Male Most men tend to consider the third phase of the sexual response cycle, namely

orgasm, to be the same as ejaculation. This is not the case, orgasm & ejaculation are in fact separate events, although they seem to occur simultaneously. It is important to note that either of these events can occur in the absence of the other.

Excitement through Plateau
Sexual desire is a complex interaction among cognitive processes, physiological mechanisms (hormones), physical well-being, and positive mood all affecting the drive toward sexual fantasy or behavior. If a man encounters something that excites him sexually, messages are transmitted to the portion of the brain dedicated to sexual response. Many men believe that sexual arousal is always accompanied by an erection, but this is not necessarily the case at the first stage. A number of other things happen during the early stages of sexual arousal. The brain is flooded with natural chemicals that act similarly to drugs such as cocaine. These natural chemicals, called endorphins, make the man say to himself that whatever is causing the sexual arousal is very enjoyable and should be continued. If the sexual response is the result of observing another person, the man may make an effort to meet the other person involved. Most men will produce pre-ejaculate when anything considered to be sexually exciting occurs, perhaps even reading a sexually explicit story or watching a sexually explicit movie. There is no limit to the length of time that a man can be aroused, and throughout arousal the man can continue to produce drops of pre-ejaculate. Erection Normally, excitement is followed by erection. An erection of the penis occurs as the spongy tissues of the penis are engorged with blood. There is one large primary artery responsible for blood flow into the penis, but several veins that drain the penis of blood. When an erection is not happening, the inflow of blood and the outflow is maintained in balance and the penis remains flaccid. During erection, blood flows into the penis and holes in the spongy tissue in the penis fill with blood. At the same time, flaps in the veins leading out of the penis enlarge, cutting off the drainage. As a result, the penis fills with blood. As more and more blood flows in than out, the penis enlarges and becomes harder. Finally, veins in the penis are compressed from the increasing pressure from the erection itself. Heart rate and blood pressure also increase, the pressure of blood into the penis increases, keeping the penis hard. What can go wrong? Several things can happen. Those with spinal cord injuries are frequently unable to attain an erection because the nerves that control the valves in the

veins and arteries have been severed. If these valves cannot be opened and closed an erection is impossible. As a man ages, the valves (flaps) controlling the veins that must be shut off may leak a bit, and not prevent the outflow of blood. And the blood flow into the penis may be restricted. Also, as a man ages the main penis artery may fill with sludge, reducing blood inflow. Smoking may contribute to this, as it does to the buildup of sludge in other portions of the circulatory system. Alcohol use may decrease the ability of the nervous system to close off the necessary valves. This is why intoxicated men often cannot achieve and maintain an erection. Size of the erection may be relatively unrelated to the size of the non-erect penis. Typically, those with smaller penises tend to enlarge to a greater degree when erect, so the differences in the size of the erect penis may not be that great. According to the book Man's Body, the average flaccid penis is about 3 3/4 inches long with most falling between 3 1/4 and 4 1/4 inches, though a few are outside this range. The average erect penis is 6 1/4 inches, with most between 5 and 7 inches, though a few are smaller and larger. An article in Men's Health Magazine indicates that these data are overly optimistic, and that the average erect penis length now widely accepted by doctors is 5.1 inches. Which seems a bit short, or at least for an average number. Erect penis length varies with the degree of erection. Past puberty, in the teen years, and perhaps during the twenties, it is possible to get a full erection without any manual stimulation at all. As men age beyond the 20s, this occurs less and less frequently and increasingly some manual manipulation of the penis is needed. As the penis becomes increasingly erect, the nerve endings located there gradually become more and more sensitive to touch. In general, the harder the penis can become, the more pleasant the sensations from the touch. Other physiological changes occur. As the erection grows, the heart and breathing rate increases. During the initial stages of arousal, before erection occurs, the testicles and scrotum feel quite large and soft, and are very sensitive to touch. Gentle pressure on the testicles with the fingertips produces particularly pleasant sensations. As the erection proceeds, the testicles change as well, increasing in size by up to 50% as they also fill with blood. They become harder and are drawn up to the body as the point of ejaculation becomes nearer and nearer. Many men think that an erection must ordinarily proceed to an orgasm and ejaculation, but this is not necessarily so. By repeatedly massaging and then stopping the manual stimulation of the penis, a man can go through many erection cycles that do not necessary need to lead directly to orgasm. With each cycle, often the man can learn to take a bit more stimulation without ejaculating. Research indicates that stimulation of the septum, a portion of the brain known to be a part of the limbic system, results in the feeling of an orgasm, but this stimulation

produces neither an erection nor ejaculation. These findings support the theory that ejaculation and orgasm, though often linked together, are, indeed, separate events. Learning how to achieve an erection just below the level, which leads to ejaculation is an important part of sexual enjoyment. It is important for the man to learn how to read his body's signals that orgasm and ejaculation are near. Psychologists call the point where the man is no longer able to delay orgasm the "point of inevitability". Learning how to lengthen the arousal and erection period while delaying orgasm is an important part of maximizing enjoyment from sex. As the erection proceeds, the physical sensations become increasingly more and more exciting, and the psychological pressure to ejaculate becomes more and more intense. It is essential to learn how to keep the stimulation just below the level required for ejaculation, while learning to deal with the increasing psychological pressure to ejaculate. The psychological pleasure becomes more and more intense, the longer the arousal can be maintained without ejaculation, but the greater the enjoyment for the man. Developing these skills and dealing with the psychological desire to ejaculate for as long as possible requires practice. Women usually require a somewhat longer period of time to become fully aroused, so being able to delay orgasm potentially increases the enjoyment of sex by both partners. All of the sections of the erect penis are not equally sensitive. Thus, by varying locations being stimulated, the man can perhaps delay orgasm. Stimulation of the base of the penis, near the body, while pleasant, normally will not be sufficient to achieve orgasm. The underside of the tip of the penis, called the "frenulum", is very sensitive to manual stimulation. If this area of the erect penis is stimulated very much, an orgasm (and ejaculation) will occur almost immediately. A significant portion of the penis, perhaps one- third to one-half of it, lies inside the body. This portion of the penis also responds to manual stimulation. It can be felt and externally massaged at a spot called the perineum area, which is directly behind the base of the scrotum. This is a little-recognized but highly sensitive area of the male body. This spot is sometimes referred to as the "second male G spot" though many men are not even aware that it is a sexually sensitive area. In addition to the possibility of externally massaging the interior portion of the erect penis, a bundle of nerves terminate here, and the main artery that is responsible for providing blood for erections runs through this area. Inside, but directly above this area lies the Cowper's glands. It is likely that external massage of this area will to a certain degree stimulate these glands. The prostate is a little further up, but nearby. It is possible and often very pleasant to externally massage the prostate, a walnut-size gland, responsible for secreting most of the liquid contained in the semen by pressing on the perineum, or directly inside the rectum, as the gland is located only about an inch inside.

Orgasm (with and without ejaculation)
With practice, a man can learn a degree of control over the point when he proceeds to orgasm and ejaculation. Some men believe that male orgasm invariably results in

ejaculation, but this is not always true. Some men have learned techniques for having multiple orgasms without ejaculating. Many of these techniques involving squeezing of the urethra such that the semen is not allowed to leave the body. As the point of orgasm approaches, pre-ejaculate production will normally stop, and the hole in the tip of the penis becomes slit-like. The testicles become hard and are drawn up near the body in preparation. Breathing becomes heavier, and there may be involuntary contractions of major muscles (convulsions) throughout the body. Finally, the psychological and physical pressure to ejaculate is released in a series of muscular contractions, usually about 8 major contractions spaced a second or so apart, followed perhaps by several smaller ones that can last 45 seconds or so. Ejaculatory Force: Generally the more frequently a man has an ejaculation, the less force that ejaculation will have. If one is able to ejaculate two to three hours after his previous ejaculation, the semen just dribbles out. Semen: There is a wide variation in semen production, but about 60 percent on average, comes from glands called the seminal vesicles, whereas 38 % comes from the prostate, with the remainder from glands such as the Cowper's. Frequency of Ejaculation: According to a number of studies, Many post- pubescent young men report daily ejaculation, if not more frequently than that. This frequency gradually declines for most males to 2-3 time per week, which is typical of men in there forties. But there is still considerable variation among adult men of a given age. Many men believe that it is somehow "un-masculine" to take advantage and enjoy the sexual experiences that occur prior to orgasm. They may have been taught at an early age that masturbation is somehow sinful or harmful to one's health. Orgasm and ejaculation become the focus of their partner-sex as well, rather than full enjoyment of all aspects of sexual feelings. Once the arousal has begun, there are physical and psychological changes that take place in men. As outlined earlier, typically, an involuntary message is sent from the brain to the nerves that control a series of valves on the veins by which blood is drained from the penis. At the same time, blood continues to enter the penis through the main artery, the heartbeat rate increases, and blood pressure rises. With blood flowing in faster than it is returned, the penis starts to become erect. When the penis is flaccid, touch seems little different than touch on any other part of the anatomy. But as erection starts to take place, the nerve endings concentrated in the penis start to become more sensitive and pleasant to the touch. Sexual tension has started. The first sexual feelings are rather unfocused, but as arousal begins, the man's attention increasingly is focused on the sensations emanating from the

groin area. Many men believe these sexual sensations occur only in the penis, but there are many other places in the groin area that are quite sensitive as well. Equally interesting are the psychological changes that are taking place, something that few men acknowledge. At the initial stages of arousal, the man has no particular psychological "urge" to press forward to ejaculation. But as the arousal and erection continues, the psychological urge to press forward to ejaculation becomes stronger and stronger. This is the essence of building sexual tension. Psychologically, the man experiences the feeling of wanting more and more stimulation to continue and increase the intensity of the sexual feelings. The entire experience can be likened to the winding of a "sexual" spring. Increasing stimulation causes the "sexual" spring to be wound tighter and tighter, increasing the sexual tension. These sensations are extremely pleasant, but at the same time, the unreleased tension is also described as very "frustrating" by most men. Interestingly, some men describe this as a "delicious" frustration, and many agree that it is among the best, if not the best of experiences that life has to offer. The tighter the sexual spring can be wound, the more exciting the sexual "ride" and the more "extreme" the ultimate release will be. This is a human experience not to be missed. Fully recognizing this and fully taking advantage of these sensations and psychological urges in an effort to more completely enjoy them for a longer period of time without moving directly forward to orgasm, something that most men must learn. But the results are well worth the effort, both in terms of the man's own enjoyment as well as for the benefit and enjoyment of a sexual partner.

Refractory Period
Once the orgasm is complete, the valves which had maintained the erection, are opened and the penis is drained of blood so that within a space of a few minutes it has returned to its flaccid state. Some research has suggested that testosterone produced by the sex organs in males and the adrenal glands (on top of the kidneys) in females, has less to do with whether a man will become sexually aroused than is widely believed. Other recent research suggests that it is not testosterone, but a compound closely related to testosterone that is important. Ordinarily, after ejaculation, a man has no further interest in sexual activity of any kind. For a period of 10 minutes to perhaps more than an hour, or even days for older men. During this refractory period a man is physically unable to achieve another orgasm even if he is able to maintain erection. The generally pleasant feelings of satiety, lack of interest in further sexual activity and sleepiness following the male orgasm (which many women do not appear to fully understand or appreciate) are primarily linked to a chemical called oxytocin that is released during orgasm.

