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By

:-
DR. VI KRAM SI NGH
TANUSHREE SI NGH
YEAR OF PUBLI CATI ON-2010
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SAVANT I NSTI TUTE
TM
CLASS XI I
PHYSICS
Physics Ray Optics & Optical Instruments 1
SAVANT EDUCATI ON GROUP E-17, East of Kailash, New Delhi – 110065. Ph.: +91-11-26224417 www.savantgroup.org
7

RAY OPTICS AND OPTICAL INSTRUMENTS

_____________________
Slide 1
______________________

Thin Lenses: History
§ Thin lens were first used for practical purposes by a Dutch
merchant, Anton van Leeuwenhoek (1632 – 1723).
§ He used very small pieces of glass (it is easier to have a
flawless small piece of glass than a flawless large one) and
polished them so accurately that he could get magnifications
of more than 200 without loss of detail.
§ He was able to see blood capillaries, and tiny living animals
(protozoa).
_____________________
Slide 2
______________________

Microscopes
§ Such strong magnifying lenses are microscopes (from
Greek words meaning “to see the small”).
§ A microscope, like the one Leeuwenhoek used, made with
one lens are called “simple” microscopes.
§ If two lenses are used it is called a “compound” microscope.
_____________________
Slide 3
______________________

Telescopes
§ The word telescope comes from the Greek “to see the
distant.
§ The telescope is supposed to have been invented by an
apprentice-boy in the shop of the Dutch spectacle maker
Hans Lipershey (ca. (1570 – 1619) in about 1608.
§ Galileo Galilei (1564 – 1642), upon hearing rumors of the
new device, experimented with lenses until he had built the
first practical telescope in 1610.
_____________________
Slide 4
______________________

Moon from Apollo 16

_____________________
Slide 5
______________________

Stamp in the honour of Robert Snell

_____________________
Slide 6
______________________

Introduction:
§ Light is a non-mechanical (requires no medium for
propagation) form of energy due to which we have sensation
of vision.
§ The branch of study of light is called optics.
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§ Broadly optics is divided into three groups.
(1) Geometrical optics
(2) Wave optics
(3) Quantum optics
_____________________
Slide 7
______________________

Geometrical optics
§ In this, light is considered as a ray on which its transfer
takes place.
_____________________
Slide 8
______________________

§ Geometrical optics states that for each and every object
there is an image.
§ Geometrical optics works on following assumptions.
§ Rectilinear propogration of light i.e. light ray travels in in
straight line.
1. Lawsof reflection.
2. Lawsof refraction


3. Physical independence of light rays i.e. two light rays
are totally independent from each other.
_____________________
Slide 9
______________________

The Ray (Particle) Model of Light
§ Evidence suggests that light travels in straight lines under
a wide variety of circumstances.
§ We infer the positions of objects by assuming t hat light
moves from the objects to our eyes in straight lines.
§ This is the ray model of light.
§ Newton used the ray model.
§ Ray model explains reflection, refraction, and the
formation of images by mirrors and lenses.
§ This subject is often referred to as geometrical optics.
_____________________
Slide 10
_____________________

Ray Model


Slide 11
What Can Happen to Light?
When it strikes a surface of an object light can be:
1. Reflected
2. Transmitted
3. Absorbed (and transformed to thermal energy)
_____________________
Slide 12
_____________________

Reflected

_____________________
Slide 13
_____________________

Transmitted

_____________________
Slide 14
_____________________

Absorbed

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Slide 15
Reflection and Scattering

_____________________
Slide 16
_____________________

Movie screen scatters light in all directions

_____________________
Slide 17
_____________________

Interactions of Light with Matter

Interactions between light and matter determine the appearance
of everything around us: objects reflect some wavelengths,
absorb others and emit others.
_____________________
Slide 18
_____________________

The Speed of Light and Index of Refraction
§ The accepted value today for the speed of light in a vacuum
is c = 2.99792458 x 10
8
m/s. We usually round off to c = 3.0
x 10
8
m/s.
Slide 19
Reflection of Light

_____________________
Slide 20
_____________________

Object
§ Any source of light is called an object and is of two types.
Real object
§ When light rays diverse from a light source, object is real.

_____________________
Slide 21
_____________________

Virtual object
§ When light rays converge towards the light source, object is
virtual.

§ To find the position of object we should find out the point of
intersection of incident rays.
_____________________
Slide 22
_____________________

Image
§ To find the position of Image we should find out the point of
intersection of reflected or refracted ray. There are of two
types of images.
Real Image
§ If the reflected or refracted ray converges towards the point
of intersection the image is real.

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Slide 23
Virtual Image
§ If the reflected or refracted rays diverges from a point then
the point of intersection is virtual Image.

_____________________
Slide 24
_____________________

Mirror
§ A smooth and shiny surface on which reflection can take
place is called a mirror, having two types.
1. Plane mirror. 2. Spherical mirror.
_____________________
Slide 25
_____________________

Reflection of light
§ The returing back of light in the same medium from which it
has come after striking a surface is called reflection of light.
§ Reflection may be
§ Diffused reflection – here random reflections take place
through irregular surfaces.
§ Specular reflection - here regular reflections take place
through plane surfaces.
_____________________
Slide 26
_____________________

Reflection

_____________________
Slide 27
_____________________

Diffuse reflection

Slide 28

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Slide 29
_____________________

Image Formation—Plane Mirror

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Slide 30
_____________________

Image Formation –Plane Mirror

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Slide 31

_____________________
Slide 32
_____________________

Conceptual Example
How tall must a full-length mirror be?
A women 1.60 m tall stands in front of a vertical plane mirror.
What is the minimum height of the mirror, and how high must it
lower edge be above the floor, if she is to see her whole body?
(Assume her eyes are 10 cm below the top of her head.)
_____________________
Slide 33
_____________________


_____________________
Slide 34
_____________________

Reflection of light though plane mirror
Laws of Reflection
(i) The incident ray, the reflected ray and the normal to the
reflecting surface at the point of incidence all lie in the same
plane.
(ii) The angle of reflection r is equal to the angle of incidence i,
that is i = r.

_____________________
Slide 35
_____________________

Image of a Point in a Plane Mirror
OA = OA′
_____________________
Slide 36
_____________________

Image of an extended object in a plane
The image will be an inverted one.

_____________________
Slide 37
_____________________

Properties of the image formed by a plane mirror
§ The image is as far behind the mirror as the object is in front
of the mirror. Object distance = image distance.
§ The image is unmagnified, virtual and erect. Height of object
= height of Image.
§ The image has front-back reversal. i.e. It shows lateral
inversion i.e. left potion of object appears as right portion of
Image.
_____________________
Slide 38
_____________________

§ A plane mirror deviates light through an angle
δ = 180° − 2i
§ Where i is the angle of incidence. The deviation is maximum
for normal incidence. δmax = 180°.
§ Glancing angle φ = angle between mirror and reflected rays
is called glancing angle φ = 90 – i = 90 – r.

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Slide 39
Rotation of Mirror
§ If the direction of the incident ray is kept constant and the
mirror is rotated through an angle θ about an axis in the
plane of mirror, then the reflected ray rotates through an
angle 2θ.

_____________________
Slide 40
_____________________

§ If an object moves toward or away from) a plane mirror at
speed v, the image will also approach (or recede) at the
same speed v, and the relative velocity of image with
respect to object will be 2v, as shown in figure a.

_____________________
Slide 41
_____________________

§ If the mirror is moved toward (or away from) the object with
speed v, the image will also move towards or away from) the
object with a speed 2v.
_____________________
Slide 42
_____________________

Number of image by inclined mirrors
§ When θ, the angle between the two mirrors, is an exact sub
multiple of 180°
§ The total number of images formed due to successive
reflection is equal to either
360°
θ
or
360
1
° ¸ _


θ ¸ ,
.
§ Accordingly as
360°
θ
is odd or even, respectively.
§ In the first case (
360°
θ
is odd) when the object is placed
exactly midway between the two mirrors, the two images
coincide and the total number of images is
360
1
° ¸ _


θ ¸ ,
.
Slide 43
Solved Example
If, θ = 90°, n = 3, θ = 72°, n =
360
72
°
= 5
If the object is placed symmetrically midway between the mirror,
then
360
n 1 4.
72
°
· − ·


_____________________
Slide 44
_____________________

Illustration
Two plane mirrors are inclined at an angle of 60°. An object is
placed between the mirrors. What is the total number of images
formed by two mirrors?
_____________________
Slide 45
_____________________

Illustration
A man H m tall wishes to see his full-length image in a plane
mirror hanging vertically on a wall. Find the length of the shortest
mirror which he can see his entire image. If his eyes are H m
above the ground, find the position of the mirror.
_____________________
Slide 46
_____________________

Spherical Mirrors

_____________________
Slide 47
_____________________


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Slide 48

_____________________
Slide 49
_____________________

Rays parallel to the principal axis of the mirror come to a focus at
F, called the focal point, as long as the mirror is small in
diameter, d, as compared to its radius of curvature, r. In that
case q will be small and the rays will cross each other at very
nearly the same point.

_____________________
Slide 50
_____________________

Reflection from Curved Surfaces
Important Terms
(i) Centre of Curvature (C)
It is the centre of sphere of which the mirror is a part.
(ii) Radius of Curvature (R)
It is the radius of the spherical reflecting surface.

Slide 51
(iii) Pole (P)
It is the geometrical centre of the spherical reflecting
surface.
(iv) Principal Axis
It is the straight line joining the centre of curvature to the
pole.

_____________________
Slide 52
_____________________

(v) Focus (F)
When a narrow beam of rays of light, parallel to the principal
axis and close to it, is incident on the surface of a mirror, the
reflected beam is found to converage or appear to diverge
from a point on the principal axis. This point is called the
focus.
(vi) Focal length (f)
It is the distance between the pole and the principal focus.
For spherical mirrors f = R/2
_____________________
Slide 53
_____________________

Reflection of light from spherical (curved) sign convention
§ Pole is taken to be the origin and the principal axis as the x-
axis.
§ The quantities u, v, R and f is positive if the corresponding
point lies on the positive side of the origin (in the direction of
incident light) and negative if it is on the negative side.
(opposite to the direction of incident light).
_____________________
Slide 54
_____________________

§ The distances measured in the upward direction,
perpendicular to the principal axis of the mirror are taken as
positive and those measured in downward direction is taken
as negative.
_____________________
Slide 55
_____________________

Rules for ray diagrams
§ The position, size and nature of an image formed by mirrors
are conventionally expressed as ray diagrams. We can
locate the image of any extended object graphically by
drawing any two of the following four special rays:
(a) A ray, initially parallel to the principal axis is reflected
through the focus of the mirror.
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Slide 56
(b) A ray, initially passing through the focus is reflected
parallel to the principal axis.
(c) A ray passing through the centre of curvature is
reflected back along itself.
(d) A ray incident at the pole is reflected symmetrically.
_____________________
Slide 57
_____________________

Mirror Formula
In terms of Cartesian Sign convention mirror formula may be
expressed as:
1 1 1
v u f
+ ·
Where, u = object distance from the pole
v = image distance from the pole,
f = focal length of the mirror.
_____________________
Slide 58
_____________________

Relation between u, v and R for spherical mirrors
§ Consider the situation shown in figure. A point object is
placed at the point O of the principal axis of a concave
mirror.
§ The line CA is the normal at A.

