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New Hampshire

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

This article is about the U.S. state of New Hampshire. For other uses, see New Hampshire (disambiguation). "Granite State" redirects here. For the Breaking Bad episode, see Granite State (Breaking Bad).

State of New Hampshire



Nickname(s): The Granite State

Motto(s): Live Free or Die

Official language



Granite Stater, New Hampshirite

Capital Largest city Largest metro

Concord Manchester Greater Manchester


Ranked 46th

- Total

9,304 sq mi (24,217 km2)

- Width - Length - % water - Latitude - Longitude

68 miles (110 km) 190 miles (305 km) 4.1 4242 N to 4518 N 7036 W to 7233 W

Population - Total - Density

Ranked 42nd 1,320,718 (2012 est)[1] 147/sq mi (56.8/km2) Ranked 21st

- Median household income

$60,441 (6th)

Elevation - Highest point Mount Washington[2][3][4][5] 6,288 ft (1916.66 m) - Mean - Lowest point 1,000 ft (300 m) Atlantic Ocean[3] sea level

Before statehood Admission to Union

Province of New Hampshire June 21, 1788 (9th)

Governor President of the Senate

Maggie Hassan (D) Peter Bragdon (R)[6]


General Court

- Upper house - Lower house

Senate House of Representatives

U.S. Senators

Jeanne Shaheen (D) Kelly Ayotte (R)

U.S. House delegation

1: Carol Shea-Porter (D) 2: Ann McLane Kuster (D) (list)

Time zone

Eastern: UTC-5/-4




New Hampshire (US

/nuhmpr/) is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United

States of America. The state was named after the southern English county of Hampshire. It is bordered by Massachusetts to the south, Vermont to the west, Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east, and the Canadian province of Quebec to the north. New Hampshire is the 5th smallest, and the 9th least populous of the 50 United States. It became the first of the British North American colonies to break away from Great Britain in January 1776, and six months later was one of the original 13 states that founded the United States of America. In June 1788, it became the ninth state to ratify the United States Constitution, bringing that document into effect. New Hampshire was the first U.S. state to have its own state constitution. It is known internationally for the New Hampshire primary, the first primary in the U.S. presidential election cycle. Concord is the state capital, while Manchester is the largest city in the state. It has no general sales tax, nor is personal income (other than interest and dividends) taxed at either the state or local level.[7] Its license plates carry the state motto: "Live Free or Die". The state's nickname, "The Granite State", refers to its extensive granite formations and quarries.[8] Among prominent individuals from New Hampshire are founding father Nicholas Gilman, Senator Daniel Webster, Revolutionary War hero John Stark, editor Horace Greeley, founder of the Christian Science religion Mary Baker Eddy, poet Robert Frost, astronaut Alan Shepard, and authorDan Brown. New Hampshire has produced one president: Franklin Pierce.

With some of the largest ski mountains on the East Coast, New Hampshire's major recreational attractions include skiing, snowmobiling and other winter sports, hiking and mountaineering, observing the fall foliage, summer cottages along many lakes and the seacoast, motor sports at the New Hampshire Motor Speedway, and Motorcycle Week, a popular motorcycle rally held in Weirs Beach near Laconia in June. The White Mountain National Forest links the Vermont and Maine portions of the Appalachian Trail, and boasts the Mount Washington Auto Road, where visitors may drive to the top of 6,288-foot (1,917 m) Mount Washington.

1 Geography

o o o

1.1 Climate 1.2 Metropolitan areas 1.3 Earthquakes

2 History 3 Demographics

o o

3.1 Race and ancestry 3.2 Religion

4 Economy 5 Law and government

o o o o

5.1 Governing documents 5.2 Branches of government 5.3 Local government 5.4 Politics

5.4.1 New Hampshire primary 5.4.2 Election results 5.4.3 Free State Project

6 Transportation

o o o o

6.1 Highways 6.2 Air 6.3 Public transportation 6.4 Freight railways

7 Education

7.1 High schools

7.2 Colleges and universities

8 Media

o o o o

8.1 Daily newspapers 8.2 Other publications 8.3 Radio stations 8.4 Television stations

9 Sports 10 Culture

10.1 In fiction

11 Notable residents or natives 12 New Hampshire firsts 13 See also 14 References 15 Further reading 16 External links

See List of counties in New Hampshire, mountains, lakes, and rivers New Hampshire is part of the New England region. It is bounded by Quebec, Canada, to the north and northwest; Maine and the Atlantic Ocean to the east; Massachusetts to the south; andVermont to the west. New Hampshire's major regions are the Great North Woods, the White Mountains, the Lakes Region, the Seacoast, the Merrimack Valley, the Monadnock Region, and theDartmouth-Lake Sunapee area. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any U.S. coastal state, with a length of 18 miles (29 km),[9] sometimes measured as only 13 miles.[10] New Hampshire was home to the rock formation called the Old Man of the Mountain, a face-like profile in Franconia Notch, until the formation fell apart in May 2003.

