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You are on page 1of 47

:-

DR. VI KRAM SI NGH

TANUSHREE SI NGH

YEAR OF PUBLI CATI ON-2010

All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced,

stored in a retrieval system, transmitted in any form or by any means-

Electronic, Mechanical, Photocopying, Recording or otherwise, without

prior permission of the Authors and Publisher

SAVANT I NSTI TUTE

TM

CLASS XI I

PHYSICS

Physics Ray Optics & Optical Instruments 1

SAVANT EDUCATI ON GROUP E-17, East of Kailash, New Delhi – 110065. Ph.: +91-11-26224417 www.savantgroup.org

7

RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS

_____________________

Slide 1

______________________

Thin Lenses: History

§ Thin lens were first used for practical purposes by a Dutch

merchant, Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632 – 1723).

§ He used very small pieces of glass (it is easier to have a

flawless small piece of glass than a flawless large one) and

polished them so accurately that he could get magnifications

of more than 200 without loss of detail.

§ He was able to see blood capillaries, and tiny living animals

(protozoa).

_____________________

Slide 2

______________________

Microscopes

§ Such strong magnifying lenses are microscopes (from

Greek words meaning “to see the small”).

§ A microscope, like the one Leeuwenhoek used, made with

one lens are called “simple” microscopes.

§ If two lenses are used it is called a “compound” microscope.

_____________________

Slide 3

______________________

Telescopes

§ The word telescope comes from the Greek “to see the

distant.

§ The telescope is supposed to have been invented by an

apprentice-boy in the shop of the Dutch spectacle maker

Hans Lipershey (ca. (1570 – 1619) in about 1608.

§ Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642), upon hearing rumors of the

new device, experimented with lenses until he had built the

first practical telescope in 1610.

_____________________

Slide 4

______________________

Moon from Apollo 16

_____________________

Slide 5

______________________

Stamp in the honour of Robert Snell

_____________________

Slide 6

______________________

Introduction:

§ Light is a non-mechanical (requires no medium for

propagation) form of energy due to which we have sensation

of vision.

§ The branch of study of light is called optics.

94 Ray Optics & Optical Instruments Physics

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§ Broadly optics is divided into three groups.

(1) Geometrical optics

(2) Wave optics

(3) Quantum optics

_____________________

Slide 7

______________________

Geometrical optics

§ In this, light is considered as a ray on which its transfer

takes place.

_____________________

Slide 8

______________________

§ Geometrical optics states that for each and every object

there is an image.

§ Geometrical optics works on following assumptions.

§ Rectilinear propogration of light i.e. light ray travels in in

straight line.

1. Lawsof reflection.

2. Lawsof refraction

3. Physical independence of light rays i.e. two light rays

are totally independent from each other.

_____________________

Slide 9

______________________

The Ray (Particle) Model of Light

§ Evidence suggests that light travels in straight lines under

a wide variety of circumstances.

§ We infer the positions of objects by assuming t hat light

moves from the objects to our eyes in straight lines.

§ This is the ray model of light.

§ Newton used the ray model.

§ Ray model explains reflection, refraction, and the

formation of images by mirrors and lenses.

§ This subject is often referred to as geometrical optics.

_____________________

Slide 10

_____________________

Ray Model

Slide 11

What Can Happen to Light?

When it strikes a surface of an object light can be:

1. Reflected

2. Transmitted

3. Absorbed (and transformed to thermal energy)

_____________________

Slide 12

_____________________

Reflected

_____________________

Slide 13

_____________________

Transmitted

_____________________

Slide 14

_____________________

Absorbed

Physics Ray Optics & Optical Instruments 95

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Slide 15

Reflection and Scattering

_____________________

Slide 16

_____________________

Movie screen scatters light in all directions

_____________________

Slide 17

_____________________

Interactions of Light with Matter

Interactions between light and matter determine the appearance

of everything around us: objects reflect some wavelengths,

absorb others and emit others.

_____________________

Slide 18

_____________________

The Speed of Light and Index of Refraction

§ The accepted value today for the speed of light in a vacuum

is c = 2.99792458 x 10

8

m/s. We usually round off to c = 3.0

x 10

8

m/s.

Slide 19

Reflection of Light

_____________________

Slide 20

_____________________

Object

§ Any source of light is called an object and is of two types.

Real object

§ When light rays diverse from a light source, object is real.

_____________________

Slide 21

_____________________

Virtual object

§ When light rays converge towards the light source, object is

virtual.

§ To find the position of object we should find out the point of

intersection of incident rays.

_____________________

Slide 22

_____________________

Image

§ To find the position of Image we should find out the point of

intersection of reflected or refracted ray. There are of two

types of images.

Real Image

§ If the reflected or refracted ray converges towards the point

of intersection the image is real.

96 Ray Optics & Optical Instruments Physics

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Slide 23

Virtual Image

§ If the reflected or refracted rays diverges from a point then

the point of intersection is virtual Image.

_____________________

Slide 24

_____________________

Mirror

§ A smooth and shiny surface on which reflection can take

place is called a mirror, having two types.

1. Plane mirror. 2. Spherical mirror.

_____________________

Slide 25

_____________________

Reflection of light

§ The returing back of light in the same medium from which it

has come after striking a surface is called reflection of light.

§ Reflection may be

§ Diffused reflection – here random reflections take place

through irregular surfaces.

§ Specular reflection - here regular reflections take place

through plane surfaces.

_____________________

Slide 26

_____________________

Reflection

_____________________

Slide 27

_____________________

Diffuse reflection

Slide 28

_____________________

Slide 29

_____________________

Image Formation—Plane Mirror

_____________________

Slide 30

_____________________

Image Formation –Plane Mirror

Physics Ray Optics & Optical Instruments 97

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Slide 31

_____________________

Slide 32

_____________________

Conceptual Example

How tall must a full-length mirror be?

A women 1.60 m tall stands in front of a vertical plane mirror.

What is the minimum height of the mirror, and how high must it

lower edge be above the floor, if she is to see her whole body?

(Assume her eyes are 10 cm below the top of her head.)

_____________________

Slide 33

_____________________

_____________________

Slide 34

_____________________

Reflection of light though plane mirror

Laws of Reflection

(i) The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal to the

reflecting surface at the point of incidence all lie in the same

plane.

(ii) The angle of reflection r is equal to the angle of incidence i,

that is i = r.

_____________________

Slide 35

_____________________

Image of a Point in a Plane Mirror

OA = OA′

_____________________

Slide 36

_____________________

Image of an extended object in a plane

The image will be an inverted one.

_____________________

Slide 37

_____________________

Properties of the image formed by a plane mirror

§ The image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front

of the mirror. Object distance = image distance.

§ The image is unmagnified, virtual and erect. Height of object

= height of Image.

§ The image has front-back reversal. i.e. It shows lateral

inversion i.e. left potion of object appears as right portion of

Image.

_____________________

Slide 38

_____________________

§ A plane mirror deviates light through an angle

δ = 180° − 2i

§ Where i is the angle of incidence. The deviation is maximum

for normal incidence. δmax = 180°.

§ Glancing angle φ = angle between mirror and reflected rays

is called glancing angle φ = 90 – i = 90 – r.

98 Ray Optics & Optical Instruments Physics

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Slide 39

Rotation of Mirror

§ If the direction of the incident ray is kept constant and the

mirror is rotated through an angle θ about an axis in the

plane of mirror, then the reflected ray rotates through an

angle 2θ.

_____________________

Slide 40

_____________________

§ If an object moves toward or away from) a plane mirror at

speed v, the image will also approach (or recede) at the

same speed v, and the relative velocity of image with

respect to object will be 2v, as shown in figure a.

_____________________

Slide 41

_____________________

§ If the mirror is moved toward (or away from) the object with

speed v, the image will also move towards or away from) the

object with a speed 2v.

_____________________

Slide 42

_____________________

Number of image by inclined mirrors

§ When θ, the angle between the two mirrors, is an exact sub

multiple of 180°

§ The total number of images formed due to successive

reflection is equal to either

360°

θ

or

360

1

° ¸ _

−

θ ¸ ,

.

§ Accordingly as

360°

θ

is odd or even, respectively.

§ In the first case (

360°

θ

is odd) when the object is placed

exactly midway between the two mirrors, the two images

coincide and the total number of images is

360

1

° ¸ _

−

θ ¸ ,

.

Slide 43

Solved Example

If, θ = 90°, n = 3, θ = 72°, n =

360

72

°

= 5

If the object is placed symmetrically midway between the mirror,

then

360

n 1 4.

72

°

· − ·

_____________________

Slide 44

_____________________

Illustration

Two plane mirrors are inclined at an angle of 60°. An object is

placed between the mirrors. What is the total number of images

formed by two mirrors?

_____________________

Slide 45

_____________________

Illustration

A man H m tall wishes to see his full-length image in a plane

mirror hanging vertically on a wall. Find the length of the shortest

mirror which he can see his entire image. If his eyes are H m

above the ground, find the position of the mirror.

_____________________

Slide 46

_____________________

Spherical Mirrors

_____________________

Slide 47

_____________________

Physics Ray Optics & Optical Instruments 99

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Slide 48

_____________________

Slide 49

_____________________

Rays parallel to the principal axis of the mirror come to a focus at

F, called the focal point, as long as the mirror is small in

diameter, d, as compared to its radius of curvature, r. In that

case q will be small and the rays will cross each other at very

nearly the same point.

_____________________

Slide 50

_____________________

Reflection from Curved Surfaces

Important Terms

(i) Centre of Curvature (C)

It is the centre of sphere of which the mirror is a part.

(ii) Radius of Curvature (R)

It is the radius of the spherical reflecting surface.

Slide 51

(iii) Pole (P)

It is the geometrical centre of the spherical reflecting

surface.

(iv) Principal Axis

It is the straight line joining the centre of curvature to the

pole.

_____________________

Slide 52

_____________________

(v) Focus (F)

When a narrow beam of rays of light, parallel to the principal

axis and close to it, is incident on the surface of a mirror, the

reflected beam is found to converage or appear to diverge

from a point on the principal axis. This point is called the

focus.

(vi) Focal length (f)

It is the distance between the pole and the principal focus.

For spherical mirrors f = R/2

_____________________

Slide 53

_____________________

Reflection of light from spherical (curved) sign convention

§ Pole is taken to be the origin and the principal axis as the x-

axis.

§ The quantities u, v, R and f is positive if the corresponding

point lies on the positive side of the origin (in the direction of

incident light) and negative if it is on the negative side.

(opposite to the direction of incident light).

_____________________

Slide 54

_____________________

§ The distances measured in the upward direction,

perpendicular to the principal axis of the mirror are taken as

positive and those measured in downward direction is taken

as negative.

_____________________

Slide 55

_____________________

Rules for ray diagrams

§ The position, size and nature of an image formed by mirrors

are conventionally expressed as ray diagrams. We can

locate the image of any extended object graphically by

drawing any two of the following four special rays:

(a) A ray, initially parallel to the principal axis is reflected

through the focus of the mirror.

100 Ray Optics & Optical Instruments Physics

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Slide 56

(b) A ray, initially passing through the focus is reflected

parallel to the principal axis.

(c) A ray passing through the centre of curvature is

reflected back along itself.

(d) A ray incident at the pole is reflected symmetrically.

_____________________

Slide 57

_____________________

Mirror Formula

In terms of Cartesian Sign convention mirror formula may be

expressed as:

1 1 1

v u f

+ ·

Where, u = object distance from the pole

v = image distance from the pole,

f = focal length of the mirror.

_____________________

Slide 58

_____________________

Relation between u, v and R for spherical mirrors

§ Consider the situation shown in figure. A point object is

placed at the point O of the principal axis of a concave

mirror.

§ The line CA is the normal at A.

_____________________

Slide 59

_____________________

§ Thus, by the laws of reflection. ∠OCA = ∠CAI. Let α, β, γ

and θ denote the angles AOP, ACP, AIP and OAC

respectively.

§ As the exterior angle in a triangle equals the sum of the

opposite interior angles, we have,

From triangle OAC β = α + θ ….(i)

And from triangle OAI γ = α + 2θ ….(ii)

_____________________

Slide 60

_____________________

§ Eliminating θ are from (i) and (ii)

2β = α + γ …..(iii)

§ If the point A is close to P, the angles α, β and γ are small

and we can write.

