Total Frequency - always - sometimes - seldom - never Total Source of drinking water - Jetmatic pump - electric water pump - deep well - commercialized bottled water

278 28 306 212 52 14 28 306 178 43 29 86

90.8 9.2 100.0 69.2 17.0 4.6 9.2 100.0 58.2 14.1 9.5 28.1

Lifestyle On Exercise. As reflected on the table, a greater number (252 or 82.4%) of the respondents prefer walking as a form of exercise. This is followed by other forms of exercise like cycling, simple weight lifting, etc (42 or13.7%), 36 or 11.8% go for jogging, 13 or 4.2% choose swimming and 11 or 3.6% likes running.

This could be due to the fact that walking is the most convenient and easiest way to exercise and also taking into consideration the age of the respondents. Frequency. The data shows that 187 (61.1%) respondents exercise evevryday, 53 (17.3%) do not exercise at all, 40 (13.1%) exercise on a twice a week basis, 18 (5.9%) do it weekly and 8 (2.6%) exercise twice a month. This might be due to the elders decreasing stamina and endurance to perform these activities. Smoking. The table shows that a greater percentage (246 or 80.4%) of the respondents are non-smokers and only 60 (19.6%) smoke cigarette with filter. No. of Sticks per Day. Since most of the respondents are non-smokers, majority (246 or 80.4% do not consume a single stick per day. While 39 (12.7%) consume 1-5 sticks per day, 11 (3.6%) 6-10 sticks, 8 (2.6%) 11-15 and only two consume at least one pack (16-10 sticks) per day. The smokers claimed that smoking aids digestion after a heavy meal. Further, they believed smoking decreases stress or tension. Drinking. It can be observed from the table that most (46 or 15.0) of the respondents drink wine, 21 (6.9%) respondents prefer beer, 11 (3.6%) drink liquor and 3 (1.0%) respondents prefer other alcoholic beverages. The result may be attributed to the health benefit that wine can give especially to the heart. No. of Glasses per Session. The table shows that most (237 or 77.5%) of the respondents are non-drinkers so they do not consume any alcoholic bebverage. On the other hand, 11 (3.6% consume 2 or more glasses per session. Frequency. It can be seen on the table that most (237 or 77.5%) are nondrinkers, 35 (11.4%) drinks on a once a week basis, 14 (4.6%) drinks everyday, 19

(3.6%) attend drinking session twice a week and 11 respondents (2.9%) drinks ever other day. Diet. It is reflected on the table that most (284 or 92%) seldomly eat their meals regularly, 15 (4.%) never takes their meals 3x a day and the remaining 7 (2.3%) always eat their meals regularly. Eating vegetables. It can be gleaned from the table that (286 or 93.5%) green vegetables is more preferred by the respondents, followed by orange vegetables (252 or82.4%) 155 (50.7%) go for dried beans and peas, and the remaining 72 (23.5%) prefer other types of vegetables. This might be due to the abundance of green vegetables in our locality like leaf vegetables, okra, broccoli, etc. Frequency. As reflected on the table, most (175 or 57.2%) of the respondents always eat vegetables and only 20 (6.5%) dont include vegetables in their meal. Eating fruits in every meal. It can be seen from the table that most (225 or 73.5%) of the respondents eat tropical fruits (banana, mango, pineapple) every time they take their meal, 103 (33.7%) prefer tree fruits (cherry, pear, apple), 90 (29.4%) go for citrus fruits and the remaining 96 (15.0% prefer other types of fruits. This result may be related to the fact that we are living in a tropical country wherein tropical fruits is very abundant. Frequency. It can be observed from the table that most (134 or 43.8%) of the elderly sometimes eat fruit every time they take their meal, 63 (20.6%) respondents said they always include fruits in their meals. On the other hand, 50

(16.3%) elderly claimed they never eat fruits every time they have their meal. The findings may be due to the financial status of the respondents. Eating meat. It is reflected on the table that pork and fish (262 or 85.6%) is preferred more by the respondents, 238 (77.8%) elderly said they prefer chicken and beef is least preferred (211 or 69.0%) Frequency. Out of the 306 elderly, there are 139 (45.5%) who always eat meat, 79 (25.8%) seldomly include meat in their meal and a total of 53 (17.3%) respondents claimed they never eat meat products. Drinking at least 8-10 glasses of water per day. As reflected on the table, 278 (90.8 % respondents said they drink at least 8-10 glasses of water per day and only 28 (9.2%) elderly claimed they consume less than 8 glasses of water per day. Frequency. The data show that most (212 or 69.2%) of the respondents claimed that they always drink at least 8-10 glasses of water per day. On the other hand, 28 (9.2%) elderly said they never consume that quantity in a day. Source of drinking water. The table shows that a greater percentage (178 or 58.2%) of the respondents rely on jetmatic pump for their source of drinking water, 86 (28%) buy commercialized bottled water, 43 (14.1%) depend on electric water pump and 29 (9.5%) fetch their drinking water in a deep well. Health Seeking Behaviors The distribution of the respondents in terms of their health related factors on health seeking behaviors is shown in Table 4.

Table 4 Distribution of the Elderly in Vigan City in Terms of Health Seeking Behavior Health-Related Variables B. Health Seeking Behavior B.1. Medical Check-up Monthly Quarterly Biannually Annually Never Total B.2. Taking BP Everyday Weekly Monthly As necessary Never Total Person who takes BP - Others - Family members - Municipal Health Worker - Barangay Health Worker B.3. Taking vitamin supplements Multivitamins Calcium Vit c Vit B Frequency - always - sometimes - seldom - never Total B.4. Taking herbal products Commercialized Natural Frequency - always - sometimes - seldom - never f %

54 34 52 50 116 306 34 30 59 114 69 306 46 60 56 124 133 81 80 36 119 24 32 131 306 120 127 18 37 56 195

17.6 11.1 17.0 16.3 38.0 100.0 11.1 9.8 19.3 37.3 22.5 100.0 15.0 19.6 18.3 40.5 43.5 26.5 26.1 11.8 38.9 7.8 10.5 42.8 100.0 39.2 41.5 5.9 12.1 18.3 63.7

Total B.5. Visiting herbolarios Yes No Total Frequency - monthly - quarterly - biannually - annually - never Total B.5. Dental Check-Up Yes No Total Frequency - monthly - quarterly - biannually - annually - never Total B.6. Follow strictly doctors order Yes No Total Frequency - always - sometimes - seldom - never Total B.6.Self medication Yes No Total Frequency - always - sometimes - seldom - never Total

306 83 223 306 5 10 32 36 223 306 97 209 306 8 19 12 58 209 306 269 37 306 139 51 52 37 306 228 78 306 112 31 85 78 306

100.0 27.1 72.9 100.0 1.6 3.3 10.5 11.8 72.8 100.0 31.7 68.3 100.0 2.6 6.2 3.9 19.0 68.3 100.0 87.9 12.1 100.0 54.2 16.7 17.0 12.1 100.0 74.5 25.5 100.0 36.6 10.1 27.8 25.5 100.0

Medical check-up. A greater percentage of the respondents (116 or 38.0%) dont go at all for medical check-up, 54 (17.6%) visits their physician on a monthly basis followed closely ( 52 or 17.0%) by those who seek medical consultation biannually. Taking BP. Most (114 or 37.3%) respondents have their BP taken on a PRN (as necessary) basis, 69 (22.5%) never have their BP checked. On the other hand, 34 (11.18%) have their BP monitored every day. Person who takes BP. The data show that majority (124 or 40.5%) of the respondents have their BP taken by the BHW, 60 (19.6%) by their own family members, 56 (18.3%) by the MHW and 46 (15.0%) by others like neighbors, friends and nursing students. Taking Vitamin Supplements. A greater number of the respondents (133 or 43.5%) take multivitamin supplement, 81 (26.5%) takes calcium, closely followed by those who takes vitamin C (80 or 26.2%) and the remaining 36 (11.8%) respondents takes vitamin B as their supplement. Frequency. Out of the 306 ekderly, 131 (42.8%) dont take vitamin supplements. On the other hand, 119 (38.9%) respondents said they always take their vitamin supplement. Taking herbal products. The data reveals that most (127or 41.5%)respondents are taking natural herbal products and the remaining 120 (39.2%) prefer natural herbal products.

Frequency. Out of the 306 elderly, 195 (63.7%) dont take herbal products at all, 56 (18.3%) seldomly used this alternative remedies and only 18 (5.90%) seriously take it every day. Visiting herbolarios. A greater percentage (223 or 72.9 %) of the respondents does not visit or consult the herbolarios and only 83 (27.1%) seek the help of herbolarios for their health concerns. Frequency. The table shows that most (223 or 72.9%) of the respondents claimed they never visited the herbolarios, 36 (11.8%) consulted annually and only 5 (1.6) went to seek help monthly. Dental check up. A greater percentage (209 or 68.3%) of the respondents dont go for dental check-up only the remaining 97 (31.7%) claimed that they visit their dentist regularly. Frequency. As revealed from the table previously, most (209 or 68.3%) respondents never went for dental check-up, (58 or 19.0%) said they do it on annual basis and only 8 (2.6% claimed that they visited the dentist monthly. Follow Strictly Doctors Order. A greater number of the respondents (269 or 87.9%) follows strictly doctors order and the remaining 37 (12.1%) claimed they dont follow doctors order everytime they get sick. Self Medication. The data show that majority (228 or 74.5 %) of the respondents self medicate and only 37 (12.1%) claimed they dont. Frequency. As reflected on the table, a greater number (112 or 36.6%) always self medicate, 85 (27.8%) seldomly do it and only 78 (25.5%) never tried self medication.