Female Ejaculation

Female Ejaculation
“Amrita” …meaning nectar of the goddess. A liquid most treasured and revered in ancient Tantric literature. What exactly does it mean? Even modern medicine isn’t exactly sure, much less in agreement. There is a good deal of mythology surrounding the biological reality of what has been only recently termed as “female ejaculation”. The primary source of much erroneous information about the nature of female ejaculation seems to be attributable to those who seek to sensationalize and exploit this relatively unexplored phenomenon, while others have been overly gullible in accepting purely anecdotal evidence. It's widely believed that there is a female counterpart to the male prostate; technically known as “Skene’s” glands. Just as the male prostate, the ducts from these glands empty into the urethral canal. The liquid produced by the Skene’s glands is not urine, but a thin clear fluid containing glucose and prostatic acid. This chemical makeup is much more similar to semen (without sperm), than it is to urine. During sexual arousal the Skene’s glands may be stimulated in a way as to release secretions into the urethral canal. These secretions are ultimately expelled through the urethral opening (just as in male ejaculation). This fluid "release" is entirely unrelated to “vaginal” secretions, who’s primary, but not exclusive purpose is the lubrication of the vagina. While there have been numerous claims of vast quantities of liquid expelled during ejaculation, all fail to offer a biologically compelling explanation as to the source, or reservoir used to store or produce such copious supplies of juices. Skene’s glands are smaller in size than the male prostate, and it would only seem logical to assume that the amount of “ejaculate” would be commensurate. Regardless of the true quantity, it is a fact, that it is possible for some women to expel (or ejaculate) prostatic fluid.

Where is this mysterious gland?
The Skene’s gland is embedded in the wall of the urethra, and can be indirectly felt through the upper vaginal wall, 2- 3” from the entrance of the vagina. Using the pads of one or more fingers, it can best be identified as area of ridges. The center of this ridged surface, about the size of a dime to half dollar, is known as the Graffenberg spot or G-spot. In some women this may be more noticeable than others, particularly when in an un-aroused state. During arousal the G-spot (which is made of erectile tissue) fills with blood and swells to 2-3 times it’s normal size. After arousal it is usually more easily identified and stimulated. Not all

women are sensitive to stimulation or find it pleasurable. Since indirect pressure is applied to the bladder, some woman will feel the sensation to urinate. Breaking this psychological barrier makes it possible for some women to expel prostatic fluid, as a direct result of simultaneous stimulation of the G-spot and muscle contractions surrounding the urethra. For a woman seeking to stimulate this area on her own, it would be advisable to do so in a squatting position. The theory being that humans having evolved from quadrupeds, a female’s sexual organs are biologically better designed for entry from the rear Unlike the currently widely accepted missionary position (face to face), rear entry has the advantage of exerting more direct pressure and stimulation onto the G-spot, by the penis. Secondly there is a greater chance of outward ejaculation (by the female), since the urethral canal is not compressed in a way as to inhibit the flow of fluid out of the urethral opening. Although the ability of the female to ejaculate depends on a number of factors, it must be recognized that it is not for everyone. Just as many men are not receptive to prostate stimulation, many women are not sensitive to, or do not necessarily enjoy G-spot stimulation.

For those who desire to pursue the experience,
considered as essential for success.

the following points should be

Locating the G-spot [see illustration) The ability to derive pleasurable sensations from G-spot massage. Overcoming the fear of urinating, during arousal and G-spot stimulation. Emptying the bladder immediately prior to experience, since most women fear that they will urinate as soon as they relax their PC muscles. This will allow the woman to relax (or “let go”) and ejaculate. Assure that the urethral tract not unduly pressured; compressing the urethra may result in the emptying of ejaculate directly into the bladder (as opposed to the urethral opening).

Premature Ejaculation The definition of premature ejaculation is imprecise and the subject of disagreement
among sex therapists and researchers. Masters and Johnson suggested that ejaculation occurs prematurely if the woman does not reach orgasm during intercourse at least 50 percent of the time. This definition is problematic, as some women reach orgasm very rapidly during intercourse, while for others, orgasm never occurs during intercourse, regardless of duration. Kaplan proposed that a lack of voluntary control over the occurrence of orgasm defined premature ejaculation. However, it is not clear that the ejaculation reflex is truly subject to voluntary control. Rather, the ejaculation reflex, similar to the sneezing reflex, is at best only partially under voluntary control. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association defines premature ejaculation as "ejaculation with minimal sexual stimulation or before, upon, or shortly after penetration and before the person wishes it." This definition acknowledges that there must be a subjective element to the diagnosis of premature ejaculation. As well as considering the duration of intercourse, the nature of the couple's sexual interaction must be evaluated. A couple who engages in 45 minutes of unrestrained manual and oral-genital foreplay, followed by one minute of pleasurable intercourse, would not be considered to be troubled by premature ejaculation. However, ejaculation after ten minutes of intercourse might be premature if this duration can only be achieved by avoiding all foreplay; spraying the penis with a skin anesthetic; wearing three condoms; thinking unpleasant, distracting thoughts; and biting one's tongue so the pain interferes with sexual arousal.

The rates of premature ejaculation found in population studies have varied between 10
percent and 25 percent of men surveyed, probably due to differences in the definition of the problem. In terms of actual duration of intercourse, the 1948 Kinsey Report found that "for perhaps three-quarters of all males, orgasm is reached within two minutes" of intercourse, but Hunt's 1974 study found that the average duration of intercourse had increased dramatically, to 10 to 14 minutes, in the intervening 26 years. This dramatic change in the societal norm for duration of intercourse has increased the distress of men who suffer from premature ejaculation. Premature ejaculation, according to Bancroft, is typically a younger man's problem, with the majority of cases involving men under the age of 30. Premature ejaculation is typical for young men in their first sexual experiences and might be considered normal at this time. However, as these men have no history of successful sexual relationships as a basis for their sexual self-esteem, self-blame and self-labeling as dysfunctional often occur. With continued sexual experience, most men spontaneously get over their initial premature ejaculation. Along with the effects of experience, as a normal physiological change in aging the time required for a man to reach orgasm increases, but this is a slow change occurring over many years. A young man whose premature ejaculation is not resolved with greater sexual experience would have to wait 20 or 30 years for normal aging processes to solve his problem.

Premature ejaculation does not seem to be caused by any physiological factors or medical conditions. While Kaplan suggested that some local diseases or medications could cause premature ejaculation, Bancroft did not find this to be the case.

Research has also failed to connect premature ejaculation with the complex individual
psychodynamic and couple-relationship problems associated with other sexual dysfunctions, such as hypoactive sexual desire. Rather, premature ejaculation seems to be typical of young, sexually inexperienced males who simply have not learned to slow down and modulate their arousal and to prolong the pleasurable process of making love. Men who have sex only infrequently are also prone to ejaculate prematurely. Indeed, Kinsey, Pomeroy, and Martin proposed that the primary cause of premature ejaculation was a low frequency of sexual activity. Research has indicated that sensory thresholds in the penis are lowered by infrequent sexual activity and that premature ejaculation patients have a low rate of sexual activity. However, it may well be that premature ejaculation makes sex an unpleasant failure experience, which is therefore avoided, rather than that low frequency of sexual activity causes premature ejaculation. Anxiety and ejaculation both involve activation of the sympathetic nervous system, so anxiety about trying to delay ejaculation can make the problem worse. Masters and Johnson proposed that men learn to be rapid ejaculators during adolescent masturbation, when they often hurry to ejaculate because of fear of being discovered by parents. However, such experiences seem to have been equally common in men who are not premature ejaculators. There has even been some speculation by evolutionary biologists that rapid ejaculation may have been selected for during primate evolution, through a "survival of the fastest" process. A male who could ejaculate rapidly would be more likely to reproduce successfully, as there would be less chance of the female escaping, another male interrupting, or a predator attacking before coitus was completed. Kaplan proposed that premature ejaculators cannot accurately perceive their own arousal level and therefore cannot engage in self-control. However, one laboratory study comparing premature ejaculators and age-matched normal control subjects actually found that the premature ejaculators were more accurate when their self-ratings were compared to objective measures of physiological arousal. It may be that premature ejaculators, who because of their problem keep their attention focused on how close they are to ejaculation during sexual activity, have trained themselves to be unusually accurate self-observers of arousal. None of the theories of the cause of premature ejaculation is well supported by research, except that premature ejaculation is typical of younger, less experienced men and men who have sex infrequently.

The treatment of premature ejaculation, using the "pause" and "squeeze" procedures
developed by Semans and by Masters and Johnson, has been found to be highly effective. Research has demonstrated that such procedures work well in group as well as in individual treatment, and in self-help programs; they can be practiced in individual masturbation with relatively good transfer of therapeutic gains when sex with a partner is resumed. Success rates of 90 percent to 98 percent are reported.

In the stop-start or pause procedure, the penis is manually stimulated until the man is fairly highly aroused. The couple then pauses until his arousal subsides, at which time the stimulation is resumed. This sequence is repeated several times before stimulation is carried through to ejaculation, so the man ultimately experiences much more total time of stimulation than he ever has before and thus learns to have a higher threshold for ejaculation. The squeeze procedure is much like the stop-start procedure, with the addition that when stimulation stops, the woman firmly squeezes the penis between her thumb and forefinger, at the place where the glans of the penis joins the shaft. This squeeze seems to further reduce arousal. After a few weeks of this training, the necessity of pausing diminishes, with the man able to experience several minutes of continuous penile stimulation without ejaculating. Next, the couple progresses to putting the penis in the vagina but without any thrusting movements. If the man rapidly becomes highly aroused, the penis is withdrawn and the couple waits for arousal to subside, at which point the penis is reinserted. When good tolerance for inactive containment of the penis is achieved, the training procedure is repeated during active thrusting. Generally, two to three months of practice is sufficient for a man to be able to enjoy prolonged intercourse without any need for pauses or squeezes. We have no real understanding of why the pause and squeeze procedures described by Semans in 1956 and Masters and Johnson in 1970 work. The pause procedure fits Guthrie's theoretical paradigm for counter conditioning by "crowding the threshold." Additionally, the stimulation and pause procedure is typically repeated by the patient several times per week, thus raising the frequency of sex and raising the sensory threshold of the penis. Either or both of these mechanisms may underlie the effectiveness of treatment.