_____________________
Slide 59
_____________________

§ Thus, by the laws of reflection. ∠OCA = ∠CAI. Let α, β, γ
and θ denote the angles AOP, ACP, AIP and OAC
respectively.
§ As the exterior angle in a triangle equals the sum of the
opposite interior angles, we have,
From triangle OAC β = α + θ ….(i)
And from triangle OAI γ = α + 2θ ….(ii)
_____________________
Slide 60
_____________________

§ Eliminating θ are from (i) and (ii)
2β = α + γ …..(iii)
§ If the point A is close to P, the angles α, β and γ are small
and we can write.
§
AP AP AP
, and
PO PC PI
α · β · γ ≈ Fig (i)
§ Hence ,
AP AP AP
2
PC PO PI
· +
or, ( )
1 1 2
..... iv
PO PI PC
+ ·
_____________________
Slide 61
_____________________

§ The pole P is taken as the origin and the principal axis as
the X – axis.
§ As, the distances PO, PI and PC are positive, PO = –u, PI =
– V and PC = – R. Putting in (iv)
1 1 2
–u –v –R
+ ·
1 1 2 1
u v R f
· + · ·
Note:
§ While using the mirror formula always write only known
quantities with sign and unknown quantities without sign.
_____________________
Slide 62
_____________________

Magnification
§ Magnification – It is defined as the ratio of dimension of
Image to the dimension of object (m).
§ It is a pure number.
_____________________
Slide 63
_____________________

Lateral magnification or transverse magnification
§ It is given by,
i
0
h v
m
h u

· ·
§ Where hi = height of image, h0 = height of object.
§ If magnification m is positive, the image is erect w.r.t.
respect to the object;
§ If m is negative image is inverted with respect to the object.
§ For a real image by spherical mirror, m is negative.
§ For a virtual image by spherical mirror, m is positive.
_____________________
Slide 64
_____________________

Application of mirror formula
§ The mirror formulae may be used to find the position, nature
and size of the image formed by a spherical mirror.
Limitation
§ The limitation of the formulae is that it is applicable only for
paraxial rays (the rays which make very small angle with
the principal axis).
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Slide 65
Relation between f and R –
§ From mirror formula we have derived
1 1 2
u v R
+ · , now if the
object is at infinity the image is formed at focus.
§ Hence, when u = ∞ v = f, Now from mirror formula
1 1 2
f R
+ ·

or
1 2
f R
· or, f = R/2 i.e. focal length of a mirror is
half of its radius of curvature.
_____________________
Slide 66
_____________________

Object Not at Infinity

(a) Ray 1 goes out from O′ parallel to the axis and reflects
through F.
_____________________
Slide 67
_____________________


(b) Ray 2 goes through F and then reflects back Parallel to the
axis.
_____________________
Slide 68
_____________________


(c) Ray 3 heads out perpendicular to mirror and the reflects
back on itself and goes through C center of curvature
Slide 69

_____________________
Slide 70
_____________________


_____________________
Slide 71
_____________________

Convex Mirrors

_____________________
Slide 72
_____________________


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Slide 73
Illustration
An object of length 3 cm is placed at a distance of (5/4)f from a
concave mirror where f is the magnitude of the focal length of the
mirror. The length of the object is parallel to the principal axis.
Find the length of the image, is the image erect or inverted?

_____________________
Slide 74
_____________________

Newton’s formula
If the object and image distances are measured from the focus
instead of the pole of the mirror. Then, the mirror formula
reduces to a simple form called the Newton’s formula.
x0 xi = f
2

Where x0 is the object distance from the focus.
xi is the image distance from the focus.
_____________________
Slide 75
_____________________

Illustration
A short linear object is placed at a distance ‘u’ along the axis of a
spherical mirror of focal length f.
(i) Obtain an expression for the longitudinal magnification.
(ii) Also, obtain an expression for the ratio of the velocity of
image (v) to the velocity of object (u).
_____________________
Slide 76
_____________________

Illustration
A small strip of plane mirror A is set with its plane normal to the
principal axis of a convex mirror B and placed 15 cm in front of B
which it partly covers. An object is placed 30 cm from A and the
two virtual images formed by reflection in A and B coincide
without parallax. Find the radius of curvature of B.
_____________________
Slide 77
_____________________

Illustration
A concave mirror of focal length 15 cm) and a convex mirror
(focal length 10 cm) are placed co-axially 70 cm apart facing
each other. A 2 cm tall object is placed perpendicular to the
common axis 20 cm from the concave mirror. Find the position,
size and nature of the final image formed by two reflections, first
at concave mirror and then at convex mirror.
Slide 78
Introduction:
Refraction through plane surface refraction of light
§ Refraction is a phenomena of light due to which it bends
while travelling from one medium to another.
§ When light goes from one medium to another medium.
ü Its velocity changes
ü Its wavelength changes
ü Its path may or may not change.
ü Its frequency remains unchanged.
_____________________
Slide 79
_____________________

§ During, the propagation of light from one medium to another
medium changes its velocity and wavelength and the path
also changes (except ∠i = 0).
§ When light goes from an optically rarer to an optically dense
medium, it bends towards normal provided ∠i ≠ 0 as shown
in the fig.

_____________________
Slide 80
_____________________

When light goes from an optically dense to an optically rarer
medium it bends away from normal provided.
∠i ≠ 0, Fig.

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Slide 81

_____________________
Slide 82
_____________________


_____________________
Slide 83
_____________________


Slide 84

_____________________
Slide 85
_____________________

Refractive index
§ The degree of bending of light depends upon the medium
quality called refraction Index (µ), a pure number.
§ Refractive index (µ) is of two types
1. Relative Refractive Index (µ)
2. Absolute Refractive Index
_____________________
Slide 86
_____________________

§ The absolute refractive index (µ) of a medium is defined as
the ratio of the speed of light in the vacuum (c) to the speed
of light in the medium (Vm).
m
c
V
µ ·
_____________________
Slide 87
_____________________

Relative refractive index
§ The relative refractive index of two media is equal to the
ratio of their absolute refractive indices.
2 2 1
21
1 1 2
c v v
c v v
µ
µ · · ·
µ

§ This is read as refractive index of 2
nd
medium with respect
1
st
medium and written as 1µ2.
§ The refractive indices of glass and water are ( )
3
1.5
2
· and
( )
4
1.33
3
· .
_____________________
Slide 88
_____________________

Note :
§ Absolute Refractive index µ is the refractive index of a
medium with respect to air or vacuum, i.e.
air
m medium
c
V
λ
µ · ·
λ
where, λ denotes wavelength of l ight.
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Slide 89
Refraction of Light (Snell's Law)
§ As light travels from one medium to another, its frequency
does not change.

_____________________
Slide 90
_____________________

ü Both the wave speed and the wavelength do change.
ü The ratio of the indices of refraction of the two media
can be expressed as various ratios
1 2 1 1
2 1 2 2
sin n v
1n2
sin n v
θ λ
· · · ·
θ λ

_____________________
Slide 91
_____________________

Refraction of Light
Critical Angle
§ When light attempts to move from a medium having a given
index of refraction to one having a lower index of refraction.

Slide 92
§ As the incidence angle (θ1) is increased until a particular
angle (θc), as shown in figure, the angle of refraction will be
90º and the refracted ray would skim the surface of the
glass.
§ The incidence angle at which this occurs is called the critical
angle, denoted as

_____________________
Slide 93
_____________________

Total internal reflection

“Total internal reflection is an effect occurs only when light
attempts to move from a medium of given index of refraction to a
medium of lower index of refraction and the incidence angle is
equal or greater than the critical angle of the higher refractive
index medium.”
_____________________
Slide 94
_____________________

Total internal reflection
§ W We e c ca an n u us se e S Sn ne el ll l ’ ’s s l l a aw w o of f r re ef fr ra ac ct ti i o on n t to o f fi i n nd d t th he e c cr ri i t ti i c ca al l a an ng gl le e. .
§ W Wh he en n
1 c 2
, 90º θ · θ θ · a an nd d S Sn ne el l l l’ ’s s l l a aw w g gi i v ve es s
O
1 c 2 2
1 2 2
c c
1 1
n sin n sin90 n
n n
sin sin
n n

θ · ·
θ · ⇒ θ ·

F Fo or r n n11 > > n n22
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Slide 95
Example
Calculate the critical angle of a diamond (n = 2.42)

c
D
c
c
1
sin
n
1
sin
2.42
24.4º
θ ·
θ ·
θ ·


_____________________
Slide 96
_____________________


_____________________
Slide 97
_____________________

Fiber Optics
Application of total internal reflection

§ Such a “light pipe” is flexible if thin fibers are used rather
than thick rods. If a bundle of parallel fibers is used to
construct an optical transmission line, images can be
transferred from one point to another.
Slide 98
§ Light, signals or other forms of communication can travel a
long distance without losing much intensity.
§ Applications include medical use of fiber optic cables for
diagnosis and correction of medical problems
Telecommunications
_____________________
Slide 99
_____________________

Application of total internal reflection
§ T To ot ta al l i i n nt te er rn na al l r re ef fl l e ec ct ti i o on n o of f l l i i g gh ht t b by y p pr ri i s sm ms s i i n n b bi i n no oc cu ul l a ar rs s . .