Primary Caregiver The distribution of the respondents in terms of their health related factors on primary caregiver is shown in Table 5. Primary Caregiver. A total of 210 (68.6%) respondents are being taken good care of their children, followed by 150 (49.0%) who are under the care of their spouse. Only 6 (2.0%) hired a private nurse/private caregiver. The result is the best indication of the Filipino value of staying together as one family. Table 5 Distribution of the Elderly in Vigan City in Terms of Primary caregiver Health-Related Variables B.6.Primary caregiver Spouse Child/children Relatives Friends Private nurse/private caregiver Health Benefits Received The distribution of the respondents in terms of their health related factors on health benefits received is shown in Table 6. Table 6 Distribution of the Elderly in Vigan City in Terms of Health Benefits Received Health-Related Variables C. Health Benefits Received Free medical and dental service Free diagnostic & laboratory fees (except X-ray & CT scan) Discount on: - Medicine Professional fee f 132 59 % 43.1 19.3 170 32 55.6 10.5 f 150 210 88 18 6 % 49.0 68.6 28.8 5.9 2.0

Others

31

10.1

Health Benefits Received. It can be observed that discount on medicines is the most (170 or 55.6%) common benefit received by the respondents, followed by free medical and dental service 132 (43.1%), free diagnostic and laboratory fees, discount from the professional fee of their attending physician and the remaining 31 (10.1%) received other health benefits like free medicine etc. the result only shows that the senior citizen act is really being implemented Problem 2. What is the heath status of the respondents in terms of the following dimensions? a) physical, b) psychosocial c) emotional and d) spiritual? Health Status of the Elderly The actual health of the elderly in Vigan City is measured in terms of the following dimensions physical, psychosocial, emotional and spiritual. On Physical Dimension. Table 7 present the health status of the respondents along physical dimension. The table shows that the respondents have an overall good (x=3.90) along physical aspect both from the Poblacion, farm land and coastal area. The elderly from the Poblacion Area often manifest the following items: I exhibit appropriate

knowledge & attitudes about sexuality (e.g., menopause) (x=3.36), I verbalize any

changes in eating, elimination or exercise(x=3.67), I adjust to physiologic changes ( e.g., appearance, sensory/perceptual, musculoskeletal, neurologic, cardiovascular) (x=3.72), I adapt lifestyle to diminishing energy & ability (x=3.71). Further more the elderly sometimes manifest vital signs within normal range for their age and sex (x=3.22). Elderly from the farmland area often manifest items 1-4 and always adapt lifestyle to diminishing energy and ability and elderly from the coastal area always manifest items 3-5 and sometimes exhibit items 1-2. Table 7 Health Status of the Elderly in Vigan City Along Physical Dimension Poblacion Farmland Coastal As a Whole X DR

Physical Dimension

X DR X DR X DR 1. I manifest vital signs (e.g., blood pressure) within normal range for my age & sex 3.22 S 3.84 O 3.29 S 2. I exhibit appropriate knowledge & attitudes about sexuality (e.g., menopause) 3.36 O 4.12 O 3.31 S 3. I verbalize any changes in eating, elimination or exercise 3.67 O 4.16 O 4.68 A 4. I adjust to physiologic changes ( e.g., appearance, sensory/perceptual, musculoskeletal, neurologic, cardiovascular) 3.72 O 4.11 O 4.40 A 5. I adapt lifestyle to diminishing energy & ability 3.71 O 4.30 A 4.54 A Overall 3.54 G 4.11 G 4.04 G Norm: Item Descriptive Rating Overall Descriptive Rating 4.21-5.00 Always (A) Very Good (VG) 3.41-4.20 Often (O) Good (G) 2.61-3.40 Sometimes (S) Fair (F)

3.56 O

3.76 O

4.05 O

4.01 O

4.12 O 3.90 G

1.81-2.60 1.00-1.80

Seldom (Se) Never (N)

Poor (P) Very Poor (VP)

On Psychosocial Dimension. Table 8 present the health status of the respondents along psychosocial dimension. It is seen on the table that the respondents from the poblacion, farmland and coastal area attained an overall good health status along psychosocial aspect. The elderly from the poblacion area often manage retirement years in a satisfying manner (x=3.97) have a social network of friends and support persons (x=4.09). Further, the respondents always view life as worthwhile (x=4.52). On the other hand, elderly from the farmland always manifest the following item I manage retirement years in a satisfying manner (x=4.28), I have a social network of friends & support persons (x=4.35), I view life as worthwhile (x=4.48). Also the elderly often exhibit items 2 (x=3.94) and 5 (x=4.00). And the respondents from the coastal area always manifest items 1,3 and 4 and often practice items 2 and 5. Table 8 Health Status of the Elderly in Vigan City Along Psychosocial Dimension Poblacion X 1. I manage retirement years in a satisfying manner 2. I participate in social & leisure activities 3. I have a social network of friends & support persons 4. I view life as worthwhile 5. I have a high self esteem Overall 3.97 3.37 4.09 4.52 3.80 3.94 DR O S O A O G Farmland X 4.28 3.78 4.35 4.48 3.96 4.17 DR A O A A O G Coastal X 4.65 3.94 4.69 4.89 4.00 4.43 DR A O A A O VG As a Whole X DR 4.21 3.66 4.30 4.54 3.91 4.12 A O A A O G

Psychosocial Dimension

On Emotional Dimension. Table 9 present the health status of the respondents along emotional dimension. As reflected on the table, the respondents from the poblacion have an overall good health status along emotional aspect. The elderly often practice the following items: I accept & adjust to the death of significant others (x=3.87), I accept changes in family roles (e.g., having grandchildren) (x=3.87), I adapt with the possibility of living alone or moving into a nursing home(x=3.63), I am ready to face death anytime (x=3.85), I am happy & satisfied of what I have achieved & whatever I have in my life right now (x=4.04). While elderly from the farm land have an overall Very Good health status along emotional aspect. The elderly always practice the following items. I accept & adjust to the death of significant others (x=4.37), I am ready to face death anytime (x=4.40), I am happy & satisfied of what I have achieved & whatever I have in my life right now(x=4.43). Furthermore the elderly often practice items 2 (x=4.19) and 3 (x=3.97). And elderly from the coastal area got a very good health status along emotional aspect they always practice all the above items. Table 9 Health Status of the Elderly in Vigan City Along Emotional Dimension Poblacion DR O Farmland X 4.37 DR A Coastal X 4.77 DR A As a Whole X DR 4.24 A

Emotional Dimension

X 1. I accept & adjust to the death of significant others 3.87 2. I accept changes in family roles (e.g., having grandchildren) 3.87 3. I adapt with the possibility of living alone 3.63

O O

4.19 3.97

O O

4.51 4.53

A A

4.12 3.91

O O

or moving into a nursing home. 4. I am ready to face death anytime 3.85 5. I am happy & satisfied of what I have achieved & whatever I have in my life right now. 4.04 Overall 3.85

4.40

4.71

4.24

O G

4.43 4.26

A VG

4.71 4.65

A VG

4.33 4.16

A G

Spiritual Dimension. It could be gleaned from the table that the overall health status of the elderly along spiritual dimension is Good (x=3.78). As a whole, the elderly Always (x=4.67) have a strong faith in God (Jesus, Yahweh, Messiah, Allah). Noteworthy that they Often practice the following items: I find comfort, solace & affirmation in religious activities (e.g., mass, novenas, processions, recollection/retreat, etc) (x=4.05), I attend mass every Sunday or worship every Saturday (x=3.59) and I regularly attend activities of the religious group where I belong (x=3.44). However, the elderly sometimes religious activities (x=3.17). Table 10 Health Status of the Elderly in Vigan City Along Spiritual Aspect Poblacion DR Farmland X DR Coastal X DR As a Whole X DR

Spiritual Aspect

X 1. I find comfort, solace & affirmation in religious activities (e.g., mass, novenas, processions, recollection/retreat, etc) 3.90 2. I attend mass every Sunday or worship every Saturday 3.41 3. I read the Holy Bible (Koran and other holy books related to my religion) 2.87

4.09

4.29

4.05

3.70

3.60

3.59

3.38

3.09

3.17

4. I regularly attend activities of the religious group where I belong 3.09 5. I have a strong faith in God (Jesus, Yahweh, Messiah, Allah) 4.64 Overall 3.58

3.57

3.89

3.44

A G

4.63 3.86

A G

4.91 3.95

A G

4.67 3.78

A G

Summary. The overall health status of the elderly in Vigan City is Good (x=3.99). By dimension, the respondents have a Good health status along physical (x=3.90), psychosocial (x=4.12), emotional (x=4.16) and spiritual (x=3.78). Noteworthy, are the elderly from the farmland and coastal area for attaining a Very Good health status on emotional (x=4.26; x=4.65) and psychosocial dimension (x=4.43) respectively. Table 11 Summary of the Health Status of the Elderly in Vigan City Poblacion X 3.54 3.94 3.85 3.58 3.73 DR G G G G G Farmland X 4.11 4.17 4.26 3.86 4.10 DR G G VG G G Coastal X 4.04 4.43 4.65 3.95 4.27 DR G VG VG G VG As a Whole X DR 3.90 G 4.12 G 4.16 G 3.78 G 3.99 G

