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# Auxiliary Vector Function Method For Vector

Variational Approach For The Solution Of Complex
Anisotropic Media Using The Finite Element
Numerical Method
Cliﬀord M. Krowne and Robert E. Salvino
Code 6850.3, Microwave Technology Branch
Electronics Science and Technology Division
Naval Research Laboratory
Washington, DC 20375-5347
I Introduction
We focus here on an approach which is compatible with ﬁnite element
solutions of electromagnetic problems. Construction of a modiﬁed energy
type expression for a general linear anisotropic medium which does not obey
Hermitian properties is undertaken. From this energy expression a modiﬁed
energy functional is derived which is shown to have volumetric and surface
parts. Volumetric parts contain electromagnetic governing equations of the
media and surface parts provide constraints on ﬁeld components at interfa-
cial boundaries. Media examined here include gyroelectric, gyromagnetic,
combined gyroelectric and gyromagnetic, and complex media displaying gy-
roelectric, gyromagnetic, optical activities.
Energy expressions are constructed from three component vectors (i.e.,
complete vectors) in contrast to some earlier work [1] which used single
components (especially convincing to use in simple uniform waveguide struc-
tures) but consistent with more recent work employing complete vectors [2].
II Vector Helmholtz Sourceless Equation
Maxwell’s curl equations for harmonic conditions (with exp(iωt) assumed
time dependence) are
1
∇×E = −iωB (1)
∇×H = iωD (2)
The most general constitutive relationships for linear media are [3, 4]
B = ˆ ρ

· E + ˆ µ · H (3)
D = ˆ ε · E + ˆ ρ · H (4)
Placing (3) and (4) into (1) and (2) eliminates the electric D and magnetic
B displacement ﬁelds, giving
∇×E = −iω
_
ˆ ρ

· E + ˆ µ · H
_
(5)
∇×H = iω
_
ˆ ε · E + ˆ ρ · H
_
(6)
From (5) we can determine H in terms of the E ﬁeld only yielding
H =
i
ω
ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E − ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E (7)
with the curl of H being
∇×H =
i
ω
∇×
_
ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
_
−∇×
_
ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
_
(8)
Placing both (7) and (8) into (6) gives the sourceless vector E ﬁeld
Helmholtz equation
∇×
_
ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
_
+ iω
_
∇×
_
ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
_
− ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
_
= ω
2
_
ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
· E (9)
2
Any single energy functional must have its variation satisfy this governing
equation which is valid for describing the time harmonic electromagnetic
ﬁelds within the general medium. This governing equation includes gyro-
electric, gyromagnetic, and optical activity eﬀects.
III Complex Anisotropic Variation Analysis
In general, the most complex medium has lossy properties and is entirely
anisotropic in some or all of the four descriptive constitutive tensors found
in the relations (3) and (4). We choose a modiﬁed energy expression using
an auxiliary vector function f [5] as follows:
G =
1
ω
2
∇×f · ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E−
i
ω
_
ˆ ρ· ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E· f −∇×f · ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
_

_
ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
· E · f (10)
We use the perturbational relations
E = E
e
+ β
E
ξ
E
(11a)
f = f
e
+ β
f
ξ
f
(11b)
in (10) to obtain an expansion up to ﬁrst order in the scalars β
E
and β
f
:
G(E; f) = G(E
e
; f
e
) + β
E
_
1
ω
2
∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×ξ
E

i
ω
_
ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×ξ
E
· f
e
−∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· ξ
E
_

_
ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
· ξ
E
· f
e
_
+ β
f
_
1
ω
2
∇×ξ
f
· ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e

i
ω
_
ˆ ρ· ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e
· ξ
f
−∇×ξ
f
· ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
e
_

_
ˆ ε − ˆ ρ· ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
· E
e
· ξ
f
_
(12)
3
where the zeroth order energy expression G(E
e
; f
e
) is given by
G(E
e
; f
e
) =
1
ω
2
∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e

i
ω
_
ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e
· f
e
−∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
e
_

_
ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
· E
e
· f
e
(13)
We write the energy functional as
F =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
G dΩ (14)
and incorporating (11) then gives
F(E
e
+ β
E
ξ
E
; f
e
+ β
f
ξ
f
) =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
G(E
e
+ β
E
ξ
E
; f
e
+ β
f
ξ
f
) dΩ (15)
We ﬁnd that (15) becomes, upon expansion of the right-hand-side and
employing (12),
F(E; f) = F(E
e
; f
e
) + β
f
ˆ ˆ ˆ
dΩ
_
1
ω
2
∇×ξ
f
· ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e

i
ω
_
ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e
· ξ
f
−∇×ξ
f
· ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
e
_

_
ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
· E
e
· ξ
f
_
+ β
E
ˆ ˆ ˆ
dΩ
_

_
ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
· ξ
E
· f
e
+
1
ω
2
∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×ξ
E

i
ω
_
ˆ ρ· ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×ξ
E
· f
e
−∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· ξ
E
_
_
(16)
F(E
e
; f
e
) is found from
F(E
e
; f
e
) =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
G(E
e
; f
e
) dΩ (17)
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The normalized ﬁrst variations of the energy functional are determined by
δ
β
f
F(E; f) =
∂F(E; f)
∂β
f
¸
¸
¸
¸
β
f
=0
(18a)
δ
β
E
F(E; f) =
∂F(E; f)
∂β
E
¸
¸
¸
¸
β
E
=0
(18b)
Inspection of (16) gives the following results for the variations:
δ
β
f
F(E; f) =
ˆ ˆ ˆ _
1
ω
2
∇×ξ
f
· ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e

i
ω
_
ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e
· ξ
f
−∇×ξ
f
· ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
e
_