_____________________
Slide 100
____________________

Application of total internal reflection

_____________________
Slide 101
____________________

Diamonds achieve their brilliance from a combination of
dispersion and total internal reflection. Because diamonds have
a very high index of refraction of about 2.4, the critical angle for
total internal reflections only 25 degree. Incident light therefore
strikes many of the internal surfaces before it strikes one at less
than 25 degree and emerges. After many such reflections, the
light has traveled far enough that the
colors have become sufficiently separated to be seen individually
and brilliantly by the eye after leaving the crystal.
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Slide 102
Some Indices of Refraction

_____________________
Slide 103
____________________

Snell’s law
§ Incident ray, Refracted ray and Normal lie in the same
plane.
§ When light propagates through a series of layers of different
medium as shown in the figure, then according to Snell’s law
we may write,
µ1 sin θ1 = µ2 sin θ2 = µ3 sin θ3 = … = constant
_____________________
Slide 104
____________________

§ In general, µ sin θ = constant.
i.e. for given any two media where light ray strikes the
interface
µ1 × sin i = µ2 × sin r

_____________________
Slide 105
____________________

Conclusion from Snell’s law
§ When light passes from rarer to denser medium, it bends
towards the normal as shown in the figure.
§ Using Snell’s Law at point P
µ1 sin θ1 = µ2 sin θ2
1 2
1
sin
or, 1
sin
2
θ µ
· >
θ µ


§ Thus, if µ2 > µ1 the θ2 < θ1. i.e light ray bends towards the
normal.
_____________________
Slide 106
____________________

§ When a light ray passes from denser to rarer medium it
bends away from the normal as shown in the figure.
§ From Snell’s Law, we know that
1 2
1
sin
1P
sin
2
θ µ
· >
θ µ


§ Thus, if µ2 < µ1, θ2 > θ.i.e. refracted ray bends away form the
normal.
_____________________
Slide 107
____________________

Refraction: Principle of Least
1 2
1 2
1 2
1 1 2 2
Time,
s s
t t t
v v
n s n s c
v , t
n c c
· + · +
· · +


2 2 1/2 2 2 1/2
1 1 2 2
1 dt
t = [ n(y + x ) + n ( y +( a- x) ) ] = 0
c dx

Prove Snell’s law, n1sin?1= n2sin ?2. Demonstrate law of
reflection.
_____________________
Slide 108
____________________

Relation between object and image distance
§ An object O placed in medium 1 (refractive index µ1) is
viewed from the medium 2 (refractive index µ2).
§ It is important to note that the object and image both are
formed on the same side of the boundary.
§ The image distance y and the object distance x are related
as
2
y x
1
¸ _ µ
·

µ
¸ ,

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Slide 109

Here, x = Real depth/height
y = Apparent depth/height
_____________________
Slide 110
____________________

§ If µ2 > µ1, that is, when the object is observed from a denser
medium, it appears to be farther away from the interface,
i.e., y > x. or, Apparent height > Real height.
§ If µ2 < µ1, that is, when the object is observed from a rarer
medium, it appears to be closer to the interface, i.e. y < x.
i.e. Apparent depth < Real depth.
Note:
§ The above formula is only applicable for normal view or
paraxial ray assumption.
_____________________
Slide 111
____________________

Total Internal Reflection
§ The phenomenon of total internal reflection occurs when
light travels from a medium of high refractive index to a
medium of lower refractive index.
§ At the critical angle (θc), the refracted ray just grazes the
boundary between two media.
_____________________
Slide 112
____________________

§ Using Snell’s law, we get
§ µ1 sin θc = µ2 sin 90°
1
or , sin
− 2
1
¸ _ µ
θ ·

µ
¸ ,

§ Here, θ1 < θc < θ2

Slide 113
§ For an angle of incidence greater than θc, the light is totally
reflected back into the medium of higher refractive index.
This phenomenon is called total internal reflection.

_____________________
Slide 114
____________________

Optical fibers:
§ The optical fibres can transmit light beam from one end to
the other due to the repeated total internal reflections even if
the fiber is bent or twisted.

_____________________
Slide 115
____________________

Mirage:
§ The optical illusion that water is present at some distance
place is called inferior mirage.
§ This generally occurs on very hot summer days . This is due
to total internal reflection.
Looming:
§ The optical illusion of object floating in air is called superior
mirage. It is also known as looming.
§ This occurs in very cold regions due to total internal
reflection.
_____________________
Slide 116
____________________

Total Internal Reflection; Fiber Optics

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Slide 117

_____________________
Slide 118
____________________


_____________________
Slide 119
____________________

Deviation ( δ )
§ The figure shows a light ray traveling from a denser to a
rarer medium at an angle α lesser than the critical angle θc.
§ The deviation δ of the light ray is given by

_____________________
Slide 120
____________________

Conceptual Example
View up from under water
Describe what a person would see who looked up at the world
from beneath the perfectly smooth surface of a lake or swimming
pool.
_____________________
Slide 121
____________________


Slide 122
Refraction through glass slab
§ The refracting surfaces of a glass slab are parallel to each
other. When a light ray travels through a glass slab, it is
refracted twice at the two parallel faces and finally emerges
out parallel to its incident direction.
§ The light ray undergoes zero deviation, δ = O.
§ Angle of emergence = Angle of incidence
Or, e = i
_____________________
Slide 123
____________________

§ The lateral displacement of the ray is the perpendicular
distance between the incident and the emergent ray and is
given by
( ) sin
¸ _
· −

¸ ,
t
d i r
cos r


_____________________
Slide 124
____________________


_____________________
Slide 125
____________________

Apparent shift
When a glass slab of thickness t and refractive index µ is placed
in the path of a convergent beam as shown in the figure, then the
point of convergence is shifted by
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1
1
¸ _
· −

µ
¸ ,
s t


_____________________
Slide 126
____________________

§ When the same glass slab is placed in the path of a
diverging beam, the point of divergence is
1
1
¸ _
· −

µ
¸ ,
s t
§ It is important to note that the shift (s) is always on the
direction of l ight.

_____________________
Slide 127
____________________

§ If there are n number of slabs with different refractive indices
are placed between the observer and the object, then the
total apparent shift is equal to the summation of the
individual shifts.
s = s1 + s2 + ……… + sn
1 2 n
1 2 n
1 1 1
or, s = t 1- + t 1- +......t 1-
µ µ µ
¸ _ ¸ _ ¸ _

¸ , ¸ , ¸ ,

_____________________
Slide 128
____________________

Illustration
In the figure, determine the apparent shift in the position of the
coin. Also, find the effective refractive index of the combination of
the glass and water slab.

Slide 129
Prism
§ Prism is a transparent medium with two refracting surfaces
through which refraction takes place.
§ The two faces are not parallel but are inclined to each other.
§ Any geometrical figure with two refracting surfaces are not
parallel in a prism.
§ The above figure is an example of prism.
§ In general, we take a triangular prism.

_____________________
Slide 130
____________________

Visible Spectrum and Dispersion

_____________________
Slide 131
____________________

n Dependence on Wavelength

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Slide 132

_____________________
Slide 133
____________________

Dispersion

_____________________
Slide 134
____________________


_____________________
Slide 135
____________________


Slide 136
Newton’s Analysis of Light
1 2
2 1
n
n
λ
·
λ


_____________________
Slide 137
____________________

Basic Terms
Angle of prism or reflecting angle (A)
§ The angle between the refracting faces is calledangle of
prism.
§ The adjoining figures shows various terms related to prism.
_____________________
Slide 138
____________________

Here, i = angle of incidence
r1 = angle of refraction through 1
st
surface.
r2 = angle of refraction through 2
nd
surface.
e = angle of emergence
δ = angle of deviation

_____________________
Slide 139
____________________

Angle of deviation (δ)
§ It is the angle between the emergent and the incident ray.
§ It other words , it is the angle through which incident ray
turns in passing through a prism.
§ Now, the angle of deviation is given by
δ = (i – r1) + (e + r2)
or, δ = i + e – (r1 + r2)
Also, ∠A = r1 + r2
or, δ = ( i + e – A)
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Slide 140
Condition of minimum deviation
§ At the minimum deviation the angle of incidence is equal to
the angle of emergence i.e., i = e
Also, r1 = r2 = r A = 2r
§ The refracted ray inside the prism becomes parallel to the
base of the prism.
§ The deviation of the prism is given by
δ = ( i + e – A).
or, δm = ( 2i– A).
§ Where δm is the minimum deviation produced.
m
A
i
2
δ +
·
_____________________
Slide 141
____________________

§ Using Snell’s law
min
A
sin
sin i 2
A sin r
sin
2
δ + 1
1
¸ ]
µ · ·
1
1
¸ ]

_____________________
Slide 142
____________________

Graphical representation of minimum deviation
§ The graph shows the minimum deviation produced by the
prism.

_____________________
Slide 143
____________________

Thin prisms
§ In thin prisms, the distance between the refracting surfaces
is negligible and the angle of prism (A) is very small.
§ For thin prism, δm is very small. i.e.,
m m
A A A A
sin( ) and sin
2 2 2 2
+ δ + δ
; ;
_____________________
Slide 144
____________________

§ Now, the refractive index for thin prism is given by
min
A
sin
2
A
sin
2
δ + 1
1
¸ ]
µ ·
1
1
¸ ]
min
A
2
A
2
δ +
·
min
or, ( 1)A. δ · µ −
_____________________
Slide 145
____________________

Illustration
A rectangular block of refractive index µ is placed on a printed
page lying on a horizontal surface as shown in the figure. Find
the minimum value of µ so that the letter L on the page is not
visible from any of the vertical sides.

_____________________
Slide 146
____________________

Illustration
A ray of light PQ is incident at an angle i on face ML of a prism
and is refracted along OR (figure). This ray, after refraction at
face MN, travels along RN at grazing emergence.
If µ is the refractive index and A refracting angle of the prism,
show that
1
2 2
sini cosA
1
si nA
¹ ¹
+ ¸ _ ¹ ¹
µ · +
' ;

¸ ,
¹ ¹
¹ ¹

_____________________
Slide 147
____________________

Dispersion
§ It explains the blue colour of the sky at day time.
§ When while light passes through a prism it is spilled into its
seven constituent colours which is known as dispersion of
white light.
§ It is because for different constituent colours of light there
are different values of Refractive index (µ).
§ The violet ray bends maximum while red at least.
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Slide 148
§ We get a continuous bends of seven colours on screen,
which is called spectrum of light as shown in the fig.