§

AP AP AP

, and

PO PC PI

α · β · γ ≈ Fig (i)

§ Hence ,

AP AP AP

2

PC PO PI

· +

or, ( )

1 1 2

..... iv

PO PI PC

+ ·

_____________________

Slide 61

_____________________

§ The pole P is taken as the origin and the principal axis as

the X – axis.

§ As, the distances PO, PI and PC are positive, PO = –u, PI =

– V and PC = – R. Putting in (iv)

1 1 2

–u –v –R

+ ·

1 1 2 1

u v R f

· + · ·

Note:

§ While using the mirror formula always write only known

quantities with sign and unknown quantities without sign.

_____________________

Slide 62

_____________________

Magnification

§ Magnification – It is defined as the ratio of dimension of

Image to the dimension of object (m).

§ It is a pure number.

_____________________

Slide 63

_____________________

Lateral magnification or transverse magnification

§ It is given by,

i

0

h v

m

h u

−

· ·

§ Where hi = height of image, h0 = height of object.

§ If magnification m is positive, the image is erect w.r.t.

respect to the object;

§ If m is negative image is inverted with respect to the object.

§ For a real image by spherical mirror, m is negative.

§ For a virtual image by spherical mirror, m is positive.

_____________________

Slide 64

_____________________

Application of mirror formula

§ The mirror formulae may be used to find the position, nature

and size of the image formed by a spherical mirror.

Limitation

§ The limitation of the formulae is that it is applicable only for

paraxial rays (the rays which make very small angle with

the principal axis).

Physics Ray Optics & Optical Instruments 101

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Slide 65

Relation between f and R –

§ From mirror formula we have derived

1 1 2

u v R

+ · , now if the

object is at infinity the image is formed at focus.

§ Hence, when u = ∞ v = f, Now from mirror formula

1 1 2

f R

+ ·

∞

or

1 2

f R

· or, f = R/2 i.e. focal length of a mirror is

half of its radius of curvature.

_____________________

Slide 66

_____________________

Object Not at Infinity

(a) Ray 1 goes out from O′ parallel to the axis and reflects

through F.

_____________________

Slide 67

_____________________

(b) Ray 2 goes through F and then reflects back Parallel to the

axis.

_____________________

Slide 68

_____________________

(c) Ray 3 heads out perpendicular to mirror and the reflects

back on itself and goes through C center of curvature

Slide 69

_____________________

Slide 70

_____________________

_____________________

Slide 71

_____________________

Convex Mirrors

_____________________

Slide 72

_____________________

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Slide 73

Illustration

An object of length 3 cm is placed at a distance of (5/4)f from a

concave mirror where f is the magnitude of the focal length of the

mirror. The length of the object is parallel to the principal axis.

Find the length of the image, is the image erect or inverted?

_____________________

Slide 74

_____________________

Newton’s formula

If the object and image distances are measured from the focus

instead of the pole of the mirror. Then, the mirror formula

reduces to a simple form called the Newton’s formula.

x0 xi = f

2

Where x0 is the object distance from the focus.

xi is the image distance from the focus.

_____________________

Slide 75

_____________________

Illustration

A short linear object is placed at a distance ‘u’ along the axis of a

spherical mirror of focal length f.

(i) Obtain an expression for the longitudinal magnification.

(ii) Also, obtain an expression for the ratio of the velocity of

image (v) to the velocity of object (u).

_____________________

Slide 76

_____________________

Illustration

A small strip of plane mirror A is set with its plane normal to the

principal axis of a convex mirror B and placed 15 cm in front of B

which it partly covers. An object is placed 30 cm from A and the

two virtual images formed by reflection in A and B coincide

without parallax. Find the radius of curvature of B.

_____________________

Slide 77

_____________________

Illustration

A concave mirror of focal length 15 cm) and a convex mirror

(focal length 10 cm) are placed co-axially 70 cm apart facing

each other. A 2 cm tall object is placed perpendicular to the

common axis 20 cm from the concave mirror. Find the position,

size and nature of the final image formed by two reflections, first

at concave mirror and then at convex mirror.

Slide 78

Introduction:

Refraction through plane surface refraction of light

§ Refraction is a phenomena of light due to which it bends

while travelling from one medium to another.

§ When light goes from one medium to another medium.

ü Its velocity changes

ü Its wavelength changes

ü Its path may or may not change.

ü Its frequency remains unchanged.

_____________________

Slide 79

_____________________

§ During, the propagation of light from one medium to another

medium changes its velocity and wavelength and the path

also changes (except ∠i = 0).

§ When light goes from an optically rarer to an optically dense

medium, it bends towards normal provided ∠i ≠ 0 as shown

in the fig.

_____________________

Slide 80

_____________________

When light goes from an optically dense to an optically rarer

medium it bends away from normal provided.

∠i ≠ 0, Fig.

Physics Ray Optics & Optical Instruments 103

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Slide 81

_____________________

Slide 82

_____________________

_____________________

Slide 83

_____________________

Slide 84

_____________________

Slide 85

_____________________

Refractive index

§ The degree of bending of light depends upon the medium

quality called refraction Index (µ), a pure number.

§ Refractive index (µ) is of two types

1. Relative Refractive Index (µ)

2. Absolute Refractive Index

_____________________

Slide 86

_____________________

§ The absolute refractive index (µ) of a medium is defined as

the ratio of the speed of light in the vacuum (c) to the speed

of light in the medium (Vm).

m

c

V

µ ·

_____________________

Slide 87

_____________________

Relative refractive index

§ The relative refractive index of two media is equal to the

ratio of their absolute refractive indices.

2 2 1

21

1 1 2

c v v

c v v

µ

µ · · ·

µ

§ This is read as refractive index of 2

nd

medium with respect

1

st

medium and written as 1µ2.

§ The refractive indices of glass and water are ( )

3

1.5

2

· and

( )

4

1.33

3

· .

_____________________

Slide 88

_____________________

Note :

§ Absolute Refractive index µ is the refractive index of a

medium with respect to air or vacuum, i.e.

air

m medium

c

V

λ

µ · ·

λ

where, λ denotes wavelength of l ight.

104 Ray Optics & Optical Instruments Physics

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Slide 89

Refraction of Light (Snell's Law)

§ As light travels from one medium to another, its frequency

does not change.

_____________________

Slide 90

_____________________

ü Both the wave speed and the wavelength do change.

ü The ratio of the indices of refraction of the two media

can be expressed as various ratios

1 2 1 1

2 1 2 2

sin n v

1n2

sin n v

θ λ

· · · ·

θ λ

_____________________

Slide 91

_____________________

Refraction of Light

Critical Angle

§ When light attempts to move from a medium having a given

index of refraction to one having a lower index of refraction.

Slide 92

§ As the incidence angle (θ1) is increased until a particular

angle (θc), as shown in figure, the angle of refraction will be

90º and the refracted ray would skim the surface of the

glass.

§ The incidence angle at which this occurs is called the critical

angle, denoted as

_____________________

Slide 93

_____________________

Total internal reflection

“Total internal reflection is an effect occurs only when light

attempts to move from a medium of given index of refraction to a

medium of lower index of refraction and the incidence angle is

equal or greater than the critical angle of the higher refractive

index medium.”

_____________________

Slide 94

_____________________

Total internal reflection

§ W We e c ca an n u us se e S Sn ne el ll l ’ ’s s l l a aw w o of f r re ef fr ra ac ct ti i o on n t to o f fi i n nd d t th he e c cr ri i t ti i c ca al l a an ng gl le e. .

§ W Wh he en n

1 c 2

, 90º θ · θ θ · a an nd d S Sn ne el l l l’ ’s s l l a aw w g gi i v ve es s

O

1 c 2 2

1 2 2

c c

1 1

n sin n sin90 n

n n

sin sin

n n

−

θ · ·

θ · ⇒ θ ·

F Fo or r n n11 > > n n22

Physics Ray Optics & Optical Instruments 105

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Slide 95

Example

Calculate the critical angle of a diamond (n = 2.42)

c

D

c

c

1

sin

n

1

sin

2.42

24.4º

θ ·

θ ·

θ ·

_____________________

Slide 96

_____________________

_____________________

Slide 97

_____________________

Fiber Optics

Application of total internal reflection

§ Such a “light pipe” is flexible if thin fibers are used rather

than thick rods. If a bundle of parallel fibers is used to

construct an optical transmission line, images can be

transferred from one point to another.

Slide 98

§ Light, signals or other forms of communication can travel a

long distance without losing much intensity.

§ Applications include medical use of fiber optic cables for

diagnosis and correction of medical problems

Telecommunications

_____________________

Slide 99

_____________________

Application of total internal reflection

§ T To ot ta al l i i n nt te er rn na al l r re ef fl l e ec ct ti i o on n o of f l l i i g gh ht t b by y p pr ri i s sm ms s i i n n b bi i n no oc cu ul l a ar rs s . .

_____________________

Slide 100

____________________

Application of total internal reflection

_____________________

Slide 101

____________________

Diamonds achieve their brilliance from a combination of

dispersion and total internal reflection. Because diamonds have

a very high index of refraction of about 2.4, the critical angle for

total internal reflections only 25 degree. Incident light therefore

strikes many of the internal surfaces before it strikes one at less

than 25 degree and emerges. After many such reflections, the

light has traveled far enough that the

colors have become sufficiently separated to be seen individually

and brilliantly by the eye after leaving the crystal.

106 Ray Optics & Optical Instruments Physics

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Slide 102

Some Indices of Refraction

_____________________

Slide 103

____________________

Snell’s law

§ Incident ray, Refracted ray and Normal lie in the same

plane.

§ When light propagates through a series of layers of different

medium as shown in the figure, then according to Snell’s law

we may write,

µ1 sin θ1 = µ2 sin θ2 = µ3 sin θ3 = … = constant

_____________________

Slide 104

____________________

§ In general, µ sin θ = constant.

i.e. for given any two media where light ray strikes the

interface

µ1 × sin i = µ2 × sin r

_____________________

Slide 105

____________________

Conclusion from Snell’s law

§ When light passes from rarer to denser medium, it bends

towards the normal as shown in the figure.

§ Using Snell’s Law at point P

µ1 sin θ1 = µ2 sin θ2

1 2

1

sin

or, 1

sin

2

θ µ

· >

θ µ

§ Thus, if µ2 > µ1 the θ2 < θ1. i.e light ray bends towards the

normal.

_____________________

Slide 106

____________________

§ When a light ray passes from denser to rarer medium it

bends away from the normal as shown in the figure.

§ From Snell’s Law, we know that

1 2

1

sin

1P

sin

2

θ µ

· >

θ µ

§ Thus, if µ2 < µ1, θ2 > θ.i.e. refracted ray bends away form the

normal.

_____________________

Slide 107

____________________

Refraction: Principle of Least

1 2

1 2

1 2

1 1 2 2

Time,

s s

t t t

v v

n s n s c

v , t

n c c

· + · +

· · +

2 2 1/2 2 2 1/2

1 1 2 2

1 dt

t = [ n(y + x ) + n ( y +( a- x) ) ] = 0

c dx

Prove Snell’s law, n1sin?1= n2sin ?2. Demonstrate law of

reflection.

_____________________

Slide 108

____________________

Relation between object and image distance

§ An object O placed in medium 1 (refractive index µ1) is

viewed from the medium 2 (refractive index µ2).

§ It is important to note that the object and image both are

formed on the same side of the boundary.

§ The image distance y and the object distance x are related

as

2

y x

1

¸ _ µ

·

µ

¸ ,

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Slide 109

Here, x = Real depth/height

y = Apparent depth/height

_____________________

Slide 110

____________________

§ If µ2 > µ1, that is, when the object is observed from a denser

medium, it appears to be farther away from the interface,

i.e., y > x. or, Apparent height > Real height.

§ If µ2 < µ1, that is, when the object is observed from a rarer

medium, it appears to be closer to the interface, i.e. y < x.

i.e. Apparent depth < Real depth.

Note:

§ The above formula is only applicable for normal view or

paraxial ray assumption.

_____________________

Slide 111

____________________

Total Internal Reflection

§ The phenomenon of total internal reflection occurs when

light travels from a medium of high refractive index to a

medium of lower refractive index.