Some variations on the pause and squeeze procedures have been reported, typically as
clinical case reports. One variation described by LoPiccolo involves reversing one of the physiological changes that occurs during high arousal. During high arousal, the scrotum contracts and elevates the testes close to the body. As well as having the patient cease stimulation or squeeze on the penis, the patient may also be instructed to stretch out the scrotum and reverse this testicular elevation. However, during high arousal, any additional stimulation of the scrotum and perineum may trigger an ejaculation and thus may make the pause and squeeze procedure ineffectual. Empirical data on the effectiveness of this technique are lacking. Segraves reported that drugs and medications that block sympathetic arousal often have the effect of delaying ejaculation. Such agents include anti-anxiety, antidepressant, and major tranquilizing medications; sedatives; some medications used to treat high blood pressure; and some antihistamines. However, because of serious side effects, the use of medication in treating premature ejaculation is not recommended, especially when the effectiveness of the behavioral retraining procedure is considered. Many of the recreational or "street" drugs such as alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, "downers"

(barbiturates), and heroin also delay ejaculation, and although some men do use such agents to deal with their premature ejaculation, this is even more unwise than the use of prescription medications. It is somewhat puzzling that although there is little agreement about the definition or cause of premature ejaculation, and no real understanding of how the treatment procedure works, treatment is virtually 100 percent effective. If one has to have a sexual dysfunction, this is the one to have.

Ejaculation control

Why is ejaculation control for men so important?
Once a man has reached the point in his sexual development where he begins to understand that just "getting off" isn't satisfying him or his partner, he craves for more. Which is a natural desire. And in his heart he knows there is more, but often doesn't know how to achieve these higher pleasures. Tantra teaches us that for a man to achieve the highest Ecstasy possible for himself and his lover, he first needs to learn ejaculation control and to direct his sexual energy up his spine to the higher centers of his brain. In Tantra this sexual energy is known as "kundalini" energy. When a man masters the ability to move his Kundalini energy up along his spine, he increases the pleasure for himself and his lover to levels that he might never have dreamt of. As a man learns to master the movement his Sexual Energy within his body, he will be able to control his ejaculation. At this point he is free to make love "without" feeling the pressure to ejaculate. A man's sensitivity and awareness is profoundly heightened to the subtle and refined pleasures of lovemaking. He steps into an expanded state of consciousness, which allows him to achieve "multiple" and "full-body orgasms". The benefits of "full-body" orgasm are many. Full-body orgasm frees him from stress and tensions, heals his prostate gland, opens his heart and connects him deeper to his lover and himself. It also facilitates the man in experiencing multiple orgasms. By "multiple" is not to imply "multiple ejaculations", but rather that once a man learns to move his Kundalini energy through his body he can have orgasms and not ejaculate. This is known as a "dry orgasm" or noneejaculatory orgasm. Men have a tremendous capacity for pleasure and orgasm that is virtually untouched for most men. As a man masters tantric practice and higher energy movement, he begins to view his Lingam (penis) as an instrument of a deeper love connection with the woman. This deeper connection facilitates moving the woman to the highest states of Ecstasy and orgasmic pleasure that she can achieve. Allowing the man and woman to continue to build higher levels of ecstasy together.

1 Follicle-Stimulating Hormone - FSH 2 Luteinizing Hormone - LH 3 Progesteron 4 Estrogen 5 Hypothalamus 6 Pituitary gland 7 Ovary 8 Pregnancy - hCG (Human chorionic gonadotropin) 9 Testosteron 10 Testicle 11 Incentives 12 Prolactin - PRL

Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a child's body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction. Puberty is initiated by hormone signals from the brain to the gonads (the ovaries and testes). In response, the gonads produce a variety of hormones that stimulate the growth, function, or transformation of brain, bones, muscle, skin, breasts, and reproductive organs. Growth accelerates in the first half of puberty and stops at the completion of puberty. Before puberty, body differences between boys and girls are almost entirely restricted to the genitalia. During puberty, major differences of size, shape, composition, and function develop in many body structures and systems. The most obvious of these are referred to as secondary sex characteristics. In a strict sense, the term puberty (and this article) refers to the bodily changes of sexual maturation rather than the psychosocial and cultural aspects of adolescent development. Adolescence is the period of psychological and social transition between childhood and adulthood. Adolescence largely overlaps the period of puberty, but its boundaries are less precisely defined and it refers as much to the psychosocial and cultural characteristics of development during the teen years as to the physical changes of puberty. ______________________________________________________________________

Two of the most significant differences between puberty in girls and puberty in boys are the age at which it begins, and the major sex steroids involved. Although there is a wide range of normal ages, on average, girls begin the process of puberty about 1-2 years earlier than boys (with average ages of nine to fourteen for girls and ten to seventeen for boys), and reach completion in a shorter time.[1] Girls attain adult height and reproductive maturity about 4 years after the first physical changes of puberty appear. In contrast, boys accelerate more slowly but continue to grow for about 6 years after the first visible pubertal changes. The hormone that dominates female development is estradiol, an estrogen. While estradiol promotes growth of breasts and uterus, it is also the principal hormone driving the pubertal growth spurt and epiphyseal maturation and closure.[2] Estradiol levels rise earlier and reach higher levels in women than in men. In males, testosterone, an androgen, is the principal sex steroid. While testosterone produces all the male changes characterized as virilization, a substantial product of testosterone metabolism in males is estradiol, though levels rise later and more slowly than in girls. The male growth spurt also begins later, accelerates more slowly, and lasts longer before the epiphyses fuse. Although boys are 2 cm shorter than girls before puberty begins, adult men are on average about 13 cm (5.2 inches) taller than women. Most of this sex difference in adult heights is attributable to a later onset of the growth spurt and a slower progression to completion,[3] a direct result of the later rise and lower adult male levels of estradiol. [] Physical changes in males [] Testicular size, function, and fertility In boys, testicular enlargement is the first physical manifestation of puberty (and is termed gonadarche).[4] Testes in prepubertal boys change little in size from about 1 year of age to the onset of puberty, averaging about 2–3 cc in volume and about 1.5-2 cm in length. Testicular size continues to increase throughout puberty, reaching maximal adult size about 6 years later.[5] While 18-20 cc is reportedly an average adult size, there is wide variation in the normal population.[6] The testes have two primary functions: to produce hormones and to produce sperm. The Leydig cells produce testosterone (as described below), which in turn produces most of the changes of male sexual maturation and maintains libido. However, most of the increasing bulk of testicular tissue is spermatogenic tissue (primarily Sertoli and interstitial cells). The development of sperm production and fertility in males is not as well documented. Sperm can be detected in the morning urine of most boys after the first year of pubertal changes (and occasionally earlier). Potential fertility is reached at about 13 years old in boys, but full fertility will not be gained until 14-16 years of age, although some go through the process faster, reaching it only 1 year later. [] Pubic hair Pubic hair often appears on a boy shortly after the genitalia begin to grow. As in girls, the first appearance of pubic hair is termed pubarche and the pubic hairs are usually first visible at the dorsal (abdominal) base of the penis. The first few hairs are described as stage 2. Stage 3 is usually reached within another 6–12 months, when the hairs are too numerous to count. By stage 4, the pubic hairs densely fill the "pubic triangle." Stage 5 refers to spread of pubic hair to the thighs and upward towards the navel as part of the developing abdominal hair. [] Body and facial hair

Facial hair of a male that has been shaved In the months and years following the appearance of pubic hair, other areas of skin which respond to androgens develop heavier hair (androgenic hair) in roughly the following sequence: underarm (axillary) hair, perianal hair, upper lip hair, sideburn (preauricular) hair, periareolar hair, and the rest of the beard area. Arm, leg, chest, abdominal, and back hair become heavier more gradually. There is a large range in amount of body hair among adult men, and significant differences in timing and quantity of hair growth among different ethnic groups. [] Voice change Under the influence of androgens, the voice box, or larynx, grows in both genders. This growth is far more prominent in boys, causing the male voice to drop and deepen, sometimes abruptly but rarely "over night," about one octave, because the longer and thicker vocal folds have a lower fundamental frequency. Voices never "break." A typical 12-year old boy's larynx is larger, even before voice change, than an adult woman's[citation needed]. Occasionally, voice change is accompanied by unsteadiness of vocalization in the early stages of untrained voices. Most of the voice change happens during stage 34 of male puberty around the time of peak growth. Full adult pitch is attained at an average age of about 15 years. However, it usually precedes the development of significant facial hair by several months to years. [] Gigantism: Precocious puberty The name to a particular growth defect that occurs during childhood, from over-exposure to growth hormone. Precocious puberty and a variety of conditions associated with excessive amounts of testosterone or estrogen in childhood will result in tallness by mid-childhood. People affected by Gigantism grow up in height up to 8ft (approximately 2.40 metres) very rarely. However, the acceleration of bone maturation by the early rise of estradiol results in early completion of growth, and adult heights for these children may actually be below average for genetic potential. The possible symptoms is a Normal genetic variation or Hyperthyroidism, XYY syndrome, Overnutrition, Acromegaly, McCune-Albright syndrome etc. [] Male musculature and body shape By the end of puberty, adult men have heavier bones and nearly twice as much skeletal muscle. Some of the bone growth (e.g., shoulder width and jaw) is disproportionately greater, resulting in noticeably different male and female skeletal shapes. The average adult male has about 150% of the lean body mass of an average female, and about 50% of the body fat. This muscle develops mainly during the later stages of puberty, and muscle growth can continue even after a male is biologically adult. The peak of the so-called "strength spurt," the rate of muscle growth, is attained about one year after a male experiences his peak growth rate. [] Body odor, skin changes, acne Rising levels of androgens can change the fatty acid composition of perspiration, resulting in a more "adult" body odor. As in girls, another androgen effect is increased secretion of oil (sebum) from the skin and the resultant variable amounts of acne. Acne can be prevented by antibacterial face washes and typically diminishes at the end of puberty. [] Breast development: pubertal gynecomastia Estradiol is produced from testosterone in male puberty as well as female, and male breasts often respond to the rising estradiol levels. This is termed gynecomastia. In most boys, the breast development is minimal, similar to what would be termed a "breast bud" in a girl, but in many boys, breast growth is substantial. It usually occurs after puberty is underway, may increase for a year or two, and usually diminishes by the end of puberty. It is increased by extra adipose tissue if the boy is overweight. Weight loss for overweight teenagers can help reduce the prominence of gynecomastia but not diminish as to pubertal reasons. Although this is a normal part of male puberty for perhaps half of boys, breast development is usually as unwelcome as upper lip hair in girls, and can be removed surgically if it is causing a lot of stress or anxiety in the boy.