Health Status Physical Psychosocial Emotional Spiritual Overall

Health Status of the Elderly in Vigan City by Barangay As a whole, the health status of the elderly in Vigan City by barangay is is Good (x=3.93). By dimension, the respondents have a Very Good health status along emotional (x=4.25) and attained a Good health status along physical (x=3.65), psychosocial (x=4.18) and spiritual (x=3.66). Most

striking is the overall Very Good health status of San Julian Norte (x=4.38), Bongtolan (x=4.37), Bulala (x=4.38), Salindeg (x=4.26), Pantay Daya (x=4.26) and Pantay Laud (x=4.27). However, some barangays attained only an overall Fair health status such as Barangay VIII (x=4.06), San Julian Sur (x=3.25) and Mindoro (x=3.18) Table 12 Summary of the Health Status of the Elderly in Vigan City by Barangay
Barangays Physical X DR
Psychosocial

X 4.16 3.50 4.18 3.70 4.03 3.32 4.48 4.47 4.48 4.26 4.45 4.43 4.12 4.16 3.50 4.18

DR G G G G G F VG VG VG VG VG VG G G G G

Emotional X DR

Spiritual X DR

Overall

Poblacion Barangays Barangay VIII Barangay VI Barangay V Farmland San Julian Sur San Julian Norte Bongtolan Bulala Salindeg Pantay Daya Pantay Laud Capangpangan Coastal Barangays Mindoro As a whole

3.93 3.02 3.65 3.51 3.98 3.26 4.55 4.62 4.54 3.93 4.13 4.04 3.90 3.93 3.02 3.65

G F G G G F VG VG VG G G G G G F G

4.24 3.07 4.25 3.84 4.02 3.63 4.46 4.56 4.49 4.71 4.53 4.65 4.16 4.24 3.07 4.25

VG F VG G G G VG VG VG VG VG VG G VG F VG

3.92 3.15 3.66 3.86 3.97 2.80 4.01 3.81 4.00 4.14 3.94 3.95 3.78 3.92 3.15 3.66

G F G G G F G G G G G G G G F G

4.06 3.18 3.93 3.73 4.00 3.25 4.38 4.37 4.38 4.26 4.26 4.27 3.99 4.06 3.18 3.93

G F G G G F VG VG VG VG VG VG G G F G

Norm: 4.21-5.00 3.41-4.20 2.61-3.40 1.81-2.60 1.00-1.80

Very Good Good Fair Poor Very Poor

Problem 3. Is there a significant relationship between the health status of the respondents and socio-economic and health related variables? Relationship Between the Respondents Health Status and Their Socio Economic Factors The correlation coefficient showing the relationship between the respondents health status and their socio-economic factors is exhibited in Table 13. Table 13 Correlation Between Health Status of the Elderly and Socio-Economic Variables Socio-Economic Variables Health Status Physical PsychoEmotional Spiritual Overall social -.136* -.133* 044 -.135* .060 .018 -.220** -.045 -.089 -.165** .036 -.066 .138* .007 .272** .190** .052 .083 .057 .077 .007 .194** .232**

Age -.179** Sex -.003 Civil status .002 Educational attainment .185** Source of income .049 Previous .321** .169** employment/occupation Legend: * - significant at 0.05 prob level ** - signifIcant at 0.01 prob level

Overall. The table reveals that there is significant relationship between the respondents health status and the following socio-economic factors: age (r= -.135), educational attainment (r=.190) and previous employment/occupation (r=.232). Younger respondents tend to have a better health status than the older respondents. This implies that the younger the age one has, the better health status the individual will have. Younger individuals are healthier physically making them more able to carry out activities in health promotion and maintenance. Moreover, they are

more active members in the community that keep them abreast on latest health information. Respondents with higher educational attainment tend to have a better health status than the respondents with lower educational attainment. This indicates that the persons with a higher educational attainment are the persons with more knowledge about health and its maintenance. With more knowledge, more health practices are able to be implemented and the healthier the person is. Respondents who are non-professionals tend to have a better health status than the respondents who are professional and skilled workers. This implies that people who have been previously non-professionally employed have a healthier lifestyle due to the nature of their work wherein they can exercise more, have plentiful sources of nutritious foods especially the famers and they breathe a fresher air. While those who where professionally employed, they tend to have a more sedentary lifestyle wherein most of the time they are seated in front of the computer for long hours. Furthermore, those who were employed in the skills industry require a lot of physical endurance and they tend to be fatigued after work. The other socio-economic factors like sex, civil status and source of income failed to attain a significant relationship with the respondents health status. On Physical Dimension. It is shown on the table that there is significant relationship between the respondents health status along physical dimension and the following socio-economic factors: age (r= -.179), educational attainment (r=.185) and previous employment/occupation (r=.321).

Younger respondents tend to have a better health status than the older respondents. This implies that the younger the age one has, the better health status the individual will have. This could be explained by the fact that younger individuals are healthier physically making them more able to carry out activities in health promotion and maintenance. Furthermore, they are more active members in the community that keep them abreast on latest health information. Respondents with higher educational attainment tend to have a better health status than respondents with lower educational attainment. This indicates respondents who are more educated practice body health care activities better than those with lower educational attainment. This could be explained by the greater knowledge gained, the better health practice a person does and making him healthier. Respondents who were non-professionally employed previously tend to have a better health status than respondents who are professional and skilled. This implies that non-professionals are healthier. This could be due to the nature of their work wherein their environment is more conducive for a healthier lifestyle. The other socio-economic factors like sex, civil status and source of income failed to attain a significant relationship with the respondents health status. On Psychosocial Dimension. The table reveals that there is significant relationship between the respondents health status along psychosocial dimension and the following socio-economic factors: age (r= -.136), educational attainment (r=.138) and previous employment/occupation. Younger respondents tend to have a better health status than the older respondents. This implies that people who are younger are more sociable than the

older ones. Younger individuals have more energy and endurance to participate in every community activities and have more patience to mingle with other people. Further, this could be explained by Ericsons theory of generativity vs self-absorption wherein in late adulthood, some people choose to be productive and some are already self-absorbed and withdraw themselves to the society. On Emotional Dimension. As reflected on the table, there is significant relationship between the respondents health status along emotional dimension and the following socio-economic factors: age (r= -.133) and civil status (r= -.165). Younger respondents tend to have a better health status than the older respondents. This implies that people who are younger are more emotionally stable than the older ones. Respondents who are married tend to have a better health status than the single or widowed respondents. This implies that people who are single are more emotionally stable than the single or widowed respondents. Well-adjusted aging couples usually thrive in companionship. Many couples rely increasingly on their mates for this company and may have few outside friends. Great bonds of affection and closeness can develop during this period of aging together and nurturing each other. When a mate dies, the remaining partner inevitably experiences feelings of loss, emptiness and loneliness. On Spiritual Dimension. It can be observed on the table that there is significant relationship between the respondents health status along spiritual dimension and the following socio-economic factors: sex (r= -.220), educational attainment (r=.272) and previous employment/occupation (r=.194).

Male respondents tend to have a better health status along spiritual dimension than the female respondents. This implies that males are more spiritually stable than the females. This could also be the result of the influence of their spouses with regards to spiritual aspect particularly religion. Unlike before, men are now also seen in many different religious activities. Respondents who are non-professionals tend to have a better health status along spiritual dimension than the respondents who are professional and skilled workers. This implies that people who have been previously non-professionally employed are more spiritually stable than the respondents who are professional and skilled workers. This could be the result of the lack of time the professionals and skilled workers have to engage in religious activities that could enhance their spiritual aspect. Relationship Between the Respondents Health Status and Health Related Factors The correlation coefficient showing the relationship between the respondents health status and their health related factors is exhibited in Table 14. Table 14 Correlation Between Health Status of the Elderly and Health-Related Variables Socio-Economic Variables Lifestyle -Exercise -Smoking -Drinking Diet -eating meals regularly Health Status Physical .025 .120 -.163* -.080 PsychoEmotional Spiritual Overall social .245** .051 -.115 -.008 .149* -.012 -.087 .082 .169* -.151* -.310** .062 .183* -.081 -.217** .013

-eating vegetables .119* -eating fruits .141* -eating meat .120* -drinking at keat 8-10 .097 glasses of water Health Seeking Behavior -Medical check-up .035 -Taking BP .105 -Taking vitamin .007 supplements -Taking herbal -.214** products -Visiting herbolarios -.108 -Dental check-up .010 -Following Doctors .136* order -Self medication -.043 Primary caregiver .024 Health benefits received .103 Legend: * - significant at 0.05 prob level

.083 .073 .253** .001

.043 .003 .370** .116*

.043 .108 .125* .128*

.068 .106 .270** .039

.158* .109 .117 -.136 -.151* .046 .191** .201** .173** .111

.244** .357** .281** -.089 -.093 .095 .265** .321** .189** .143*

.228** .274** .246** -.034 .063 .272** .277** .135* .382** .121

.208** .271** .201** -.158* -.099 .130* .280** .191** .236** .062

Overall. The table reveals that there is significant relationship between the respondents health status and the following health related factors: exercise (r=.183), drinking (r= -.217), eating meat (r= .270), medical check-up (r=.208), taking BP (r=.271), taking vitamin supplements (r=.201), taking herbal products (r=-.158), dental check-up (r=.130), following doctors order (r=.280), self medication (r=.191) and primary caregiver (r=.236). Respondents who exercise regularly tend to have a better health status than those who dont do any form of exercise at all. This implies that respondents who engage in different forms of exercise are healthier than those who dont. Regula r exercise can help protect an individual from heart disease and stroke, high blood pressure, noninsulin-dependent diabetes, obesity, back pain, osteoporosis, and can improve ones mood and helps better in stress management.