§ At the critical angle (θc), the refracted ray just grazes the

boundary between two media.

_____________________

Slide 112

____________________

§ Using Snell’s law, we get

§ µ1 sin θc = µ2 sin 90°

1

or , sin

− 2

1

¸ _ µ

θ ·

µ

¸ ,

§ Here, θ1 < θc < θ2

Slide 113

§ For an angle of incidence greater than θc, the light is totally

reflected back into the medium of higher refractive index.

This phenomenon is called total internal reflection.

_____________________

Slide 114

____________________

Optical fibers:

§ The optical fibres can transmit light beam from one end to

the other due to the repeated total internal reflections even if

the fiber is bent or twisted.

_____________________

Slide 115

____________________

Mirage:

§ The optical illusion that water is present at some distance

place is called inferior mirage.

§ This generally occurs on very hot summer days . This is due

to total internal reflection.

Looming:

§ The optical illusion of object floating in air is called superior

mirage. It is also known as looming.

§ This occurs in very cold regions due to total internal

reflection.

_____________________

Slide 116

____________________

Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics

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Slide 117

_____________________

Slide 118

____________________

_____________________

Slide 119

____________________

Deviation ( δ )

§ The figure shows a light ray traveling from a denser to a

rarer medium at an angle α lesser than the critical angle θc.

§ The deviation δ of the light ray is given by

_____________________

Slide 120

____________________

Conceptual Example

View up from under water

Describe what a person would see who looked up at the world

from beneath the perfectly smooth surface of a lake or swimming

pool.

_____________________

Slide 121

____________________

Slide 122

Refraction through glass slab

§ The refracting surfaces of a glass slab are parallel to each

other. When a light ray travels through a glass slab, it is

refracted twice at the two parallel faces and finally emerges

out parallel to its incident direction.

§ The light ray undergoes zero deviation, δ = O.

§ Angle of emergence = Angle of incidence

Or, e = i

_____________________

Slide 123

____________________

§ The lateral displacement of the ray is the perpendicular

distance between the incident and the emergent ray and is

given by

( ) sin

¸ _

· −

¸ ,

t

d i r

cos r

_____________________

Slide 124

____________________

_____________________

Slide 125

____________________

Apparent shift

When a glass slab of thickness t and refractive index µ is placed

in the path of a convergent beam as shown in the figure, then the

point of convergence is shifted by

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1

1

¸ _

· −

µ

¸ ,

s t

_____________________

Slide 126

____________________

§ When the same glass slab is placed in the path of a

diverging beam, the point of divergence is

1

1

¸ _

· −

µ

¸ ,

s t

§ It is important to note that the shift (s) is always on the

direction of l ight.

_____________________

Slide 127

____________________

§ If there are n number of slabs with different refractive indices

are placed between the observer and the object, then the

total apparent shift is equal to the summation of the

individual shifts.

s = s1 + s2 + ……… + sn

1 2 n

1 2 n

1 1 1

or, s = t 1- + t 1- +......t 1-

µ µ µ

¸ _ ¸ _ ¸ _

¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,

_____________________

Slide 128

____________________

Illustration

In the figure, determine the apparent shift in the position of the

coin. Also, find the effective refractive index of the combination of

the glass and water slab.

Slide 129

Prism

§ Prism is a transparent medium with two refracting surfaces

through which refraction takes place.

§ The two faces are not parallel but are inclined to each other.

§ Any geometrical figure with two refracting surfaces are not

parallel in a prism.

§ The above figure is an example of prism.

§ In general, we take a triangular prism.

_____________________

Slide 130

____________________

Visible Spectrum and Dispersion

_____________________

Slide 131

____________________

n Dependence on Wavelength

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Slide 132

_____________________

Slide 133

____________________

Dispersion

_____________________

Slide 134

____________________

_____________________

Slide 135

____________________

Slide 136

Newton’s Analysis of Light

1 2

2 1

n

n

λ

·

λ

_____________________

Slide 137

____________________

Basic Terms

Angle of prism or reflecting angle (A)

§ The angle between the refracting faces is calledangle of

prism.

§ The adjoining figures shows various terms related to prism.

_____________________

Slide 138

____________________

Here, i = angle of incidence

r1 = angle of refraction through 1

st

surface.

r2 = angle of refraction through 2

nd

surface.

e = angle of emergence

δ = angle of deviation

_____________________

Slide 139

____________________

Angle of deviation (δ)

§ It is the angle between the emergent and the incident ray.

§ It other words , it is the angle through which incident ray

turns in passing through a prism.

§ Now, the angle of deviation is given by

δ = (i – r1) + (e + r2)

or, δ = i + e – (r1 + r2)

Also, ∠A = r1 + r2

or, δ = ( i + e – A)

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Slide 140

Condition of minimum deviation

§ At the minimum deviation the angle of incidence is equal to

the angle of emergence i.e., i = e

Also, r1 = r2 = r A = 2r

§ The refracted ray inside the prism becomes parallel to the

base of the prism.

§ The deviation of the prism is given by

δ = ( i + e – A).

or, δm = ( 2i– A).

§ Where δm is the minimum deviation produced.

m

A

i

2

δ +

·

_____________________

Slide 141

____________________

§ Using Snell’s law

min

A

sin

sin i 2

A sin r

sin

2

δ + 1

1

¸ ]

µ · ·

1

1

¸ ]

_____________________

Slide 142

____________________

Graphical representation of minimum deviation

§ The graph shows the minimum deviation produced by the

prism.

_____________________

Slide 143

____________________

Thin prisms

§ In thin prisms, the distance between the refracting surfaces

is negligible and the angle of prism (A) is very small.

§ For thin prism, δm is very small. i.e.,

m m

A A A A

sin( ) and sin

2 2 2 2

+ δ + δ

; ;

_____________________

Slide 144

____________________

§ Now, the refractive index for thin prism is given by

min

A

sin

2

A

sin

2

δ + 1

1

¸ ]

µ ·

1

1

¸ ]

min

A

2

A

2

δ +

·

min

or, ( 1)A. δ · µ −

_____________________

Slide 145

____________________

Illustration

A rectangular block of refractive index µ is placed on a printed

page lying on a horizontal surface as shown in the figure. Find

the minimum value of µ so that the letter L on the page is not

visible from any of the vertical sides.

_____________________

Slide 146

____________________

Illustration

A ray of light PQ is incident at an angle i on face ML of a prism

and is refracted along OR (figure). This ray, after refraction at

face MN, travels along RN at grazing emergence.

If µ is the refractive index and A refracting angle of the prism,

show that

1

2 2

sini cosA

1

si nA

¹ ¹

+ ¸ _ ¹ ¹

µ · +

' ;

¸ ,

¹ ¹

¹ ¹

_____________________

Slide 147

____________________

Dispersion

§ It explains the blue colour of the sky at day time.

§ When while light passes through a prism it is spilled into its

seven constituent colours which is known as dispersion of

white light.

§ It is because for different constituent colours of light there

are different values of Refractive index (µ).

§ The violet ray bends maximum while red at least.

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Slide 148

§ We get a continuous bends of seven colours on screen,

which is called spectrum of light as shown in the fig.

_____________________

Slide 149

____________________

Scattering of light

§ When sunlight travels through the earth’s atmosphere, it

gets scattered by the atmospheric particles.

§ The amount of scattering is given by Rayleigh scattering.

_____________________

Slide 150

____________________

Rayleigh scattering

§ The amount of scattering S is inversely proportional to the

fourth power of the wavelength (λ).

4

1

S ·

λ

§ The law is applicable only for small particles which have

relative size with the wavelength of the light.

_____________________

Slide 151

____________________

Spherical surface

§ A spherical refracting surface is a part of a sphere of

refracting material.

§ It is of two types.

Convex refracting surface

§ A refracting surface which is convex towards the medium

where the object is present.

_____________________

Slide 152

____________________

Refraction at spherical surface:

Assumptions

§ Object is a point object lying on the principle axis.

§ The incident and the refracted rays make small angles with

the principal axis.

§ The aperture is small.

Slide 153

Mathematical expression of Refraction at spherical surface

§ Two media of refractive index µ1 and µ2, when separated by

a transparent curved surface, can be regarded as the case

of refraction at spherical surface.

Refraction at a spherical surface separating two media

_____________________

Slide 154

____________________

§ The figure shows how light refracts at the interface of two

curved media.

§ C is the centre of curvature of medium ‘2’.

§ CN is the normal to the curved surface and

§ O is the point where the object lies.

§ After refraction, let the image be formed at I.

§ Let ‘u’ be the object distance, and ’v’ be the image distance.

_____________________

Slide 155

____________________

§ From figure, for small angles, tan q q ;

MN

tan NOM NOM

OM

Ð = Ð ;

MN

and tan NCM NCM

MC

Ð = Ð ;

MN

tan NIM NIM

MI

Ð = Ð ;

§ From plane geometry

( )

MN MN

i i

OM MC

· + − − −

(exterior angle = sum of interior

angles ; i = ∠NOM + ∠NCM)

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Slide 156

§ Similarly, ( )

MN MN

r – ii

MC MI

· − − −

(Q r = ∠ NCM – ∠ NIC)

§ Now from Snell’s law, µ1 sin i = µ2 sin r and for small angles

sinθ ≈ θ.

§ Hence, µ1 i = µ2 r

_____________________

Slide 157

____________________

§ From (i) and (ii)

( )

1 2 2 1

–

iii

OM MI MC

µ µ µ µ

+ · − − −

§ By using sign convention, OM = – u, MI = + v, MC= + R

§ Hence, from eqn. (iii)

2 1 2 1

–

–

v u R

µ µ µ µ

·

_____________________

Slide 158

____________________

Important terms

§ The medium in which the incident ray travels is called the 1

st

medium (µ1).

§ The medium in which the refracted ray travels is called the

2

nd

medium (µ2).

§ The above equation relates object and image distance in

terms of refractive index and radius of curvature.

§ This formula is applicable for both convex and concave

surfaces with proper sign conventions.

_____________________

Slide 159

____________________

Solved example

A convex refracting surface of radius of curvature 15 cm

separates two media of refractive indices 4/3 and 1.5. An object

is kept in the first medium at a distance of 240 cm from the

refracting surface. Calculate the position of the image.

_____________________

Slide 160

____________________

Solution

As the object is in the rarer medium (i.e. the incident ray travels

in the rarer medium), we have

1 2 2 1

–

–u v R

µ µ µ µ

+ ·

Here, u = – 240 cm: v = ? ; R = + 15 cm, µ1 = 4/3 ; µ2 = 1.5

Slide 161

∴

( ) 1.5– 4 / 3 4 / 3 1.5

240 v 15

+ ·

∴ v = 270 cm

As v is positive, the image is formed in the second medium at a

distance of 270 cm from the refracting surface.

The image is real.

_____________________

Slide 162

____________________

Illustration

An empty spherical flask of diameter 30 cm is Placed in water of

refractive index. A parallel beam of light strikes the flask. Where

does it get focused, when observed from within the flask?

_____________________

Slide 163

____________________

Illustration

What curvature must be given to the bounding surface of a

refracting medium (µ = 1.5) for the virtual image of an object in

the adjacent medium

(µ = 1) at 10 cm to be formed at a distance of 40 cm?

_____________________

Slide 164

____________________

Refraction by a lens

Lens

§ A combination of two refracting surfaces, at least one of

which is curved, is called a lens.

§ There are two types of lens

ü Concave lens

ü Convex lens.

_____________________

Slide 165

____________________

Concave lens

§ Concave lens is a lens which is thinner at middle and wider

at its ends and diverge light rays.

§ Concave lens is of three types

_____________________

Slide 166

____________________

§ A concave lens can be somewhat supposed to be made up

of two prisms placed on each other, vertex to vertex as

shown in figure

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§ Concave lens is also called a diverging lens because it

diverges parallel beam of light after refraction through it.

_____________________

Slide 167

____________________

Convex lens

§ Convex lens is a lens which is thicker at middle and thinner

at its ends and converges light rays.

§ Convex lens is of three types

_____________________

Slide 168

____________________

§ A convex lens is supposed to be made up of two prisms

placed on each other, base in to base contact, as shown in

fig.

§ Convex lens is also called converging lens because it

converges parallel beam of light after refraction through it as

shown in fig.