[] Physical changes in females [Breast development

Developing breasts in stage 4 of 5, with noticeable secondary mounds The first physical sign of puberty in females is usually a firm, tender lump under the center of the areola(e) of one or both breasts, occurring on average at about 10.5 years of age.[7] This is referred to as thelarche. By the widely used Tanner staging of puberty, this is stage 2 of breast development (stage 1 is a flat, prepubertal breast). Within six to 12 months, the swelling has clearly begun in both sides, softened, and can be felt and seen extending beyond the edges of the areolae. This is stage 3 of breast development. By another 12 months (stage 4), the breasts are approaching mature size and shape, with areolae and papillae forming a secondary mound. In most young women, this mound disappears into the contour of the mature breast (stage 5), although there is so much variation in sizes and shapes of adult breasts that stages 4 and 5 are not always separately identifiable.[8] ] Pubic hair Pubic hair is often the second unequivocal change of puberty noticed, usually within a few months of thelarche.[9] It is referred to as pubarche and the pubic hairs are usually visible first along the labia. The first few hairs are described as Tanner stage 2.[8] Stage 3 is usually reached within another 6-12 months, when the hairs are too numerous to count and appear on the pubic mound as well. By stage 4, the pubic hairs densely fill the "pubic triangle." Stage 5 refers to spread of pubic hair to the thighs and sometimes as abdominal hair upward towards the navel. In about 15% of girls, the earliest pubic hair appears before breast development begins.[9] [] Vagina, uterus, ovaries The mucosal surface of the vagina also changes in response to increasing levels of estrogen, becoming thicker and a duller pink in color (in contrast to the brighter red of the prepubertal vaginal mucosa).[10] Whitish secretions (physiologic leukorrhea) are a normal effect of estrogen as well.[7] In the next 2 years following thelarche, the uterus and ovaries increase in size, and follicles in the ovaries reach larger sizes.[11] The ovaries usually contain small follicular cysts visible by ultrasound.[12][13] [] Menstruation and fertility The first menstrual bleeding is referred to as menarche, and typically occurs about 2 years after thelarche.[9] The average age of menarche in American girls is about 12.75 years.[9] Menses (menstrual periods) are not always regular and monthly in the first 2 years after menarche.[14] Ovulation is necessary for fertility, but may or may not accompany the earliest menses.[15] In postmenarchal girls, about 80% of the cycles were anovulatory in the first year after menarche, 50% in the third and 10% in the sixth year.[14] However, initiation of ovulation after menarche is not inevitable, and a high proportion of girls with continued irregularity several years from menarche will continue to have prolonged irregularity and anovulation, and are at higher risk for reduced fertility.[16] The word nubility is used commonly in the social sciences to designate achievement of fertility. [] Body shape, fat distribution, and body composition During this period, also in response to rising levels of estrogen, the lower half of the pelvis and thus hips widen (providing a larger birth canal).[8][17] Fat tissue increases to a greater percentage of the body composition than in males, especially in the typical female distribution of breasts, hips, buttocks, thighs, upper arms, and pubis. Progressive differences in fat distribution as well as sex differences in local skeletal growth contribute to the typical female body shape by the end of puberty. At age 10 years, the average girl has 6% more body fat than the average boy, but by the end of puberty the average difference is nearly 50%.[18] [] Body odor, skin changes, and acne Rising levels of androgens can change the fatty acid composition of perspiration, resulting in a more "adult" body odor. This often precedes thelarche and pubarche by 1 or more years. Another androgen effect is increased secretion of oil

(sebum) from the skin. This change increases the susceptibility to acne, a characteristic affliction of puberty greatly variable in its severity.[19] [] Variations Typical puberty is described above, but many children vary with respect to timing of onset, tempo, steadiness of continuation, and sequence of events. [] Timing of onset This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2008) Please improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. Puberty is a process with a gradual onset beginning with changes of neuronal function in the hypothalamus, resulting in rising hormonal signals between brain and gonads, proceeding to gonadal growth and production of sex steroids, which in turn induce changes in responsive parts of the body. The definition of onset, therefore, depends on the perspective (e.g., hormonal versus physical) and purpose (establishing population normal standards, clinical care of early or late children, or a variety of other social purposes). The most commonly used definition of onset for both social and medical purposes is the appearance of the first physical changes described in this section of this article, but it should be understood that these physical changes are the first outward signs of preceding neural, hormonal, and gonadal function changes that are usually impossible or impractical to detect. The age at which puberty begins can vary widely between individuals and between populations. Age of puberty is affected by both genetic factors and by environmental factors such as nutritional state or social circumstances. Timing may also be affected by environmental factors (exogenous hormones and environmental substances with hormone-like effects) and there is even evidence that life experiences may play a role as well. Ethnic/racial differences have been recognized for centuries. For example, the average age of menarche in various populations surveyed in the last several decades has ranged from 12.0 to 18.5 years. The earliest mean is reported for African-American girls and the oldest for high altitude subsistence populations in Asia. However, it is clear that much of the higher age averages reflect nutritional limitations more than genetic differences and can change within a few generations with a substantial change in diet. The median age of menarche for a population may be an index of the proportion of undernourished girls in the population, and the width of the spread may reflect unevenness of wealth and food distribution in a population. [] Genetic influence Various studies have found direct genetic effects to account for at least 46% of the variation of timing of puberty in wellnourished populations.[20][21][22][23] The genetic association of timing is strongest between mothers and daughters. The specific genes affecting timing are not defined yet.[20] Among the candidates is an androgen receptor gene.[24] [] Environmental factors If genetic factors account for half of the variation of pubertal timing, environment factors are clearly important as well. One of the earliest observed environmental effects is that puberty occurs later in children raised at higher altitudes. The most important of the environmental influences is clearly nutrition, but a number of others have been identified, all which affect timing of female puberty and menarche more clearly than male puberty. [] Nutritional influence Nutritional factors are the strongest and most obvious environmental factors affecting timing of puberty.[20] Girls are especially sensitive to nutritional regulation because they must contribute all of the nutritional support to a growing fetus. Surplus calories (beyond growth and activity requirements) are reflected in the amount of body fat, which signals to the brain the availability of resources for initiation of puberty and fertility. Much evidence suggests that for most of the last few centuries, nutritional differences accounted for majority of variation of pubertal timing in different populations, and even among social classes in the same population. Recent worldwide increased consumption of animal protein, other changes in nutrition, and increases in childhood fatness have resulted in falling ages of puberty, mainly in those populations with the higher previous ages. In many populations the amount of variation attributable to nutrition is shrinking.

Although available dietary energy (simple calories) is the most important dietary influence on timing of puberty, quality of the diet plays a role as well. Lower protein intakes and higher plant fiber intakes, as occur with typical vegetarian diets, are associated with later onset and slower progression of female puberty. Studies have shown that calcium deficiency is a cause of late puberty, irregular and painful, cramping during menstruation with excessive blood loss, and lowered immune response to infections in young girls. This could be from a deficient diet or lack of vitamin D from too little sun exposure. This lack of calcium could predispose them to osteoporosis later in life. [] Physical activity and exercise The average level of daily physical activity has also been shown to affect timing of puberty, especially female. A high level of exercise, whether for athletic or body image purposes, or for daily subsistence, reduces energy calories available for reproduction and slows puberty. The exercise effect is often amplified by a lower body fat mass. [] Physical illness Many chronic diseases can delay puberty in both boys and girls. Those that involve chronic inflammation or interfere with nutrition have the strongest effect. In the western world, inflammatory bowel disease and tuberculosis have been notorious for such an effect in the last century, while in areas of the underdeveloped world, chronic parasite infections are widespread. [] Environmental chemicals and hormones This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2008) Please improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. There is theoretical concern, and animal evidence, that environmental hormones and chemicals may affect aspects of prenatal or postnatal sexual development in humans. Large amounts of incompletely metabolized estrogens and progestagens from pharmaceutical products are excreted into the sewage systems of large cities, and are sometimes detectable in the environment. Sex steroids are sometimes used in cattle farming but have been banned in chicken meat production for 40 years. Although agricultural laws regulate use to minimize accidental human consumption, the rules are largely self-enforced in the United States. Significant exposure of a child to hormones or other substances that activate estrogen or androgen receptors could produce some or all of the changes of puberty. Harder to detect as an influence on puberty are the more diffusely distributed environmental chemicals like PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyl), which can bind and trigger estrogen receptors. More obvious degrees of partial puberty from direct exposure of young children to small but significant amounts of pharmaceutical sex steroids from exposure at home may be detected during medical evaluation for precocious puberty, but mild effects and the other potential exposures outlined above would not. [] Stress and social factors This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2008) Please improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. Some of the least understood environmental influences on timing of puberty are social and psychological. In comparison with the effects of genetics, nutrition, and general health, social influences are small, shifting timing by a few months rather than years. Mechanisms of these social effects are unknown, though a variety of physiological processes, including pheromones, have been suggested based on animal research. The most important part of a child's psychosocial environment is the family, and most of the social influence research has investigated features of family structure and function in relation to earlier or later female puberty. Most of the studies have reported that menarche may occur a few months earlier in girls in high-stress households, whose fathers are absent during their early childhood, who have a stepfather in the home, who are subjected to prolonged sexual abuse in childhood, or who are adopted from a developing country at a young age. Conversely, menarche may be slightly later when a girl grows up in a large family with a biological father present.

More extreme degrees of environmental stress, such as wartime refugee status with threat to physical survival, have been found to be associated with delay of maturation, an effect that may be compounded by dietary inadequacy. Most of these reported social effects are small and our understanding is incomplete. Most of these "effects" are statistical associations revealed by epidemiologic surveys. Statistical associations are not necessarily causal, and a variety of covariables and alternative explanations can be imagined. Effects of such small size can never be confirmed or refuted for any individual child. Furthermore, interpretations of the data are politically controversial because of the ease with which this type of research can be used for political advocacy. Accusations of bias based on political agenda sometimes accompany scientific criticism. Another limitation of the social research is that nearly all of it has concerned girls, partly because female puberty requires greater physiologic resources and partly because it involves a unique event (menarche) that makes survey research into female puberty much simpler than male. More detail is provided in the menarche article. [] Variations of tempo and progression Tempo is the speed at which the process of pubertal changes progresses from beginning to end. The duration of puberty generally varies less than timing of onset, and approximates 4 years for girls and 6 for boys (from first physical changes to attainment of adult height). Nevertheless, some healthy children can proceed through puberty at a faster or slower tempo than most. An interruption of progression of puberty is usually, but not always, due to abnormal causes such as malnutrition or anorexia nervosa. Perhaps the most common apparently healthy variation is apparent interruption for a couple of years just after attainment of an early sign of initiation. For instance, some girls may seem to develop stage 2 breast buds at 6 or 7 years of age with no other signs of puberty, and nothing may happen for 2 or 3 years. Physicians refer to this as "unsustained puberty." [] Variations of sequence The sequence of events of pubertal development can occasionally vary. For example, in about 15% of boys and girls, pubarche (the first pubic hairs) can precede, respectively, gonadarche and thelarche by a few months. Rarely, menarche can occur before other signs of puberty in a few girls. These variations deserve medical evaluation because they can occasionally signal a disease. [] Conclusion This section does not cite any references or sources. (May 2008) Please improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unverifiable material may be challenged and removed. In a general sense, the conclusion of puberty is reproductive maturity. Criteria for defining the conclusion may differ for different purposes: attainment of the ability to reproduce, achievement of maximal adult height, maximal gonadal size, or adult sex hormone levels. Maximal adult height is achieved at an average age of 14-15 years for American girls and 15-16 years for American boys. Potential fertility (sometimes termed nubility) usually precedes completion of growth by 1-2 years in girls and 3-4 years in boys. Stage 5 in the tables above[clarify] typically represents maximal gonadal growth and attainment of adult hormone levels. [] Neurohormonal process The endocrine reproductive system consists of the hypothalamus, the pituitary, the gonads, and the adrenal glands, with input and regulation from many other body systems. True puberty is often termed "central puberty" because it begins as a process of the central nervous system. A simple description of hormonal puberty is as follows:

1. 2. 3.
4.

The brain's hypothalamus begins to release pulses of GnRH. Cells in the anterior pituitary respond by secreting LH and FSH into the circulation. The ovaries or testes respond to the rising amounts of LH and FSH by growing and beginning to produce estradiol and testosterone. Rising levels of estradiol and testosterone produce the body changes of female and male puberty.