_____________________
Slide 149
____________________

Scattering of light
§ When sunlight travels through the earth’s atmosphere, it
gets scattered by the atmospheric particles.
§ The amount of scattering is given by Rayleigh scattering.
_____________________
Slide 150
____________________

Rayleigh scattering
§ The amount of scattering S is inversely proportional to the
fourth power of the wavelength (λ).
4
1
S ·
λ

§ The law is applicable only for small particles which have
relative size with the wavelength of the light.
_____________________
Slide 151
____________________

Spherical surface
§ A spherical refracting surface is a part of a sphere of
refracting material.
§ It is of two types.
Convex refracting surface
§ A refracting surface which is convex towards the medium
where the object is present.
_____________________
Slide 152
____________________

Refraction at spherical surface:
Assumptions
§ Object is a point object lying on the principle axis.
§ The incident and the refracted rays make small angles with
the principal axis.
§ The aperture is small.
Slide 153
Mathematical expression of Refraction at spherical surface
§ Two media of refractive index µ1 and µ2, when separated by
a transparent curved surface, can be regarded as the case
of refraction at spherical surface.

Refraction at a spherical surface separating two media
_____________________
Slide 154
____________________

§ The figure shows how light refracts at the interface of two
curved media.
§ C is the centre of curvature of medium ‘2’.
§ CN is the normal to the curved surface and
§ O is the point where the object lies.
§ After refraction, let the image be formed at I.
§ Let ‘u’ be the object distance, and ’v’ be the image distance.

_____________________
Slide 155
____________________

§ From figure, for small angles, tan q q ;
MN
tan NOM NOM
OM
Ð = Ð ;
MN
and tan NCM NCM
MC
Ð = Ð ;

MN
tan NIM NIM
MI
Ð = Ð ;
§ From plane geometry
( )
MN MN
i i
OM MC
· + − − −
(exterior angle = sum of interior
angles ; i = ∠NOM + ∠NCM)
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Slide 156
§ Similarly, ( )
MN MN
r – ii
MC MI
· − − −
(Q r = ∠ NCM – ∠ NIC)
§ Now from Snell’s law, µ1 sin i = µ2 sin r and for small angles
sinθ ≈ θ.
§ Hence, µ1 i = µ2 r
_____________________
Slide 157
____________________

§ From (i) and (ii)
( )
1 2 2 1

iii
OM MI MC
µ µ µ µ
+ · − − −
§ By using sign convention, OM = – u, MI = + v, MC= + R
§ Hence, from eqn. (iii)
2 1 2 1


v u R
µ µ µ µ
·
_____________________
Slide 158
____________________

Important terms
§ The medium in which the incident ray travels is called the 1
st
medium (µ1).
§ The medium in which the refracted ray travels is called the
2
nd
medium (µ2).
§ The above equation relates object and image distance in
terms of refractive index and radius of curvature.
§ This formula is applicable for both convex and concave
surfaces with proper sign conventions.
_____________________
Slide 159
____________________

Solved example
A convex refracting surface of radius of curvature 15 cm
separates two media of refractive indices 4/3 and 1.5. An object
is kept in the first medium at a distance of 240 cm from the
refracting surface. Calculate the position of the image.

_____________________
Slide 160
____________________

Solution
As the object is in the rarer medium (i.e. the incident ray travels
in the rarer medium), we have
1 2 2 1

–u v R
µ µ µ µ
+ ·
Here, u = – 240 cm: v = ? ; R = + 15 cm, µ1 = 4/3 ; µ2 = 1.5
Slide 161

( ) 1.5– 4 / 3 4 / 3 1.5
240 v 15
+ ·
∴ v = 270 cm
As v is positive, the image is formed in the second medium at a
distance of 270 cm from the refracting surface.
The image is real.
_____________________
Slide 162
____________________

Illustration
An empty spherical flask of diameter 30 cm is Placed in water of
refractive index. A parallel beam of light strikes the flask. Where
does it get focused, when observed from within the flask?
_____________________
Slide 163
____________________

Illustration
What curvature must be given to the bounding surface of a
refracting medium (µ = 1.5) for the virtual image of an object in
the adjacent medium
(µ = 1) at 10 cm to be formed at a distance of 40 cm?
_____________________
Slide 164
____________________

Refraction by a lens
Lens
§ A combination of two refracting surfaces, at least one of
which is curved, is called a lens.
§ There are two types of lens
ü Concave lens
ü Convex lens.
_____________________
Slide 165
____________________

Concave lens
§ Concave lens is a lens which is thinner at middle and wider
at its ends and diverge light rays.
§ Concave lens is of three types

_____________________
Slide 166
____________________

§ A concave lens can be somewhat supposed to be made up
of two prisms placed on each other, vertex to vertex as
shown in figure
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§ Concave lens is also called a diverging lens because it
diverges parallel beam of light after refraction through it.

_____________________
Slide 167
____________________

Convex lens
§ Convex lens is a lens which is thicker at middle and thinner
at its ends and converges light rays.
§ Convex lens is of three types

_____________________
Slide 168
____________________

§ A convex lens is supposed to be made up of two prisms
placed on each other, base in to base contact, as shown in
fig.
§ Convex lens is also called converging lens because it
converges parallel beam of light after refraction through it as
shown in fig.
Note
In general, focal length of a concave lens is taken negative and
that of convex lens is taken positive.

Slide 169

_____________________
Slide 170
____________________


_____________________
Slide 171
____________________


_____________________
Slide 172
____________________


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Slide 173

_____________________
Slide 174
____________________

Lens maker’s formula

_____________________
Slide 175
____________________


_____________________
Slide 176
____________________


Slide 177
§ The geometry of image formation by a double convex lens.
§ The first refracting surface forms the image I1 of the object O.
§ The image I1 acts as a virtual object for the second surface
that forms the image at I.
_____________________
Slide 178
____________________

Applying to the first interface ABC, we get
1 2 2 1
1 1
n n n – n
OB BI BC
+ =
§ To the second interface ADC,
2 1 2 1
1 2
n n n – n

DI DI DC
+ =
§ For a thin lens, BI1 = DI1.
_____________________
Slide 179
____________________

§ Adding and, we get
( )
1 1
2 1
1 1 2
n n 1 1
n – n
OB DI BC DC
æ ö
÷ ç
÷
+ = + ç
÷
ç
÷ ç
è ø

§ Suppose the object is at infinity, i.e,, OB →∞ and DI1 = f,
gives
§ By the sign convention, BC1 = + R1, DC2 = – R2
§ So, it can be written as
2
21 21
1 2 1
n 1 1 1
(n –1) – n
f R R n
æ ö æ ö
÷ ÷ ç ç
÷ ÷
= = ç ç
÷ ÷
ç ç
÷ ÷ ç ç
è ø è ø
Q
Where n21 is the refraction index of the medium 2 w.r.t
medium 1.
§ Equation is known as the lens maker’s formula.
_____________________
Slide 180
____________________

Important Points
§ Len’s maker’s formula is used to find the lens of desired
focal length.
§ While using this formula we should use proper sign
conventions.
§ A lens has two focii, two radius of curvature, one optical
centre (same function as that of pole in mirror)
§ The focus on the side of the original source of light is called
the 1st focal point, while the other is called 2nd focal point.
_____________________
Slide 181
____________________

Relation between object distance (u), Image distance (v) and
focal length, (f) of a thin lens
§ The formula for object distance(u), Image distance (v) and
focal length (f) of a lens is given by
1 1 1

v u f
·
§ This formula is applicable for both convex and concave
lenses with proper sign convention.
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Slide 182
Rules for image formation through a lens
§ To find out the position of image through a lens we should
find out the point of intersection of refracted rays.
§ A ray parallel to principal axis of a lens after refraction
passes through or appears to diverge from the focus of lens.
§ A ray through optical centre of lens passes undedicated
along its original path after refraction through lens.
§ A ray through focus of lens becomes parallel to principal
axis, after passing through the lens.
_____________________
Slide 183
____________________

Image formation by a concave lens

_____________________
Slide 184
____________________


_____________________
Slide 185
____________________

Magnification
§ Magnifi cation (m) produced by a lens is defined as the ratio
of the size of the image to that of the object.
§ It is denoted by m.
§ m is negative for real image which are inverted w.r.t. to
object.
§ m is positive for virtual image which are erect w.r.t. object.
§ Mathematically, magnification is given by
v f – v f 1 1 1
m using, –
u f f u v u f
1
· · · ·
1
+ ¸ ]

_____________________
Slide 186
____________________

Solved Example
A convex lens is to be used to throw on a screen 10 cm from the
lens, a magnified image of an object. If the magnification is to be
19, find the focal length of the lens.
_____________________
Slide 187
____________________

Solution
Given: magnification, m = −19, Image distance, v = 10 cm
Now, magnification is given by
f – v
m ,
f
f –10
or, –19
f
or, f 0.5 cm
·
·
·

_____________________
Slide 188
____________________

Power of lens
§ The degree of converging or diverging of light rays through a
lens is called its power.
§ The power of a lens is the reciprocal of the focal length of
the lens.
where f is measured in metre.
_____________________
Slide 189
____________________

§ The power of a lens is the tangent of the angle by which it
converges or diverges a beam of light falling at unit distance
from optical centre.
§ The SI unit of power of lens is called Dioptre (D).
§ The power of convex lens is positive and that of concave is
negative.
_____________________
Slide 190
____________________

Combination of thin lenses in contact

Image formation by a combination of two thin lenses in
contact
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Slide 191
§ Consider two thin convex lenses A and B having focal length
f1 and f2 are placed in contact with each other as shown in fig.
§ Image formed by the 1st lens ‘A’. is given by
( )
1 1
1 1 1
– i
v u f
· − − −
§ For image formed by second lens B, we get
( )
1 2
1 1 1
– = - - - i i
v v f

_____________________
Slide 192
____________________

§ Adding (i) and (ii) we get
1 2
1 1 1 1

v u f f
· +
§ If the two lens system is regarded as a single lens, then the
equivalent focal length fe is related as
e
1 1 1

v u f
·
§ Hence,
e 1 2
1 1 1
f f f
· +
_____________________
Slide 193
____________________

§ If several thin lenses are placed in contact then the effective
focal length of their combination is given by
e 1 2 3
1 1 1 1
f f f f
· + + + − − − − −
§ In terms of power, we can write
P = P1 + P2 + P3 +- - - - - - -
_____________________
Slide 194
____________________

§ The total magnification m of the combination is a product of
magnification of individual lenses
m = m1 m2 m3 - - - - - - - - -
§ Such a system of combination of lenses is used in designing
lenses for cameras, microscopes, telescopes and other
optical instruments.
_____________________
Slide 195
____________________

The rainbow
§ It is a beautiful patterns of colours seen in the sky after a
shower
§ The rainbow is an example of the dispersion of sunlight by
the water drops in the atmosphere.
§ The conditions for observing a rainbow are that the sun
should be shining in one part of the sky while it is raining in
the opposite part of the sky.
Slide 196
Primary rainbow
§ The primary rainbow has violet colour on the inner edge and
the red colour on the outer edge of the rainbow.
§ Primary rainbow is formed due to two refractions and one
total internal reflection of the light incident on the droplets.
_____________________
Slide 197
____________________

