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We focus here on an approach which is compatible with finite element solutions of electromagnetic problems. Construction of a modified energy type expression for a general linear anisotropic medium which does not obey Hermitian properties is undertaken. From this energy expression a modified energy functional is derived which is shown to have volumetric and surface parts. Volumetric parts contain electromagnetic governing equations of the media and surface parts provide constraints on field components at interfacial boundaries. Media examined here include gyroelectric, gyromagnetic, combined gyroelectric and gyromagnetic, and complex media displaying gyroelectric, gyromagnetic, optical activities.

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**Variational Approach For The Solution Of Complex
**

Anisotropic Media Using The Finite Element

Numerical Method

Cliﬀord M. Krowne and Robert E. Salvino

Code 6850.3, Microwave Technology Branch

Electronics Science and Technology Division

Naval Research Laboratory

Washington, DC 20375-5347

I Introduction

We focus here on an approach which is compatible with ﬁnite element

solutions of electromagnetic problems. Construction of a modiﬁed energy

type expression for a general linear anisotropic medium which does not obey

Hermitian properties is undertaken. From this energy expression a modiﬁed

energy functional is derived which is shown to have volumetric and surface

parts. Volumetric parts contain electromagnetic governing equations of the

media and surface parts provide constraints on ﬁeld components at interfa-

cial boundaries. Media examined here include gyroelectric, gyromagnetic,

combined gyroelectric and gyromagnetic, and complex media displaying gy-

roelectric, gyromagnetic, optical activities.

Energy expressions are constructed from three component vectors (i.e.,

complete vectors) in contrast to some earlier work [1] which used single

components (especially convincing to use in simple uniform waveguide struc-

tures) but consistent with more recent work employing complete vectors [2].

II Vector Helmholtz Sourceless Equation

Maxwell’s curl equations for harmonic conditions (with exp(iωt) assumed

time dependence) are

1

∇×E = −iωB (1)

∇×H = iωD (2)

The most general constitutive relationships for linear media are [3, 4]

B = ˆ ρ

· E + ˆ µ · H (3)

D = ˆ ε · E + ˆ ρ · H (4)

Placing (3) and (4) into (1) and (2) eliminates the electric D and magnetic

B displacement ﬁelds, giving

∇×E = −iω

_

ˆ ρ

· E + ˆ µ · H

_

(5)

∇×H = iω

_

ˆ ε · E + ˆ ρ · H

_

(6)

From (5) we can determine H in terms of the E ﬁeld only yielding

H =

i

ω

ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E − ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E (7)

with the curl of H being

∇×H =

i

ω

∇×

_

ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

_

−∇×

_

ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

_

(8)

Placing both (7) and (8) into (6) gives the sourceless vector E ﬁeld

Helmholtz equation

∇×

_

ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

_

+ iω

_

∇×

_

ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

_

− ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

_

= ω

2

_

ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

· E (9)

2

Any single energy functional must have its variation satisfy this governing

equation which is valid for describing the time harmonic electromagnetic

ﬁelds within the general medium. This governing equation includes gyro-

electric, gyromagnetic, and optical activity eﬀects.

III Complex Anisotropic Variation Analysis

In general, the most complex medium has lossy properties and is entirely

anisotropic in some or all of the four descriptive constitutive tensors found

in the relations (3) and (4). We choose a modiﬁed energy expression using

an auxiliary vector function f [5] as follows:

G =

1

ω

2

∇×f · ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E−

i

ω

_

ˆ ρ· ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E· f −∇×f · ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

_

−

_

ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

· E · f (10)

We use the perturbational relations

E = E

e

+ β

E

ξ

E

(11a)

f = f

e

+ β

f

ξ

f

(11b)

in (10) to obtain an expansion up to ﬁrst order in the scalars β

E

and β

f

:

G(E; f) = G(E

e

; f

e

) + β

E

_

1

ω

2

∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×ξ

E

−

i

ω

_

ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×ξ

E

· f

e

−∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· ξ

E

_

−

_

ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

· ξ

E

· f

e

_

+ β

f

_

1

ω

2

∇×ξ

f

· ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

−

i

ω

_

ˆ ρ· ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

· ξ

f

−∇×ξ

f

· ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

e

_

−

_

ˆ ε − ˆ ρ· ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

· E

e

· ξ

f

_

(12)

3

where the zeroth order energy expression G(E

e

; f

e

) is given by

G(E

e

; f

e

) =

1

ω

2

∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

−

i

ω

_

ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

· f

e

−∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

e

_

−

_

ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

· E

e

· f

e

(13)

We write the energy functional as

F =

ˆ ˆ ˆ

G dΩ (14)

and incorporating (11) then gives

F(E

e

+ β

E

ξ

E

; f

e

+ β

f

ξ

f

) =

ˆ ˆ ˆ

G(E

e

+ β

E

ξ

E

; f

e

+ β

f

ξ

f

) dΩ (15)

We ﬁnd that (15) becomes, upon expansion of the right-hand-side and

employing (12),

F(E; f) = F(E

e

; f

e

) + β

f

ˆ ˆ ˆ

dΩ

_

1

ω

2

∇×ξ

f

· ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

−

i

ω

_

ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

· ξ

f

−∇×ξ

f

· ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

e

_

−

_

ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

· E

e

· ξ

f

_

+ β

E

ˆ ˆ ˆ

dΩ

_

−

_

ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

· ξ

E

· f

e

+

1

ω

2

∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×ξ

E

−

i

ω

_

ˆ ρ· ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×ξ

E

· f

e

−∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· ξ

E

_

_

(16)

F(E

e

; f

e

) is found from

F(E

e

; f

e

) =

ˆ ˆ ˆ

G(E

e

; f

e

) dΩ (17)

4

The normalized ﬁrst variations of the energy functional are determined by

δ

β

f

F(E; f) =

∂F(E; f)

∂β

f

¸

¸

¸

¸

β

f

=0

(18a)

δ

β

E

F(E; f) =

∂F(E; f)

∂β

E

¸

¸

¸

¸

β

E

=0

(18b)

Inspection of (16) gives the following results for the variations:

δ

β

f

F(E; f) =

ˆ ˆ ˆ _

1

ω

2

∇×ξ

f

· ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

−

i

ω

_

ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

· ξ

f

−∇×ξ

f

· ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

e

_

−

_

ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

· E

e

· ξ

f

_

dΩ (19a)

δ

β

E

F(E; f) =

ˆ ˆ ˆ _

1

ω

2

∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×ξ

E

−

i

ω

_

ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×ξ

E

· f

e

−∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· ξ

E

_

−

_

ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

· ξ

E

· f

e

_

dΩ (19b)

The arbitrary pcrturbational vector ﬁelds ξ

f

and ξ

E

can be factored out

of the integrand expressions in (19) by employing a vector identity for the

divergence of a cross-product:

∇·

_

a ×b

_

=

_

∇×a

_

· b −a ·

_

∇×b

_

(20)

Making the identiﬁcations

a = ξ

f

; b = ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

(21a)

a = ξ

f

; b = ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

e

(21b)

a = ∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

; b = ξ

E

(21c)

5

a = f

e

· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

; b = ξ

E

(21d)

and referring to vector identity (20), we can write

∇×ξ

f

· ˆ µ

−1

·∇×E

e

= ξ

f

·∇×

_

ˆ µ

−1

·∇×E

e

_

+∇·

_

ξ

f

×

_

ˆ µ

−1

·∇×E

e

_¸

(22a)

∇×ξ

f

· ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

e

= ξ

f

· ∇×

_

ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

e

_

+∇·

_

ξ

f

×

_

ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

e

_¸

(22b)

∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

·∇×ξ

E

= ∇×

_

∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

_

·ξ

E

−∇·

__

∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

)×ξ

E

¸

(22c)

f

e

· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×ξ

E

= ∇×

_

f

e

· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

_

· ξ

E

−∇·

__

f

e

· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

) ×ξ

E

¸

(22d)