Respondents who dont drink alcoholic beverages tend to have a better health status than the older respondents. This implies that respondents who never drink are healthier than those who do. Despite the potentially lethal damage that heavy drinking does to the bodyincluding cancer, heart problems, and liver diseasethe social consequences can be just as devastating. Alcoholics and alcohol abusers are much more likely to get divorced, have problems with domestic violence, struggle with unemployment, and live in poverty. Respondents who eat meat products (pork, beef, chicken and fish) tend to have a better health status than those who are purely vegetarian. This implies that respondents who regularly include meat in their diet are healthier than those who dont. There are innumerable health benefits of eating meat, to say, for example, it serves as a fabulous source of high quality proteins, which a single vegetarian food is not able to provide. It contains all the essential amino acids that the body requires. Respondents who go for medical check-up tend to have a better health status than those who dont consult their doctors at all. This implies that respondents who regularly go for medical check-up are healthier than those who dont. Scheduling medical appointments when a person is feeling fine may seem like a waste of his/her time. But the old saying 'prevention is better than cure' is very true. Regular medical check-ups will pick up any potential problems, allowing an individual to take steps in either preventing them or beginning early treatment. Respondents who let their BP taken tend to have a better health status than those who dont let their BP checked. This implies that respondents who regularly let their BP taken and monitored are healthier than those who dont. High blood pressure

usually causes no symptoms. An individual will not know if he/she has high blood pressure unless his/her blood pressure is checked. Therefore, everyone should have regular blood pressure checks. The check should be more often in: older people, people who have had a previous high reading, people with diabetes, and people who have had a previous reading between 130/85 and 139/89 mmHg. Respondents who take vitamin supplements tend to have a better health status than those who dont take any vitamin supplement at all. This implies that respondents who regularly take vitamin supplements are healthier than those who dont. Vitamins and minerals help protect the body from disease, and those who do not consume enough micronutrients on a daily basis may suffer the side effects of a vitamin deficiency and are at an increased risk of developing certain illnesses. Supplements can offer added insurance that one is meeting daily recommendations of vitamins and minerals needed by the body, especially in those who do not eat a healthy, balanced diet. Respondents who go for dental check-up tend to have a better health status than those who dont visit their dentist at all. This implies that respondents who regularly go for dental check-up are healthier than those who dont. Dentists just dont check the health of an individuals teeth and gums also the overall oral health. At the heart of dentistry is preventative care. There are many conditions that, when caught early, help prevent not only extra visits and costs but also to improve overall general health. This includes for example screening for gum disease, oral cancers, and developmental conditions.

Respondents who follow strictly Doctors order tend to have a better health status than those who disobey the doctors order and instruction. This implies that respondents who strictly obey Doctors order are healthier than those who dont. Strict compliance to medical advice really contributes a lot to the fast recovery of a patient. Respondents who dont practice self-medication tend to have a better health status than those who always self-medicate. This implies that respondents who dont self medicate are healthier than those who do. Drugs that people take have several side effects that are asymptomatic and might lead to some internal disorders that the individual is not even aware of. It is true that the increase in the cost of health care in recent decades-doctors, hospitals, prescriptions, etc. - forces the people to try and treat their own afflictions. But, this pursuit can be risky. It can be ineffective and prove to be more expensive in a long run.

Respondents who are being taken good care of their children tend to have a better health status than those under the care of their spouses, relatives, friends and caregivers. This implies that respondents who are under the direct care of their children are healthier than those who are under the care of other people. We Filipinos have a very strong family ties especially between children and parents. This is very evident because even though the children have their own families already they still find time to take good care of their parents which contributes to their good health.

The other health related factors like smoking, eating meals regularly, eating vegetables, eating fruits, drinking at least 8-10 glasses of water, visiting herbolarios

and health benefits received failed to attain a significant relationship with the respondents health status. On Physical Dimension. It is shown on the table that there is significant relationship between the respondents health status along physical dimension and the following health related factors: drinking (r= -.163), eating vegetables (r=.119), eating fruits (r=.141), eating meat (r=.120), taking herbal products (r= -.214) and following doctors order (r=.136). Respondents who drink alcoholic beverages have a better health status along physical dimension than those who dont drink at all. This means that a respondent who never drinks alcohol is healthier than those who do. Alcohol affects all kinds of cells in the body, causing changes in some and stopping others from working properly. As with most 'poisons', the more an individual take take, the worse the effects are. Excessive alcohol use increases the risk of a number of diseases: fatty degeneration of the liver, infection of the liver, liver cirrhosis, sleeping disorders, sexual problems, infection of the esophagus, infection of the stomach, infection of the pancreas, premature dementia, varying from a reduction of memory to the serious syndrome of Korsakoff; cancer of the mouth, throat, larynx, intestines and breasts; hypertension and heart problems. Respondents who eat vegetables tend to have a better health status along physical dimension than those who are purely carnivorous. This implies that respondents who regularly include vegetables in their diet are healthier than those who dont. Vegetables contain essential vitamins, minerals, and fiber that may help protect you from chronic diseases. Compared with people who consume a diet with

only small amounts of vegetables, those who eat more generous amounts as part of a healthful diet are likely to have reduced risk of chronic diseases, including stroke and perhaps other cardiovascular diseases, and certain cancers. Respondents who eat fruits in every meal tend to have a better health status along physical dimension than those who are not taking any kind of fruit in every meal. This implies that respondents who regularly include fruits in their diet are healthier than those who dont. Like vegetables, fruits are an excellent source of minerals, vitamins and enzymes. They are easily digested and exercise a cleansing effect on the blood and digestive tract. They contain high alkaline properties, a high percentage of water and a low percentage of proteins and fats. Respondents who are taking herbal products tend to have a better health status than those who are not taking any kind of herbal product. This implies that respondents who regularly take herbal products are healthier than those who dont. Many local plants and herbs in the Philippine backyard have been found to be effective in the treatment of common ailments as attested by the National Science Development Board, other government and private agencies/persons engaged in research. But for it to become really effective, it should be properly prepared. And the commercialized herbal products have no approved therapeutic effects. Respondents who follow strictly Doctors order tend to have a better health status along physical dimension than those who disobey the doctors order and instruction. This implies that respondents who strictly obey Doctors order are healthier than those who dont. Strict compliance to medical advice really contributes a lot to the fast recovery of a patient.

On Psychosocial Dimension. It is shown on the table that there is significant relationship between the respondents health status along physical dimension and the following health related factors: exercise (r=.245), eating meat (r=.253), medical check-up (r=.158), visiting herbolarios (r=-151), following doctors order (r=.191), self-medication (r=.201) and primary caregiver (r=.173). Respondents who exercise tend to have a better health status along psychosocial dimension than those who are not doing any form of exercise at all. This implies that respondents who regularly exercise are healthier than those who dont. Exercise will not only boost an individuals physical dimension but also the persons psychosocial aspect. Especially exercises that involves large group of people will help enhance an individuals social network. It is an avenue to meet and mingle with other people. Respondents who eat meat tend to have a better health status along psychosocial dimension than those who are purely vegetarian. This implies that respondents who regularly include meat in their diet are healthier than those who dont. There are innumerable health benefits of eating meat, to say, for example, it serves as a fabulous source of high quality proteins, which a single vegetarian food is not able to provide. It contains all the essential amino acids that the body requires. Respondents who goes for medical check-up tend to have a better health status along psychosocial dimension than those who dont visit their physicians at all. This implies that respondents who regularly go for medical check-up are healthier than those who dont. If an elderly finds out that he/she is healthy, he will have more time

to participate in social and leisure activities, will view life as worthwhile and will have a high self-esteem. Respondents who visit the herbolarios end to have a better health status along psychosocial dimension than those who dont visit the herbolarios at all. This implies that the less frequent that the elderly visit the herbolarios the healthier they are. Until now, science and medicine are still the only proven solution to different illnesses. Respondents who follow strictly Doctors order tend to have a better health status along psychosocial dimension than those who disobey the doctors order and instruction. This implies that respondents who strictly obey Doctors order are healthier than those who dont. Strict compliance to medical advice really contributes a lot to the fast recovery of a patient. And the recovery will not only improve a patients physical condition but also the individuals psychosocial dimension. It will have a holistic approach. Respondents who are practicing self-medication tend to have a better health status along psychosocial dimension than those who dont self-medicate. This implies that respondents who are self-medicating are healthier than those who dont. Sometimes self-medication gives a person a feeling of security although it is not really advisable.

Respondents who are being taken good care of their children tend to have a better health status along psychosocial dimension than those under the care of their spouses, relatives, friends and caregivers. This implies that respondents who are under the direct care of their children are healthier than those who are under the care of other people. We Filipinos have a very strong family ties especially between

children and parents. This is very evident because even though the children have their own families already they still find time to take good care of their parents which contributes to their good health in a holistic manner.