Secondary rainbow
§ It has red colour on the inner edge and violet colour on the
outer edge of the rainbow.
§ It is formed due to refraction and two total internal reflections
of light incident on the droplets.
§ Order of colour of the secondary rainbow is just reverse of
that of the primary rainbow.
_____________________
Slide 198
____________________


_____________________
Slide 199
____________________

Scattering of light
§ § W Wh he en n s s u un nl l i i g gh ht t t tr ra av ve el l s s t th hr ro ou ug gh h t th he e e ea ar rt th h’ ’s s a at tm mo os sp ph he er re e, , i i t ts s
d di i r re ec ct ti i o on n c ch ha an ng ge es s b by y t th he e a at tm mo os s p ph he er ri i c c p pa ar rt ti i c cl l e es s a an nd d t th hi is s i is s
c ca al l l l e ed d s s c ca at tt te er ri i n ng g o of f l l i ig gh ht t. .
§ § T Th he e a am mo ou un nt t o of f s s c ca at tt te er ri i n ng g i is s i i n nv ve er rs s e el l y y p pr ro op po or rt ti i o on na al l t to o t th he e
f fo ou ur rt th h p po ow we er r o of f t th he e w wa av ve el l e en ng gt th h, , c ca al l l l e ed d R Ra ay yl l e ei i g gh h S Sc ca at tt te er ri i n ng g. .
Slide 200
§ Blue light being shorter wavelength, the sky look blue during
daylight due to scattering.
§ Red colour being least scattered light reaching our eyes,
therefore, the sun looks reddish at sunrise and at sunset.
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Slide 201
Human eye

_____________________
Slide 202
____________________

How the Eye Works:

_____________________
Slide 203
____________________


Slide 204
Vision Defects


Nearsightedness:
(a) Light focuses before the retina Cannot see distant objects
Gets worse as the body grows
(b) Fix: concave lens which will focus the light back on the
retina
_____________________
Slide 205
____________________

Vision Defects (cont)
Farsightedness:


(c) Light focuses behind the retina Cannot see close objects
Gets worse as the body ages (40+): lens is less flexible
(d) Fix: convex lens which will focus the light back on the retina
_____________________
Slide 206
____________________

Contact Lenses
§ Rests on a layer of tears between it and the cornea
§ Produces the same result as eyeglasses
§ Most refraction occurs at air-lens surface where change in
refractive index is greatest.
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_____________________
Slide 207
____________________

§ The light from an object enters the eye through the
transparent cornea.
§ It passes through a transparent lens held in place by ciliary
muscles and is focused on the retina.
§ The retina is sensitive to light and sends messages to the
brain by way of optic nerve.
§ An iris in front of the lens changes in size to regulate the
amount of light that enters the eye.
_____________________
Slide 208
____________________

§ It may be noted that the image of the object formed on the
retina is real and inverted w.r.t. object.
§ However, our brain interprets it as an erect image w.r.t.
object.
§ The human eye is about 2.5 cm in diameter and its neat
spherical shape is maintained by the pressure of the fluid
within it.
§ A normal eye can focus on object located anywhere from
about 25 cm to hundreds of kilometers away.
_____________________
Slide 209
____________________

Power of accommodation of the eye
§ The ability of the eye to focus on objects at different
distances is called power of accommodation of the eye.
Far point of the eye
§ The most distant point that the eye can see clearly is called
the far point of the eye.
_____________________
Slide 210
____________________

Near point of the eye
§ The closest point at which an object is seen most clearly
without strain is called the near point of the eye/ least
distance of distinct vision (D)
§ For an adult with normal eye, this distance is taken to be 25
cm (by convention).
Slide 211
Defects of vision
Short sightedness (or myopia)
§ A person who can see the near objects clearly but cannot
focus on distant objects is short sighted.
§ This defect occurs if a person’s eyeball is larger than the
usual diameter.
§ In such a case, the image of a distant object is formed in
front of the retina as shown in fig.

_____________________
Slide 212
____________________

Correction
To correct short-sighted vision, a diverging lens (concave lens)
of suitable focal length is placed in front of the eye.

_____________________
Slide 213
____________________

Long sightedness (or hypermetropia)
§ A person who can see distant objects clearly but cannot
focus on near objects clearly is farsighted.
§ This defect may occur if the diameter of person’s eyeball is
smaller than usual.
§ In such a case, for an object placed at the normal near point
(i.e., 25 cm from eye), the image of the object is formed
behind the retina as shown in fig.

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Slide 214
Correction
To correct for long sighted vision a converging lens of suitable
focal length is placed in front of the eye.

_____________________
Slide 215
____________________

Presbyopia
§ It is the defect in which a person can see nearby objects due
to the increase of the near point of the eye.
§ In this, the near point increases to 200 m.
§ It is caused due to the decreasing effectiveness of the ciliary
muscle and the loss of flexibility of the lens.
§ It is corrected by using a converging lens for reading.
_____________________
Slide 216
____________________

Astigmatism
§ It is a defect in which eye lens looks at a wire eye mesh or a
grid of lines, focusing in either the vertical or the horizontal
plane which may not be as sharp as in the other plane.
§ ‘It is caused due to the non-uniformity in the spherical shape
of the cornea.
§ It can be corrected using a cylindrical lens of desired radius
of curvature with an appropriately directed axis.
Note
§ Astigmatism can occur along with myopia or hypermetropia.
_____________________
Slide 217
____________________

Solved Example
Far point of a short-sighted person is 100 cm. What lens should
he use to see distant objects clearly?
Slide 218
Solution
Since the far point of the short-sighted person is 100 cm away,
he can see objects situated up to a distance of 100 cm. so, the
lens used should be such that it forms the image (virtual) of the
distant object at a distance of 100 cm.
∴ u = – ∞, v = – 100 cm
_____________________
Slide 219
____________________

Now,
1 1 1

f v u
·
1 1 1

f –100 –
∴ ·


1 1
or,
f –100
or, f –100 cm
·
·

So, a concave lens of 100 cm focal length should be used.
_____________________
Slide 220
____________________

Illustration 1
Where an object should be placed from a converging lens of
focal length 20 cm so to obtain a real image of magnification 2?
_____________________
Slide 221
____________________

Photometry
§ Photometry is the science of measurement of light in terms
of its perceived brightness to the human eye.
Important terms
Luminous flux
§ It is the amount of light energy emitted per second by a
source.
§ The unit of luminous flux is lumen
§ One lumen is the luminous flux emitted per unit solid angle
by a uniform point source of luminous intensity 1 candela.
_____________________
Slide 222
____________________

Luminous intensity
§ Luminous intensity of source in a given direction is defined
as the luminous flux per unit solid angle in that direction.
§ The unit of luminous intensity is candela (cd).
§ Candela is defined as the luminous intensity, in a given
direction, of a source that emits monochromatic radiation of
frequency 5.40 × 10
14
Hz and that has a radiant intens ity in
the direction of watt per steradian.
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_____________________
Slide 223
____________________

Illuminance or Intensity of illumination
§ Illuminance or Intensity of illumination of a surface at any
point may be defined as the luminous flux incident normally
on a unit area of the surface held at that point.
§ It is generally denoted by E.
§ If luminous flux ∆φ falls normally on an area ∆A of a surface,
then illuminance is given by
_____________________
Slide 224
____________________

§ The unit of illuminance is lux.
§ Lux or metre candle is the illuminance produced at the inner
surface of a sphere of one metre radius when a source of
one candela is placed at its centre.
§ Radiant flux is measured in watt.
_____________________
Slide 225
____________________

Luminous efficiency
§ The luminous efficiency of a light source is the ratio of the
luminous flux emitted and the input electrical power.
§ The unit of luminous efficiency is lumen/watt.
_____________________
Slide 226
____________________

Simple Microscope
It is an optical instrument used to see small and minute particles.

Slide 227
Magnifying power of a simple microscope
The angular magnification or magnifying power of a simple
microscope is the ratio of the angle subtended at the eye by the
image at the near point and the angle subtended at the unaided
eye by the object at the near point.
_____________________
Slide 228
____________________

§ The linear magnification is given by
v
m
u
·
1
or, m v
u
1 1
or, m v –
v f
1
·
1
¸ ]
1
·
1
¸ ]

v
or, m 1–
f
1
·
1
¸ ]

§ Here, in accordance with sign Convention v = − D[ far point]
D
m 1
f
∴ · +
_____________________
Slide 229
____________________

Magnification when the image is at infinity
§ Consider an object having height h when it is at the near
point D of the eye.
0
h
tan
D
∴ θ ·
§ Since θ0 is small
( )
0
h
... 1
D
q ;

_____________________
Slide 230
____________________


§ Now, magnification when the object is at infinity.
( )
I
0
I 0
h v
m
h u
v
or, h h .... 2
u
= =
=

Where hI = image distance, h0 = object distance.
_____________________
Slide 231
____________________

§ The angle subtended by the image
I
i
h
tan
–v
q =
( )
N 0
h v
. using eq 2
–v u
é ù
= \
ê ú
ë û

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0
h

u
=
i
0
i
i i
forsmall
–h
tan u
é ù \ q
ê ú
\ q
ê ú
q q
ë û
;
;

§ The angle subtended by the object, when u = −f is given
by
0
i
h
f
q ;
_____________________
Slide 232
____________________

§ Now, the angular magnification is given by
i
0
0
0
m
h D
f h
D
m
f
q
=
q
= ´
\ =


_____________________
Slide 233
____________________

§ So, smaller the focal length of the lens, greater will be the
magnifying power.
§ The simple microscope may be used in such a way that the
image is formed at infinity.
Note
§ The maximum angular magnification is obtained when the
image is the near point.
§ The minimum angular magnification is obtained when the
image is at infinity.
_____________________
Slide 234
____________________

Light and Telescopes

Slide 235
Telescopes
§ Light collectors
§ Two types:
ü Reflectors mirrors)
ü Refractors (Lenses)

_____________________
Slide 236
____________________

Yerkes 40” Refractor- The World’s Largest

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Slide 237
Reflecting Telescopes

_____________________
Slide 238
____________________

Reflection
§ Light that hits a mirror is reflected at the same angle it was
incident from
§ Proper design of a mirror (the shape of a parabola) can
focus all rays incident on the mirror to a single place

_____________________
Slide 239
____________________

Whoops - The Hubble needs a contact lens
§ Both types of telescope can suffer from a defect called
spherical aberration so that not all of the light is focused to
the same point.
§ This can happen if the mirror is not curved enough (shaped
like part of a sphere instead of a paraboloid) or the glass
lens is not shaped correctly.
Slide 240
§ The Hubble Space Telescope objective suffers from this (it
is too flat by 2 microns, about 1/50 the width of a human
hair) so it uses corrective optics to compensate.
§ The corrective optics intercept the light beams from the
secondary mirror before they reach the cameras and
spectrographs. Fortunately, the Hubble Space Telescope's
spherical aberration is so perfect, that it is easy to correct
for!
_____________________
Slide 241
____________________



Before Costar After Costar
_____________________
Slide 242
____________________

Famous Telescopes: Galileo
§ First telescope: 3x magnification
§ Last one: 32 x

_____________________
Slide 243
____________________

Famous Telescopes: Newton
§ First reflector ever
§ Built around 1670
§ After this: gargantuan telescopes!