The onset of this neurohormonal process may precede the first visible body changes by 1-2 years.

[] Components of the endocrine reproductive system The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus is the driver of the reproductive system. It has neurons which generate and release pulses of GnRH into the portal venous system of the pituitary gland. The arcuate nucleus is affected and controlled by neuronal input from other areas of the brain and hormonal input from the gonads, adipose tissue and a variety of other systems. The pituitary gland responds to the pulsed GnRH signals by releasing LH and FSH into the blood of the general circulation, also in a pulsatile pattern. The gonads (testes and ovaries) respond to rising levels of LH and FSH by producing the steroid sex hormones, testosterone and estradiol. The adrenal glands are a second source for steroid hormones. Adrenal maturation, termed adrenarche, typically precedes gonadarche in mid-childhood. [] Major hormones GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) is a peptide hormone released from the hypothalamus which stimulates gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary. LH (luteinizing hormone) is a larger protein hormone secreted into the general circulation by gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary gland. The main target cells of LH are the Leydig cells of testes and the theca cells of the ovaries. LH secretion changes more dramatically with the initiation of puberty than FSH, as LH levels increase about 25-fold with the onset of puberty, compared with the 2.5-fold increase of FSH. FSH (follicle stimulating hormone) is another protein hormone secreted into the general circulation by the gonadotrope cells of the anterior pituitary. The main target cells of FSH are the ovarian follicles and the Sertoli cells and spermatogenic tissue of the testes. Testosterone is a steroid hormone produced primarily by the Leydig cells of the testes, and in lesser amounts by the theca cells of the ovaries and the adrenal cortex. Testosterone is the primary mammalian androgen and the "original" anabolic steroid. It acts on androgen receptors in responsive tissue throughout the body. Estradiol is a steroid hormone produced by aromatization of testosterone. Estradiol is the principal human estrogen and acts on estrogen receptors throughout the body. The largest amounts of estradiol are produced by the granulosa cells of the ovaries, but lesser amounts are derived from testicular and adrenal testosterone. Adrenal androgens are steroids produced by the zona reticulosa of the adrenal cortex in both sexes. The major adrenal androgens are dehydroepiandrosterone, androstenedione (which are precursors of testosterone), and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate which is present in large amounts in the blood. Adrenal androgens contribute to the androgenic events of early puberty in girls. IGF1 (insulin-like growth factor 1) rises substantially during puberty in response to rising levels of growth hormone and may be the principal mediator of the pubertal growth spurt. Leptin is a protein hormone produced by adipose tissue. Its primary target organ is the hypothalamus. The leptin level seems to provide the brain a rough indicator of adipose mass for purposes of regulation of appetite and energy metabolism. It also plays a permissive role in female puberty, which usually will not proceed until an adequate body mass has been achieved. [] Endocrine perspective The endocrine reproductive system becomes functional by the end of the first trimester of fetal life. The testes and ovaries become briefly inactive around the time of birth but resume hormonal activity until several months after birth, when incompletely understood mechanisms in the brain begin to suppress the activity of the arcuate nucleus. This has been referred to as maturation of the prepubertal "gonadostat," which becomes sensitive to negative feedback by sex steroids. Gonadotropin and sex steroid levels fall to low levels (nearly undetectable by current clinical assays) for approximately another 8 to 10 years of childhood. Evidence is accumulating that the reproductive system is not totally inactive during the childhood years. Subtle increases in gonadotropin pulses occur, and ovarian follicles surrounding germ cells (future eggs) double in number. Normal puberty is initiated in the hypothalamus, with de-inhibition of the pulse generator in the arcuate nucleus. This inhibition of the arcuate nucleus is an ongoing active suppression by other areas of the brain. The signal and mechanism releasing the arcuate nucleus from inhibition have been the subject of investigation for decades and remain incompletely understood. Leptin levels rise throughout childhood and play a part in allowing the arcuate nucleus to resume operation. If the childhood inhibition of the arcuate nucleus is interrupted prematurely by injury to the brain, it may resume pulsatile gonadotropin release and puberty will begin at an early age.

Neurons of the arcuate nucleus secrete gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) into the blood of the pituitary portal system. These GnRH signals from the hypothalamus induce pulsed secretion of LH (and to a lesser degree, FSH) at roughly 1-2 hour intervals. In the years preceding physical puberty, these gonadotropin pulses occur primarily at night and are of very low amplitude, but as puberty approaches they can be detected during the day. By the end of puberty, there is little day-night difference in the amplitude and frequency of gonadotropin pulses. An array of "autoamplification processes" increases the production of all of the pubertal hormones of the hypothalamus, pituitary, and gonads. Regulation of adrenarche and its relationship to maturation of the hypothalamic-gonadal axis is not fully understood, and some evidence suggests it is a parallel but largely independent process coincident with or even preceding central puberty. Rising levels of adrenal androgens (termed adrenarche) can usually be detected between 6 and 11 years of age, even before the increasing gonadotropin pulses of hypothalamic puberty. Adrenal androgens contribute to the development of pubic hair (pubarche), adult body odor, and other androgenic changes in both sexes. The primary clinical significance of the distinction between adrenarche and gonadarche is that pubic hair and body odor changes by themselves do not prove that central puberty is underway for an individual child. [] Hormonal changes in girls As the amplitude of LH pulses increases, the theca cells of the ovaries begin to produce testosterone and smaller amounts of progesterone. Much of the testosterone moves into nearby cells called granulosa cells. Smaller increases of FSH induce an increase in the aromatase activity of these granulosa cells, which converts most of the testosterone to estradiol for secretion into the circulation. Rising levels of estradiol produce the characteristic estrogenic body changes of female puberty: growth spurt, acceleration of bone maturation and closure, breast growth, increased fat composition, growth of the uterus, increased thickness of the endometrium and the vaginal mucosa, and widening of the lower pelvis. As the estradiol levels gradually rise and the other autoamplification processes occur, a point of maturation is reached when the feedback sensitivity of the hypothalamic "gonadostat" becomes positive. This attainment of positive feedback is the hallmark of female sexual maturity, as it allows the mid cycle LH surge necessary for ovulation. Levels of adrenal androgens and testosterone also increase during puberty, producing the typical androgenic changes of female puberty: pubic hair, other androgenic hair as outlined above, body odor, acne. Growth hormone levels rise steadily throughout puberty. IGF1 levels rise and then decline as puberty ends. Growth finishes and adult height is attained as the estradiol levels complete closure of the epiphyses. [] Hormonal changes in boys Early stages of male hypothalamic maturation seem to be very similar to the early stages of female puberty, though occurring about 1-2 years later. LH stimulates the Leydig cells of the testes to make testosterone and blood levels begin to rise. For much of puberty, nighttime levels of testosterone are higher than daytime. Regularity of frequency and amplitude of gonadotropin pulses seems to be less necessary for progression of male than female puberty. However, a significant portion of testosterone in adolescent boys is converted to estradiol. Estradiol mediates the growth spurt, bone maturation, and epiphyseal closure in boys just as in girls. Estradiol also induces at least modest development of breast tissue (gynecomastia) in a large proportion of boys. Boys who develop mild gynecomastia or even developing swellings under nipples during puberty are told the effects are temporary in some male teenagers due to high levels of Estradiol. Another hormonal change in males takes place during the teenage years for most young men. At this point in a males life the testosterone levels slowly rise, and most of the effects are mediated through the androgen receptors by way of conversion dehydrotestosterone in target organs (especially that of the bowels). Consequently, there is a transformation that takes place and the processes in which human waste and urine are released by the body are reversed. [] Historical shift The age at which puberty occurs has dropped significantly since the 1840s.[25][26][27] Researchers refer to this drop as the 'secular trend'. From 1840 through 1950, in each decade there was a drop of four months in the average age of menarche

among Western European female samples. In Norway, girls born in 1840 had their first menarche at average 17 years. In France in 1840 the average was 15.3 years. In England the 1840 average was 16.5 years for girls. In Japan the decline happened later and was then more rapid: from 1945 to 1975 in Japan there was a drop of 11 months per decade

Yoni Massage Yoni is the Sanskrit word for the vagina that is loosely translated as "sacred space" or
"Sacred Temple." In Tantra, the Yoni is seen from a perspective of love and respect. This is particularly important for men to learn. Before beginning the Yoni Massage it is important to create a space for the woman (the receiver) in which to relax, from which she can more easily enter a state of high arousal and experience great pleasure from her Yoni. Her partner (the giver) will experience the joy of giving pleasure and witnessing a special moment. The Yoni Massage can also be used as a form of "safe sex" and is an excellent activity to build trust and intimacy. Some massage and sex therapists use it to assist women to break through sexual blocks or trauma. The goal of the Yoni massage is not solely to achieve orgasm, although orgasm is often a pleasant and welcome side effect. The goal can be as simple as to pleasure and massage the Yoni. From this perspective both receiver and giver can relax, and do not have to worry about achieving any particular goal. When orgasm does occur it is usually more expanded, more intense and more satisfying. It is also helpful for the giver to not expect anything in return, but simply allow the receiver to enjoy the massage and to relax into herself.

The Massage
Have the receiver lie on her back with pillows under her head so she can look down at her genitals and up at her partner (giver). Place a pillow, covered with a towel, under her hips. Her legs are to be spread apart with the knees slightly bent (pillows or cushions under the knees will also help) and her genitals clearly exposed for the massage. This position allows full access to the Yoni and other parts of the body. Before contacting the body, begin with deep, relaxed breathing. Both giver and receiver should remember to breathe deeply, slowly and with relaxation during the entire process. The giver will gently remind the receiver to start breathing again if the receiver stops or begins to take shallower breaths. Deep breathing, not hyperventilating, is most important. Gently massage the legs, abdomen, thighs, breasts, etc., to encourage the receiver to relax and for the giver to prepare for touching her Yoni. Pour a small quantity of a high-quality oil or lubricant on the mound of the Yoni. Pour just enough so that it drips down the outer lips and covers the outside of the Yoni. Begin gently massaging the mound and outer lips of the Yoni. Spend time here and do not rush. Relax and enjoy giving the massage.

Gently squeeze the outer lip between the thumb and index finger, and slide up and down the entire length of each lip. Do the same to the inner lips of the Yoni/vagina. Take your time. It is helpful for giver and receiver to look into each other's eyes as much as possible. The receiver should tell the giver if the pressure, speed, depth, etc. need to be increased or decreased. Limit your conversation and focus on the pleasurable sensation, too much talking will diminish the effect.