On Emotional Dimension. It can be observed from the table that there is significant relationship between the respondents health status along emotional dimension and the following health related factors: exercise (r=.149), eating meat (r=.370), drinking at least 8-10 glasses of water (r=.116), medical check-up (r=.244), taking BP (r=.357), taking vitamin supplements (r=.281) following doctors order (r=.265), self-medication (r=.321), primary caregiver (r=.189) and health benefits received. Respondents who exercise regularly tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those who dont do any form of exercise at all . This implies that respondents who engage in different forms of exercise are healthier than those who dont. Regular exercise can help protect an individual from heart disease and stroke, high blood pressure, noninsulin-dependent diabetes, obesity, back pain, osteoporosis, and can improve ones mood and helps better in stress management. And if an individual is physically healthy, then it will give him/her a feeling of security, making him/her more emotionally stable and worry free. Respondents who eat meat tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those who are purely vegetarian. This implies that respondents who regularly include meat in their diet are healthier than those who dont. There are innumerable health benefits of eating meat, to say, for example, it serves as a

fabulous source of high quality proteins, which a single vegetarian food is not able to provide. It contains all the essential amino acids that the body requires. Respondents who drink 8-10 glasses of water per day tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those who dont consume this amount and quantity. This implies that respondents who regularly drinks 8-10 glasses of water per day are healthier than those who dont. Water acts as a natural remedy to head your way towards achieving beautiful rich glowing skin. Drinking water skin benefits can be attributed to the fact that water acts as a body purifier, by removing toxins and waste from your body. People who are fed up with their overweight problem, for them hot lemon water works wonders in fastening their weight loss program. It also keeps your heart healthy. So, drink lots of water throughout the day, to promote your mind body fitness. Respondents who goes for medical check-up tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those who dont visit their physicians at all. This implies that respondents who regularly go for medical check-up are healthier than those who dont. If an elderly finds out that he/she is healthy, he will have more time to participate in social and leisure activities, will view life as worthwhile and will have a high self-esteem making him more emotionally stable and worry free. Respondents who let their BP taken tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those who dont let their BP checked. This implies that respondents who regularly let their BP taken and monitored are healthier than those who dont. High blood pressure usually causes no symptoms. An individual will not know if he/she has high blood pressure unless his/her blood pressure is checked.

Therefore, everyone should have regular blood pressure checks. The check should be more often in: older people, people who have had a previous high reading, people with diabetes, and people who have had a previous reading between 130/85 and 139/89 mmHg. And through regular BP monitoring, the elderly will be cautious and will avoid stressful situations. Respondents who take vitamin supplements tend to have a better health status than those who dont take any vitamin supplement at all. This implies that respondents who regularly take vitamin supplements are healthier than those who dont. Vitamins and minerals help protect the body from disease, and those who do not consume enough micronutrients on a daily basis may suffer the side effects of a vitamin deficiency and are at an increased risk of developing certain illnesses. Supplements can offer added insurance that one is meeting daily recommendations of vitamins and minerals needed by the body, especially in those who do not eat a healthy, balanced diet. Respondents who follow strictly Doctors order tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those who disobey the doctors order and instruction. This implies that respondents who strictly obey Doctors order are healthier than those who dont. Strict compliance to medical advice really contributes a lot to the fast recovery of a patient. Respondents who are practicing self-medication tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those who dont self-medicate. This implies that respondents who are self-medicating are healthier than those who dont.

Sometimes self-medication gives a person a feeling of security although it is not really advisable.

Respondents who are being taken good care of their children tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those under the care of their spouses, relatives, friends and caregivers. This implies that respondents who are under the direct care of their children are healthier than those who are under the care of other people. We Filipinos have a very strong family ties especially between children and parents. This is very evident because even though the children have their own families already they still find time to take good care of their parents which contributes to their good health in a holistic manner.

Respondents who received a discount on medicine tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those who are receiving other health benefits like discount on professional fee of APs, free medical-dental check-up etc. This implies that respondents who received a discount on medicine are healthier than those who are receiving other health benefits. An elderly will be more emotionally stable if he/she will be able to buy the medicines that he/she needs.

On Spiritual Dimension. It can be gleaned from the table that there is significant relationship between the respondents health status along spiritual dimension and the following health related factors: exercise (r=.169), smoking (r= .151), drinking (r= -.310), eating meat (r=.370) drinking at least 8-10 glasses of water (r=.128), medical check-up (r=.228), taking BP (r=.274), taking vitamin supplements

(r=.246), dental check-up (r=.272) following doctors order (r=.277), self-medication (r=.135) and primary caregiver (r=.382) Respondents who exercise regularly tend to have a better health status along spiritual dimension than those who dont do any form of exercise at all. This implies that respondents who engage in different forms of exercise are healthier than those who dont. Regular exercise can help protect an individual from heart disease and stroke, high blood pressure, noninsulin-dependent diabetes, obesity, back pain, osteoporosis, and can improve ones mood and helps better in stress management. And if an individual is physically healthy, then it will give him/her a feeling of security, making him/her more emotionally stable and worry free. Thus, leading them in thanking the Lord and making their relationship stronger. Respondents who dont smoke tend to have a better health status along spiritual dimension than those who are chain smokers. This implies that respondents who never smoke are healthier than those who do. The effects of smoking on human health are serious and in many cases, deadly. There are approximately 4000 chemicals in cigarettes, hundreds of which are toxic. The ingredients in cigarettes affect everything from the internal functioning of organs to the efficiency of the body's immune system. The effects of cigarette smoking are destructive and widespread. Cigarette could be addictive and it can affect an individuals relationship with God. Respondents who dont drink alcoholic beverages tend to have a better health status than the older respondents. This implies that respondents who never drink are healthier than those who do. Despite the potentially lethal damage that heavy drinking

does to the bodyincluding cancer, heart problems, and liver diseasethe social consequences can be just as devastating. Alcoholics and alcohol abusers are much more likely to get divorced, have problems with domestic violence, struggle with unemployment, and live in poverty. And most of the time, the individuals relationship with God is also affected. Respondents who eat meat tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those who are purely vegetarian. This implies that respondents who regularly include meat in their diet are healthier than those who dont. There are innumerable health benefits of eating meat, to say, for example, it serves as a fabulous source of high quality proteins, which a single vegetarian food is not able to provide. It contains all the essential amino acids that the body requires. Respondents who drink 8-10 glasses of water per day tend to have a better health status along spiritual dimension than those who dont consume this amount and quantity. This implies that respondents who regularly drink 8-10 glasses of water per day are healthier than those who dont. Water acts as a natural remedy to head your way towards achieving beautiful rich glowing skin. Drinking water skin benefits can be attributed to the fact that water acts as a body purifier, by removing toxins and waste from your body. People who are fed up with their overweight problem, for them hot lemon water works wonders in fastening their weight loss program. It also keeps your heart healthy. So, drink lots of water throughout the day, to promote your mind body fitness. Sometimes, water has also religious connection because it signifies purity.

Respondents who goes for medical check-up tend to have a better health status along spiritual dimension than those who dont visit their physicians at all. This implies that respondents who regularly go for medical check-up are healthier than those who dont. If an elderly finds out that he/she is healthy, he will have more time to participate in social and leisure activities, will view life as worthwhile and will have a high self-esteem making him more emotionally stable and worry free. Thus, leading him/her in thanking the Lord. Respondents who let their BP taken tend to have a better health status along spiritual dimension than those who dont let their BP checked. This implies that respondents who regularly let their BP taken and monitored are healthier than those who dont. High blood pressure usually causes no symptoms. An individual will not know if he/she has high blood pressure unless his/her blood pressure is checked. Therefore, everyone should have regular blood pressure checks. The check should be more often in: older people, people who have had a previous high reading, people with diabetes, and people who have had a previous reading between 130/85 and 139/89 mmHg. And through regular BP monitoring, the elderly will be cautious and will avoid stressful situations and will have more time for participating in religious activities. Respondents who take vitamin supplements tend to have a better health status than those who dont take any vitamin supplement at all. This implies that respondents who regularly take vitamin supplements are healthier than those who dont. Vitamins and minerals help protect the body from disease, and those who do not consume enough micronutrients on a daily basis may suffer the side effects of a

vitamin deficiency and are at an increased risk of developing certain illnesses. Supplements can offer added insurance that one is meeting daily recommendations of vitamins and minerals needed by the body, especially in those who do not eat a healthy, balanced diet. And if a person is healthy, he/she will have more energy thus making him/her active in different religious activities. Respondents who follow strictly Doctors order tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those who disobey the doctors order and instruction. This implies that respondents who strictly obey Doctors order are healthier than those who dont. Strict compliance to medical advice really contributes a lot to the fast recovery of a patient. And if the patient will recover, naturally he/she will thank the Lord and will intensify more his/her relationship with Him. Respondents who are practicing self-medication tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those who dont self-medicate. This implies that respondents who are self-medicating are healthier than those who dont. Sometimes self-medication gives a person a feeling of security although it is not really advisable.

Respondents who are being taken good care of their children tend to have a better health status along emotional dimension than those under the care of their spouses, relatives, friends and caregivers. This implies that respondents who are under the direct care of their children are healthier than those who are under the care of other people. We Filipinos have a very strong family ties especially between children and parents. This is very evident because even though the children have their

own families already they still find time to take good care of their parents which contributes to their good health in a holistic manner.

Chapter III SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Based on the analyzed and interpreted data gathered from the elderly of the twelve barangays of Vigan City such as Barangay VIII, Barangay VI, Barangay V, San Julian Sur, San Julian Norte, San Pedro Sur, San Pedro Norte, Salindeg and Mindoro the following findings, conclusions and recommendations were drawn.

