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IIM Ranchi: Biz Commn : July 2013

Business Communication - 1

Mali Mahalingam
mahalingam_c@yahoo.com

The Agenda!

Fundamentals of Communication Conversations: Transactional Analysis Three Styles of communication Listening Skills / Apprehensions Organizational Communication
Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Communication Fundamentals

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Why Communication?

Communication is a social need for an individual, but is the lifeblood of an organization If individuals communicate 70% of the waking time, an organization communicates 90% of its working time Business communication helps us prepare for being effective in business situations We need to be good at business communication to create impact, to influence and to get things done! At the end of the day, if we cannot express right, we cannot impress right!
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Anon

Communication is a lot like a love affair! Almost any fool can start it, but to end it well requires considerable skill!

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Basic fundas
Comes from Latin communis which means common. Transfer of information & understanding from one person to another. Communication skills include listening, speaking, reading and writing Communication is complete not when the sender has sent but when the receiver has received & understood Good communication is 90% sincerity and 10% skills! You cannot talk yourself out of situations you have behaved yourself into!
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Classifications

Intra-personal Inter-personal Group communication Mass communication

Verbal communication Non-verbal communication Pictures, signs, gestures, facial expressions Meta communication

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The Communication Process

Noise

5
Noise

Feedback travels to sender

Noise

Noise

4
Sender has idea

Sender encodes idea in message

Message travels over channel

Receiver decodes message

Noise

Noise

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Possible additional feedback to receiver

Noise

6
Noise

Elements of Communication

Message Sender Encoding Channel Receiver Decoding Acting Feedback


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Business Communication Written


Memos, letters Annual report Company newsletter Bulletin board postings Orientation manual

Oral
Telephone Face-to-face conversation Company meetings Team meetings

Electronic
E-mail, Instant messaging Voicemail, Videoconferencing Intranet
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Barriers to Communication

Socio-psychological barriers Emotions Selective perception Information overload Loss by transmission Poor retention Goal Conflicts Offensive style Abstracting Interring
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Sender-related barriers

Lack of planning Vagueness about the purpose of the communication Poor choice of words Unshared or incorrect assumptions Wrong choice of channels

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Receiver- related barriers

Poor listening skills Mistrust Lack of interest Semantic difficulties Biases Attitudinal clash with sender

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Source: Francis J Bergin

Seven Cs of Communication
Candidness Clarity Completeness Conciseness Concreteness Correctness Courtesy

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Being Concise.

At this point in time.. As regards the fact that. Because of the fact that.. Are in need of.. In due course of time Not very far from here.
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Communication Flow
downward , or enabling, communication that moves

instructions and other directive information down or through a hierarchy


upward, or compliance, communication that provides

feedback to the people who originate downward communication


lateral, or coordinating, communication that moves

between peers to maintain or improve operational efficiency


the grapevine, which fills in gaps in official

communication and provides answers to unaddressed questions. Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Conversations

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Transactional Analysis

Time Structuring Stroke Analysis Structural Analysis Transaction Analysis Life Position Analysis Game Analysis

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Structural Analysis

Eric Berne believed that when we interact with other people, our state of mind affects what happens He believed that there were three states of mind in all humans, no matter how old they were, called ego states

ADULT PARENT

CHILD

Structural Analysis

CP

NP

NC

Parent

Adult

Child
AC LP

Nurturing Parent Critical Parent

Natural Child Adapted Child Little Professor

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Complimentary Transaction- Example 1

Interactions, responses, actions regarded as appropriate and expected from another person. Parallel communication arrows, communication continues.

P A C

P A C

Stimulus: Can we meet for 10 minutes? Response: Sure, how about at 11 am?
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Complimentary Transaction- Example 2

P A C

P A C

Stimulus: You are late again! Response: Sorry please. It wont happen in future

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Crossed transaction Example 1

Interactions, responses, actions NOT regarded as appropriate or expected from another person. Crossed communication arrows, communication breakdown.

P A C

P A C

Stimulus: Hi, Good Morning buddy! Response: Cant you see I am busy?
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Crossed transaction Example 2

P A C

P A C

Stimulus: You are late again! Response: So what?

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Ulterior transaction- Example 1

Stimulus at the social level is Adult to Adult, but at the psychological level, it is actually Adult to Child Ulterior transactions are usually a con to play a game

P A C

P A C

Stimulus: That is the latest iPod; and there is a 50% off at the moment, if you are keen! Response: Wow! That is amazing; I will take one right away!
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Psychological Games
Im only trying to help you

Yes, But

If it werent for him

Harried

Stupid
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Cornered

Key takeaways

How we relate to one another is based on our (a) Life

Positions and (b) Unique Ego states We cannot remove what has been recorded; but we do have a choice not to feel compelled to play the recording By focusing on Adult Ego State, we can become capable of what we say and do By watching out cons that get us into psychological games, we can stay out of this; We can also analyze how we transact and understand out own tendencies to play games Healthy interpersonal relations are something we can choose to direct
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Listening

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

7 levels of listening

Not listening Pretend listening Partial listening Focused listening Interpretive listening Interactive listening Engaged listening