_
ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
· E
e
· ξ
f
_
dΩ (19a)
δ
β
E
F(E; f) =
ˆ ˆ ˆ _
1
ω
2
∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×ξ
E

i
ω
_
ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×ξ
E
· f
e
−∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· ξ
E
_

_
ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
· ξ
E
· f
e
_
dΩ (19b)
The arbitrary pcrturbational vector ﬁelds ξ
f
and ξ
E
can be factored out
of the integrand expressions in (19) by employing a vector identity for the
divergence of a cross-product:
∇·
_
a ×b
_
=
_
∇×a
_
· b −a ·
_
∇×b
_
(20)
Making the identiﬁcations
a = ξ
f
; b = ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e
(21a)
a = ξ
f
; b = ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
e
(21b)
a = ∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
; b = ξ
E
(21c)
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a = f
e
· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
; b = ξ
E
(21d)
and referring to vector identity (20), we can write
∇×ξ
f
· ˆ µ
−1
·∇×E
e
= ξ
f
·∇×
_
ˆ µ
−1
·∇×E
e
_
+∇·
_
ξ
f
×
_
ˆ µ
−1
·∇×E
e

(22a)
∇×ξ
f
· ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
e
= ξ
f
· ∇×
_
ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
e
_
+∇·
_
ξ
f
×
_
ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
e

(22b)
∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
·∇×ξ
E
= ∇×
_
∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
_
·ξ
E
−∇·
__
∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
)×ξ
E
¸
(22c)
f
e
· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×ξ
E
= ∇×
_
f
e
· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
_
· ξ
E
−∇·
__
f
e
· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
) ×ξ
E
¸
(22d)
The results for the variations then become
δ
β
f
F(E; f) =
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ξ
f
·
_
1
ω
2
∇× ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e

i
ω
(ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e
−∇×ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
e
) − (ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

) · E
e
_
dΩ
+

ξ
f
×
1
ω
2
ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e
· dS +

ξ
f
×
i
ω
ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
e
· dS (23a)
δ
β
E
F(E; f) =
ˆ ˆ ˆ _
1
ω
2
∇×
_
∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
_

i
ω
_
∇×
_
f
e
· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
_
−∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
−f
e
·
_
ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
_
· ξ
E
dΩ

_
∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
_
×ξ
E
· dS + iω

_
f
e
· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
_
×ξ
E
· dS (23b)
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where the surface integrals are over the closed surface S and the divergence
theorem has been employed.
Notice in (23a) that the terms within the brackets sum to zero due to the
sourceless vector E ﬁeld Helmholtz equation (9). Therefore the normalized
variation (23a) reduces to
δ
β
f
F(E; f) =

ξ
f
×
1
ω
2
ˆ µ
−1
· ∇×E
e
· dS+

ξ
f
×
i
ω
ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
e
· dS (24)
Utilizing the E ﬁeld curl relation (1), and setting the ﬁrst β
f
variation of
F(E; f) equal to zero in order to obey the energy functional minimization
requirements, produces
−iω

ξ
f
× ˆ µ
−1
· B
e
· dS + iω

ξ
f
× ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

· E
e
· dS = 0 (25)
Now utilizing the magnetic H ﬁeld from (7), (25) can be written compactly
as

ξ
f
×H
e
· dS = 0 (26)
The auxiliary function variation in (23b) must also be zero, and this
produces two additional constraint equations, one volumetric and the other
surface:
ˆ ˆ ˆ _
1
ω
2
∇×
_
∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
_

i
ω
_
∇×
_
f
e
· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
_
−∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
−f
e
·
_
ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
· ˆ ρ

_
_
· ξ
E
dΩ = 0 (27)

(∇×f
e
· ˆ µ
−1
) ×ξ
E
· dS + iω

(f
e
· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ
−1
) ×ξ
E
· dS = 0 (28)
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(27) deﬁnes the diﬀerential equation to be satisﬁed by f
e
. Note that it is
not the equation for E

e
, but is a mirror image to the problem for E
e
. (28)
is the corresponding boundary condition for f
e
.
IV Conclusion
We have shown how to employ a variational approach which allows un-
symmetric media, with lossy properties if desired, with no requirements of
Hermiticity and any anisotropy in each of the four tensors constituting the
constitutive relations. One notices that additional constraints must be ap-
plied to the vector function f which allows this construction.
References
[1] A. D. McAulay, “Variational ﬁnite-element solution for dissapative
waveguides and transportation application,” IEEE Trans. Microwave
Theory Tech., vol. MTT-25, pp. 382-392, May 1977.
[2] J-F Lee, D-K Sun, and Z. J. Cendes, “Full-wave analysis of dielectric
waveguides using tangential vector ﬁnite elements,” IEEE Trans. Mi-
crowave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-39, pp. 1262-1271, Aug. 1991.
[3] C. M. Krowne, “Fourier Transformed matrix method of ﬁnding prop-
agation characteristics of complex anisotropic layered media,” IEEE
Trans. Microwave theory tech., vol. MTT-32, pp. 1617-1625, Dec. 1984.
[4] C. M. Krowne, “Electromagnetic theorems for complex anisoiropic me-
dia,” IEEE Trans Antennas Propag., vol. AP-32, pp. 1224-1230, Nov.
1984.
[5] P. M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics, Pt. I,
McGraw-Hill, 1953, see sections 3.2 and 3.3 on dissipative systems.
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