SUMMARY This study aimed to examine the actual health status of the elderly of Barangay VIII, Barangay VI, Barangay V, San Julian Sur, San Julian Norte, San Pedro Sur, San Pedro Norte, Salindeg and Mindoro and its relationship to some variables like socio-economic and health related factors of the respondents. The dependent variables are the health status of the elderly along the following dimensions: physical, psychosocial, emotional and spiritual. The independent variables include the respondents socio-economic factors like sex, age, civil status, educational attainment, source of income and previous employment/occupation, and the health related factors like lifestyle, health seeking behaviors, primary caregiver and health benefits received. The descriptive-correlational method of research was used in this study. The study was conducted in twelve barangays of Vigan City namely Barangay VIII, Barangay VI, Barangay V (Poblacion areas), San Julian Sur, San Julian Norte, San

Pedro Sur, San Pedro Norte, Salindeg (Farmland areas) and Mindoro (Coastal area), which have a total population of 306 persons. A questionnaire-checklist constructed by the researcher and validated by the pool of experts and translated to Iloko was the main tool in gathering data. The respondents of this study are the 306 elderly from Barangay V, Barangay VI, Barangay VIII, San Julian Sur, San Julian Norte, San Pedro Sur, San Pedro Norte, Salindeg and Mindoro, Vigan City. All data gathered in this study were limited to what was measured by the instruments made by the researcher. Data gathered were analyzed statistically through the use of frequency count and percentages, mean and correlation analysis. Findings Based on the data gathered, analyzed and interpreted, the following findings were obtained. 1. Profile of the Respondents A. Socio-Economic Factors On Age. A greater percentage (111 or 36.2%) of the respondents belongs to the 61-65 age bracket. On Sex. Most (190 or 62.1%) of the respondents are females. On Civil Status. Most (178 or 58.2%) of the respondents are married. On Educational Attainment. A greater number of the respondents (129 or 42.2%) are elementary graduates. Source of Income. Out of the 306 elderly, 136 (44.3%) of the respondents are financially supported by their children.

Previous Employment/Occupation. Most(187 or 61.0%) of the respondents previous nature of work is non-professional which includes housekeeping, farming and fishing. B. Health Related Factors On Exercise. A greater number (252 or 82.4%) of the respondents prefer walking as a form of exercise and most of them (187 or 61.1%) exercise every day. On Smoking. A greater percentage (246 or 80.4%) of the respondents and majority (246 or 80.4%) of them do not consume a single stick per day. On Drinking. Most (46 or 15.0) of the respondents drink wine and

most (237 or 77.5%) of them are non-drinkers so they do not consume any alcoholic beverage On Diet. Out of the 306 elderly, 284 (92%) of the respondents seldomly eat their meals regularly. On Eating Vegetables. Green vegetables is more (286 or 93.5%) preferred by the respondents always eat vegetables On Eating Fruits in Every Meal. Tropical fruits (banana, mango, pineapple) is preferred more (225 or 73.5%) by the respondents every time they take their meal and most (134 or 43.8%) of them sometimes eat fruit every time they take their meal. and most (175 or 57.2%) of them

On Eating Meat. Pork and fish (262 or 85.6%) is preferred more by the respondents and out of the 306 elderly, there are 139 (45.5%) who always eat meat. On Drinking at least 8-10 glasses of water per day. A greater number (278 or 90.8 %) respondents said they drink at least 8-10 glasses of water per day and most (212 or 69.2%) of them claimed that they always drink that amount and quantity. On Source of drinking water. A greater percentage (178 or 58.2%) of the respondents rely on jetmatic pump for their source of drinking water On Medical Check-up. Out of the 306 elderly, 116 (38.0%) respondents dont go at all for medical check-up. On Taking BP. Most (114 or 37.3%) respondents have their BP taken on a PRN (as necessary) basis. On Person who takes BP. majority (124 or 40.5%) of the respondents have their BP taken by the Barangay Health Worker (BHW). On Taking Vitamin Supplements. Multivitamins is the leading (133 or 43.5%) vitamin supplement taken by the elderly. However, 131 (42.8%) respondents dont take vitamin supplements. On Taking herbal products. Natural herbal products is preferred more (127or 41.5%) by the elderly though most (195 or 63.7%) of them dont take herbal products at all. Visiting herbolarios. A greater percentage (223 or 72.9 %) of the respondents does not visit or consult the herbolarios.

On Dental Check up. A greater number (209 or 68.3%) respondents dont go for dental check-up. On Following Strictly Doctors Order. A greater number of the respondents (269 or 87.9%) follows strictly doctors order every time they get sick. On Self Medication. Majority (228 or 74.5 %) of the respondents self medicate and a greater number (112 or 36.6%) of respondents always self medicate. On Primary Caregiver. A total of 210 (68.6%) respondents are being taken good care of their children. On Health Benefit Received. Discount on medicines is the most (170 or 55.6%) common benefit received by the respondents. 2. Health Status of the Elderly On Physical Dimension. An overall mean rating of 3.90 manifest that the respondents have a Good health status along physical dimension. On Psychosocial Dimension. Respondents have a Good (x=4.12) health status along psychosocial dimension. On Emotional Dimension. As whole, the respondents attained a Good health status along emotional dimension. On Spiritual Dimension. It is worthy to note that they have a Good (x=3.78) health status along spiritual dimension as manifested by an overall mean rating of 3.78.

The overall health status of the elderly in Vigan City is Good (x=3.99). By dimension, the respondents have a Good health status along physical (x=3.90), psychosocial (x=4.12), emotional (x=4.16) and spiritual (x=3.78). As a whole, the health status of the elderly in Vigan City by barangay is is Good (x=3.93). By dimension, the respondents have a Very Good health status along emotional (x=4.25) and attained a Good health status along physical (x=3.65), psychosocial (x=4.18) and spiritual (x=3.66). 3.a Relationship Between the Health Status of the Elderly and Their Socio-Economic Factors There is significant relationship between the respondents health status and the following socio-economic factors: age (r= -.135), educational attainment (r=.190) and previous employment/occupation (r=.232). 3.b Relationship Between the Health Status of the Elderly and Their Health Related Factors The table reveals that there is significant relationship between the respondents health status and the following health related factors: exercise (r=.183), drinking (r= -.217), eating meat (r= .270), medical check-up (r=.208), taking BP (r=.271), taking vitamin supplements (r=.201), taking herbal products (r=-.158), dental check-up (r=.130), following doctors order (r=.280), self medication (r=.191) and primary caregiver (r=.236).

Conclusions Based on the findings of the study, the following conclusions were drawn according to: 1. Majority of the respondents are female, within the age bracket of 61-65, married, finished elementary and were previously non-professionally employed and are financially supported by their children. Most respondents engage themselves in different forms of exercise like walking, jogging and running. Majority of them do not smoke and drink. However, a greater percentage of respondents dont go for regular medical and dental check-up at all. 2. The overall health status of the elderly is good. 3. The health status of the elderly is affected by their age, educational attainment, previous employment/occupation, exercise, drinking, eating meat, medical check-up, taking BP, taking vitamin supplements, taking herbal products, dental check-up, following doctors order, self medication and primary caregiver. 4. Sex, civil status, source of income, smoking, eating meals regularly, eating vegetables, eating fruits, drinking at least 8-10 glasses of water, visiting herbolarios and health benefits received have no significant effect on their health status.

Recommendations Based from the salient findings and conclusions of the study, the following recommendations are forwarded: 1. The elderly must maintain their Good health status. Despite their age, they must always have the dynamism and courage to practice the latest trends in health maintenance and promotion. 2. There should be proper monitoring of their health habits by health agencies and organizations so that their good health will be maintained. 3. The Philippine government must provide more support to the Senior Citizens of the country by helping specifically in the strict observance and implementation of the newly approved Expanded Senior Citizens Act of 2010 which provides a comprehensive health care and rehabilitation system to foster their capacity to attain a more meaningful and productive aging. 4. A similar study must be conducted using a wider scope integrating other variables which were not used in this study such as family structure, presence of deformities and chronic illness.

BIBLIOGRAPHY A. Books Taylor, Carol, et. al., 2005. Fundamentals of Nursing: An Art and Science of Nursing Care, New York: Lipincott Williams and Wilkins. Brody. E.M (1985). Mental and Physical Health Practices of Older People. New York: Springer Brown, J.S (1986). The Hale Elderly: Health Behavior and its Correlates. Res Nurse Health. 317-329. Fillenbaum, GG (1984). Assessing the Well Being of the Elderly. Advances in Research.

Malooney, SK, Fallon B, Wittenberg, CK (1984) Seniors Identify Attitudes, Barriers to Promoting Their Health. Promoting Health. 6-8. Smith, JA. (1981). The Idea of Health: A Philosophical Inquiry. Advanced Nursing Science. 43-50

B. Journals, Magazines and Publications Bonito, S. 1999. Health of Older Persons: Dimensions and Correlates. Philippine Journal of Nursing. 37-44. Kaplan, G.A, Seeman, TE, Cohen, Rd. et al (1987). Mortality Among the Elderly in the Alameda County Study: Behavioral and Demographic Risk Factors: American Journal of Public Health. 307-312. Havighurst, R and Sacher, G. (1981). Prospects of Lengthening Life and Vigor, in Wershow, H (ed): Controversial Issues in Gerontology. New York, Springer. Guralnik, J et al (1993). Maintaining Mobility in Later Life: Demographic Characteristics and Chronic Conditions. American Journal of Epidemiology. 847-857.

C. Unpublished Thesis Sumabat, Rochelle Brigitte, Health Awareness and Practices of the Elderly in Vigan City, Unpublished Graduate Thesis, University of Northern Philippines

APPENDICES

Appendix A Letter of Request to the City Mayor Republic of the Philippines University of Northern Philippines Tamag, Vigan City Graduate School

January 07, 2010

Dear Madam, Greetings of Peace and Joy! I am Raymund Christopher R. dela Pea, a Master of Arts in Nursing student of the University of Northern Philippines-Graduate School is conducting a research entitled, Health Status of the Elderly in Selected Barangays of the City of Vigan. This study aims to examine and determine the relationship of socio-economic & health related factors to health status of the elderly. The data gathered will serve as baseline information for policy formulation by the Local Government Unit specially the health program managers for them to come up with suitable programs and services that will meet the needs of the elderly people in the locality. In this connection, may I request permission to float the questionnairechecklist to the elderly in Barangay V, VI & VIII, San Julian Sur & Norte, Bongtolan, Bolala, Salindeg, Pantay Daya & Laud, Capangpangan and Mindoro I am looking forward for your favorable action on this request. Thank you very much. God bless and more power.