New Hampshire, showing roads, rivers and major cities

Mount Adams (5,774 ft or 1,760 m) is part of New Hampshire's Presidential Range.

The White Mountains range in New Hampshire spans the north-central portion of the state, with Mount Washington the tallest in the northeastern U.S. site of the second-highest wind speed ever recorded[11] and other mountains like Mount Madison and Mount Adams surrounding it. With hurricane-force winds every third day on average, over 100 recorded deaths among visitors, and conspicuous krumholtz (dwarf, matted trees much like a carpet ofbonsai trees), the climate on the upper reaches of Mount Washington has inspired the weather observatory on the peak to claim that the area has the "World's Worst Weather".[12] In the flatter southwest corner of New Hampshire, the landmark Mount Monadnock has given its name to a class of earth-forms a monadnock signifying, in geomorphology, any isolated resistant peak rising from a less resistant eroded plain. Major rivers include the 110-mile (177 km) Merrimack River, which bisects the lower half of the state north-south and ends up in Newburyport, Massachusetts. Its tributaries include the Contoocook River, Pemigewasset River, and Winnipesaukee River. The 410-mile (660 km) Connecticut River, which starts at New Hampshire's Connecticut Lakes and flows south to Connecticut, defines the western border with Vermont. The state border is not in the center of that river, as usually the case, but at the low-water mark on the Vermont side; meaning that the entire river along the Vermont border (save for areas where the water level has been raised by a dam) lies within New Hampshire.[13] Only one town Pittsburg shares a land border with the state of Vermont. The "northwesternmost headwaters" of the Connecticut also define the Canadian border with New Hampshire.

Shaded relief map of New Hampshire

The Piscataqua River and its several tributaries form the state's only significant ocean port where they flow into the Atlantic at Portsmouth. The Salmon Falls River and the Piscataqua define the southern portion of the border with Maine. The Piscataqua River boundary was the subject of a border dispute between New Hampshire and Maine in 2001, with New Hampshire claiming dominion over several islands (primarilySeavey's Island) that include the Portsmouth Naval Shipyard. The U.S. Supreme Court dismissed the case in 2002, leaving ownership of the island with Maine. The largest of New Hampshire's lakes is Lake Winnipesaukee, which covers 71 square miles (184 km2) in the east-central part of New Hampshire. Umbagog Lake along the Maine border, approximately 12.3 square miles (31.9 km2), is a distant second. Squam Lake is the second largest lake entirely in New Hampshire. New Hampshire has the shortest ocean coastline of any state in the United States, approximately 18 miles (29 km) long.[14]Hampton Beach is a popular local summer destination. About 7 miles (11 km) offshore are the Isles of Shoals, nine small islands (four of which are in New Hampshire) known as

the site of a 19th-century art colony founded by poet Celia Thaxter, as well as the alleged location of one of the buried treasures of the pirate Blackbeard. It is the state with the second highest percentage of timberland area in the country, after Maine.[15] New Hampshire is in the temperate broadleaf and mixed forests biome. Much of the state, in particular the White Mountains, is covered by the conifers and northern hardwoods of the New England-Acadian forests. The southeast corner of the state and parts of the Connecticut River along the Vermont border are covered by the mixed oaks of theNortheastern coastal forests.[16] The northern third of the state is locally referred to as the "north country" or "north of the notches," in reference to White Mountain passes that channel traffic. It contains less than 5% of the state's population, suffers relatively high poverty, and is steadily losing population as the logging and paper industries decline. However, the tourist industry, in particular visitors who go to northern New Hampshire to ski, snowboard, hike and mountain bike has helped offset economic losses from mill closures.

New Hampshire experiences a humid continental climate (Kppen climate classification Dfa in southern areas and Dfb in the north), with warm, humid summers, cold, wet winters, and uniform precipitation all year. The climate of the southeastern portion is moderated by the Atlantic Ocean and averages relatively milder and wetter weather, while the northern and interior portions experience cooler temperatures and lower humidity. Winters are cold and snowy throughout the state, and especially severe in the northern and mountainous areas. Average annual snowfall ranges from 60 inches (150 cm) to over 100 inches (250 cm) across the state.[17]

During autumn, the leaves on many hardwood trees in New Hampshire turn colors, attracting many tourists.