The Crown Jewel
The clitoris is an amazingly complex structure, similar in function to the male's glans, but surprisingly - up to four times more sensitive. The glans portion of the clitoris holds 6,000 - 8,000 sensory nerve endings, more than any other structure in the human body. This hypersensitive node has only one purpose: pleasure. Nothing exceeds its ability to receive and transmit sensations of touch, pressure or vibration. The glans are the "crown jewel" of the clitoral system! Stroke the clitoris with clockwise and counter-clockwise circles. Gently squeeze it between thumb and index fingers. Do this as a massage and not to get the receiver off. The receiver will undoubtedly become very aroused but continue to encourage her to relax and breathe. Slowly and with great care, insert the middle finger of your right hand into the Yoni (there is a reason for using the right hand as opposed to the left. It has to do with polarity in Tantra). Very gently explore and massage the inside of the Yoni with this finger. Take your time, be gentle, and feel up, down and sideways. Vary the depth, speed and pressure. It is important to remember that this is a massage in which you are nurturing and relaxing the Yoni. With your palm facing up, and the middle finger inside the Yoni, move the middle finger in a "come here" gesture or crook back towards the palm. You will contact a spongy area of tissue just under the pubic bone, behind the clitoris. This is the G-spot or in Tantra, "the sacred spot". She may feel the need to urinate, experience a little discomfort or most hopefully pleasure. Vary the pressure, speed and pattern of movement. You can move side to side, back and forth, or in circles with your middle finger. You can also insert the finger that's between your middle finger and pinky. Most women should have no problem and will enjoy the increased stimulation from two fingers. Take your time and be very gentle. You may use the thumb of the right hand to stimulate the clitoris as well. An option to try if the receiver wants it is to insert the pinky of the right hand into her anus. [In Tantra, it is said that when your pinky is gently massaging her anus, the next finger and middle finger in her Yoni and your thumb on her clitoris, "You are holding one of the mysteries of the universe in your hand."]

You can use your left hand to massage her breasts, abdomen, or clitoris. If you massage the clitoris it's usually best to use the thumb in an up down motion, with the rest of the hand resting on, and massaging the mound. The dual stimulation of right and left hands will provide much pleasure for the receiver. Continue massaging, using varying speed, pressure and motion, all the while continuing to breathe deeply and looking into each other's eyes. She may have powerful emotions come up and may cry. Just keep breathing and be gentle. Some women have been sexually abused and need to be healed. A giving, loving and patient partner can be of immeasurable value to her. If she has an orgasm, keep her breathing, and continue massaging if she wants. More orgasms may occur, each gaining in intensity. In Tantra this is called "riding the wave." In ending the massage, slowly, gently, and with respect, remove your hands. Allow her to relax and enjoy the afterglow of the Yoni massage. Cuddling or holding is very soothing as well. As you learn to master the Yoni Massage your sex life will be greatly enriched and you will learn a great deal about feminine sexuality.

Yoni Exercises Unlike the male's Lingam it is possible for a woman to exercise and tone her Yoni. Quite
surprisingly there are actually a few exercises to chose from, including "vaginal weight lifting". Unfortunately the benefit derived will vary for each individual. Before we begin to examine the various exercise alternatives and objectives, let us first consider the central object of our discussion.

The vagina is an elastic muscular tube projecting inside a female. It
is usually slightly shorter and thinner than an average male penis, at about 4 inches (100 mm) long and 1 inch (25 mm) in diameter (although there is wide anatomical variation) but its elasticity causes it to be able to accept larger penises and give birth to offspring. It connects the vulva at the outside to the cervix of the uterus on the inside. If the woman stands upright, the vaginal tube points in an upward-backward direction and forms an angle of slightly more than 45 degrees with the uterus. The vaginal opening is at the back end of the vulva, behind the opening of the urethra. Above the vagina is Mons Veneris. The vagina, along with the inside of the vulva, is reddish pink in color. Length, width and shape of the vagina may vary. With arousal, the vagina lengthens rapidly to an average of about 4 in.(8.5 cm), but can continue to lengthen in response to pressure. As the woman becomes fully aroused, the vagina tents (expanding in length and width) while the cervix retracts. The walls of the vagina are composed of soft elastic folds of mucous membrane skin which stretch or

contract (with support from pelvic muscles) to the size of the penis. With proper arousal, the vagina may stretch/contract to accommodate virtually any penis size.

The pubococcygeus muscle or PC muscle is a hammock-like muscle, found in both
sexes, that stretches from the pubic bone to the coccyx (tail bone) forming the floor of the pelvic cavity and supporting the pelvic organs. It is part of the levator ani group of muscles. It surrounds the rectum, the vagina and bladder openings. The PC-Muscle consists of three layers. It surrounds the vagina. The illustration shows the location of the PC-Muscle, as it stretches roughly from the pubis to the anus. It controls urine flow and contracts during orgasm. It aids in urinary control and childbirth.

Milking the Lingam
The primary difference between Kegels and "milking the lingam" is that there's more to the method than just clenching your Yoni muscles. There is not just one muscle to manipulate, but several rows (imagine rings) of muscles lining the inside of the Yoni. With practice, you can learn to manipulate these muscles individually, in tandem or in sequence. Even from side to side. Practice is best accomplished with a Jade Egg. The idea is not to just squeeze, but to learn to give massage that you can control. You can massage only the tip of your lover's Lingam with your Yoni muscles until he is almost ready to climax and then release and massage only the base. Then again returning to massaging the tip of the Lingam. These exercises will also assist with making the vagina and surrounding area more awake and alive. This will lead you to heightened awareness of clitoral-vaginal sensations.

Diminished elasticity
Although not the only reason, childbirth (particularly multiple) and natural aging will result in a reduction of vaginal elasticity and tone. The result will manifest itself in a number of ways: Postpartum vaginal stretching Vaginal weakening Diminished sensation or friction during intercourse Urinary incontinence

Vaginal Exercises
Kegels (isometric exercises) are named for the physician who devised them, are designed to strengthen the PC-muscles.

They are done in the following way: Slowly contract the muscles, drawing inward and upward. Don’t stop breathing when you do the exercise, but exhale gently as you tighten the muscles around your vagina and anus. When you release the muscles don’t bear them down. Let the tension go gently. At first you can do it 10 to 15 times twice a day. In weeks you can work this up to 60 times. Once you are used to tightening and releasing the muscles, hold them for a count of 3 while squeezing. Then slowly relax for three seconds. Work up till 10 seconds. You can also squeeze and relax the muscles rapidly, in a pulsing motion. Work the PC-muscles in various positions: sitting, standing, lying down, kneeling. You can do this any time: waiting for the buss, driving the car or watching television. The PC-muscles are muscles like any other. So increase the number of contractions only gradually, otherwise you might get sore. It will take a few weeks before you’ll notice that you have more control. Mechanical Exercisers Spring devices are made of plastic, with removable springs to allow progressive resistance. These allow pressing directly against resistance. The Kegel exerciser is a medical device designed to be used by women to exercise the PC muscle.

K-Loop (Femenex) Flexible loop design Gyneflex Kegel Pro Femin X Jade Eggs

As used in the Imperial Court of ancient China for pleasure and health. Jade eggs are drilled to accommodate a string for ease of removal or for applying additional external weight.

Directions for use: Thread and knot a fine string or un-waxed dental floss through the end of the egg. Rub your hands vigorously and massage around your breasts, belly, yoni mound, groin, inner thighs and perineum. Do so until you feel warm loving energy open and melt away any tension, pain, blockages and the beginning of internal lubrication. If needed apply a lubricating gel prior to insertion. Gently place the egg, thicker end first inside the inner labia, moving it in slow circles until you feel it come to rest in a comfortable angle. Remember to take slow, deep breaths during this time. You will begin to feel the inner labia sip or suck the egg upon each inhale, and feel the vagina open on each exhale. It may take a bit of time for you to actually feel this sensation. In the meantime imagine it to be happening. Sipping and rocking : continue the sipping exercise and add a gentle pelvic rocking motion. Your tailbone rocking toward the ceiling on the inhale and pressing into the floor on the exhale. As you become more familiar with inserting the egg, you can increase the suction needed to get it in. This practice may be done while laying down, while seated or standing. Imagine breathing in to the ovaries. Focus your mind on the bud of your sexual energy. Visualize bringing it down through the uterus, then to the clitoris and holding it there. Gently and slowly pull on the string and contract your vaginal muscles to keep the egg inside. Stronger sips: Big squeeze on the inhale and push down and out on the exhale. The egg will thus move in and out. This may be done with or without the pelvic rock.

Apply gentle pressure on the egg with the holding hand to encourage it to move into the genitals. Follow your own inner guidance : if a practice doesn't feel right, feel free to experiment with a version which best suits you. With practice you can apply stronger pulls. Vary the angle of pull and observe the various sensations, as the egg presses on different internal parts. Isolate and slowly contract the muscle groups which close the vagina. Squeeze and release several times and feel the build-up of internal sensation. Vaginal Cones Are small weights that can be placed in your vagina to help you train your pelvic floor muscles. They were first used by Peattie, Plevnik and Stanton, whose study showed that you can be trained to use your pelvic floor muscles by retaining a weighted cone in the vagina. The cones are a similar shape to a tampon. There are two types: A set of several cones, each one heavier than the last A cone that unscrews so you can put different weights inside it. How does the treatment work? You insert the cone, with the appropriate weight, and use your pelvic muscles to keep the cone in place. Start with the cone that you can hold for one minute. Do this twice a day. Gradually increase the length of time that you can hold the cone in place, until you can hold it for 15minutes. You can then increase the weight, or use the next heaviest cone. Continue until you can use the heaviest cone in the set (or the heaviest cone) for 15 minutes, twice a day. Who may this not be suitable for?

You are pregnant and have a history of miscarriage or have been advised to avoid sex your vulva or vagina is inflamed or infected You have a moderate or severe vaginal prolapse (where the front wall of your vagina and part of your bladder drops down into the entrance of your vagina) You are menstruating You've had sexual intercourse within the last two hours You've had pelvic surgery in the last three months You have psychosexual problems. Ben Wa Balls Ben Wa Balls, also known as Love Balls and Pleasure Balls. Ben Wa Balls were originally meant to provide the man with extra pleasure during intercourse but then it was apparent that Ben Wa Balls had a positive effect on the woman. The most popular and modern version of the traditional Ben Wa Balls is the Duotone Balls. They have a small ball that jiggles independently inside a larger ball. Empty your bladder first, it will make it easier to hold the balls in. Insert one ball at a time, this is easier done if one leg is lifted up. Squeeze the PC muscles and hold the balls in. You will notice a feeling of fullness and notice the balls pushing down, but after a while you will be used to it, sort of like wearing a tampon. Wear them for a few hours every day. To remove the balls, you can lift up one leg and cough, or jump up and down. There is no way that the balls will 'disappear' into your body. When you first wear Ben Wa Balls, stay home and do not do any heavy physical activity, the balls will fall out. Once you have no problem holding in the duotone balls, you can upgrade to metal balls. Vaginal Barbell The barbells can be used as a vaginal exerciser or as a vaginal dildo or sex toy. Made of smooth, polished solid stainless steel, it is cylindrical in shape, with a rounded bulge at each end. They typically weigh one pound and measure approximately 6 3/4 inches (17.1 cm) in length with a diameter of one inch (2.5 cm) at the widest part. Being made of stainless steel, vaginal barbells are nonporous and can be wiped clean with a cloth moistened with mild soap and water.