Very truly yours, (Sgd.) Raymund Christopher R. dela Pea, RN, RM Researcher

Noted by: (Sgd.) Raul A. Raguindin, RN, MAN Research Adviser

(Sgd.) Ceferina S. Ambre, Ed.D Dean, Graduate School

Appendix B Letter of Request to the Barangay Captains

Republic of the Philippines University of Northern Philippines Tamag, Vigan City Graduate School

January 07, 2010

Hon. Brgy. Captain , Vigan City Dear Sir, Greetings of Peace and Joy! I am Raymund Christopher R. dela Pea, a Master of Arts in Nursing student of the University of Northern Philippines-Graduate School is conducting a research entitled, Health Status of the Elderly in Selected Barangays of the City of Vigan. This study aims to examine and determine the relationship of socio-economic & health related factors to health status of the elderly. The data gathered will serve as baseline information for policy formulation by the Local Government Unit specially the health program managers for them to come up with suitable programs and services that will meet the needs of the elderly people in the locality. In this connection, may I request permission to float the questionnairechecklist in your barangay. I am looking forward for your favorable action on this request. Thank you very much. God bless and more power.

Very truly yours, (Sgd.) Raymund Christopher R. dela Pea, RN, RM Researcher Noted by: (Sgd.) Raul A. Raguindin, RN, MAN Research Adviser (Sgd.) Ceferina S. Ambre, Ed.D Dean, Graduate School

Appendix C Letter to the Respondents Republic of the Philippines University of Northern Philippines Tamag, Vigan City Graduate School

Dear Respondents: Greetings of Peace and Joy! I, a Master of Arts in Nursing (MAN) student of the University of Northern Philippines-Graduate School is currently conducting a research entitled, Health Status of the Elderly in Selected Barangays of the City of Vigan. In this connection, your cooperation and kind assistance is earnestly requested to accomplish the enclosed questionnaire. Your sincere and honest answers are very important in the attainment of the objectives of my study. Rest assured that all information gathered would be kept with utmost confidentiality. Thank you very much and God bless.

Very truly yours, (Sgd.) Raymund Christopher R. dela Pea, RN, RM Researcher

Noted by: (Sgd.) Raul A. Raguindin, RN, MAN Research Adviser

(Sgd.) Ceferina S. Ambre, Ed.D Dean, Graduate School

Appendix D QUESTIONNAIRE

HEALTH STATUS OF THE ELDERLY IN SELECTED BARANGAYS OF THE CITY OF VIGAN Questionnaire Checklist Instructions: Please put a check mark ( ) on the space provided on the corresponding item that matches your answer. I. Name: Age: Sex: Male Married Female Single Widow/Widower Civil Status: Profile on: (Optional) Socio-economic Factors

Educational Attainment: Post Graduate College Graduate College Level High School Graduate High School Level Elementary Graduate Elementary Level No Formal Schooling Source of Income: Fixed Pension (From GSIS, SSS, Veterans, etc) Salary Assistance from children Income from business Others (Please Specify)

Previous Employment/Occupation A. Professional Accounting / Finance Admin / HR Arts / Media / Communication Sciences Healthcare

C. Skilled B. Non-Professional Ambulant Vendor Housekeeping Farming Fishing Weaving Pottery Manufacturing Carpentry Others specify) (Please

Health Related Factors A. Lifestyle Please rate your lifestyle & health seeking behaviors. Put a check mark ( )on the corresponding item that matches your answer. On Exercise Do you exercise? Yes No If yes, what kind of exercise? Walking Jogging Running Swimming Others How often? 2x a month 2x a week Once a week Everyday Others On Smoking Do you smoke? Yes No If yes, what kind of cigarette? Filter Without filter Both How many stick per day? 1-5 5-10 10-15 15-20 Others

On Drinking Do you drink alcoholic beverages? Yes No

If yes, what king of alcoholic beverage? Wine Beer Liquor Others How often? Once a week 2x a week Every other day Every day How many glasses do you drink per session? 2 or more glasses 1 glass glass Others

On Diet 1. I eat my meals regularly (breakfast, lunch & dinner). Yes No If yes how often? Always Sometimes Seldom 2. I eat vegetables. Yes No If yes, what kind of vegetable? Green Vegetables (leaf vegetables, okra, broccoli)

Orange vegetables (carrot, squash, sweet potato) Dried beans & peas (kidney beans, lentils, garbanzo) Others How often? Always Sometimes Seldom 3. I eat fruits in every meal. Yes No If yes, what kind of fruit? Tree fruits (cherry, pear, apple) Citrus fruits (orange, lemon, mandarin) Tropical fruits (banana, avocado, mango, pineapple) Others How often? Always Sometimes Seldom 4. I eat meat. Yes No If yes, what kind of meat? Chicken Beef Pork Fish How often? Always Sometimes Seldom

5. I drink at least 8-10 glasses of water every day? Yes No If yes, what is your source of drinking water?

Jetmatic pump Electric water pump Deep well Commercialized bottled water

How often? Always Sometimes Seldom

A. Health Seeking Behaviors 1. I regularly go for medical check-ups. Yes No If yes, how often? Monthly Quarterly Biannually Annually 2. I have my BP taken regularly. Yes No If yes, how often? Everyday Weekly Monthly As necessary Who takes your BP? Barangay health worker

Municipal health worker Family members Others 3. I take vitamin supplements. Yes No If, yes what Vitamins are you taking? Vitamin B Vitamin C Calcium Multivitamins How often? Always Sometimes Seldom 4. I take herbal products. Yes No If yes, what kind of herbal product? Natural Commercialized How often? Always Sometimes Seldom 5. I visit & consult the herbolarios for my health concerns. Yes

No If yes, how often? Monthly Quarterly Biannually Annually 6. I regularly go for dental check-up Yes No If yes, how often? Monthly Quarterly Biannually Annually 7. I strictly follow the doctors order & instruction every time I get sick. Yes No If yes, how often? Always Sometimes Seldom 8. I self medicate. Yes No If yes, how often? Always Sometimes Seldom

C. Caregiver Who is your primary caregiver? Spouse Child/children Relatives Friends D. Health Benefits Received Free medical & dental service Free diagnostic & laboratory fees (except X-ray & CT scan) Discount on: Medicines Professional fee of attending doctor/s Hospital bill Others (Please Specify) Private nurse/Private caregiver None Others (Please specify)

Health Status Please rate your health status. Put a check mark ( )on the corresponding item that matches your answer. Your health status is evaluated on the following descriptive scale: 5 Always 4 Often 3 Sometimes 2 Seldom 1 Never 5 Physical 6. I manifest vital signs (e.g., blood pressure) within normal range for my age & sex 7. I exhibit appropriate knowledge & attitudes about sexuality (e.g., menopause) 8. I verbalize any changes in eating, elimination or exercise 9. I adjust to physiologic changes ( e.g., appearance, sensory/perceptual, musculoskeletal, neurologic, cardiovascular) 10. I adapt lifestyle to diminishing energy & ability Psychosocial 6. I manage retirement years in a satisfying manner 7. I participate in social & leisure activities 8. I have a social network of friends & support persons 9. I view life as worthwhile 10. I have a high self esteem Emotional 6. I accept & adjust to the death of significant others 7. I accept changes in family roles (e.g., having grandchildren) 8. I adapt with the possibility of living alone or moving into a nursing home. 9. I am ready to face death anytime 10. I am happy & satisfied of what I have achieved & whatever I have in my life right now. Spiritual 4 3 2 1

II.

6. I find comfort, solace & affirmation in religious activities (e.g., mass, novenas, processions, recollection/retreat, etc) 7. I attend mass every Sunday or worship every Saturday 8. I read the Holy Bible (Koran and other holy books related to my religion) 9. I regularly attend activities of the religious group where I belong 10. I have a strong faith in God (Jesus, Yahweh, Messiah, Allah)

KONDISION ITI SALUN-AT DAGITI NATAENGAN KADAGITI SUMAGMAMANO A BARANGAY ITI SIUDAD TI VIGAN

Listaan Dagiti Saludsod Pagannurotan: Ikkan ti tsesk () dagiti espasio kas mayannatup iti sungbatyo. A. Maipanggep iti Gumong-Ekonomikal Nagan: _______________________________ (di inkapilitan) Tawen: _________ Seks: _________ lalaki ______ Babai Estado Sibil: ______ Naasawaan _______ Baro/Balasang Balo Kangatuan ti Naragpat nga Adal _______ Graduado iti Doktoral/Masteral _______ Graduado iti kolehiyo _______ Nagbasa iti kolehiyo _______ Nagraduar iti Haiskul _______ Nagadal iti Haiskul _______ Nagraduar iti Elementarya _______ Nagadal iti Elementarya _______ Saan a nakapagadal Pagtaudan iti Kuarta/Sanikua _______ Pension (GSIS, SSS, Veterans) _______ Sueldo _______ Tulong manipud kadagiti annak _______ Kuarta manipud iti Negosio _______ Dadduma pay (Ilanad koma) Nagtrabahuan iti Napalabas A. Propesional Opisina iti kuarta / Penansial Administratibo Arte, Media, Komunikasyon B. Non-Professional Agtagibalay Sciences Salun-at