Average daytime highs are in the mid 70sF to low 80sF (around 2428 C) throughout the state in July, with overnight lows in the mid 50sF to low 60sF (1315 C). January temperatures range from an average high of 34 F (1 C) on the coast to overnight lows below 0 F (18 C) in the far north and at high elevations. Average annual precipitation statewide is roughly 40 inches (100 cm)

with some variation occurring in the White Mountains due to differences in elevation and annual snowfall. New Hampshire's highest recorded temperature was 106 F (41 C) in Nashua on July 4, 1911, while the lowest recorded temperature was 47 F (44 C) atop Mount Washington on January 29, 1934. Mount Washington also saw an unofficial 50 F(46 C) reading on January 22, 1885, which, if made official, would tie the all-time record low for New England (also 50 F (46 C) at Big Black River, Maine on January 16, 2009, and Bloomfield, Vermont on December 30, 1933). Extreme snow is often associated with a nor'easter, such as the Blizzard of '78 and the Blizzard of 1993, when several feet accumulated across portions of the state over 24 to 48 hours. Lighter snowfalls of several inches occur frequently throughout winter, often associated with an Alberta Clipper. New Hampshire, on occasion, is affected by hurricanes and tropical storms although by the time they reach the state they are often extratropical, with most storms striking the southern New England coastline and moving inland or passing by offshore in the Gulf of Maine. Most of New Hampshire averages fewer than 20 days of thunderstorms per year and an average of two tornadoes occur annually statewide.[18] The National Arbor Day Foundation plant hardiness zone map depicts zones 3, 4, 5, and 6 occurring throughout the state[19] and indicates the transition from a relatively cooler to warmer climate as one travels southward across New Hampshire. The 1990 USDA plant hardiness zones for New Hampshire range from zone 3b in the north to zone 5b in the south.[20]

Metropolitan areas[edit]
See also: List of cities in New Hampshire

Metropolitan areas in the New England region are defined by the U.S. Census Bureau as New England City and Town Areas (N NECTAs in New Hampshire: Berlin Claremont Concord Franklin Keene Laconia Lebanon Hartford, VT Manchester

Nashua Metropolitan Divis Portsmouth Rochester Dover

From The New Hampshire Economic and Labor Market Information Bureau[dead link]

While New Hampshire, along with the rest of New England, does not frequently experience earthquakes, it has experienced several earthquakes in history and has been affected by some of the larger earthquakes centered in the St. Lawrence Valley seismic zone in Canada and in a seismic zone in northeastern Massachusetts. All of New England felt the 1663 Charlevoix earthquakecentered near the Quebec-Maine border, the magnitude of which has since been estimated at 7.3-7.9. In 1727, Newbury, Massachusetts, received a damaging earthquake, shaking New Hampshire. The 1755 Cape Ann Earthquake, estimated magnitude 5.5-6.0, also shook most or all of New Hampshire. On November 9, 1810, Exeter experienced an estimated intensity VI tremor. It was accompanied by an unusual noise like an explosion below the area and broke windows in Portsmouth. Concord, the capital, experienced a series of shocks within a period of 19 years, 1872 to 1891. One earthquake was felt in late 1872, lasting 10 seconds in Concord, and was felt in Laconia and other towns to the north. Ten years later, another tremor was strongest in Concord, although Dover and Pittsfield reportedly had buildings shaken. On November 23, 1884, two earthquakes, the first one light, followed fifteen minutes later by a severe one, were both felt in Concord. The second shock was felt in Massachusetts, Connecticut, and eastern New York. Concord's last tremor in the 19-year period was mild and was reported in two Massachusetts locations:Cambridge and Melrose. Southeastern New Hampshire and Maine experienced an earthquake in 1925. Both were moderately damaging. Dishes and goods were thrown from shelves in Ossipee, Tuftonboro, and Effingham Falls. In 1929 the Grand Banks of Newfoundland, 800 miles (1,300 km) away, experienced a magnitude 7.2 earthquake, and New Hampshire had minor effects. In 1935, a 6.25 earthquake centered in Timiskaming, Ontario, 500 miles (800 km) away, was felt in an area of over 2,500,000 square kilometers (970,000 sq mi), and New Hampshire recorded intensities of V in some places.Ossipee Lake in December 1940 was the site of two moderate earthquakes. It was felt in all six New England states, as well as parts of New Jersey and Pennsylvania. In the epicentral area, a large number of aftershocks happened. One observer counted over 120 aftershocks through January 31, 1941.[21]

Main article: History of New Hampshire

Fort William and Mary in 1705

1922 map of New Hampshire published in the bulletin of the Brown Company inBerlin