Note

In general, focal length of a concave lens is taken negative and

that of convex lens is taken positive.

Slide 169

_____________________

Slide 170

____________________

_____________________

Slide 171

____________________

_____________________

Slide 172

____________________

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Slide 173

_____________________

Slide 174

____________________

Lens maker’s formula

_____________________

Slide 175

____________________

_____________________

Slide 176

____________________

Slide 177

§ The geometry of image formation by a double convex lens.

§ The first refracting surface forms the image I1 of the object O.

§ The image I1 acts as a virtual object for the second surface

that forms the image at I.

_____________________

Slide 178

____________________

Applying to the first interface ABC, we get

1 2 2 1

1 1

n n n – n

OB BI BC

+ =

§ To the second interface ADC,

2 1 2 1

1 2

n n n – n

–

DI DI DC

+ =

§ For a thin lens, BI1 = DI1.

_____________________

Slide 179

____________________

§ Adding and, we get

( )

1 1

2 1

1 1 2

n n 1 1

n – n

OB DI BC DC

æ ö

÷ ç

÷

+ = + ç

÷

ç

÷ ç

è ø

§ Suppose the object is at infinity, i.e,, OB →∞ and DI1 = f,

gives

§ By the sign convention, BC1 = + R1, DC2 = – R2

§ So, it can be written as

2

21 21

1 2 1

n 1 1 1

(n –1) – n

f R R n

æ ö æ ö

÷ ÷ ç ç

÷ ÷

= = ç ç

÷ ÷

ç ç

÷ ÷ ç ç

è ø è ø

Q

Where n21 is the refraction index of the medium 2 w.r.t

medium 1.

§ Equation is known as the lens maker’s formula.

_____________________

Slide 180

____________________

Important Points

§ Len’s maker’s formula is used to find the lens of desired

focal length.

§ While using this formula we should use proper sign

conventions.

§ A lens has two focii, two radius of curvature, one optical

centre (same function as that of pole in mirror)

§ The focus on the side of the original source of light is called

the 1st focal point, while the other is called 2nd focal point.

_____________________

Slide 181

____________________

Relation between object distance (u), Image distance (v) and

focal length, (f) of a thin lens

§ The formula for object distance(u), Image distance (v) and

focal length (f) of a lens is given by

1 1 1

–

v u f

·

§ This formula is applicable for both convex and concave

lenses with proper sign convention.

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Slide 182

Rules for image formation through a lens

§ To find out the position of image through a lens we should

find out the point of intersection of refracted rays.

§ A ray parallel to principal axis of a lens after refraction

passes through or appears to diverge from the focus of lens.

§ A ray through optical centre of lens passes undedicated

along its original path after refraction through lens.

§ A ray through focus of lens becomes parallel to principal

axis, after passing through the lens.

_____________________

Slide 183

____________________

Image formation by a concave lens

_____________________

Slide 184

____________________

_____________________

Slide 185

____________________

Magnification

§ Magnifi cation (m) produced by a lens is defined as the ratio

of the size of the image to that of the object.

§ It is denoted by m.

§ m is negative for real image which are inverted w.r.t. to

object.

§ m is positive for virtual image which are erect w.r.t. object.

§ Mathematically, magnification is given by

v f – v f 1 1 1

m using, –

u f f u v u f

1

· · · ·

1

+ ¸ ]

_____________________

Slide 186

____________________

Solved Example

A convex lens is to be used to throw on a screen 10 cm from the

lens, a magnified image of an object. If the magnification is to be

19, find the focal length of the lens.

_____________________

Slide 187

____________________

Solution

Given: magnification, m = −19, Image distance, v = 10 cm

Now, magnification is given by

f – v

m ,

f

f –10

or, –19

f

or, f 0.5 cm

·

·

·

_____________________

Slide 188

____________________

Power of lens

§ The degree of converging or diverging of light rays through a

lens is called its power.

§ The power of a lens is the reciprocal of the focal length of

the lens.

where f is measured in metre.

_____________________

Slide 189

____________________

§ The power of a lens is the tangent of the angle by which it

converges or diverges a beam of light falling at unit distance

from optical centre.

§ The SI unit of power of lens is called Dioptre (D).

§ The power of convex lens is positive and that of concave is

negative.

_____________________

Slide 190

____________________

Combination of thin lenses in contact

Image formation by a combination of two thin lenses in

contact

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Slide 191

§ Consider two thin convex lenses A and B having focal length

f1 and f2 are placed in contact with each other as shown in fig.

§ Image formed by the 1st lens ‘A’. is given by

( )

1 1

1 1 1

– i

v u f

· − − −

§ For image formed by second lens B, we get

( )

1 2

1 1 1

– = - - - i i

v v f

_____________________

Slide 192

____________________

§ Adding (i) and (ii) we get

1 2

1 1 1 1

–

v u f f

· +

§ If the two lens system is regarded as a single lens, then the

equivalent focal length fe is related as

e

1 1 1

–

v u f

·

§ Hence,

e 1 2

1 1 1

f f f

· +

_____________________

Slide 193

____________________

§ If several thin lenses are placed in contact then the effective

focal length of their combination is given by

e 1 2 3

1 1 1 1

f f f f

· + + + − − − − −

§ In terms of power, we can write

P = P1 + P2 + P3 +- - - - - - -

_____________________

Slide 194

____________________

§ The total magnification m of the combination is a product of

magnification of individual lenses

m = m1 m2 m3 - - - - - - - - -

§ Such a system of combination of lenses is used in designing

lenses for cameras, microscopes, telescopes and other

optical instruments.

_____________________

Slide 195

____________________

The rainbow

§ It is a beautiful patterns of colours seen in the sky after a

shower

§ The rainbow is an example of the dispersion of sunlight by

the water drops in the atmosphere.

§ The conditions for observing a rainbow are that the sun

should be shining in one part of the sky while it is raining in

the opposite part of the sky.

Slide 196

Primary rainbow

§ The primary rainbow has violet colour on the inner edge and

the red colour on the outer edge of the rainbow.

§ Primary rainbow is formed due to two refractions and one

total internal reflection of the light incident on the droplets.

_____________________

Slide 197

____________________

Secondary rainbow

§ It has red colour on the inner edge and violet colour on the

outer edge of the rainbow.

§ It is formed due to refraction and two total internal reflections

of light incident on the droplets.

§ Order of colour of the secondary rainbow is just reverse of

that of the primary rainbow.

_____________________

Slide 198

____________________

_____________________

Slide 199

____________________

Scattering of light

§ § W Wh he en n s s u un nl l i i g gh ht t t tr ra av ve el l s s t th hr ro ou ug gh h t th he e e ea ar rt th h’ ’s s a at tm mo os sp ph he er re e, , i i t ts s

d di i r re ec ct ti i o on n c ch ha an ng ge es s b by y t th he e a at tm mo os s p ph he er ri i c c p pa ar rt ti i c cl l e es s a an nd d t th hi is s i is s

c ca al l l l e ed d s s c ca at tt te er ri i n ng g o of f l l i ig gh ht t. .

§ § T Th he e a am mo ou un nt t o of f s s c ca at tt te er ri i n ng g i is s i i n nv ve er rs s e el l y y p pr ro op po or rt ti i o on na al l t to o t th he e

f fo ou ur rt th h p po ow we er r o of f t th he e w wa av ve el l e en ng gt th h, , c ca al l l l e ed d R Ra ay yl l e ei i g gh h S Sc ca at tt te er ri i n ng g. .

Slide 200

§ Blue light being shorter wavelength, the sky look blue during

daylight due to scattering.

§ Red colour being least scattered light reaching our eyes,

therefore, the sun looks reddish at sunrise and at sunset.

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Slide 201

Human eye

_____________________

Slide 202

____________________

How the Eye Works:

_____________________

Slide 203

____________________

Slide 204

Vision Defects

Nearsightedness:

(a) Light focuses before the retina Cannot see distant objects

Gets worse as the body grows

(b) Fix: concave lens which will focus the light back on the

retina

_____________________

Slide 205

____________________

Vision Defects (cont)

Farsightedness:

(c) Light focuses behind the retina Cannot see close objects

Gets worse as the body ages (40+): lens is less flexible

(d) Fix: convex lens which will focus the light back on the retina

_____________________

Slide 206

____________________

Contact Lenses

§ Rests on a layer of tears between it and the cornea

§ Produces the same result as eyeglasses

§ Most refraction occurs at air-lens surface where change in

refractive index is greatest.

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_____________________

Slide 207

____________________

§ The light from an object enters the eye through the

transparent cornea.

§ It passes through a transparent lens held in place by ciliary

muscles and is focused on the retina.

§ The retina is sensitive to light and sends messages to the

brain by way of optic nerve.

§ An iris in front of the lens changes in size to regulate the

amount of light that enters the eye.

_____________________

Slide 208

____________________

§ It may be noted that the image of the object formed on the

retina is real and inverted w.r.t. object.

§ However, our brain interprets it as an erect image w.r.t.

object.

§ The human eye is about 2.5 cm in diameter and its neat

spherical shape is maintained by the pressure of the fluid

within it.

§ A normal eye can focus on object located anywhere from

about 25 cm to hundreds of kilometers away.

_____________________

Slide 209

____________________

Power of accommodation of the eye

§ The ability of the eye to focus on objects at different

distances is called power of accommodation of the eye.

Far point of the eye

§ The most distant point that the eye can see clearly is called

the far point of the eye.

_____________________

Slide 210

____________________

Near point of the eye

§ The closest point at which an object is seen most clearly

without strain is called the near point of the eye/ least

distance of distinct vision (D)

§ For an adult with normal eye, this distance is taken to be 25

cm (by convention).

Slide 211

Defects of vision

Short sightedness (or myopia)

§ A person who can see the near objects clearly but cannot

focus on distant objects is short sighted.

§ This defect occurs if a person’s eyeball is larger than the

usual diameter.

§ In such a case, the image of a distant object is formed in

front of the retina as shown in fig.

_____________________

Slide 212

____________________

Correction

To correct short-sighted vision, a diverging lens (concave lens)

of suitable focal length is placed in front of the eye.

_____________________

Slide 213

____________________

Long sightedness (or hypermetropia)

§ A person who can see distant objects clearly but cannot

focus on near objects clearly is farsighted.

§ This defect may occur if the diameter of person’s eyeball is

smaller than usual.

§ In such a case, for an object placed at the normal near point

(i.e., 25 cm from eye), the image of the object is formed

behind the retina as shown in fig.

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Slide 214

Correction

To correct for long sighted vision a converging lens of suitable

focal length is placed in front of the eye.

_____________________

Slide 215

____________________

Presbyopia

§ It is the defect in which a person can see nearby objects due

to the increase of the near point of the eye.

§ In this, the near point increases to 200 m.

§ It is caused due to the decreasing effectiveness of the ciliary

muscle and the loss of flexibility of the lens.

§ It is corrected by using a converging lens for reading.

_____________________

Slide 216

____________________

Astigmatism

§ It is a defect in which eye lens looks at a wire eye mesh or a

grid of lines, focusing in either the vertical or the horizontal

plane which may not be as sharp as in the other plane.

§ ‘It is caused due to the non-uniformity in the spherical shape

of the cornea.

§ It can be corrected using a cylindrical lens of desired radius

of curvature with an appropriately directed axis.

Note

§ Astigmatism can occur along with myopia or hypermetropia.

_____________________

Slide 217

____________________

Solved Example

Far point of a short-sighted person is 100 cm. What lens should

he use to see distant objects clearly?

Slide 218

Solution

Since the far point of the short-sighted person is 100 cm away,

he can see objects situated up to a distance of 100 cm. so, the

lens used should be such that it forms the image (virtual) of the

distant object at a distance of 100 cm.

∴ u = – ∞, v = – 100 cm

_____________________

Slide 219

____________________

Now,

1 1 1

–

f v u

·

1 1 1

–

f –100 –

∴ ·

∞

1 1

or,

f –100

or, f –100 cm

·

·

So, a concave lens of 100 cm focal length should be used.

_____________________

Slide 220

____________________

Illustration 1

Where an object should be placed from a converging lens of

focal length 20 cm so to obtain a real image of magnification 2?

_____________________

Slide 221

____________________

Photometry

§ Photometry is the science of measurement of light in terms

of its perceived brightness to the human eye.