Pilates Pilate isometric exercises are another method of strengthening the pelvic floor muscle. Surgical rejuvenation (Vaginoplasty) A medical alternative when all else fails
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Multiple Orgasm Any man can become "multi-orgasmic". It only requires a basic understanding of male
sexuality and certain techniques. Most men’s sexuality is focused on the goal of ejaculating, rather than on the actual process of lovemaking. Once a man becomes multiorgasmic he will not only be able to better satisfy himself, but also more effectively satisfy his partner. Technically, multiple orgasms occur in succession, without complete loss of sexual arousal in between. Women are blessed with the ability to have multiple orgasms. Not many are aware that men with proper training, can actually do the same. In the case of women, multiple orgasm means resuming sexual stimulation shortly after a first orgasmic climax, usually immediately or within a few minutes, so that a second climax may be reached. If the woman does indeed experience further climaxes during the same sexual encounter, she is said to be multi-orgasmic. Most men mistakenly believe that being able to regain their erection as soon as possible after ejaculation and reaching another climax within some arbitrary period of time qualifies as being multi-orgasmic. This is false because the true multi-orgasmic male does not lose his erection between orgasms. Multiple male orgasms include only orgasm and not ejaculation. The only exception being, when ejaculation accompanies the final orgasm in a multi-orgasmic experience. Before continuing it would be important to better understand the technical process involved in the " Sexual Arousal Cycle" * 1. Excitement Phase Vasocongestion Erection Increased heart rate Partial testicular elevation and size increase (Tumescence) Nipple erection

2. Plateau Phase Further increase in penis tip size and testicles Full testicular elevation Purple hue on corona (although not always) Cowper’s gland (pre-cum) secretions Hyperventilation 3. Orgasm Phase (Consists of Emission & Ejaculation) Emission Sperm and fluid are expelled from the vas deferens, seminal vesicles and prostate gland, causing seminal fluid fluid to collect at the base of the urethral bulb near the prostate. Myotonia – muscular rigidity just before the release tension Blood pressure and respiratory rate increase further. Ejaculatory Inevitability (point of no return) There is a consciousness of imminent ejaculation. Ejaculation Bladder sphincter closes tightly Rhythmic contractions of the prostate, perinial muscles and penile shaft propel semen outward. A slight clouding of consciousness 4. Resolution Phase Erection loss Testes descend and scrotum thins Reversal in myotonia and vasocongestion Reduced heart rate and lowered blood pressure.

Multiple orgasms versus Ejaculatory orgasms
Both begin in the same way, moving from arousal until a point near ejaculation or "point of no return". At this point a man will experience a series of genital contractions lasting three to five seconds. These contractions are "pelvic orgasms" and at first feel like a "fluttering" or mild release of pressure. Once identified and controlled, these sensations will become progressively more intense. When approaching "the point of no return" the goal is not to crest over into ejaculation but to decrease stimulation, just long enough to gain control over the arousal rate.

Effective control can be achieved by squeezing the PC muscles. Learning to control the PC muscles is essential to sexual health and stamina. In the diagram below, the plateau stage is represented roughly as a heightened state of arousal which will eventually lead into orgasm if stimulation is allowed to continue. Notice how the two charts differ. In a typical singular orgasm including ejaculation, the plateau phase is reached and passed fairly quickly as the orgasm subsides and ejaculation occurs. In a multiple orgasmic encounter, the plateau phase is reached and sustained after the initial orgasm and between the next orgasm. The successive orgasms are also slightly stronger than the previous ones, if and when the man decides to ejaculate with the final orgasm. Ejaculation is optional, after several orgasms it may be decided not to ejaculate at all. In which case, the arousal pattern closely follows that of a woman and gradually declines over about an hour's time instead of declining very sharply after ejaculation.

How is multiple orgasm possible?
The male and female sexual "response cycles" are strikingly similar. The primary difference between the two is male ejaculation. Multi-orgasmic women are able to have successive orgasms if stimulation is resumed shortly after the first orgasm because they do not ejaculate (not withstanding reports that some women are able to ejaculate, as this has never been adequately scientifically explained). Ejaculation initiates the refractory period in males. During this time, most men are unable to achieve another erection or even receive further stimulation due to the loss of sexual tension and the penis is usually too sensitive to touch. Since women are not biologically programmed to ejaculate, they do not have this annoying feature and are able to learn about and achieve multiple orgasms much easier than men. The first key to understanding how men can have multiple orgasms is to understand that orgasm and ejaculation are distinct events, which one can learn to distinguish and separate. Most men have always accepted orgasm and ejaculation as one in the same because they happen in such rapid succession, orgasm beginning slightly before (ejaculation) then tapering off during ejaculation. The second key to navigating the path to multiple orgasm is gaining the ability to separate orgasm and ejaculation. The ability to separate these events involves the pubococcygeal muscle, or pelvic floor muscle, or "PC muscle" as it’s more commonly known. You may know this muscle for its ability to stop the flow of urine in midstream. If stopping the flow is difficult, you have a weak PC muscle. If this is the case you will need to work on strengthening the PC muscle

before you'll be able to have multiple orgasms. If you squeeze or contract the PC muscle you should feel like everything deep in your pelvis is being drawn upward.

Breathing Exercises
Sit in a comfortable position relaxing the shoulders. Place hands on the abdomen, just below the belly button. Inhale deeply. Breathing deeply through the nose, so that the belly pushes out. Exhale fully. Exhale to a point to a point of which the belly contracts back to the spine. The pelvis and testicles may feel as if they are pulling up slightly. Repeat this exercise from 9 to 36 times.

Preparing yourself
Having multiple orgasms as a male is pretty remarkable, but it will take a great deal of preparation. As mentioned earlier, one of the first steps is to discover the PC muscle. It’s essential to become intimately familiar with this muscle in order to learn to control it very precisely. Some of this control will come with experience, but most will come by strengthening it through regular exercise. Once it’s been discovered where it is (most easily while urinating), it can be exercised anywhere, without anyone knowing.

Practicing
You can begin experimenting on your own at first (while masturbating). Make yourself comfortable and then begin masturbating as you might normally. Stop just before you reach the point of no return (the point where you would ejaculate). Contract (squeeze) and hold your PC muscle for a count of ten. Allow yourself relax and take a few minutes break. Begin masturbating again, this time bringing yourself just a bit closer to the point of no return, again contracting your PC muscle. Continue masturbating while paying very special attention to your own state of arousal and emotional feelings. The key here is to learn more about your own sexual response so that down the road you'll be more in control of it.

Stopping "right" before ejaculation
Continue masturbating, except this time, keep going until you reach orgasm. Right as you orgasm you should notice several contractions that signal the beginning of ejaculation in the base of your penis and perhaps even deeper inside your pelvis. As these contractions

begin or preferably just before (but still during the orgasm), stop all stimulation to the penis and squeeze the PC muscle tight. You'll probably feel yourself trying to ejaculate, but hold it back! Squeezing your PC muscle effectively shuts off your ejaculation, if you are successful, and erases the refractory period. A small amount semen may seep out, but not with any of the force you might normally experience during an unrestrained singular orgasm. If you were able to hold off ejaculating after your orgasm, start masturbating again now. It should feel as though you are still very aroused, not like you just ejaculated. You should be able to continue for a short time until you have another orgasm. If you were unable to keep from ejaculating the first time, either your PC muscle isn't strong enough yet or you squeezed it at the wrong time. If you begin squeezing too late after the ejaculatory contractions have already begun, it is nearly impossible to shut stop the process completely. With practice you will learn the timing.

Partnering
There are many possible techniques you can use to greatly increase your success in becoming multi-orgasmic. Perhaps the greatest technique you can practice is to share your experiences in becoming a multi-orgasmic man with your romantic partner. If you are eventually successful, this can be a wonderful opportunity for you to significantly increase the pleasure you both receive during lovemaking.

Overcoming problems
Undoubtedly the biggest obstacle most men will report when trying to become multiorgasmic is failure to squeeze their PC muscle sufficiently during orgasm to ward off ejaculation. You may feel some contractions, but do not stop squeezing at this point because a few ejaculatory contractions are likely even if you are successful in eventually stopping them. If you are successful, the contractions will stop before you ejaculate and you should be able to resume stimulation without a loss of sensitivity, as would be present during the refractory period after ejaculation. Another common problem many men may report with these techniques is failing to determine exactly where the boundaries of plateau, orgasm, and ejaculation begin and end. If you cannot determine the difference between orgasm and ejaculation, a key to becoming multi-orgasmic, you can only succeed by accident and not intentionally. Some men may try to stimulate themselves very quickly and rigorously, and this is not the best way to become aware of your personal level of sexual awareness. Taking the stimulation slower rather than faster will allow you to discover your personal boundaries between arousal, plateau, and orgasm more easily. With these discoveries you will have a much greater chance of learning when to squeeze your PC muscle, when to stop

stimulation, and when to relax your PC muscle and resume stimulation to experience another orgasm. Pelvic pressure after arousal. Pressure in the pelvic area is a natural result of increased blood flow into the genital area. If the level of this pressure is uncomfortable, it will be helpful to breathe deeply, elevate the lower extremities and massage the perineum and testicles lightly. This will help the body assimilate the energy from the testicles to the rest of the body. It would be best also to stay in a reclined position for 5 - 10 minutes.

Other Benefits
It is quite possible that if you have other sexual problems such as premature ejaculation, learning to become multi-orgasmic will help you tremendously during lovemaking. Not only will you be able to greatly prolong the session by suppressing ejaculation until you choose, but you will be free to release your worries and anxiety and focus more on pleasing your partner. The list of positive effects can be nearly endless!

Age
Some men may wonder if age can have any effect on the chances of success in becoming multi-orgasmic. There's no reason why sexually mature men of all ages shouldn't see the same high rate of success, assuming they are sexually active and have a high level of personal sexual awareness. If you have no trouble reaching singular orgasms either by yourself or with a partner, then learning how to become multi-orgasmic may only be a matter of patience, determination, and effort. If you do have trouble having singular orgasms or opening up sexually with yourself and your partner, however, then perhaps there are other issues that you need to deal with before multiple orgasms will be a possibility for you. This guide is not prepared to address any problems with orgasms beyond the relatively simple matters discussed in this section. If you are experiencing more serious problems, please consider consulting your healthcare provider or a therapist. They should be able to provide you with the professional advice that we are not equipped to handle.

Ancient Ideas
The concept of being a multi-orgasmic male is not new at all. Ancient Chinese philosophers called Taoists, have known about this and many other profound sexual concepts and practices thousands of years ago. Many of these sexual secrets remain surprisingly unknown, even now in the age of sexual awareness and liberation. Despite the fact that during the 1940s and 1950s several sex researchers in the West studied and confirmed the ability of males to experience multiple orgasms. Even at present, the amount of sexual ignorance, misdirection, and confusion is astonishing.

In Closing
The bottom line is that your ability to have multiple orgasms depends on your overall sexual awareness, and the strength and control of your PC muscle among many other factors. As with all noteworthy achievements, this is not something that can necessarily be accomplished all at once. While reading this guide and having multiple orgasms in one night is certainly possible, you should understand that it could take several weeks or even months before you succeed. Your results will depend on your own personal effort and determination.