______

C. Skilled Panaglaga

Agtaltalon Agkalkalap Agtagtagilako

Panagdamili Panagkarpentero Agpapartuat __________ Dadduma pay

II. Dagiti Bambanag Maipanggep iti salun-at A. Estilo ti Panagbiag Graduanyo iti kasasaadyo iti biag ken dagiti banag maipapan iti salun-at. Markaanyo it tsek () mayannatup iti sungbatyo. Iti Panagwatwat Agwatwatka kadi wenno ager-ersisioka kadi? Wen Saan No wen, ania a kita a panagwatwat? Panagna Panagtaray Panaglangoy Panagdiaging Dadduma pay Kasano ken mamin-ano a daras? Mamindua iti makabulan Mamindua iti makadomingo Maminsan iti Makadomingo Inaldaw Dadduma Pay Panagsigarilyo Agsigsigarilioka kadi? Wen Saan No wen, ania a klase ti sigarilio? Adda pilterna Awan pilter na Agpada

Mano a sigarilio ti mausarmo iti maysa nga aldaw? 15 5 10 10 15 15 20 wenno maysa kaha Dadduma pay Panaginum iti Nasanger Umin-inumka kadi iti arak? Wen Saan No wen, ania nga arak ti in-inumem? Arak a gin, basi, wiski Serbesa Dadduama pay

Kasano ken mamin-ano a daras? Maminsan ti makadomingo Mamindua ti makadomingo Kalpasan ti maysa nga aldaw Inaldaw Kasano ti kaadu ti mainummo iti maminsan a kasanguan? 2 ken ad-adu a baso 1 a baso gudua ti baso dadduma pay Iti Pannangan 1. Regular kadi ti pannanganmo? (pamigat, pangaldaw, pangrabii) Wen Saan No wen, kasano? Kanayon Manmano

2. Agsidsidaka kadi iti natnateng? Wen Saan No wen, ania a klase ti nateng? Berde a nateng agraman uggotna (bulong marunggi, okra) Amanilio a nateng (karabasa, kanote, karot) Naipagango a bukbukel (utong, balatong, garbanzo) Dadduma pay Manin-ano a daras? Kanayon Manmano 3. Mangmnganka kadi iti prutas iti kada pannangan? Wen Saan No wen, ania a klase ti prutas? Bunga a kas iti Mansanas, cherry Sitrus Prutas a tropikal (saba, abokado, mannga, pinya) Dadduma pay 4. Agsidsida ka kadi iti karne: Wen Saan

No wen, ania a klase ti karne? Manok Karne ti baka Karne ti baboy Ikan Mamin-ano daras? Kanayon Manmano Sagpaminsan

5. Umin-inumka kadi ti 8-10 a baso a danum ti inaldaw? Wen Saan No wen, paggapuan ti in-inumem a danum ti inaldaw? Jetmatic pump Electric water pump Bubon Naibote a danum kas iti mineral B. Maipanggep iti Salun-at 1. Kanayonka kadi a mapan agpatsek-ap iti doktor? Wen Saan No wen, Kasano? Binulan Mamin-innem ti makatawen Mamindua ti makatawen Tenawen 2. Agpapaalaka kadi ti Blood pressuremo a kanayon? Wen Saan No wen, kasano? Inaldaw Dinomingo Binulan Tunggal kasapulan Sino mangal-ala ti Blood Pressure mo? Barangay Health Worker Munisipal Health worker Miembro ti Pamilia Sabali a tao 3. Agtomtomarka iti bitamena? Wen Saan No wen, ania a bitamina ti tomtomarem? Vitamin B Vitamin C Calcium

Multi-vitamins Manin-ano a daras? Kanayon Manmano Sagpaminsan 4. Agtomtomarka kadi iti Herbal nga agas? Wen Saan No wen, ania a klase? Natural Commercial Mamin-ano a daras? Kanayon Manmano Sagpaminsan 5. Mapmapanka kadi agpakpakunsulta iti arbulario para iti pakaseknan ti salun-at? Wen Saan No wen, kasano? Binulan Kada innem a bulan Mamindua ti makatawen Tinawen 6. Mapmapanka kadi agpatesk-ap iti Dentista? Wen Saan No wen, manin-ano daras? Binulan Kada innem a bulan Mamindua iti makatawen Tinawen 7. Tungtungpalem kadi ti balakad ti Doktor iti kanito nga agsakitka? Wen Saan No wen, kasano?

Kanayon Manmano Sagpaminsan

8. Ag-agasam kadi iti bukadmo a bagi? (self medication) Wen Saan No wen, kasano? Kanayon Manmano Sagpaminsan C. Panakaaywan ti salun-at Sino ti kangrunaan a mngay-aywan ti salun-atyo? _______ Asawa _______ Annak __________ Gagayyem __________Pribado a nars/caregiver __________ Awan __________ Dadduma pay D. Naited a Benepisio ti Salun-at ________ Libre a medical ken dental chek-ap ________ Libre a pannakatsek-ap ti laboratorio Diskwento iti Binayadan ________ ag-agas ________Tangdan ti doctor ________ dadduma pay Kondision ti Salun at Graduanyo ti salun-atyo babaen iti pangtsek iti numero a kaibatogan ti sungbatyo. Agserbi daytoy a grado pakasekann ti salun-atyo. 5 Kanayon 4 saan a kanayon 3 - Manmano

_______ Kabagian

2 - Sagpaminsan 1 Saan a maar-aramid

5 4 3 2 1 Pisikal 1.Makitak dagiti normal a pagilasinan iti salun-atko kas maiparbeng iti tawenko ken katataok babaen iti seksualidad 2. Addaanak iti naan-anay a pannakaamo maipanggep iti bukadko a seksualidad 3. Naipakaamok iti amaman a pangbalbaliw ti salun-atko babaen iti pannagas ken ehersisio. 4. Maawatko ti naduma-duma a panagbaliw ti bagik. 5. Madaptarko ti pangbiag a panagbaba iti pigsa ken salun-atko. Psycho-social 1. kabaelak ken sorangobak a mangpasangbay kadagiti tawen iti panagbalin ko a natengan 2. Tumabtabunoak kadagiti pasken ti gimong ken pagragragsakan. 3. Adu dagiti gagayem ken mangsaksakit kaniak. 4. Kaniak awan kapatgan no saan nga agbiag iti nawaya, natalinaay ken naragsak. 5. Nangato dagiti panirigab ti biag. Emosional 1. Maakseptarko ni patay 2. Maakseptarko ti pangbabalao ti kasasaad ti pamiliak 3. Maakseptarko ti agbiagta a mayamaysa wenno iti mapan tit pagtarabanan. 4. Sisasagaanak a sumango ken patay iti aniaman a kanito 5. Naragsak ken kuntentoakon iti maragpatko a kasasaad iti biag agdama. Ispiritual 1. Komportableak iti pannakationko mainaig kadagiti nadiosan a pasken ken aktibidad 2. Mapmapanak makimisa iti kada Domingo 3 Basbasaek met ti nasantuan a biblia. 4. Kanayon nga atendarak dagiti pasken. 5. Napigsa ti pammatik ti Dios.

CURRICULUM VITAE

NAME: DATE OF BIRTH: PLACE OF BIRTH: CIVIL STATUS: CITIZENSHIP: RELIGION: HOME ADDRESS: PARENTS:

Raymund Christopher R. dela Pea September 23, 1987 Tamag, Vigan City Single Filipino Roman Catholic Bayubay Sur, San Vicente, Ilocos Sur 2726 Jesus O. dela Pea (+) Isidora R. dela Pea

EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND: Primary Secondary Tertiary Post Graduate St. Joseph Institute St. Paul College of Ilocos Sur St. Paul College of Ilocos Sur St. Paul College of Ilocos Sur Bachelor of Science in Nursing University of Northern Philippines Master of Arts in Nursing 1993-1996 1996-2000 2000-2004 2004-2008 2008-2010

ELIGIBILTY: Examination Taken Nurse Licensure Examination Midwife Licensure Examination Date of Examination June 1-2, 2008 April 29-30, 2009 Place of Examination Rating Remarks License Number

Baguio City

80. 80 %

Passed

0513521

Baguio City

75. 95 %

Passed

0150306

WORK EXPERIENCE: Agency Position Time Period

University of Northern Philippines-College of Nursing

ClinicalInstructor

November 03, 2008 - PRESENT

St. James Hospital-VQR Medical Foundation

Volunteer Nurse

August 08, 2008 December 31, 2008

MEMBERSHIP IN ASSOCIATION/ORGANIZATION: Philippine Nurses Association, Inc (PNA) Integrated Midwives Association of the Philippines, Inc (IMAP)

TRAININGS AND SEMINARS ATTENDED: Seminar on Focus Charting & Documentation Leading Change: Building a Healthier Nation Philippine Nurses Association (PNA) - Ilocos Sur Chapter St. Paul College of Ilocos Sur September 11, 2009

Integrated Management on Childhood Illness (IMCI)-Update & Seminar UNP-Master of Arts in Nursing Class University of Northern Philippines-Graduate School March 21, 2009

Basic Intravenous Therapy Training & Seminar Association of Nursing Service Administrators of the Philippines (ANSAP) St. James Hospital-VQR Medical Foundation August 31-September 02, 2008

Career Talk on Job Preparation Your Steps Towards Success SPCIS Guidance Center St. Paul College of Ilocos Sur February 01, 2008

Disaster Nursing Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC) St. Paul College of Ilocos Sur May 26, 2006

First Aid Training First Aid in the Campus Philippine National Red Cross (PNRC) St. Paul College of Ilocos Sur May 22-23, 2006 1st Clinical Nursing Forum Intellectual Exchanges Promote Growth & Professionalism Paulinian Nursing Students Association (PNSA) St. Paul College of Ilocos Sur October 14, 2005