Important terms

Luminous flux

§ It is the amount of light energy emitted per second by a

source.

§ The unit of luminous flux is lumen

§ One lumen is the luminous flux emitted per unit solid angle

by a uniform point source of luminous intensity 1 candela.

_____________________

Slide 222

____________________

Luminous intensity

§ Luminous intensity of source in a given direction is defined

as the luminous flux per unit solid angle in that direction.

§ The unit of luminous intensity is candela (cd).

§ Candela is defined as the luminous intensity, in a given

direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of

frequency 5.40 × 10

14

Hz and that has a radiant intens ity in

the direction of watt per steradian.

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_____________________

Slide 223

____________________

Illuminance or Intensity of illumination

§ Illuminance or Intensity of illumination of a surface at any

point may be defined as the luminous flux incident normally

on a unit area of the surface held at that point.

§ It is generally denoted by E.

§ If luminous flux ∆φ falls normally on an area ∆A of a surface,

then illuminance is given by

_____________________

Slide 224

____________________

§ The unit of illuminance is lux.

§ Lux or metre candle is the illuminance produced at the inner

surface of a sphere of one metre radius when a source of

one candela is placed at its centre.

§ Radiant flux is measured in watt.

_____________________

Slide 225

____________________

Luminous efficiency

§ The luminous efficiency of a light source is the ratio of the

luminous flux emitted and the input electrical power.

§ The unit of luminous efficiency is lumen/watt.

_____________________

Slide 226

____________________

Simple Microscope

It is an optical instrument used to see small and minute particles.

Slide 227

Magnifying power of a simple microscope

The angular magnification or magnifying power of a simple

microscope is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the

image at the near point and the angle subtended at the unaided

eye by the object at the near point.

_____________________

Slide 228

____________________

§ The linear magnification is given by

v

m

u

·

1

or, m v

u

1 1

or, m v –

v f

1

·

1

¸ ]

1

·

1

¸ ]

v

or, m 1–

f

1

·

1

¸ ]

§ Here, in accordance with sign Convention v = − D[ far point]

D

m 1

f

∴ · +

_____________________

Slide 229

____________________

Magnification when the image is at infinity

§ Consider an object having height h when it is at the near

point D of the eye.

0

h

tan

D

∴ θ ·

§ Since θ0 is small

( )

0

h

... 1

D

q ;

_____________________

Slide 230

____________________

§ Now, magnification when the object is at infinity.

( )

I

0

I 0

h v

m

h u

v

or, h h .... 2

u

= =

=

Where hI = image distance, h0 = object distance.

_____________________

Slide 231

____________________

§ The angle subtended by the image

I

i

h

tan

–v

q =

( )

N 0

h v

. using eq 2

–v u

é ù

= \

ê ú

ë û

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0

h

–

u

=

i

0

i

i i

forsmall

–h

tan u

é ù \ q

ê ú

\ q

ê ú

q q

ë û

;

;

§ The angle subtended by the object, when u = −f is given

by

0

i

h

f

q ;

_____________________

Slide 232

____________________

§ Now, the angular magnification is given by

i

0

0

0

m

h D

f h

D

m

f

q

=

q

= ´

\ =

_____________________

Slide 233

____________________

§ So, smaller the focal length of the lens, greater will be the

magnifying power.

§ The simple microscope may be used in such a way that the

image is formed at infinity.

Note

§ The maximum angular magnification is obtained when the

image is the near point.

§ The minimum angular magnification is obtained when the

image is at infinity.

_____________________

Slide 234

____________________

Light and Telescopes

Slide 235

Telescopes

§ Light collectors

§ Two types:

ü Reflectors mirrors)

ü Refractors (Lenses)

_____________________

Slide 236

____________________

Yerkes 40” Refractor- The World’s Largest

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Slide 237

Reflecting Telescopes

_____________________

Slide 238

____________________

Reflection

§ Light that hits a mirror is reflected at the same angle it was

incident from

§ Proper design of a mirror (the shape of a parabola) can

focus all rays incident on the mirror to a single place

_____________________

Slide 239

____________________

Whoops - The Hubble needs a contact lens

§ Both types of telescope can suffer from a defect called

spherical aberration so that not all of the light is focused to

the same point.

§ This can happen if the mirror is not curved enough (shaped

like part of a sphere instead of a paraboloid) or the glass

lens is not shaped correctly.

Slide 240

§ The Hubble Space Telescope objective suffers from this (it

is too flat by 2 microns, about 1/50 the width of a human

hair) so it uses corrective optics to compensate.

§ The corrective optics intercept the light beams from the

secondary mirror before they reach the cameras and

spectrographs. Fortunately, the Hubble Space Telescope's

spherical aberration is so perfect, that it is easy to correct

for!

_____________________

Slide 241

____________________

Before Costar After Costar

_____________________

Slide 242

____________________

Famous Telescopes: Galileo

§ First telescope: 3x magnification

§ Last one: 32 x

_____________________

Slide 243

____________________

Famous Telescopes: Newton

§ First reflector ever

§ Built around 1670

§ After this: gargantuan telescopes!

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Slide 244

Famous Telescopes: Lord Ross

_____________________

Slide 245

____________________

Famous Telescopes: Mt Palomar

5 Meter Telescope – Huge and heavy mirror

_____________________

Slide 246

____________________

Famous Telescopes: Arecibo Radio Telescope

_____________________

Slide 247

____________________

Slide 248

_____________________

Slide 249

____________________

Telescope Size

§ A larger telescope gathers more light (more collecting area).

§ Angular resolution is limited by diffraction of light waves; this

also improves with larger telescope size

_____________________

Slide 250

____________________

_____________________

Slide 251

____________________

Largest Earth-Based Telescopes

§ Hobby-Eberly Telescope, Davis Mountains, TX

ü 11 m diameter

ü Cannot see all parts of the sky

§ Keck I and II, Mauna Kea, HI

ü 36 ×1.8 m hexagonal mirrors; equivalent to 10 m

ü Above most of atmosphere (almost 14,000 ft ASL)

ü Operating since 1993

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_____________________

Slide 252

____________________

Resolving Power of Telescopes

Andromeda Galaxy

Telescope 1 Telescope 2 of double size

_____________________

Slide 253

____________________

Resolving Power of Telescopes (II)

Andromeda Galaxy

Resolution:

(a) 10’ (b) 1’

(c) 5” (d) 1”

_____________________

Slide 254

____________________

_____________________

Slide 255

____________________

Not to be outdone, the European Union has proposed building

the 100 meter OWL (Overwhelmingly Large Telescope)

_____________________

Slide 256

____________________

Compound Microscope

§ A compound microscope is one which has much larger

magnification to see very small objects.

§ It uses two lenses one compounding the effect of the other.

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Slide 257

Magnifying power of a compound microscope

_____________________

Slide 258

____________________

§ Angular magnification or magnifying power of a compound

microscope is defined as the ratio of the angle subtended by

the final image at the eye to the angle subtended by the

object seen directly, when both are placed at the least

distance of distinct vision.

_____________________

Slide 259

____________________

§ The magnification produced by the compound microscope is

the product of the magnifications produced by the eyepiece

and objective.

M = Me × Mo

Where Me and Mo are the magnifying powers of the

eyepiece and objective respectively.

§ Now,

e

e

D

M 1

f

· +

Where fe is the focal length of the eyepiece.

_____________________

Slide 260

____________________

§ Also,

o

o

o

v

M

u

· , Where vo is the distance A’B’ from the

objective and uo is the distance of the object from the

objective.

§ Now, the magnification is given by

o

o e

v D

M 1

u f

¸ _

· +

¸ ,

_____________________

Slide 261

____________________

§ Since the object is placed very close to the principle focus of

the objective therefore uo is nearly equal to fe. i.e. u0 ≈ f0

§ vo is nearly equal to the length L of the microscope tube. i.e.

v0 ≈ L

§ L is the separation between the two lenses.

o e

L D

M – 1

f f

¸ _

· +

¸ ,

§ It is clear from the above equation that the smaller the focal

length of the objective and eyepiece, larger is the

magnifying power.

_____________________

Slide 262

____________________

Again,

o o o

1 1 1

–

v u f

·

or ,

o o o

o o o

v v v

–

v u f

·

o o

o o

o o

o o

v v

or, – –1

u f

v v

or, 1–

u f

· +

·

o

o e

v D

M 1– 1

f f

¸ _ ¸ _

∴ · +

¸ , ¸ ,

_____________________

Slide 263

____________________

§ When the final image is formed at infinity, then

o e

o e

L D

M = M × M = –

f f

×

§ In this case, the microscope is said to be in normal

adjustment.

_____________________

Slide 264

____________________

Historical Optical Microscopes

_____________________

Slide 265

____________________

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Slide 266

_____________________

Slide 267

____________________

_____________________

Slide 268

____________________

Current Optical Microscopes

Upright Inverted

Slide 269

Solved Example

A person with a normal near point (25 cm) using compound

microscope with an obj ective of focal length 8.0 mm and an

eyepiece of focal length of focal length 2.5 cm can bring an

object placed 9.0 mm from the objective in sharp focus. What is

the separation between the two lenses? What is the magnifying

power of the microscope?

_____________________

Slide 270

____________________

Solution

Given: D = 25 cm; fo = 0.80 cm ; u0 = – 0.9 cm

Objective:

Using lens formula for the objective, we have,

0 0 0

1 1 1

–

v u f

·

0

1 1 1

or

v 0.9 0.8

+ ·

∴ v0 = 7.2 cm

Eyepiece:

Using lens formula for the eyepiece,

we have,

e e e

1 1 1

–

v u f

·

_____________________

Slide 271

____________________

( )

e

e e

1 1 1

or – – v D –25cm

D u f

· · · Q

e

1 1 1

or – –

25 u 2.5

·

∴ ue = – 2.27 cm

Separation between the two lenses = v0 + |ue| = 7.2 + 2.27 = 9.

47 cm

Magnifying power of microscope,

M = M0 × Me

0

0 e

v D 7.2 25

1 1 88

u f 0.9 2.5

¸ _

¸ _

· + · + ·

¸ ,

¸ ,

_____________________

Slide 272

____________________

Solved Example

The total magnification produced by a compound microscope is

20. The magnification produced by the eyepiece alone is 5. The

microscope is focused on a certain object. The distance between

the objective and eyepiece is observed to be 14 cm. If least

distance of distinct vision is 20 cm, calculate the focal lengths of

the objective and eyepiece.

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Slide 273

_____________________

Slide 274

____________________

Solution

For eyepiece, Me = 5, ue =? ve = – D = – 20 cm

e

e

e

v

M

u

·

e

e

e

v –20

or u cm –4cm

M 5

· · ·

Now, fe = ? ue= – 4 cm,

D = ve = – 20 cm

e e e e

1 1 1 1 1 1

– ; –

f v u f –20 –4

· ·

_____________________

Slide 275

____________________

On simplification, fe = 5 cm

For objective, M0 × Me = M

or

0

e

M –20

M – 4

M 5

· · ·

Now, v0 + ue = 14

or v0 = 14 – ue = (14 – 4) cm = 10 cm

0

0

0

0

0

Now,wehave

v

M 1–

f

10

or, – 4 1–

f

f 2cm

·

·

∴ ·

_____________________

Slide 276

____________________

Telescope

§ These are optical instruments used to observe distant

objects.

§ It has an objective and an eyepiece, the objective has a

large focal length and a much larger aperture than the

eyepiece.

§ Light from a distant object enters the objective and a real

image is formed in the tube at its second focal point.

§ The eyepiece magnifies this image producing a final

inverted image.

Slide 277

Magnifying power of a telescope

Magnifying power of a telescope m is the ratio of the angle β

subtended the eye final image to the angle α which the object

subtends at the lens or the eye.

0 0

e e

f f h

m .

f h f

b

» » =

a

Note

The length of the telescope tube is (f0 + fe).

_____________________

Slide 278

____________________

_____________________

Slide 279

____________________

Types of Refracting telescope

Astronomical telescope

§ These are the telescope which is used to observe celestial

bodies like stars, comets etc beyond our earth.

§ It produces an inverted image of the distance object.

Terrestrial telescope

§ These are the telescope which is used to observe objects on

the earth.

