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thi dng n tp hc sinh gii 11 Mn ho: Nm hc 2011- 2012.

( Trng THPT Nguyn TrungThin)


Cu 1. ( 2 im) Tnh pH ca dung dch thu c khi thi ht 224 mL kh CO
2
vo 200 mL
dung dch NaOH 0,05M, bit axit cacbonic c
35 , 6 pK
1 a

,
33 , 10 pK
2 a

.
Cu 2. (3 im)
1.Vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra khi cho NH
4
Cl tc dng vi CuO v vi ZnO. Cho bit ng
dng thc t ca NH
4
Cl tng ng vi cc phn ng ny.
2.Ha tan 10,00 g hn hp gm Cu
2
S v CuS bng 200,0 mL dung dch MnO
4
-
0,7500 M trong mi
trng axit. Sau khi un si ui ht kh SO
2
sinh ra, lng MnO
4
-
cn d trong dung dch phn
ng va ht vi 175,0 mL dung dch Fe
2+
1,000 M.
(a) Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra (dng phng trnh ion thu gn).
(b) Tnh phn trm khi lng CuS trong hn hp ban u.
Cu 3:(3,0 im).Trong mi chn s A,B,C ng mt mui nitrat. Trong B,C l mui nitrat ca
kim loi ho tr 2. Nung cc chn s nhit cao ngoi khng kh ti phn ng hon ton, sau
lm ngui ngi ta thy:
- Trong chn A khng cn du vt g.
- Cho dung dch HCl vo chn B thy thot ra mt kh khng mu, ho nu ngoi khng kh.
- Trong chn C cn li cht rn mu nu .
Xc nh cc cht A, B, C v vit phong trnh minh ho.
Cu 4: (4,5 im)
1. Mt hn hp X gm C
x
H
y
va O
2
d em t chay hoan toan, cho sa n phm chay i qua h
thng lam lanh, o th tich giam %. Sau o cho san phm khi i qua dung dich KOH d thi th
tich khi giam % s con lai
a. Chng minh h thc:
1 0, 25y
x 0, 25y


+

+
(0 < , < 1)
b. Xac inh CTPT cua C
x
H
y
khi = 0,25 va = 0,4
c. Tinh thanh phn % th tich hn hp X
Cu 5. (3 im) Mt hn hp kh gm nit v hiro, c t khi so vi He l 0,95.
Cho hn hp trn i qua xc tc, un nng to ra amoniac, hn hp kh thu c
nng hn He. Cc th tch kh o cng iu kin. Hi hiu sut ca phn ng trn
c gi tr trong khong no?
Cu 6 (3,5 im): Hn hp kh A gm hai hirocacbon mch h X v Y (l nhng cht trong cc
dy ng ng hc).
- Dn 336 ml ( ktc) A t t qua dung dch nc brom d thy c 4 gam brom tham gia phn
ng v khng c kh thot ra.
- Nu t chy hon ton 336 ml ( ktc) hn hp kh A trn ri dn ton b sn phm chy thu
c qua dung dch nc vi trong c d th thu c 4 gam kt ta.
1/ Tnh thnh phn phn trm v th tch ca X, Y trong A.
2/ Xc nh cng thc phn t ca X v Y.
Cu 7. (1 im)
Dng hnh v, m t th nghim c tin hnh trong phng th nghim xc nh s c mt ca
cc nguyn t C v H c trong glucoz.
(Cho H=1; C=12; N=14; O=16; Na=23; S=32; Cl=35,5; Cu=64; Zn=65; Br=80; Ag=108;
Ba=137).
p n.
( Trng THPT Nguyn TrungThin)
Cu 1 ( 2,0 im) Tnh pH ca dung dch thu c khi thi ht 224 mL kh CO
2
vo 200 mL dung
dch NaOH 0,05M, bit axit cacbonic c
35 , 6 pK
1 a