The results for the variations then become

δ

β

f

F(E; f) =

ˆ ˆ ˆ

ξ

f

·

_

1

ω

2

∇× ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

−

i

ω

(ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

−∇×ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

e

) − (ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

) · E

e

_

dΩ

+

‹

ξ

f

×

1

ω

2

ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

· dS +

‹

ξ

f

×

i

ω

ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

e

· dS (23a)

δ

β

E

F(E; f) =

ˆ ˆ ˆ _

1

ω

2

∇×

_

∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

_

−

i

ω

_

∇×

_

f

e

· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

_

−∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

−f

e

·

_

ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

_

· ξ

E

dΩ

−

‹

_

∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

_

×ξ

E

· dS + iω

‹

_

f

e

· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

_

×ξ

E

· dS (23b)

6

where the surface integrals are over the closed surface S and the divergence

theorem has been employed.

Notice in (23a) that the terms within the brackets sum to zero due to the

sourceless vector E ﬁeld Helmholtz equation (9). Therefore the normalized

variation (23a) reduces to

δ

β

f

F(E; f) =

‹

ξ

f

×

1

ω

2

ˆ µ

−1

· ∇×E

e

· dS+

‹

ξ

f

×

i

ω

ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

e

· dS (24)

Utilizing the E ﬁeld curl relation (1), and setting the ﬁrst β

f

variation of

F(E; f) equal to zero in order to obey the energy functional minimization

requirements, produces

−iω

‹

ξ

f

× ˆ µ

−1

· B

e

· dS + iω

‹

ξ

f

× ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

· E

e

· dS = 0 (25)

Now utilizing the magnetic H ﬁeld from (7), (25) can be written compactly

as

‹

ξ

f

×H

e

· dS = 0 (26)

The auxiliary function variation in (23b) must also be zero, and this

produces two additional constraint equations, one volumetric and the other

surface:

ˆ ˆ ˆ _

1

ω

2

∇×

_

∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

_

−

i

ω

_

∇×

_

f

e

· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

_

−∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

−f

e

·

_

ˆ ε − ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

· ˆ ρ

_

_

· ξ

E

dΩ = 0 (27)

−

‹

(∇×f

e

· ˆ µ

−1

) ×ξ

E

· dS + iω

‹

(f

e

· ˆ ρ · ˆ µ

−1

) ×ξ

E

· dS = 0 (28)

7

(27) deﬁnes the diﬀerential equation to be satisﬁed by f

e

. Note that it is

not the equation for E

∗

e

, but is a mirror image to the problem for E

e

. (28)

is the corresponding boundary condition for f

e

.

IV Conclusion

We have shown how to employ a variational approach which allows un-

symmetric media, with lossy properties if desired, with no requirements of

Hermiticity and any anisotropy in each of the four tensors constituting the

constitutive relations. One notices that additional constraints must be ap-

plied to the vector function f which allows this construction.

References

[1] A. D. McAulay, “Variational ﬁnite-element solution for dissapative

waveguides and transportation application,” IEEE Trans. Microwave

Theory Tech., vol. MTT-25, pp. 382-392, May 1977.

[2] J-F Lee, D-K Sun, and Z. J. Cendes, “Full-wave analysis of dielectric

waveguides using tangential vector ﬁnite elements,” IEEE Trans. Mi-

crowave Theory Tech., vol. MTT-39, pp. 1262-1271, Aug. 1991.

[3] C. M. Krowne, “Fourier Transformed matrix method of ﬁnding prop-

agation characteristics of complex anisotropic layered media,” IEEE

Trans. Microwave theory tech., vol. MTT-32, pp. 1617-1625, Dec. 1984.

[4] C. M. Krowne, “Electromagnetic theorems for complex anisoiropic me-

dia,” IEEE Trans Antennas Propag., vol. AP-32, pp. 1224-1230, Nov.

1984.

[5] P. M. Morse and H. Feshbach, Methods of Theoretical Physics, Pt. I,

McGraw-Hill, 1953, see sections 3.2 and 3.3 on dissipative systems.

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