§ It provides an erect image of the distant object.

_____________________

Slide 280

____________________

Reflecting telescope

These are modern telescope which use a concave mirror rather

than a lens for the objective to observe distant objects.

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Slide 281

Advantages of reflecting telescope

§ It is free from spherical and chromatic aberration.

§ Mirrors used in the reflecting telescope are easier to

manufacture, cheaper than lens, lighter than an equivalent.

§ The light gathering power of a reflecting type telescope is so

large that the final image formed is brighter.

_____________________

Slide 282

____________________

Disadvantage of reflecting telescope

§ It is inconvenient to use because of frequent adjustments.

§ The objective mirror focuses light inside the telescope.

_____________________

Slide 283

____________________

Solved Example

A refracting telescope has an objective of focal length 30 cm and

an eyepiece of focal length 3 cm. It is focused on a scale distant

2 m. For seeing with relaxed eye calculate the separation

between the objective and the eyepiece.

_____________________

Slide 284

____________________

Solution

For seeing with relaxed eye, the final image should be formed at

infinity. This is possible if the image formed by objective is at the

focus of the eyepiece. Let v0 be the distance of the image formed

by the objective.

Using lens formula for the objective lens, we have,

0

1 1 1

v 200 30

+ ·

or, v0 = 35.3 cm

∴ Separation between the objecti ve and the eyepiece

= v0 + f e = 35.3 + 3 = 38. 3 cm

_____________________

Slide 285

____________________

Resolving power of an optical instrument

§ The ability of an optical instrument to produce distinctly

separate images of two objects very close together is called

resolving power of the instrument.

§ It depends on the diameter of the objective lens.

CURRICULUM BASED WORKSHEET

Topics for Worksheet – I

Reflection of light on plane and curved surface

Worksheet – I

1. A small candle 2.5 cm in size is placed 27 cm in front of

a concave mirror of radius of curvature 36 cm. At what

distance from the mirror should a screen be placed in

order to receive a sharp image? Describe the nature

and size of the image. If the candle is moved closer to

the mirror, how would the screen have to be moved?

2. An object is placed in front of a convex mirror of focal

length 60 m. If image formed is half of its size, find the

position of image.

3. A square wire of side 3.0 cm is placed 25 cm away from

a concave mirror of focal length 10 cm. What is the area

enclosed by the image of the wire? Given: the centre of

the wire is on the axis of the mirror, with its two sides

normal to the axis.

4. An object is placed at a distance of 36 cm from a

convex mirror. A plane mirror is placed in between, so

that the two virtual images so formed coincide. If the

plane mirror is at a distance of 24 cm from the object,

find the radius of curvature of the convex mirror.

5. A man 2 m tall, whose eye level is 1.84 m above the

ground, looks at his image in a vertical mirror. What is

the minimum vertical length of the mirror if the man is to

be able to see the whole of himself?

6. Find the position of an object which when placed in

front of a concave mirror of focal length 20 cm produces

a virtual image which is twice the s ize of the object.

7. An object is placed (i) 10 cm (ii) 5 cm in front of a

concave mirror of radius of curvature 15 cm. Calculate

the position, nature and magnification of the image in

each case.

8. An object is placed 15 cm from a convex mirror of

radius of curvature 90 cm. Calculate image position and

magnification.

9. A 4.5 cm needle is placed 12 cm away from a convex

mirror of focal length 15 cm. Give the location of the

image and the magnification. Describe what happens

as the needle is moved farther from the mirror.

10. An object is placed in front of a concave mirror of radius

of curvature 40 cm at a distance of 10 cm. Find the

position, nature and magnification of the image.

11. An object is placed at a distance of 40 cm from a

concave mirror of focal length 15 cm. If the object is

displaced through a distance of 20 cm towards the

mirror, by how much distance is the image displaced.

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Topics for Worksheet – II

Refraction on a plane surface

Worksheet – II

1. A ray of light of frequency of 5 × 10

4

Hz is passes

through a liquid. The wavelength of light measured

inside the liquid is found to be 450 × 10

−9

m. Calculate

the refractive index of the liquid.

2. A tank is filled with water to a height of 12.5 cm. The

apparent depth of a meddle lying at the bottom of the

tank is measured by a microscope to be 9.4 cm. What

is the refractive index of water? If water is replaced by a

liquid of refractive index 1.63 upto the same height, by

what distance would the microscope have to be moved

to focus on the needle again?

3. A small pin fixed on a table top is viewed from above

from a distance of 50 cm. By what distance would the

pin appear to be raised if it is viewed from the same

point through a 15 cm thick glass slab held parallel to

the table? Refractive index of glass = 1.5. Does the

answer depend on the location of the slab?

4. Velocity of light in a liquid is 1.5 × 10

8

m s

−1

and air, it is

3 × 10

8

m s

−1

. If a ray of light passes from this liquid into

air, calculate the value of critical angle.

*This explains the plane: Total internal Reflection.

5. A small bulb is placed at the bottom of a tank containing

water to a depth of 80 cm. What is the area of the

surface of water through which light from the bulb can

emerge out? Refractive index of water is 1.33.

[Consider the bulb to be a point source of light.]

6. Velocity of light in glass in 2 × 10

8

m s

−1

and that in air

is 3 × 10

8

m s

−1

. By how much would an ink dot appear

to be raised when covered by a glass plate 6 cm thick?

7. The bottom of a container is 4.0 cm thick glass (µ = 1.5)

slab. The container contains two immiscible liquids A

and B of depths 6.0 cm and 8.0 cm respectively. What

is the apparent position of a scratch on the outer

surface of the bottom of the glass slab when viewed

through the container? Refractive indices of A and B

are 1.4 and 1.4 respectively.

8. Refractive index of glass 1.5. Calculate velocity of light

in glass if velocity of light in vacuum is 3 × 10

8

m s

−1

.

Also calculate critical angle for glass-air interface.

9. Determine the critical angle for a glass-air surface, if a

ray of light which is incident in air on the surface is

deviated through 15°. When its angle of incidence is

40°.

10. Fig. shows a triangular prism of glass. A ray incident

normally on one face is totally reflected. What can you

conclude about the minimum value of index of refraction

of glass?

11. (a) Fig. shows a cross-section of a light-pipe made of

glass fibre of refractive index 1.68. The outer

covering of the pipe is made of a material of

refractive index 1.44. What is the range of the

angles of incident easy with the axis of the pipe for

which total reflections inside the pipe take place as

shown in Fig.

(b) What is the answer if the is no outer covering of the

pipe?

Topics for Worksheet – III

Prism

Worksheet – III

1. Parallel light from the collimator of a spectrometer i s

incident on the two faces of a prism which make the

refracting angle A of the prism. The image of the

collimator slit is observed in two different positions of

the telescope of the spectrometer. If the angle of

rotation of the telescope between the two positions is

144°, what is the angle A of the prism?

2. For a given source of light, the angle of minimum

deviation of a 60° prism is 56°. What is its refractive

index?

3. If the refractive index of the material of a prism of

refracting angle 8° is 1.532 for blue red light, what is the

angular dispersion produced by the prism?

4. A ray of light passes through an equilateral prism (µ =

1.5) such that angle of incidence is equal to angle of

emergence and the latter is equal to

3

th

4

of the angle

of prism. Calculate the angle of deviation.

5. A ray of light passes through an equilateral glass prism

such that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of

emergence. The angle of emergence is

3

4

times the

angle of prism. Calculate the refractive index of the

glass prism.

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6. Using a spectrometer, the following data are obtained

for a crown glass prism and a flint glass prism.

Angle of the prism, A = 72.0°

Minimum deviation angle, δb = 54.6°, δr = 53.0°, δy = 54.0°

Flint glass prism: A = 60.0°, δb = 52.8′, δr = 50.6° δy = 51.9°

b, r and y refer to particular wavelengths in the blue, red

and yellow bands. Compare the dispersive powers of

the two varieties of glass prisms.

7. Find the angle of flint glass prism which produces the

same angular dispersion for C and F wavelengths as a

10° crown glass prism.

For crown glass: µF = 1.5230, µC = 1.5145

For flint glass: µF = 1.6637, µc = 1.6444.

8. A small-angled prism (µ = 1.62) gives a deviation of

4.8°. Find the angle of the prism.

9. The angle of minimum deviation for a prism of angle

π π

is .

3 6

What is the velocity of light in the material of the

prism? Given: velocity of light in vacuum = 3 × 10

8

m s

−1

.

10. Deduce δm for water (µ = 1.333) when the prism of ∠A

= 60° is used.

11. Calculate the dispersive power of crown glass if the

deviations produced for violet, yellow and light are

4.32°, 4.02° and 3.72y respectively.

12. Calculate the angle of dispersion between red and violet

colours produced by a flint glass prism of refracting

angle of 60°. Given: µv = 1.663 and µr = 1.622.

13. A glass prism whose refractive index is 1.53 and

refracting angle is 60° is held in a liquid of refractive

index 1.33. Calculate the angle of minimum deviation in

this case.

14. Calculate the dispersive power for crown and flint glass

from the following data:

C D F

Crown 1.5145 1.5170 1.5230

Flint 1.6444 1.6520 1.6637

15. A prism is made of glass of unknown refractive index. A

parallel beam of light is incident on a face of the prism.

By rotating the prism, the minimum angle of deviation is

measured to be 40°. What is the refractive index of the

prism? If the prism is placed in water (refractive index

1.33), predict the new minimum angle of deviation of a

parallel beam of light. The refracting angle of the prism

is 60°.

Topics for Worksheet – IV

Refraction on a curved surface, Lens

Worksheet – IV

1. A beam of light travelling in air strikes a glass sphere of

20 cm diameter converting towards a point 40 cm

behind the pole of the spherical surface. Find the

position of the image, if the refractive index of glass is

1.5.

2. The image obtained with a convex les in erect and its

length is four times the length of the object. If the focal

length of the lens is 20 cm, calculate the object distance

and the image distance.

3. The image of a needle placed 45 cm from a lens is

formed on a screen placed 90 cm on the other side of

lens. Find the displacement of image if the needle is

moved 5 cm away from lens.

4. Where should an object be placed from a converging

lens of focal length 20 cm so to obtain a real image of

magnification 2?

5. An object of size 3.0 cm is placed 14 cm in front of a

concave lens of focal length 21 cm. Describe the image

produced by the lens. What happens if the object is

moved farther from the lens?

6. A beam of light converges to a point P. A lens is placed

in the path of the convergent beam 12 cm front P. At

what point does the beam converge if the lens is (a) a

convex lens of focal length 20 cm, and (b) a concave

lens of focal length 16 cm?

7. The radius of curvature of each face of a bi-concave

lens, made of glass of refractive index 1.5 is 30 cm.

Calculate the focal length of the lens in air.

8. Double convex lenses are to be manufactured from a

glass of refractive index 1.55, with both faces of the

same radius of curvature. What is the radius of

curvature required if the focal length of the lens is to be

20 cm?

9. A convex lens of focal length f and refractive index 1.5

is immersed in a liquid of refractive index (i) 1.6 (ii 1.3

(iii) 1.5. What is the new focal length in each case?

10. (i) If f = + 0.5 m, what is the power of the lens?

(ii) The radii of curvature of the faces of a double

convex lens are 10 cm and 15 cm. Its focal length

is 12 cm. What is the refractive index of glass?

(iii) A convex lens has 20 cm focal length in air. What is

the focal length in water? (Refractive index for air-

water = 1.33, Refractive index for air-glass = 1.5.)

11. Two thin converting lenses of focal lengths 0.15 m and

held in contact with each other. Calculate power and

focal length of combination.

12. What curvature must be given to the bounding surface

of a refracting medium (µ = 1.5) for the virtual image of

an object in the adjacent medium (µ = 1) at 10 cm to be

formed at a distance of 40 cm?

13. An empty spherical flask of diameter flask of diameter

30 cm is placed in water of refractive index

4

.

3

A parallel

beam of light strikes the flask. Where does it get

focused, when observed from within the flask.

14. The image of a needle placed 10 cm from a lens is

formed on a wall 20 cm on the other side of the lens.

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Find the focal length of lens and size of image formed if

the size of object needle is 2.5 cm.

15. A convex lens is to be used to throw on a screen 20 cm

from the lens, a magnified image of an object. If the

magnification is to be 19, find the focal length of the

lens.