,
33 , 10 pK
2 a

.
Gii
1.
01 , 0 05 , 0 2 , 0 n , mol 01 , 0
4 , 22
224 , 0
n
NaOH CO
2

V s mol CO
2
v NaOH bng nhau nn h ch cha NaHCO
3
. C th tnh pH ca h lng tnh ny bng
cng thc:
( ) 3 , 8 33 , 10 35 , 6
2
1
) pK pK (
2
1
pH
2 1
+ +
Cu 2. (3,0 im) 1.Vit phng trnh phn ng xy ra khi cho NH
4
Cl tc dng vi CuO v vi ZnO.
Cho bit ng dng thc t ca NH
4
Cl tng ng vi cc phn ng ny.
2.Ha tan 10,00 g hn hp gm Cu
2
S v CuS bng 200,0 mL dung dch MnO
4
-
0,7500 M trong mi trng
axit. Sau khi un si ui ht kh SO
2
sinh ra, lng MnO
4
-
cn d trong dung dch phn ng va ht vi
175,0 mL dung dch Fe
2+
1,000 M.
(c) Vit cc phng trnh phn ng xy ra (dng phng trnh ion thu gn).
(d) Tnh phn trm khi lng CuS trong hn hp ban u.
Gii.
1.Trong thc t, NH
4
Cl c dng nh sch b mt kim loi trc khi hn:
4CuO + 2NH
4
Cl N
2
+ 3Cu + CuCl
2
+ 4H
2
O
ZnO + 2NH
4
Cl ZnCl
2
+ 2NH
3
+ H
2
O
2. (a) Phng trnh phn ng:
5Cu
2
S + 8MnO
4
-

+ 44H
+
10Cu
2+
+ 5SO
2
+ 8Mn
2+
+ 22H
2
O (1)
5CuS + 6MnO
4
-

+ 28H
+
5Cu
2+
+ 5SO
2
+ 6Mn
2+
+ 14H
2
O (2)
5Fe
2+
+ MnO
4
-
+ 8H
+
5Fe
3+
+ Mn
2+
+ 4H
2
O (3)
(b) Xc nh %
(1)
mol 035 , 0 1 175 , 0
5
1
n
5
1
n
2
4
Fe ) 3 ( MnO

+

mol 115 , 0 035 , 0 75 , 0 2 , 0 n


) 2 , 1 ( MnO
4

t s mol Cu
2
S v CuS ln lt l x v y, ta c:

'

'

+
+
0625 , 0 y
025 , 0 x
115 , 0 y
5
6
x
5
8
10 y 96 x 160

% 60 % 100
10
96 0625 , 0
m %
S Cu

Cu 3:(3,0 im). Trong mi chn s A,B,C ng mt mui nitrat. Trong B,C l mui nitrat ca kim
loi ho tr 2. Nung cc chn s nhit cao ngoi khng kh ti phn ng hon ton, sau lm ngui
ngi ta thy:
- Trong chn A khng cn du vt g.
- Cho dung dch HCl vo chn B thy thot ra mt kh khng mu, ho nu ngoi khng kh.
- Trong chn C cn li cht rn mu nu .
Xc nh cc cht A, B, C v vit phong trnh minh ho.
Gii.
Chn A khng cn du vt chng t mui nhit phn chuyn ht thnh th hi v kh,do mui l
Hg(NO
3
)
2
, NH
4
NO
3
,..
Hg(NO
3
)
2

0
t C

Hg + 2NO
2
+ O
2
Hoc NH
4
NO
3

0
t C

N
2
O + 2H
2
O
Sn phm sau nhit phn mui ca chn B tc dng vi HCl cho kh khng mu chng t mui ban u l
mui nitrat ca kim loi Ba(NO
3
)
2
, Ca(NO
3
)
2
Ca(NO
3
)
2

0
t C

Ca(NO
2
)
2
+ O
2
Hoc Ba(NO
3
)
2

0
t C

Ba(NO
2
)
2
+ O
2

Ca(NO
2
)
2
+ 2HCl CaCl
2
+ 2HNO
2

Hoc Ba(NO
2
)
2
+ 2HCl BaCl
2
+ 2HNO
2

3HNO
2
HNO
3
+ 2NO + H
2
O
C cha mui nitrat ca st II: Fe(NO
3
)
2

4Fe(NO
3
)
2
2Fe
2
O
3(Nu)
+ 8 NO + O
2

2010Cu 4: (4,5 im)
2. Mt hn hp X gm C
x
H
y
va O
2
d em t chay hoan toan, cho san phm chay i qua h thng lam
lanh, o th tich giam %. Sau o cho san phm khi i qua dung dich KOH d thi th tich khi giam % s
con lai
d. Chng minh h thc:
1 0, 25y
x 0, 25y


+

+
(0 < , < 1)
e. Xac inh CTPT cua C
x
H
y
khi = 0,25 va = 0,4
f. Tinh thanh phn % th tich hn hp X
Gii. (4,5 )
1. Giai:
{
o
2
x y 2 t KOHdu
2 2
2 2
2
CO
C H : amol CO
X (b a) Y H O(h) Y Z O (du)
O (du) O : bmol
O (du)