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Slide 244
Famous Telescopes: Lord Ross

_____________________
Slide 245
____________________

Famous Telescopes: Mt Palomar

5 Meter Telescope – Huge and heavy mirror
_____________________
Slide 246
____________________

Famous Telescopes: Arecibo Radio Telescope

_____________________
Slide 247
____________________


Slide 248

_____________________
Slide 249
____________________

Telescope Size
§ A larger telescope gathers more light (more collecting area).
§ Angular resolution is limited by diffraction of light waves; this
also improves with larger telescope size
_____________________
Slide 250
____________________


_____________________
Slide 251
____________________

Largest Earth-Based Telescopes
§ Hobby-Eberly Telescope, Davis Mountains, TX
ü 11 m diameter
ü Cannot see all parts of the sky
§ Keck I and II, Mauna Kea, HI
ü 36 ×1.8 m hexagonal mirrors; equivalent to 10 m
ü Above most of atmosphere (almost 14,000 ft ASL)
ü Operating since 1993
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_____________________
Slide 252
____________________

Resolving Power of Telescopes

Andromeda Galaxy
Telescope 1 Telescope 2 of double size
_____________________
Slide 253
____________________

Resolving Power of Telescopes (II)
Andromeda Galaxy
Resolution:
(a) 10’ (b) 1’
(c) 5” (d) 1”


_____________________
Slide 254
____________________


_____________________
Slide 255
____________________

Not to be outdone, the European Union has proposed building
the 100 meter OWL (Overwhelmingly Large Telescope)

_____________________
Slide 256
____________________

Compound Microscope
§ A compound microscope is one which has much larger
magnification to see very small objects.
§ It uses two lenses one compounding the effect of the other.
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Slide 257
Magnifying power of a compound microscope

_____________________
Slide 258
____________________

§ Angular magnification or magnifying power of a compound
microscope is defined as the ratio of the angle subtended by
the final image at the eye to the angle subtended by the
object seen directly, when both are placed at the least
distance of distinct vision.
_____________________
Slide 259
____________________

§ The magnification produced by the compound microscope is
the product of the magnifications produced by the eyepiece
and objective.
M = Me × Mo
Where Me and Mo are the magnifying powers of the
eyepiece and objective respectively.
§ Now,
e
e
D
M 1
f
· +
Where fe is the focal length of the eyepiece.
_____________________
Slide 260
____________________

§ Also,
o
o
o
v
M
u
· , Where vo is the distance A’B’ from the
objective and uo is the distance of the object from the
objective.
§ Now, the magnification is given by
o
o e
v D
M 1
u f
¸ _
· +

¸ ,

_____________________
Slide 261
____________________

§ Since the object is placed very close to the principle focus of
the objective therefore uo is nearly equal to fe. i.e. u0 ≈ f0
§ vo is nearly equal to the length L of the microscope tube. i.e.
v0 ≈ L
§ L is the separation between the two lenses.
o e
L D
M – 1
f f
¸ _
· +

¸ ,

§ It is clear from the above equation that the smaller the focal
length of the objective and eyepiece, larger is the
magnifying power.
_____________________
Slide 262
____________________

Again,
o o o
1 1 1

v u f
·
or ,
o o o
o o o
v v v

v u f
·
o o
o o
o o
o o
v v
or, – –1
u f
v v
or, 1–
u f
· +
·


o
o e
v D
M 1– 1
f f
¸ _ ¸ _
∴ · +

¸ , ¸ ,

_____________________
Slide 263
____________________

§ When the final image is formed at infinity, then
o e
o e
L D
M = M × M = –
f f
×
§ In this case, the microscope is said to be in normal
adjustment.
_____________________
Slide 264
____________________

Historical Optical Microscopes

_____________________
Slide 265
____________________


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Slide 266

_____________________
Slide 267
____________________


_____________________
Slide 268
____________________

Current Optical Microscopes

Upright Inverted
Slide 269
Solved Example
A person with a normal near point (25 cm) using compound
microscope with an obj ective of focal length 8.0 mm and an
eyepiece of focal length of focal length 2.5 cm can bring an
object placed 9.0 mm from the objective in sharp focus. What is
the separation between the two lenses? What is the magnifying
power of the microscope?
_____________________
Slide 270
____________________

Solution
Given: D = 25 cm; fo = 0.80 cm ; u0 = – 0.9 cm
Objective:
Using lens formula for the objective, we have,
0 0 0
1 1 1

v u f
·

0
1 1 1
or
v 0.9 0.8
+ ·

∴ v0 = 7.2 cm
Eyepiece:
Using lens formula for the eyepiece,
we have,
e e e
1 1 1

v u f
·
_____________________
Slide 271
____________________

( )
e
e e
1 1 1
or – – v D –25cm
D u f
· · · Q
e
1 1 1
or – –
25 u 2.5
·
∴ ue = – 2.27 cm
Separation between the two lenses = v0 + |ue| = 7.2 + 2.27 = 9.
47 cm
Magnifying power of microscope,
M = M0 × Me
0
0 e
v D 7.2 25
1 1 88
u f 0.9 2.5
¸ _
¸ _
· + · + ·

¸ ,
¸ ,

_____________________
Slide 272
____________________

Solved Example
The total magnification produced by a compound microscope is
20. The magnification produced by the eyepiece alone is 5. The
microscope is focused on a certain object. The distance between
the objective and eyepiece is observed to be 14 cm. If least
distance of distinct vision is 20 cm, calculate the focal lengths of
the objective and eyepiece.
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Slide 273

_____________________
Slide 274
____________________

Solution
For eyepiece, Me = 5, ue =? ve = – D = – 20 cm
e
e
e
v
M
u
·
e
e
e
v –20
or u cm –4cm
M 5
· · ·
Now, fe = ? ue= – 4 cm,
D = ve = – 20 cm
e e e e
1 1 1 1 1 1
– ; –
f v u f –20 –4
· ·
_____________________
Slide 275
____________________

On simplification, fe = 5 cm
For objective, M0 × Me = M
or
0
e
M –20
M – 4
M 5
· · ·
Now, v0 + ue = 14
or v0 = 14 – ue = (14 – 4) cm = 10 cm
0
0
0
0
0
Now,wehave
v
M 1–
f
10
or, – 4 1–
f
f 2cm
·
·
∴ ·

_____________________
Slide 276
____________________

Telescope
§ These are optical instruments used to observe distant
objects.
§ It has an objective and an eyepiece, the objective has a
large focal length and a much larger aperture than the
eyepiece.
§ Light from a distant object enters the objective and a real
image is formed in the tube at its second focal point.
§ The eyepiece magnifies this image producing a final
inverted image.
Slide 277
Magnifying power of a telescope
Magnifying power of a telescope m is the ratio of the angle β
subtended the eye final image to the angle α which the object
subtends at the lens or the eye.
0 0
e e
f f h
m .
f h f
b
» » =
a

Note
The length of the telescope tube is (f0 + fe).
_____________________
Slide 278
____________________


_____________________
Slide 279
____________________

Types of Refracting telescope
Astronomical telescope
§ These are the telescope which is used to observe celestial
bodies like stars, comets etc beyond our earth.
§ It produces an inverted image of the distance object.
Terrestrial telescope
§ These are the telescope which is used to observe objects on
the earth.
§ It provides an erect image of the distant object.
_____________________
Slide 280
____________________

Reflecting telescope
These are modern telescope which use a concave mirror rather
than a lens for the objective to observe distant objects.

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Slide 281
Advantages of reflecting telescope
§ It is free from spherical and chromatic aberration.
§ Mirrors used in the reflecting telescope are easier to
manufacture, cheaper than lens, lighter than an equivalent.
§ The light gathering power of a reflecting type telescope is so
large that the final image formed is brighter.
_____________________
Slide 282
____________________

Disadvantage of reflecting telescope
§ It is inconvenient to use because of frequent adjustments.
§ The objective mirror focuses light inside the telescope.
_____________________
Slide 283
____________________

Solved Example
A refracting telescope has an objective of focal length 30 cm and
an eyepiece of focal length 3 cm. It is focused on a scale distant
2 m. For seeing with relaxed eye calculate the separation
between the objective and the eyepiece.
_____________________
Slide 284
____________________

Solution
For seeing with relaxed eye, the final image should be formed at
infinity. This is possible if the image formed by objective is at the
focus of the eyepiece. Let v0 be the distance of the image formed
by the objective.
Using lens formula for the objective lens, we have,
0
1 1 1
v 200 30
+ ·
or, v0 = 35.3 cm
∴ Separation between the objecti ve and the eyepiece
= v0 + f e = 35.3 + 3 = 38. 3 cm
_____________________
Slide 285
____________________