16. A needle placed 45 cm from a lens forms an image on a

screen placed 90 cm on the other side of the lens.

Identify the type of lens and determine its focal length.

What is the size of the image if the size of the needle is

5.0 cm?

17. A converting beam of light passes through a diverting

lens of focal length 0.2 m and comes to focus 0.3 m

behind the lens. Find the position of the point at which

the beam would converge in the absence of the lens.

18. The radius of curvature of each surface of a convex

lens of refractive index 1.5 is 0.40 m. Calculate its

power.

19. An equiconvex lens of focal length 15 cm is cut into two

equal halves in thickness. What is the focal length of

each half?

20. A glass has a focal length of 5 cm in air. What will be its

focal length in water? Refractive index of glass is 1.51

and that of water is 1.33.

21. A glass convex lens has a focal length of 20 cm in air. What

will be its focal length, when it is completely immersed in a

liquid of refractive index 1.63? Given aµg = 1.5.

22. (a) A screen is placed 90 cm from an object. The

image of the object on the screen is formed by a

convex lens at two different locations separated by

20 cm. Determine the focal length of the lens.

(b) Suppose the object in (a) above is in illuminated slit

in a collimator tube so that it is hard to measure slit

size and its distance from the screen. Using a

convex lens, one obtains a sharp image of the slit

on a screen. The image size is measured to be 4.6

cm. The lens is displaced away from the slit and at

a certain location, another sharp image of size 1.7

cm is obtained. Determine the size of the slit.

Topics for Worksheet – V

Optical instruments

Worksheet – V

1. Far point of a short-sighted person is 100 cm. What

lens should he use to see distance objects clearly?

2. A short-sighted person can only see objects distinctly if

they lie between 8 cm and 100 cm from the eye. What

kind of lens should be required to see a star clearly and

what would be its focal length? With these glasses,

what would be the least distance of distinct vision?

3. A figure divided into squares, each of size 1 mm

2

, is

being viewed at a distance of 9 cm through a

magnifying glass (a converging lens of focal length 10

cm) held close to the eye. (i) What is the magnification

(image size/object size) produced by the lens ? How

much is the area of each square in the virtual image?

(ii) What is the angular magnification (magnifying

power) of the lens? (iii) Is the magnification in (i) equal

to the magnifying power in (ii)? Explain.

4. A person with a normal near point (25 cm) using a

compound microscope with and objective of focal length

8.0 mm and eyepiece of focal length 2.5 cm can bring

an object placed 9.0 mm from the objective in sharp

focus. What is the separation between the two lenses?

How much is the magnifying power of the microscope?

12. Two convex lenses of focal lengths 10 cm and 1 cm

constitute a telescope. The telescope is focused on a

scale which 1 m away from the objective. Calculate the

magnification produced and the length of the tube if the

final image is formed at a distance of 25 cm from the

eye.

13. (a) A giant refracting telescope at an observatory has

an objective lens of focal length 15 m. If an

eyepiece of focal length 1.0 cm is used, what is the

angular magnification of the telescope?

(b) If this telescope is used to view the Moon, what is

the diameter of the image of the Moon formed by

the objective lens? The diameter of the Moon is

3.48 × 10

6

m and the radius of lunar orbit is 3.8 ×

10

8

m.

14. (a) The image of the objective in the eyepiece is

known as the ‘eye-ring’. Why is this the best

position of our eyes for viewing?

(b) Show that the angular magnification of a telescope

equals the ratio of the diameter of objective to the

diameter of eye-ring.

(c) The angular magnification of a telescope is 300.

What should be the diameter of the objective is our

eyes (located at the eye-ring) are just able to

collect all the light refracted by the objective? Take

the diameter of the pupil of the eye to be 3 mm.

5. A person can see clearly only upto 3 metre. Prescribe a

lens for his spectacles so that he can see clearly upto

12 metre.

6. A short-sighted person can see objects most distinctly

at a distance of 16 cm. If he wears spectacles at a

distance of 1 cm from the eye, what focal length should

they have so as to enable him to see distinctly at a

distance of 26 cm?

7. To print a photograph from a negative, the time of

exposure to light from a lamp placed 0.50 m away is 2.5

second. How much exposure time is required if the

lamp is placed 1.0 m away?

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8. A convex lens of focal length 6.25 cm is used as a

magnifying glass. If the near point of the observer is 25

cm from the eye and the lens is held close to the eye,

calculate (i) the distance of the object from the lens and

(ii) the angular magnification.

9. In the previous question, what should be the distance

between the object ant the magnifying glass if the

virtual image of each square in the figure is to have an

area of 6.25 mm

2

. Would you be to see the squares

distinctly with your eyes very close to the magnifier?

10. An angular magnification (magnifying power) of 30 × is

desired using an objective of focal length 1.25 cm and

an eyepiece of focal length 5 cm in a compound

microscope. What is the separation between objective

and the eyepiece?

11. An amateur astronomer wishes to estimate roughly the

size of the Sun using his crude telescope consisting of

an objective lens of focal length 200 cm and an

eyepiece of focal length 10 cm. By adjusting the

distance of the eyepiece from the objective, he obtains

an image of the Sun on the screen 40 cm behind the

eyepiece. The diameter of the Sun’s image is measured

to be 6.0 cm. What is his estimate of the Sun’s size,

given that the average Earth-Sun distance is 1.5 × 10

11

m?

12. A small telescope has an objective lens of focal length

140 cm and an eyepiece of focal length 5.0 cm. What is

magnifying power of the telescope for viewing distance

objects when

(a) the telescope is in normal adjacent (i.e., when the

final image is at infinity), (b) the final image is formed at

the least distance of distinct vision (25 cm). (c) What is

the separation between the objective and eye-lens in

case (a) ? (d) If this telescope is used to view a 100 m

tall tower 3 km away, what is the height of the image of

the tower formed by the objective lens? (e) What is the

height of the final image of the tower if it is formed at 25

cm?

CURRICULUM BASED CHAPTER ASSIGNMENT

1 Mark Questions

1. Radius of the curvature of convex mirror 40 cm and the

size of the object is twice as that of the image. Then,

what is the image distance?

2. When a mirror is rotated through an angle θ, what is the

angle turned by the reflected ray?.

3. A concave mirror of focal length f produced an image n

size of the object. If the image is real, what is the

distance from the mirror?

4. The angle between incident ray and the reflect ray is

70°. What if the angle of incidence?

5. A 5 cm tall object is placed 10 cm from a concave

mirror of focal length 15 cm. Find the position, nature

and the size of the image.

6. A tall man of height 6 feet want to see his image. Find

the required minimum length of the mirror to see his

image.

7. Where should an object be placed in front of concave

mirror focal length f so that the image to be the same

size as the object?

8. What is the magnification produced a plane mirror?

9. If the power of a lens is +5 dioptres, what is the focal

length?

10. A parallel beam of light is incident on a concave lens of

large aperture, Will the reflected coverage at point?

11. Which of the two main parts of an optical fiber has a

higher value of refractive index?

12. A thin prism of 60° angle gives a deviati on of 30°. What

is the refractive index of material of prism?

13. What is the refractive index of air for light waves?

14. Mention two conditions of total internal reflection?

15. What happens when white light passes through a

prism?

16. What is a prism?

17. Show the refraction of light by a prism with a suitable

diagram.

18. Give two characteristic properties when the prism is in

the position of minimum deviation?

19. Which of the following colours suffers maximum

deviation in a prism?

20. What is the importance of linear magnification?

21. Where should an object placed in image of the same by

a convex lens? Can it happen in case of a concave

lens?

22. How will you judge whether a given piece of glass is

convex lens, concave lens or a plane glass sheet?

23. A lens whose radii of curvature are different is forming

an image. If the lens is reversed, will the position of

image change?

24. What is the nature of the image formed by a concave

mirror when the object is placed between its pole and

focus?

25. Focal length of an equiconvex lens is equal to the

radius of curvature of either face. What is the refractive

index of lens material?

26. What should be the position of an object relative to a

biconvex lens so that it behaves like a magnifying lens?

27. A converging and a diverging lens of equal focal lengths

are place coaxially in contact. Find the power and focal

length of the combination.

28. When a biconvex lens made of glass (µ = 1.5) is

immersed in water (µ = 1.33), what will happen to its

focal length?

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2 Marks Questions

29. What happen when a monochromic ray passes through

a prism?

30. State the law of reflection.

31. What do you mean by the spherical aberration of a

lens? How can it be minimized?

32. Define linear magnification?

33. Mention the use of plane, concave and the convex

mirror.

34. An object is placed between the focus and the pole of a

concave mirror. Locate the position of the image by the

ray diagram.

35. What is mean by the linear magnification?

36. Give new Cartesian sigh convention for the spherical

mirrors.

37. A ray of light incident on one face of an equilateral

prism undergoes total internal reflection at another face.

If the refractive index of prism material is 2 then, find

the angle of incidence (r2) at another face is

38. A ray is incident at an angle of incidence i on one

surface of a prism of small angle A and emerges

normally from the opposite face. If the refractive index

of the prism material is µ, then what angle of incidence?

39. If the angle of a prism is 60° and angle of minimum

deviation is 40°. Then find the angle of refraction.

40. Refractive index of glass for light of yellow, green and

red colours are µy, µg and µr respectively. Rearrange

these symbols in an increasing order of values?

41. At what angle of incidence should a light beam strike a

glass slab of refractive-index 3 , such that the

reflected and the refracted rays are perpendicular to

each other?

42. Show with the help of a diagram the deviation produced

by a prism.

43. Define a monochromatic and polychromatic light. How

can one obtain monochromatic light from polychromatic

light?

44. How deep will a 4 m deep tank appear when seen in air

due to optical illusion? Refractive index of water is 4/3.

45. What is dispersion?

46. A concave lens of f = 15 cm forms an image 10 cm from

the lens. Prove that the object is placed 30 cm away

from the lens.

47. An object is placed 10 cm in front of a lens. The lens

forms a real image three times magnified. Where is the

image formed? What is the focal length of the lens?

48. The radius of curvature of either face of a convex lens

is equal to its focal length. What is the refractive index

of the material of the lens?

49. Calculate the focal length of the combination of a

convex lens of focal length 30 cm in contact with a

concave lens of focal length 20 cm. Is the system a

converging or a diverging lens?

50. A compound microscope with an objective of 1.0 cm

focal length and an eye-piece of 2.0 cm focal length has

a tude length of 20 cm. calculate the magnifying power

of the microscope, if the final image is formed at the

neat of the eye.

51. An astronomical telescope, in normal adjustment

position has magnifying power 5. The distance between

the objective and the eye-piece is 120 cm. calculate the

focal lengths of the objective and of the eye-piece.

52. A convex lens of refractive index n1 is held in a

medium of refractive index n2 . trace the path of

refracted rays of parallel beam of light incident on the

lens when (i) n2>n1 and (ii) n2=n1.

53. Using the lens formula, show that a concave lens

produces a virtual and diminished image independent of

the location of object.

3 Marks Questions

54. An object is placed 10 cm in front of a concave mirror of

focal length 15 cm. Find the nature, position and size of

the image.

55. An erect image three times the size of the object is

obtained with the concave mirror of radius of curvature

36 cm. What is the position of the object?

56. Light of wavelength 5000

0

A fall on a reflection surface.

What are the wave length and frequency of reflected

ray normal the incident ray?

57. What type mirror will you prefer for the saving or make

–up?

58. For dividing a car, which type of mirror would you prefer

to see the traffic at your back?

59. What is the difference between virtual image formed by

the plane, concave and convex mirror?

60. Described a simple method of finding the focal length of

a concave mirror.

61. What are spherical aberration?

62. What do you understand by diffuse reflection?

63. Draw three important rays for a concave mirror that are

generally used to locate the position of the image of an

object?

64. Define the dispersive power of a prism.

65. Why does the sky appear blue?

66. A ray of light falls normally on the face of a prism of

refractive index 1.5. Find the angle of the prism if the

ray just fails to emerge from the second face.

67. The minimum deviation produced by a glass prism

having an angle of 60° is 30°. If the velocity of light in

air is 3 × 108 ms–1, calculate its velocity its velocity in

glass.