>
' ' '

C
x
H
y
+
2 2 2
y y
x O xCO H O
4 2
_
+ +

,
Trc phan ng: a b
a phan ng: a a
y
x
4
_
+

,
ax
Sau phan ng: 0 (b ax 0,25ay) ax
n
x
= (a + b) mol
n
y
= ( b 0,25 ay)mol
n
z
= (b ax 0,25 ay) mol
Qua h thng lam lanh nc ngng tu th tich cua Y giam % so vi hn hp X n
y
= (1 - ) n
x
b 0,25ay = (1 - ) ( a + b) = a + b (a + b)
b = a (1 - + 0,25y) (1)
Khi cho hn hp Y qua dung dich KOH d thi CO
2
bi hp thu con lai khi Z la O
2
d co th tich giam % so
vi hn hp Y ta co: n
z
= (1- )n
y
b ax 0,25ay = (1 - ) (b 0,25ay)
b = a( x + 0,25 y) (2)
Ly (1) : (2) ta co:
1 0, 25y
(*)
x 0, 25y


+

+
b/ Thay
0, 25
(*)
0, 4

'

0, 25 1 0, 25 0, 25y 0, 75 0, 25y
0, 4 x 0, 25y.0, 4 x 0,1y
0, 25x 0, 3
y 2x 2 x 4, 5
0, 075
+ +

+ +

+
Bin lun:
x 1 2 3 4
y < 0 2,6 6 9,3
Nghim hp li A: C
3
H
6
c/ Tinh % X:
b.0,25 = a(1 0,25 + 0,25.6)
Cu 5. (3,0 im) Mt hn hp kh gm nit v hiro, c t khi so vi He l 0,95.
Cho hn hp trn i qua xc tc, un nng to ra amoniac, hn hp kh thu c
nng hn He. Cc th tch kh o cng iu kin. Hi hiu sut ca phn ng trn
c gi tr trong khong no?
HD: t s mol N
2
v H
2
trong hn hp ban u l X v Y
Khi lng mol trung bnh ca hn hp ban u = 0,95.4
Mtbb = ( 28X+ 2Y)/(X+Y) = 0,95.4 = 3,8
Y = 13,44X
Phng trnh ho hc
N
2
+ 3H
2
2NH
3
Nu trong hn hp c a mol N
2
phn ng vi 3a mol H
2
th sau phn ng s mol thu
c l:
(X-a) + (Y-3a) +2a = 14,44X 2a
Khi lng hn hp sau phn ng 28X +2Y = 54,88X
Theo u bi, sau phn ng khi lng mol trung bnh ca hn hp > 4 ( M ca He)
Mtbsp = 54,88X/(14,44X -2a) > 4
a > 0,36X hay a/X > 0,36
Hn hp tr nn nng hn He khi a/X > 0,36
Hay hiu sut phn ng: 36% < h 100%
Cu 6 (3,5 im): Hn hp kh A gm hai hirocacbon mch h X v Y (l nhng cht trong cc dy ng
ng hc).
- Dn 336 ml ( ktc) A t t qua dung dch nc brom d thy c 4 gam brom tham gia phn ng v
khng c kh thot ra.
- Nu t chy hon ton 336 ml ( ktc) hn hp kh A trn ri dn ton b sn phm chy thu c
qua dung dch nc vi trong c d th thu c 4 gam kt ta.
1/ Tnh thnh phn phn trm v th tch ca X, Y trong A.
2/ Xc nh cng thc phn t ca X v Y.
Gii.
1/ Da vo P.T
C
x
H
2x+2-2k
+ kBr
2
C
x
H
2x+2-2k
Br
2k
tnh c k = 1,67
C mt cht c mt ni i (C
n
H
2n
) v mt cht c hai ni i hoc mt ni ba (C
m
H
2m-2
). Da vo phn
ng vi Br2 tnh c s mol C
n
H
2n
v C
m
H
2m-2
l 0,005 v 0,01
% C
m
H
2m-2
= 33,33%; % C
n
H
2n
= 66,67%
2/ Da vo p/ chy v p/ ca CO
2
vi Ca(OH)
2
n + 2m = 8.
Bin lun tm ra hai cp nghim l C
2
H
4
v C
3
H
4
hoc C
4
H
8
v C
2
H
2
.
Cu 7. (1,0 im)
Dng hnh v, m t th nghim c tin hnh trong phng th nghim xc nh s c mt ca
cc nguyn t C v H c trong glucoz.
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