Various Algonquian (Abenaki and Pennacook) tribes inhabited the area prior to European settlement. English and French explorers visited New Hampshire in 16001605, and English fishermen settled at Odiorne's Pointin present-day Rye in 1623. The first permanent settlement was at Hilton's Point (present-day Dover). By 1631, the Upper Plantation comprised modernday Dover, Durham and Stratham; in 1679, it became the "Royal Province." Father Rale's War was fought between the colonists and the Wabanaki Confederacythroughout New Hampshire. New Hampshire was one of the thirteen colonies that rebelled against British rule during the American Revolution. By the time of the American Revolution, New Hampshire was a divided province. The economic and social life of the Seacoast revolved around sawmills, shipyards, merchant's warehouses, and established village and town centers. Wealthy merchants built substantial homes, furnished them with the finest luxuries, and invested their capital in trade and

land speculation. At the other end of the social scale, there developed a permanent class of day laborers, mariners, indentured servants and even slaves. The only battle fought in New Hampshire was the raid on Fort William and Mary, December 14, 1774, inPortsmouth Harbor, which netted the rebellion sizable quantities of gunpowder, small arms and cannon. (General Sullivan, leader of the raid, described it as, "remainder of the powder, the small arms, bayonets, and cartouche-boxes, together with the cannon and ordnance stores") over the course of two nights. This raid was preceded by a warning to local patriots the previous day, by Paul Revere on December 13, 1774, that the fort was to be reinforced by troops sailing from Boston. According to unverified accounts, the gunpowder was later used at the Battle of Bunker Hill, transported there by Major Demerit, who was one of several New Hampshire patriots who stored the powder in their homes until it was transported elsewhere for use in revolutionary activities. New Hampshire was a Jacksonian stronghold; the state sent Franklin Pierce to the White House in the election of 1852. Industrialization took the form of numerous textile mills, which in turn attracted large flows of immigrants from Quebec (the "French Canadians") and Ireland. The northern parts of the state produced lumber and the mountains provided tourist attractions. After 1960, the textile industry collapsed, but the economy rebounded as a center of high technology and a service provider. Since 1952, New Hampshire gained national and international attention for its presidential primary held early in every presidential election year. It immediately became the most important testing grounds for candidates for the Republican and Democratic nominations. The media gave New Hampshire (and Iowa) about half of all the attention paid to all states in the primary process, magnifying the state's decision powers (and spurring repeated efforts by out-of-state politicians to change the rules.)

Historical populations
Census Pop. 141,885 183,858 214,460 244,155 % 29.6% 16.6% 13.8%

1790 1800 1810 1820

1830 1840 1850 1860 1870 1880 1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990 2000 2010 Est. 2012

269,328 284,574 317,976 326,073 318,300 346,991 376,530 411,588 430,572 443,083 465,293 491,524 533,242 606,921 737,681 920,610 1,109,252 1,235,786 1,316,470 1,320,718

10.3% 5.7% 11.7% 2.5% 2.4% 9.0% 8.5% 9.3% 4.6% 2.9% 5.0% 5.6% 8.5% 13.8% 21.5% 24.8% 20.5% 11.4% 6.5% 0.3%

Source: 19102010[22]

New Hampshire population density

The United States Census Bureau estimates that the population of New Hampshire was 1,320,718 on July 1, 2012, a 0.3% increase since the 2010 United States Census.[1] The center of population of New Hampshire is located in Merrimack County, in the town of Pembroke.[23] The center of population has moved south 12 miles (19 km) since 1950,[24] a reflection of the fact that the fastest growth in the state has been along its southern border, which is within commuting range of Boston and other Massachusetts cities.

Race and ancestry[edit]

According to the 2010 U.S. Census, the racial makeup of New Hampshire was as follows:[25]

93.9% White American (92.3% Non-Hispanic White, 1.6% White Hispanic) 2.2% Asian American 1.1% Black or African American 0.2% Native American/American Indian 1.6% Two or more races 1.0% Some other race

Hispanic and Latino Americans of any race made up 2.8% of the population in 2010. The largest ancestry groups in New Hampshire are, per 2011 Census Bureau estimates:[26]

23.2% French and French Canadian 21.5% Irish 17.9% English 9.9% Italian 9.3% German 6.1% American

4.6% Scottish 4.5% Polish 2.1% Swedish 1.4% Greek 1.3% Portuguese 1.1% Scots-Irish 1.0% Dutch

The large Irish American and French-Canadian populations are descended largely from mill workers, and many still live in the former mill towns, like Manchester. New Hampshire has one of the highest percentages (23.2% of the population) of residents of French/French-Canadian/Acadian ancestry of any U.S. state. (As of 2011 estimates, Maine had a slightly higher percentage.) According to the 2000 U.S. Census, 3.41% of the population aged 5 and older speak French at home, while 1.60% speak Spanish.[27] In Cos County, 16% of the population speaks French at home.[27]

Percentage of New Hampshire residents by religion (from USA Today):[28]

Christian 72%

Catholic 35% Protestant 32%

Baptist 6% Congregationalist/United Church of Christ 6% Episcopalian/Anglican 4% Methodist 3% Lutheran 1% Pentecostal/Charismatic 1% Presbyterian 1% Protestant, no supplied denomination 10%

Unspecified Christian 5%