Resolving power of an optical instrument
§ The ability of an optical instrument to produce distinctly
separate images of two objects very close together is called
resolving power of the instrument.
§ It depends on the diameter of the objective lens.
CURRICULUM BASED WORKSHEET
Topics for Worksheet – I
Reflection of light on plane and curved surface
Worksheet – I
1. A small candle 2.5 cm in size is placed 27 cm in front of
a concave mirror of radius of curvature 36 cm. At what
distance from the mirror should a screen be placed in
order to receive a sharp image? Describe the nature
and size of the image. If the candle is moved closer to
the mirror, how would the screen have to be moved?
2. An object is placed in front of a convex mirror of focal
length 60 m. If image formed is half of its size, find the
position of image.
3. A square wire of side 3.0 cm is placed 25 cm away from
a concave mirror of focal length 10 cm. What is the area
enclosed by the image of the wire? Given: the centre of
the wire is on the axis of the mirror, with its two sides
normal to the axis.
4. An object is placed at a distance of 36 cm from a
convex mirror. A plane mirror is placed in between, so
that the two virtual images so formed coincide. If the
plane mirror is at a distance of 24 cm from the object,
find the radius of curvature of the convex mirror.
5. A man 2 m tall, whose eye level is 1.84 m above the
ground, looks at his image in a vertical mirror. What is
the minimum vertical length of the mirror if the man is to
be able to see the whole of himself?
6. Find the position of an object which when placed in
front of a concave mirror of focal length 20 cm produces
a virtual image which is twice the s ize of the object.
7. An object is placed (i) 10 cm (ii) 5 cm in front of a
concave mirror of radius of curvature 15 cm. Calculate
the position, nature and magnification of the image in
each case.
8. An object is placed 15 cm from a convex mirror of
radius of curvature 90 cm. Calculate image position and
magnification.
9. A 4.5 cm needle is placed 12 cm away from a convex
mirror of focal length 15 cm. Give the location of the
image and the magnification. Describe what happens
as the needle is moved farther from the mirror.
10. An object is placed in front of a concave mirror of radius
of curvature 40 cm at a distance of 10 cm. Find the
position, nature and magnification of the image.
11. An object is placed at a distance of 40 cm from a
concave mirror of focal length 15 cm. If the object is
displaced through a distance of 20 cm towards the
mirror, by how much distance is the image displaced.
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Topics for Worksheet – II
Refraction on a plane surface
Worksheet – II
1. A ray of light of frequency of 5 × 10
4
Hz is passes
through a liquid. The wavelength of light measured
inside the liquid is found to be 450 × 10
−9
m. Calculate
the refractive index of the liquid.
2. A tank is filled with water to a height of 12.5 cm. The
apparent depth of a meddle lying at the bottom of the
tank is measured by a microscope to be 9.4 cm. What
is the refractive index of water? If water is replaced by a
liquid of refractive index 1.63 upto the same height, by
what distance would the microscope have to be moved
to focus on the needle again?
3. A small pin fixed on a table top is viewed from above
from a distance of 50 cm. By what distance would the
pin appear to be raised if it is viewed from the same
point through a 15 cm thick glass slab held parallel to
the table? Refractive index of glass = 1.5. Does the
answer depend on the location of the slab?
4. Velocity of light in a liquid is 1.5 × 10
8
m s
−1
and air, it is
3 × 10
8
m s
−1
. If a ray of light passes from this liquid into
air, calculate the value of critical angle.
*This explains the plane: Total internal Reflection.
5. A small bulb is placed at the bottom of a tank containing
water to a depth of 80 cm. What is the area of the
surface of water through which light from the bulb can
emerge out? Refractive index of water is 1.33.
[Consider the bulb to be a point source of light.]
6. Velocity of light in glass in 2 × 10
8
m s
−1
and that in air
is 3 × 10
8
m s
−1
. By how much would an ink dot appear
to be raised when covered by a glass plate 6 cm thick?
7. The bottom of a container is 4.0 cm thick glass (µ = 1.5)
slab. The container contains two immiscible liquids A
and B of depths 6.0 cm and 8.0 cm respectively. What
is the apparent position of a scratch on the outer
surface of the bottom of the glass slab when viewed
through the container? Refractive indices of A and B
are 1.4 and 1.4 respectively.
8. Refractive index of glass 1.5. Calculate velocity of light
in glass if velocity of light in vacuum is 3 × 10
8
m s
−1
.
Also calculate critical angle for glass-air interface.
9. Determine the critical angle for a glass-air surface, if a
ray of light which is incident in air on the surface is
deviated through 15°. When its angle of incidence is
40°.
10. Fig. shows a triangular prism of glass. A ray incident
normally on one face is totally reflected. What can you
conclude about the minimum value of index of refraction
of glass?

11. (a) Fig. shows a cross-section of a light-pipe made of
glass fibre of refractive index 1.68. The outer
covering of the pipe is made of a material of
refractive index 1.44. What is the range of the
angles of incident easy with the axis of the pipe for
which total reflections inside the pipe take place as
shown in Fig.
(b) What is the answer if the is no outer covering of the
pipe?
Topics for Worksheet – III
Prism
Worksheet – III
1. Parallel light from the collimator of a spectrometer i s
incident on the two faces of a prism which make the
refracting angle A of the prism. The image of the
collimator slit is observed in two different positions of
the telescope of the spectrometer. If the angle of
rotation of the telescope between the two positions is
144°, what is the angle A of the prism?
2. For a given source of light, the angle of minimum
deviation of a 60° prism is 56°. What is its refractive
index?
3. If the refractive index of the material of a prism of
refracting angle 8° is 1.532 for blue red light, what is the
angular dispersion produced by the prism?
4. A ray of light passes through an equilateral prism (µ =
1.5) such that angle of incidence is equal to angle of
emergence and the latter is equal to
3
th
4
of the angle
of prism. Calculate the angle of deviation.
5. A ray of light passes through an equilateral glass prism
such that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of
emergence. The angle of emergence is
3
4
times the
angle of prism. Calculate the refractive index of the
glass prism.
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6. Using a spectrometer, the following data are obtained
for a crown glass prism and a flint glass prism.
Angle of the prism, A = 72.0°
Minimum deviation angle, δb = 54.6°, δr = 53.0°, δy = 54.0°
Flint glass prism: A = 60.0°, δb = 52.8′, δr = 50.6° δy = 51.9°
b, r and y refer to particular wavelengths in the blue, red
and yellow bands. Compare the dispersive powers of
the two varieties of glass prisms.
7. Find the angle of flint glass prism which produces the
same angular dispersion for C and F wavelengths as a
10° crown glass prism.
For crown glass: µF = 1.5230, µC = 1.5145
For flint glass: µF = 1.6637, µc = 1.6444.
8. A small-angled prism (µ = 1.62) gives a deviation of
4.8°. Find the angle of the prism.
9. The angle of minimum deviation for a prism of angle
π π
is .
3 6
What is the velocity of light in the material of the
prism? Given: velocity of light in vacuum = 3 × 10
8
m s
−1
.
10. Deduce δm for water (µ = 1.333) when the prism of ∠A
= 60° is used.
11. Calculate the dispersive power of crown glass if the
deviations produced for violet, yellow and light are
4.32°, 4.02° and 3.72y respectively.
12. Calculate the angle of dispersion between red and violet
colours produced by a flint glass prism of refracting
angle of 60°. Given: µv = 1.663 and µr = 1.622.
13. A glass prism whose refractive index is 1.53 and
refracting angle is 60° is held in a liquid of refractive
index 1.33. Calculate the angle of minimum deviation in
this case.
14. Calculate the dispersive power for crown and flint glass
from the following data:
C D F
Crown 1.5145 1.5170 1.5230
Flint 1.6444 1.6520 1.6637
15. A prism is made of glass of unknown refractive index. A
parallel beam of light is incident on a face of the prism.
By rotating the prism, the minimum angle of deviation is
measured to be 40°. What is the refractive index of the
prism? If the prism is placed in water (refractive index
1.33), predict the new minimum angle of deviation of a
parallel beam of light. The refracting angle of the prism
is 60°.
Topics for Worksheet – IV
Refraction on a curved surface, Lens
Worksheet – IV
1. A beam of light travelling in air strikes a glass sphere of
20 cm diameter converting towards a point 40 cm
behind the pole of the spherical surface. Find the
position of the image, if the refractive index of glass is
1.5.
2. The image obtained with a convex les in erect and its
length is four times the length of the object. If the focal
length of the lens is 20 cm, calculate the object distance
and the image distance.
3. The image of a needle placed 45 cm from a lens is
formed on a screen placed 90 cm on the other side of
lens. Find the displacement of image if the needle is
moved 5 cm away from lens.
4. Where should an object be placed from a converging
lens of focal length 20 cm so to obtain a real image of
magnification 2?
5. An object of size 3.0 cm is placed 14 cm in front of a
concave lens of focal length 21 cm. Describe the image
produced by the lens. What happens if the object is
moved farther from the lens?
6. A beam of light converges to a point P. A lens is placed
in the path of the convergent beam 12 cm front P. At
what point does the beam converge if the lens is (a) a
convex lens of focal length 20 cm, and (b) a concave
lens of focal length 16 cm?
7. The radius of curvature of each face of a bi-concave
lens, made of glass of refractive index 1.5 is 30 cm.
Calculate the focal length of the lens in air.
8. Double convex lenses are to be manufactured from a
glass of refractive index 1.55, with both faces of the
same radius of curvature. What is the radius of
curvature required if the focal length of the lens is to be
20 cm?
9. A convex lens of focal length f and refractive index 1.5
is immersed in a liquid of refractive index (i) 1.6 (ii 1.3
(iii) 1.5. What is the new focal length in each case?
10. (i) If f = + 0.5 m, what is the power of the lens?
(ii) The radii of curvature of the faces of a double
convex lens are 10 cm and 15 cm. Its focal length
is 12 cm. What is the refractive index of glass?
(iii) A convex lens has 20 cm focal length in air. What is
the focal length in water? (Refractive index for air-
water = 1.33, Refractive index for air-glass = 1.5.)
11. Two thin converting lenses of focal lengths 0.15 m and
held in contact with each other. Calculate power and
focal length of combination.
12. What curvature must be given to the bounding surface
of a refracting medium (µ = 1.5) for the virtual image of
an object in the adjacent medium (µ = 1) at 10 cm to be
formed at a distance of 40 cm?
13. An empty spherical flask of diameter flask of diameter
30 cm is placed in water of refractive index
4
.
3
A parallel
beam of light strikes the flask. Where does it get
focused, when observed from within the flask.
14. The image of a needle placed 10 cm from a lens is
formed on a wall 20 cm on the other side of the lens.
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Find the focal length of lens and size of image formed if
the size of object needle is 2.5 cm.
15. A convex lens is to be used to throw on a screen 20 cm
from the lens, a magnified image of an object. If the
magnification is to be 19, find the focal length of the
lens.
16. A needle placed 45 cm from a lens forms an image on a
screen placed 90 cm on the other side of the lens.
Identify the type of lens and determine its focal length.
What is the size of the image if the size of the needle is
5.0 cm?
17. A converting beam of light passes through a diverting
lens of focal length 0.2 m and comes to focus 0.3 m
behind the lens. Find the position of the point at which
the beam would converge in the absence of the lens.
18. The radius of curvature of each surface of a convex
lens of refractive index 1.5 is 0.40 m. Calculate its
power.
19. An equiconvex lens of focal length 15 cm is cut into two
equal halves in thickness. What is the focal length of
each half?
20. A glass has a focal length of 5 cm in air. What will be its
focal length in water? Refractive index of glass is 1.51
and that of water is 1.33.
21. A glass convex lens has a focal length of 20 cm in air. What
will be its focal length, when it is completely immersed in a
liquid of refractive index 1.63? Given aµg = 1.5.
22. (a) A screen is placed 90 cm from an object. The
image of the object on the screen is formed by a
convex lens at two different locations separated by
20 cm. Determine the focal length of the lens.
(b) Suppose the object in (a) above is in illuminated slit
in a collimator tube so that it is hard to measure slit
size and its distance from the screen. Using a
convex lens, one obtains a sharp image of the slit
on a screen. The image size is measured to be 4.6
cm. The lens is displaced away from the slit and at
a certain location, another sharp image of size 1.7
cm is obtained. Determine the size of the slit.
Topics for Worksheet – V
Optical instruments
Worksheet – V
1. Far point of a short-sighted person is 100 cm. What
lens should he use to see distance objects clearly?
2. A short-sighted person can only see objects distinctly if
they lie between 8 cm and 100 cm from the eye. What
kind of lens should be required to see a star clearly and
what would be its focal length? With these glasses,
what would be the least distance of distinct vision?
3. A figure divided into squares, each of size 1 mm
2
, is
being viewed at a distance of 9 cm through a
magnifying glass (a converging lens of focal length 10
cm) held close to the eye. (i) What is the magnification
(image size/object size) produced by the lens ? How
much is the area of each square in the virtual image?
(ii) What is the angular magnification (magnifying
power) of the lens? (iii) Is the magnification in (i) equal
to the magnifying power in (ii)? Explain.
4. A person with a normal near point (25 cm) using a
compound microscope with and objective of focal length
8.0 mm and eyepiece of focal length 2.5 cm can bring
an object placed 9.0 mm from the objective in sharp
focus. What is the separation between the two lenses?
How much is the magnifying power of the microscope?
12. Two convex lenses of focal lengths 10 cm and 1 cm
constitute a telescope. The telescope is focused on a
scale which 1 m away from the objective. Calculate the
magnification produced and the length of the tube if the
final image is formed at a distance of 25 cm from the
eye.
13. (a) A giant refracting telescope at an observatory has
an objective lens of focal length 15 m. If an
eyepiece of focal length 1.0 cm is used, what is the
angular magnification of the telescope?
(b) If this telescope is used to view the Moon, what is
the diameter of the image of the Moon formed by
the objective lens? The diameter of the Moon is
3.48 × 10
6
m and the radius of lunar orbit is 3.8 ×
10
8
m.
14. (a) The image of the objective in the eyepiece is
known as the ‘eye-ring’. Why is this the best
position of our eyes for viewing?
(b) Show that the angular magnification of a telescope
equals the ratio of the diameter of objective to the
diameter of eye-ring.
(c) The angular magnification of a telescope is 300.
What should be the diameter of the objective is our
eyes (located at the eye-ring) are just able to
collect all the light refracted by the objective? Take
the diameter of the pupil of the eye to be 3 mm.
5. A person can see clearly only upto 3 metre. Prescribe a
lens for his spectacles so that he can see clearly upto
12 metre.
6. A short-sighted person can see objects most distinctly
at a distance of 16 cm. If he wears spectacles at a
distance of 1 cm from the eye, what focal length should
they have so as to enable him to see distinctly at a
distance of 26 cm?
7. To print a photograph from a negative, the time of
exposure to light from a lamp placed 0.50 m away is 2.5
second. How much exposure time is required if the
lamp is placed 1.0 m away?
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8. A convex lens of focal length 6.25 cm is used as a
magnifying glass. If the near point of the observer is 25
cm from the eye and the lens is held close to the eye,
calculate (i) the distance of the object from the lens and
(ii) the angular magnification.
9. In the previous question, what should be the distance
between the object ant the magnifying glass if the
virtual image of each square in the figure is to have an
area of 6.25 mm
2
. Would you be to see the squares
distinctly with your eyes very close to the magnifier?
10. An angular magnification (magnifying power) of 30 × is
desired using an objective of focal length 1.25 cm and
an eyepiece of focal length 5 cm in a compound
microscope. What is the separation between objective
and the eyepiece?
11. An amateur astronomer wishes to estimate roughly the
size of the Sun using his crude telescope consisting of
an objective lens of focal length 200 cm and an
eyepiece of focal length 10 cm. By adjusting the
distance of the eyepiece from the objective, he obtains
an image of the Sun on the screen 40 cm behind the
eyepiece. The diameter of the Sun’s image is measured
to be 6.0 cm. What is his estimate of the Sun’s size,
given that the average Earth-Sun distance is 1.5 × 10
11