68. A glass prism has a refracting angle of 60°. The angle

of minimum deviation is 40°. Find the refractive index.

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At what angle the ray of light should be incident so as to

suffer minimum deviation?

69. A ray of light enters a rectangular glass slab of

refractive index 3 at an angle of incidence 60°. It

travels a distance 5 cm inside the slab and emerges out

of the slab. What is the perpendicular distance between

the incident and emergent rays?

70. Prove that the refractive index of denser medium w.r.t.

rarer medium is equal to the reciprocal of the refractive

index of rarer medium w.r.t. denser medium.

71. An object is immersed in water, show that

a

w

Realdepth

Apparent depth

µ ·

72. Describe two applications of atmospheric refraction.

73. A myopic person has been using spectacles of power—

1.0 dioptre for distant vision. During old are he also

needs to use separate reading glass of power +2.0

dioptre. Explain what may have happened.

74. A spherical surface of radius of curvature R separates

air (refractive index 1.0) from glass (refractive index

1.5). The centre of curvature is in the glass. A point

object P placed in air is found to have a real image Q in

the glass. The line PQ cuts the surface at point O and

PO = OQ. Find the distance of the object from the

spherical surface.

75. A small point object is placed in air at a distance of 60

cm from the convex spherical refracting surface of

refractive index 1.5. If the radius of the curvature of the

spherical surface is 25 cm, find the position of the

image and power of the refracting surface.

76. An ink dot marked on the surface of glass sphere

placed in air is viewed

Fig

through the glass from a position directly opposite. If the

diameter of the sphere is 15 cm and the refractive index

of glass is 1.5, find the position of the image.

77. A convex refracting surface of radius of curvature 15 cm

separates two media of refractive indices 4/3 and 1.5.

An object is kept in the first medium at a distance of 240

cm from the refracting surface. Calculate the position of

the image.

78. A real image of an object id formed at a distance 20cm

from a lens. On putting another lens in contact with it,

the image is shifted 10 cm toward the combination.

Determine the power of the second lens.

79. How does the focal length of a convex lens change if

monochromatic red light is used instead of

monochromatic blue light?

80. Draw a ray diagram of an astronomical telescope in the

normal adjustment position. Write down the expression

for its magnifying power.

81. Draw a ray diagram of an astronomical telescope in the

near adjustment position. Write down the expression for

its magnifying power.

82. Explain why does a convex lens behave as a

converging lens when immersed in water (µ = 1.33) and

as a diverging lens, when immersed in carbon

disulphide (µ = 1.6).

5 Marks Questions

83. Obtain the relation between radius of curvature (R) and

the focal length (f) of a convex mirror?

84. A 2.0 cm tall is placed 15 cm from a concave mirror of

focal length 10 cm. Find the position, size and nature of

the image?

85. Two planes are mirror are inclined to each at angleθ. A

ray of light is reflected first at one mirror and mirror then

at the other. Fined the total deviation of the ray and

show that it is independent of the angle of the incidence

at first t mirror.

86. A square wire of side 3.0 cm is placed 25 cm away from

a concave mirror of focal length is on the axis of the

mirror with the two sides normal to the axis.

87. Two objects A and B when the placed in front of the

concave mirror of focal length 7.5 cm give the image

of equal size If A is three times the size from the mirror

of B and is place 30cm, Find the distance of the object

from the pole of the mirror,

88. The angle of minimum deviation for yellow light in a

prism of refractive index 1.6 is found to be 46°.

Calculate the refracting angle of the prism.

89. In a spectrometer, for the prism A = 60°, calculate the

angle of minimum deviation if µ of the prism for orange

light is 1.64?

90. Define critical angle, obtain a relation for it. Define total

internal reflection. State essential conditions for its

occurance.

91. A ray of light is incident at an angle of 60° on one face

of a prism which has an angle of 30°. The ray emerging

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out of the prism makes an angle of 30° with the incident

ray. Show that the emergent ray is perpendicular to the

face through which it emerges and calculate the

refractive index of the material of the prism.

92. A ray of monochromatic light is incident on the

refracting face of a prism of refracting angle 75°. It

passes through the prism and is incident on the other

face at the critical angle. If the refraction index of the

prism is 2 , find the angle of incidence on the first face

of the prism.

93. A glass prism of angle 72° and refractive index 1.66 is

immersed in a liquid of refractive index 1.33.Find the

angle of minimum deviation for a parallel beam of light

passing through the prism.

94. An object is placed 20 cm to the left of a convex lens of

focal length 10 cm. If a concave mirror of focal length 5

cm is placed 30 cm to right of the lens, what is the

position of the final image?

95. A diverging lens of focal length 20 cm is placed 60 cm

from a pin and a concave mirror of radius of curvature

20cm is placed on the opposite side of the lens. Where

should the mirror be placed so that image of the pin

may coincide with the pin itself?

96. With the help of the data shown in the ray diagram in

fig, calculate the focal length of the concave lens.

QUESTION BANK FOR COMPETITIONS

1. A ray is reflected in turn be three plane mirrors mutually

at right angles to each other. The angle between the

incident and the reflected rays is:

(a) 90° (b) 60°

(c) 180° (d) None of these

2. A plane mirror is in front of you in which you can see

your image. It is approaching towards you at a speed of

10 cm/s’ then at what speed will your image approach

you?

(a) 10 cm/s (b) 5 cm/s

(c) 20 cm/s (d) 15 cm/s

3. The size of the image, if an object of 2.5 m height is

placed at a distance of 10 cm from a concave mirror is:

(a) 10.5 m (b) 9.2 m

(c) 7.5 m (d) 5.6 m

4. Ray optics fails when the size of the obstacle is:

(a) 5 cm

(b) 3 cm

(c) Less than the wavelength of light

(d) (a) and (b) both.

5. Arrange the following in ascending order of frequency.

(a) Red, Blue, yellow, green

(b) Blue, green ,yellow ,red

(c) Red, yellow, green, blue

(d) Red, green, yellow, blue

6. One can not see through fog because:

(a) Fog absorbs light

(b) Light is scattered by the droplets in fog

(c) Light surface total internal reflection by the droplets

in fog

(d) The refractive index of fog is infinity

7. The refractive index of the medium if a light wave has a

frequency of 4 × 10

14

Hz and a wavelength of 5 × 10

–7

m in a medium, will be:

(a) 1.5 (b) 1.33

(c) 1.0 (d) 0.66

8. The number of wavelengths in the visible spectrum is:

(a) 4000 (b) 6000

(c) 2000 (d) Infinite

9. Find the length of the optical path of two media in

contact of lengths d1 and d2 of refractive indices µ1 and

µ2 respectively.

(a) µ1 d1 + µ2d2 (b) µ1 d2 + µ2d1

(b)

1 2

1 2

d d

µ µ

(d)

1 2

1 2

d d +

µ µ

10. Calculate the refractive index of glass with respect to

water. It is given that refractive indices of glass and

water with respect to air are

3 3

and

2 4

respectively:

(a)

8

9

(b)

9

8

(c)

7

6

(d) None of these

11. When a prism is dipped in water then the angle of

minimum deviation of a prism with respect to air will be:

a g a w

3 4

,

2 3

¸ _

µ · µ ·

¸ ,

(a)

1

8

(b)

1

2

(c)

3

4

(d)

1

4

12. An astronomical telescope has a large aperture to:

(a) Reduce spherical aberration

(b) Have high resolution

(c) Increase span of observation

(d) Have low dispersion

13. To get three images of a single object, one should have

two plane mirrors at an angle of:

(a) 60º (b) 90º

(c) 120º (d) 30º

14. A thin glass (refractive index 1.5) lens has optical power

of – 5D in air. Its optical power in a liquid medium with

refractive index 1.6 will be:

(a) 1D (b) –1D

(c) 25D (d) –25D

Physics Ray Optics & Optical Instruments 137

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15. A plane mirror.

(i) Can form real object

(ii) Neither converges nor diverges the rays

(iii) Cannot form real image of a real object.

Choose the correct option or options.

(a) (i) is correct

(b) (i) and (ii) are correct

(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct

(d) None of all above

16. A man of height 1.8 m stands in front of large vertical

plane mirror. The distance of the image from the main if

he stands at a dis tance of 1.5 m from the mirror is:

(a) 1 m (b) 2 m

(c) 3 m (d) 4 m

17. A man is running towards a plane mirror with some

velocity. If the relative velocity of his image with respect

to him is 4 m/s, then the velocity of a man is:

(a) 2 m/s

(b) 4 m/s

(c) 15 m/s

(d) 16 m/s

18. The mirrors are perpendicular to each other as shown

in figure. A light ray a light ray AB is incident on the

mirror M1. Then the reflected ray wills also surfer a

reflection from the mirror M2. Then the final ray after

reflection from M2 will be parallel to the incident ray, if:

i

B

M

2

M

1

(a) I =45°

(b) I = 65°

(c) I < 30°

(d) for any I between 0° and 90°

19. A pole 5 m high on a horizontal surface. Sun rays rare

incident at an angle 30° with vertical. The size or

shadow on horizontal surface is:

(a) 5 m

(b)

5

m

3

(c)

10

m

3

(d) None of these

20. A point object P is situated in front of plane mirror

shown in figure. The width of mirror AB is d. The visual

region on a line passing through point P and parallel to

the mirror is:

d

A

B

45°

P

(a) d (b) 2d

(c) 3d (d) None of the above

21. A beautiful girl with two normal eyes wants to see full

width of her face by a plane mirror. The eye to eye and

ear to ear distances of her face are 4 inch and 6 inch

respectively. The minimum width of the required mirror

is:

(a) 1 inch (b) 2 inch

(c) 3 inch (d) 4 inch

22. A ray f light falls on a plane mirror. When th e mirror is

turned, about an axis at right angle to the plane of the

mirror through 20°, the angle between the incident ray

and new reflected ray is 45°.The angle between the

incident ray and original reflected ray is:

(a) 15° (b) 30°

(c) 45° (d) 60°

23. A lamp and scale arrangement, used to measure small

deflected is shown in the figure. SS’ is the glass scale

placed at a distance of 1 MM and I is the position of the

light spot formed after reflection from the under

deflected mirror MM. the mirror is deflected by 10° and

comes to the deflected position MM. the distance

moved by the spot on the scale is:

M’

M

R

S

I

1 m

10°

M’

M

S

(a) 24.6 cm (b) 36.4 cm

(c) 46.4 cm (d) 34.9 cm

138 Ray Optics & Optical Instruments Physics

SAVANT EDUCATI ON GROUP E-17, East of Kailash, New Delhi – 110065. Ph.: +91-11-26224417 www.savantgroup.org

24. A plane mirror, reflecting a ray of incident light, is

rotated through an angle θ about an axis through the

point of incidence in the plane of the mirror

perpendicular of the plane of incidence, then:

(a) The reflected ray does not rotated

(b) The reflected ray rotates through an angle θ

(c) The reflected ray rotates through an angle θ

(d) The incident ray is fixed

25. In the given figure, the angle between reflected rays is

equal to:

A

(a) A

(b) 2A

(c) 3A

(d) 4A

26. A vessel consists of two plane mirrors at right angles

(as shown in figure). The vessel is filled with water. The

total deviation in incident ray is:

90°

(a) 0°

(b) 90°

(c) 180°

(d) None of the above

27. Two plane mirrors are placed parallel to each other as

shown in the figure. There is an object O placed

between the mirrors, at 5 cm from mirror M2. What are

the distances of first three images from M2?

O

15 cm

M

1 M

2

(a) 5,10,15

(b) 5,15,30

(c) 5, 25, 25

(d) 5,15,25

28. If two mirrors are inclined at some angle and an object

is placed between the mirrors and there are 7 images

formed for an object, then what is angle between the

mirrors?

(a) 54°

(b) 50°

(c) 60°

(d) 45°

29. If u represents object distance from pole of spherical

mirror and v represents image distance from pole of

mirror and f is the focal length of the mirror, then a

straight line u = v measurement of f is:

(a) (f,f)

(b) (2f,2f)

(c) (f, 2f)

(d) (0,0)

30. The position of 1 cm tall object which speed is placed 8

cm in front of a concave mirror of radius of curvature 24

cm is:

(a) 24 cm

(b) 25 cm

(c) 26 cm

(d) 27 cm

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