The G-Spot
The G-Spot or Sacred Spot of a man is his prostate gland. Tantric philosophy considers
the G-Spot a man's emotional sex center. Massaging the man's prostate releases tremendous amounts of emotional and physical stress. Coupled with stimulation of his penis or "lingam", massaging his prostate can be extremely pleasurable and healing to the man. Since the most direct way to massage the man's Sacred Spot is through his anus, it takes time to adjust to being penetrated in this way. It is not for every man. The benefits are many and the pleasure can be very intense. For tantric partners, lovers or those otherwise genuinely comfortable with one another, massaging the sacred spot can be a powerful experience. Not only in terms of ecstatic pleasure for the "receiver", but in the sexual empowerment it bestows on the "giver".

The walnut sized prostate gland is located directly underneath the bladder, not far from the internal root of the penis (see diagram). As can be seen, the gland is in close proximity to the rectal wall, allowing for easy access through the anus.

Why is prostate massage pleasurable?
reasons: Ejaculation reflex sensation

There are number of

No matter which method is used it is not possible to touch the prostate directly. The nearest indirect access is through the rectal wall, which means that there is still a

membrane in the way. This is somewhat akin to the inhibiting sensitivity a glove. Despite this restriction the lobes of the prostrate are highly sensitive to pressure. An array of sensations may be produced by pressing, rubbing or by means of stroking the gland through the rectal wall. The most profound of these feelings is similar to that sublime sensation which is normally felt during ejaculation, as the prostate begins pumping semen. Anal sensitivity Along with the genital areas, the anus is connected to and interwoven with millions of delicately sensitive nerve endings, which can yield most pleasurable sensations. Hidden penis Unknown to most, over one third of the penis is buried inside the body. It is the base of the (hidden) penis which may be pressured in a similar manner as the prostate. The effect of stimulating all three can be awesome, if done in concert with genital stimulation. Still more overwhelming than the physiological effects is the psychological aspect of prostate massage, due to the unaccustomed nature of penetration of the receiver. Psychological high As powerful as physiological stimulation might be, it pales when compared to the immeasurably greater psychological or mental high. The very notion of the male placing himself into such a vulnerable position, results in a powerful mental rush, for both receiver as well giver. The willingness of the naturally controlling male to allow himself to placed in an unaccustomed submissive role, should be particularly cherished by the giver.

Preparation As in any intimate activity, certain basic rules apply. The receiver should be meticulously clean. The giver should have available form fitting latex surgical gloves (not the loose fitting variety). It's desirable for a number of reasons to use gloves, of which the first and foremost benefit is to protect the delicate anal membranes from sharp fingernails and rough skin. Secondly, a well lubricated rubber surface will glide more easily than naked skin. Lubrication should be water based, such as K-Y jelly. Taking a hot bath or shower prior to the massage is a good way to relax. While bathing the receiver will find it pleasurable to begin to fanaticize in anticipation of the experience to come. Positions

Face to face (for greater intimacy) While completely naked, the receiver should assume a seated position; his back reclined and supported by large firm pillows (at about a 45 - 65 degree angle). His knees pulled in the direction of his chest and somewhat angled outward. The resulting position should be both comfortable for the receiver, as well as allowing the giver unobstructed view and unfettered access to the anus and genitals of the receiver. The giver may sit cross legged, or kneel in front of the receiver. As a way to relax the receiver, the giver may begin by massaging the receivers lower extremities, particularly the abdomen. Initially, the receiver may choose to relax by closing his eyes, but as the massage progresses it is of great importance that the receiver and giver maintain eye contact. It will be up to the giver to decide when the receiver is sufficiently relaxed and aroused. At this time the giver should unobtrusively slip on a glove and to begin lubricating the receivers anus. The lubrication process should be lengthy and ceremonial. Beginning with circular motions, stroking the anal opening. The objective is to pleasure and relax the nervous rosebud. The giver should "never" poke the anus with the tip of the finger, but to gently and firmly apply pressure with the pad of the finger. Continuously add lubrication; there can never be too much lubrication! When the anus is ready it will allow the finger to enter. All that is needed is time and patience. Remarkably, when the moment comes the giver will notice that the finger will seem to be drawn into the anus. Once the finger has been allowed to enter it is best to be still allowing the anal sphincters the chance to become accustomed to the intrusion. It will not be a good idea for the giver to move their finger in and out of the anus. There should only be one reason for the giver to remove the finger, and this would be to add more lubrication. The giver is now ready to seek out the prostate: this can easily accomplished by crooking the inserted finger upwards, and feeling for a "roundish" to oblong protrusion about 2 inches inside the rectum. Applying pressure to the prostate will provide a variety of sensations, the most desirable of which is the feeling of impending ejaculation. By applying more or less pressure to the gland, the giver will be able to control these sensations; even to the point of inhibiting the receiver from ejaculating. The ability to control ejaculation through prostate massage, allows for nearly unending stimulation of the receiver's genitals. The penis may be massaged by the giver, or by receiver himself, to a point of near ejaculation. Only to be kept on the brink by varying pressure on the prostate.

During the arousal cycle the giver may begin to rhythmically move the inserted finger partially in and out, so as to stimulate the rich and super sensitive nerve endings around the anus. Eye contact is most desirable at the resolution phase of the experience, with the receiver and giver gazing into one another's eyes… various scenarios are now possible: A. The giver will allow the receiver to masturbate himself to achieve ejaculating. All the while the giver will be verbally encouraging the receiver to the moment of climax. B. The giver may masturbate the receiver's penis with one hand, while massaging the receivers anal opening or prostate with the other. Both giver and receiver should communicate intently, so as to allow the greatest pleasure for the receiver. C. The receiver may desire for the giver to “milk” his prostate, without direct stimulation to the penis. To achieve this the giver will gently stroke each lobe, resulting in a gentle flow of semen and the emptying of the prostate through the erect or flaccid penis.

Facing "away" from the giver (a magnificent view for the giver) In this position the receiver will be kneeling, knees apart, buttocks elevated, while the elbows are resting on a firm surface, such as a cushioned floor matt. This should be both a stable and comfortable position for the receiver. The giver may kneel or sit spread legged behind the receiver, having easy access and a perfect view, of the receiver's anus. The giver will also be in a position to reach between the receivers legs to allow stimulation of the genitals. From this point please follow the same procedure as in the face to face method. ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Tantric
Tantric or Sacred Sexuality is to experience the merging of the Divine (God or Goddess)
using sexual energy as the fuel or vehicle. Sexual energy is the most powerful force within the human body and can lead to profound spiritual experiences accompanied by intense physical pleasure and bliss. Tantrikas use their sexual energy with awareness, love and respect, for themselves and their partner. Tantra views all of nature as energy, vibrating at different rates and manifesting itself in a myriad of ways e.g., matter, space, time, forces, people, animals, objects, etc. Harmony

and peace are the result of energies being in balance. Life flows without restriction. Often, due to various reasons, the energies that make up the human body become unbalanced. This results in ill health, sleeplessness, sluggishness, pain, distraction, and many other unwanted conditions including unsatisfactory sexual performance. The goal of the Tantric Polarity Process is to bring the body into a balanced state before engaging in sexual activity. The benefits are many: including deep relaxation, heightened sexual response and better health. The process builds trust and intimacy between partners, and is easy to do. From the Tantric perspective there are many energy centers in the body. The seven primary psycho-energetic vortices are referred to as Chakras (loosely translated as "Wheels of Light"), each having a specific function in the body. Most important is the Heart Chakra. There are three Chakras above and three Chakras below the Heart Chakra. The upper three have to do with intellect and spirituality. The three lower Chakras deal with base human needs and emotions. The Heart Chakra balances the Spirit with the flesh. This Chakra is the seat of unconditional love and divine grace.

Procedure
Allow 45 minutes for this process. Each step takes about 5 minutes. Allow yourself to relax and take your time. Deep belly breathing helps with relaxation, as does a hot shower or bath. The receiver is to relax, breathe deeply and receive. The giver is to be of service to their partner. This is an intimate process done with love and respect. The giver will be placing their hands on various parts of the receiver's body. This is done slowly, with awareness, avoiding jerky movements. The receiver is to be naked, laying flat on their back, with legs flat and spread comfortably apart. A rolled up towel or pillow can be placed under the neck for comfort. The giver is to sit on the right side of the receiver. The giver orients him/herself in such a way as to be able to reach the receiver's genitals with the right hand and the top of the receiver's head with the left hand. It is very important for the giver to find a comfortable position where they will not have to move their body during the process. Both giver and receiver spend about 5 minutes focusing on deep, relaxed breathing. This is a very important step. Begin each breath with a relaxed belly. Let your thoughts and concerns fade away. The giver rubs their hands together, creating heat. Shake the hands, away from the receiver's body, and flick the fingers as if energy were sparking off your fingers. Do this several times. Among other things, this energizes your hands and prepares them for touching the receiver's body. The giver places their left (negatively charged) hand, gently, on the receivers Heart Chakra. This is located in the center of the chest, between the nipples. You are touching the most intimate and beautiful part of the receiver. This is their center and seat of Divine

essence. The giver then places their RIGHT (positively charged) hand, gently on the receivers Root Chakra. This is located between the anus and genitals. It is clinically referred to as the Perineum. This is the foundation of survival and human needs (food, shelter, money, etc.). It is also the place where a powerful force (Kundalini) emanates from. The giver keeps their hands in place for 5 minutes. Just relax, keep breathing deeply, and visualize powerful energies coming from the earth and the universe, flowing through your body and streaming out your hands into the receiver's body. Become aware of your healing powers. Keeping your left hand on the receiver's heart, gently move your right hand to their genitals. If the receiver is a woman, allow your fingers to contact the clitoris and vulva. If the receiver is a man, cup your hand over the testicles and penis (Lingam). This is the seat of their sexual desire and procreative power. Keep your hands in this position for 5 minutes. Occasionally, gently rock your right hand to awaken this Chakra. The receiver will likely experience sexual arousal. This indicates that energy is moving in the body. Move your right hand to just below the receiver's navel, the center of their personal power. Keep your left hand on their heart Chakra. Do this for 5 minutes. You are balancing the lower Chakras, that deal with money, sex and power issues, with their sacred center, the heart. You are bringing infinite love and wisdom into their human life form. Move your right hand on top of your left hand. Keep both hands on the receiver's heart for 5 minutes. Imagine all that you have to give, as friend, healer and lover, flowing from your hands into their heart. Place your right hand on the receiver's heart and move your left hand to their throat. Be gentle, do not press down and just let your hand rest gently on the throat Chakra . This is the source of their creative expression and communication. Remain here for 5 minutes. With the right hand in place on the receiver's heart, move the left hand to their forehead. This is the home of their intellect and psychic powers. Remain at this center for 5 minutes. Move the left hand to the top or crown of the receiver's head. Keep the right hand on their heart. The Crown Chakra is their connecting point to the Divine and channels spiritual energy. Stay in this position for 5 minutes. Gently, slowly and with total awareness, remove your hands from the receiver's body. At this point they will most likely be in a deeply relaxed and highly sensitized state. Withdraw your hands in a manner that they barely notice it. Slowly, silently, move your body away from theirs and stand up. Walk away from them, shake your hands, and flick your fingers again. You may leave them in this state (lucid dreaming or meditative) or you can begin another sexual activity. The Lingam Massage or Yoni Massage is most effective after this process.

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