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Listening Bad Habits

Interrupting often or try to finish the other persons sentences Jumping to conclusions Being overly parental and answer with advice, even when not requested Making up ones mind before receiving all information Being a compulsive note taker and attention is on ones notes Giving no response afterward, but committing to send a response Impatience Losing temper when hearing things that one does not agree with Trying to change the subject to something that relates to ones own experiences Thinking more about reply while the other person is speaking

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Ten keys to effective listening


Find areas of interest Poor listener: Tunes out dry topics Good listener: Seizes opportunities: what is in it for me? Judge content, not delivery Poor listener: Tunes out if delivery is poor Good listener: Judges content, skips over delivery errors Hold your fire Poor listener: Tends to enter into arguments Good listener: Does not judge till comprehends Listen for ideas Poor listener: Listens for facts Good listener: Listens for central theme

Ten keys to effective listening contd


Work at listening Poor listener: Shows no energy, fakes attention Good listener: Works hard, exhibits alertness Resist distractions Poor listener: Is distracted easily Good listener: Knows how to concentrate Exercise your mind Poor listener: Resists difficult material Good listener: Exercises mind with difficult material Be a flexible note taker Poor listener: Is busy with form, misses content Good listener: Adjusts to topic

Ten keys to effective listening.. contd

Keep your mind open Poor listener: Reacts to emotional words Good listener: Does not get hung up on emotional words Thought is faster than speech Poor listener: Tends to daydream with slow speakers Good listener: Listens between the lines to tone & voice

Selective Attention Bias

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The laws of remembering

Recently Frequently Impact

Application

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Individual Styles of communication

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Arthur Miller

It is not what you say; it is how you say it because personality always wins the day!

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Three basic communication styles

Aggressive

Passive

Assertive
Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Elements of Aggressive Style

Beliefs "Everyone should be like me." "I am never wrong." "I've got rights, but you don't."

Communication Style

Close minded Poor listener Has difficulty seeing the other person's point of view Interrupts Monopolizing

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Aggressive Style
Characteristics Achieves goals, often at others' expense Domineering, bullying Patronizing Condescending, sarcastic Behavior Puts others down Doesn't ever think they are wrong Bossy Moves into people's space,

overpowers

Jumps on others, pushes people around Know-it-all attitude Doesn't show appreciation

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Aggressive styles
Verbal Cues "You must (should, ought better)." "Don't ask why. Just do it." Verbal abuse Confrontation and

Nonverbal Cues Points, shakes finger Frowns Squints eyes critically Glares Stares Rigid posture Critical, loud, yelling tone of voice

Problem Solving

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Must win arguments, threatens, attacks Operates from win/lose positions

Aggressive style
Feelings Felt Anger Hostility Frustration Impatience Effects Provokes counteraggression, alienation from others, ill health Wastes time and energy over-supervising others Pays high price in human relationships Fosters resistance, defiance, sabotaging, striking back, forming alliances, lying, covering up Forces compliance with resentment
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Passive Style

Beliefs

"Don't express your true feelings." "Don't make waves." "Don't disagree." "Others have more rights than I do." Indirect Always agrees Doesn't speak up/ Hesitant

Communication Style

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Passive Style
Characteristics Apologetic, self-conscious Trusts others, but not self Doesn't express own wants and feelings Allows others to make decisions for self Doesn't get what he or she wants Behaviors Sighs a lot Tries to sit on both sides of the fence to avoid conflict Clams up when feeling treated unfairly Asks permission unnecessarily Complains instead of taking action Lets others make choices Has difficulty implementing plans Self-effacing
Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Passive Style

Nonverbal Cues

Fidgets Nods head often; comes across as pleading Lack of facial animation Smiles and nods in agreement Downcast eyes Slumped posture Low volume, meek Up talk Fast, when anxious; slow, hesitant, when doubtful
Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Passive Style

Verbal Cues

"You should do it." "You have more experience than I do." "I can't......" "This is probably wrong, but..." "I'll try..." Monotone, low energy

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Passive Style

Confrontation and Problem Solving Avoids, ignores, leaves, postpones Withdraws, is sullen and silent Agrees externally, while disagreeing internally Expends energy to avoid conflicts that are anxiety provoking Spends too much time asking for advice, supervision Agrees too often

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Passive style

Feelings Felt

Powerlessness Wonders why doesn't receive credit for good work Chalks lack of recognition to others' inabilities Gives up being him or herself Builds dependency relationships Doesn't know where he or she stands Slowly loses self esteem/ Promotes others' causes Is not well-liked

Effects

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Elements of Assertive Style


Beliefs

Believes self and others are valuable Knowing that assertiveness doesn't mean you always win, but that you handled the situation as effectively as possible "I have rights and so do others." Effective, active listener States limits, expectations States observations, no labels or judgments Expresses self directly, honestly, and as soon as possible about feelings and wants Checks on others feelings

Communication Style

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Assertive Style

Characteristics Non-judgmental Observes behavior rather than labeling it Trusts self and others Confident Self-aware Open, flexible, versatile Playful, sense of humor Decisive Proactive, initiating

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Assertive Style

Behavior Operates from choice Knows what it is needed and develops a plan to get it Action-oriented Firm Realistic in her expectations Fair, just Consistent Takes appropriate action toward getting what she wants without denying rights of others

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Assertive Style

Nonverbal Cues

Open, natural gestures Attentive, interested facial expression Direct eye contact Confident or relaxed posture Vocal volume appropriate, expressive Varied rate of speech

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Assertive Style

Verbal Cues "I choose to..." "What are my options?" "What alternatives do we have?" Confrontation and Problem Solving Negotiates, bargains, trades off, compromises Confronts problems at the time they happen Doesn't let negative feelings build up
Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Assertive style.

Feelings Felt Enthusiasm Well being Even tempered Effects Increased self-esteem and self-confidence Increased self-esteem of others Feels motivated and understood Others know where they stand

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What is the best style?

Clearly, the assertive style is the one to strive for. Keep

in mind that very few people are all one or another style. In fact, the aggressive style is essential at certain times such as: when a decision has to be made quickly; during emergencies; when you know you're right and that fact is crucial; stimulating creativity by designing competitions destined for use in training or to increase productivity

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Which is the best style?

Passiveness also has its critical applications: when an issue is minor; when the problems caused by the conflict are greater

than the conflict itself; when emotions are running high and it makes sense to take a break in order to calm down and regain perspective; when your power is much lower than the other party's; when the other's position is impossible to change for all practical purposes (i.e., government policies, etc.).

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Communication Apprehension

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Communication Apprehensions

Trait Communication Apprehension

Context-based Communication Apprehension

Audience-based Communication Apprehension

Situational Communication Apprehension

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Why apprehension?

Novelty with situation Formality Subordinate status Peer evaluation Dissimilarity with audience Conspicuousness Lack of attention Prior history
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Organizational Communication

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Employee communication objectives


Share Company vision, values, goals, business updates, policies and programs from time to time Provide a forum for sharing ideas, suggestions and knowledge with appropriate target groups to create a learning organization Listen to employee suggestions, concerns and grievances and address them appropriately leading to resolution and satisfaction Enhance employee engagement through strengthened dyadic relationships between the managers and people they manage Feel the pulse of the organization / smell of the workplace
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Communication framework
Communication framework involves the following:

Manager- employee communication GOC level communication Company-wide communication Policy & Program communication, business update from the Company Employee concerns, views & suggestions for improvement Communication Channels will be both technology-enabled and traditional fact to face Communication objective will determine this
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Upward & downward

Electronic and Face to face Channels

One-on-One and One to Many

Communication matrix
Type One-on-One Owner Manager Objectives Periodicity Effectiveness Criteria

Performance Once a month *Regular discussions discussions / *Employee sat on Career Concerns/ these meetings other concerns * Issues tackled Concerns/ Issues Once in Quarter * Regularity Appreciation * Employee Sat

Skip Level

Up-line Mgr

GOC All Hands GOC Mgr

Business & People Once a Quarter * Employee update participation * Employee Sat

CEO update to GOCs

HR

Business Update Once a month


Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

* Participation * GOC Mgrs sat

Communication matrix
Type GOC Focus Group Pulse Checks Owner Objectives Periodicity Effectiveness Criteria

HR Manager Common Employee Once a Month * Regularity concerns * Issues resolved Employee Relations New employee resolution 30 / 90 days * Issues resolved

Support Group Employee Open House Relations TGIF Employee Relations President

Common Employee Once in 2 concerns months All Hands Biz update/ recognition

* Issues resolved

Once a month * Participation * Employee Sat

Round Table

Updates / Employee Once a month * Participation suggestions * Employee sat Employee Suggestions Ongoing * Participation * Implementation

MyVoice

Employee Relations

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Communication Matrix
Type Jhankar Owner Employee Relations Objectives Periodicity Effectiveness Criteria * Participation * Employee sat Location-based Annual All Hands/ reward celebration Informal sharing Monthly

Chronicle

Employees

* Readership * Content Quality * Readership * Content Quality * Usage * Content Quality * Participation * Employee Sat * Best employer Status

In-Touch

President Ops Company update Once in 2 mths

MySymphony Commn / HR

Biz & Policy updates Employee Sat

Ongoing

Employee Sat Surveys (GPTW)

HR

Once a year

Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Ownership clarity
People Managers own the one-on-ones and skip levels.

Employee communication forms a key part of their People Management Goals in the Performance Appraisal process GOC Managers own the All Hands meetings. They will include company update from Presidents office plus their own business update for sharing, besides any update on people / HR matters HR function owns the GOC focus groups, Support group open house, TGIF, Jhankar, GPTW surveys, Pulse checks and the like Presidents office owns the Round Table HR facilitates the CEOs update to GOC Managers
Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013

Role of HR

HR function and its managers own certain

communication vehicles and will ensure their effective functioning HR will also collect feedback on the effectiveness of other channels and share with the channel owners HR agenda for Biz HR managers include monitoring effective practice of these communication channels at the GOC / BU level Automated tools as appropriate will be leveraged for tracking and monitoring the effectiveness
Mali / IIM-R / BC / July 2013