m?
12. A small telescope has an objective lens of focal length
140 cm and an eyepiece of focal length 5.0 cm. What is
magnifying power of the telescope for viewing distance
objects when
(a) the telescope is in normal adjacent (i.e., when the
final image is at infinity), (b) the final image is formed at
the least distance of distinct vision (25 cm). (c) What is
the separation between the objective and eye-lens in
case (a) ? (d) If this telescope is used to view a 100 m
tall tower 3 km away, what is the height of the image of
the tower formed by the objective lens? (e) What is the
height of the final image of the tower if it is formed at 25
cm?
CURRICULUM BASED CHAPTER ASSIGNMENT
1 Mark Questions
1. Radius of the curvature of convex mirror 40 cm and the
size of the object is twice as that of the image. Then,
what is the image distance?
2. When a mirror is rotated through an angle θ, what is the
angle turned by the reflected ray?.
3. A concave mirror of focal length f produced an image n
size of the object. If the image is real, what is the
distance from the mirror?
4. The angle between incident ray and the reflect ray is
70°. What if the angle of incidence?
5. A 5 cm tall object is placed 10 cm from a concave
mirror of focal length 15 cm. Find the position, nature
and the size of the image.
6. A tall man of height 6 feet want to see his image. Find
the required minimum length of the mirror to see his
image.
7. Where should an object be placed in front of concave
mirror focal length f so that the image to be the same
size as the object?
8. What is the magnification produced a plane mirror?
9. If the power of a lens is +5 dioptres, what is the focal
length?
10. A parallel beam of light is incident on a concave lens of
large aperture, Will the reflected coverage at point?
11. Which of the two main parts of an optical fiber has a
higher value of refractive index?
12. A thin prism of 60° angle gives a deviati on of 30°. What
is the refractive index of material of prism?
13. What is the refractive index of air for light waves?
14. Mention two conditions of total internal reflection?
15. What happens when white light passes through a
prism?
16. What is a prism?
17. Show the refraction of light by a prism with a suitable
diagram.
18. Give two characteristic properties when the prism is in
the position of minimum deviation?
19. Which of the following colours suffers maximum
deviation in a prism?
20. What is the importance of linear magnification?
21. Where should an object placed in image of the same by
a convex lens? Can it happen in case of a concave
lens?
22. How will you judge whether a given piece of glass is
convex lens, concave lens or a plane glass sheet?
23. A lens whose radii of curvature are different is forming
an image. If the lens is reversed, will the position of
image change?
24. What is the nature of the image formed by a concave
mirror when the object is placed between its pole and
focus?
25. Focal length of an equiconvex lens is equal to the
radius of curvature of either face. What is the refractive
index of lens material?
26. What should be the position of an object relative to a
biconvex lens so that it behaves like a magnifying lens?
27. A converging and a diverging lens of equal focal lengths
are place coaxially in contact. Find the power and focal
length of the combination.
28. When a biconvex lens made of glass (µ = 1.5) is
immersed in water (µ = 1.33), what will happen to its
focal length?
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2 Marks Questions
29. What happen when a monochromic ray passes through
a prism?
30. State the law of reflection.
31. What do you mean by the spherical aberration of a
lens? How can it be minimized?
32. Define linear magnification?
33. Mention the use of plane, concave and the convex
mirror.
34. An object is placed between the focus and the pole of a
concave mirror. Locate the position of the image by the
ray diagram.
35. What is mean by the linear magnification?
36. Give new Cartesian sigh convention for the spherical
mirrors.
37. A ray of light incident on one face of an equilateral
prism undergoes total internal reflection at another face.
If the refractive index of prism material is 2 then, find
the angle of incidence (r2) at another face is
38. A ray is incident at an angle of incidence i on one
surface of a prism of small angle A and emerges
normally from the opposite face. If the refractive index
of the prism material is µ, then what angle of incidence?
39. If the angle of a prism is 60° and angle of minimum
deviation is 40°. Then find the angle of refraction.
40. Refractive index of glass for light of yellow, green and
red colours are µy, µg and µr respectively. Rearrange
these symbols in an increasing order of values?
41. At what angle of incidence should a light beam strike a
glass slab of refractive-index 3 , such that the
reflected and the refracted rays are perpendicular to
each other?
42. Show with the help of a diagram the deviation produced
by a prism.
43. Define a monochromatic and polychromatic light. How
can one obtain monochromatic light from polychromatic
light?
44. How deep will a 4 m deep tank appear when seen in air
due to optical illusion? Refractive index of water is 4/3.
45. What is dispersion?
46. A concave lens of f = 15 cm forms an image 10 cm from
the lens. Prove that the object is placed 30 cm away
from the lens.
47. An object is placed 10 cm in front of a lens. The lens
forms a real image three times magnified. Where is the
image formed? What is the focal length of the lens?
48. The radius of curvature of either face of a convex lens
is equal to its focal length. What is the refractive index
of the material of the lens?
49. Calculate the focal length of the combination of a
convex lens of focal length 30 cm in contact with a
concave lens of focal length 20 cm. Is the system a
converging or a diverging lens?
50. A compound microscope with an objective of 1.0 cm
focal length and an eye-piece of 2.0 cm focal length has
a tude length of 20 cm. calculate the magnifying power
of the microscope, if the final image is formed at the
neat of the eye.
51. An astronomical telescope, in normal adjustment
position has magnifying power 5. The distance between
the objective and the eye-piece is 120 cm. calculate the
focal lengths of the objective and of the eye-piece.
52. A convex lens of refractive index n1 is held in a
medium of refractive index n2 . trace the path of
refracted rays of parallel beam of light incident on the
lens when (i) n2>n1 and (ii) n2=n1.
53. Using the lens formula, show that a concave lens
produces a virtual and diminished image independent of
the location of object.
3 Marks Questions
54. An object is placed 10 cm in front of a concave mirror of
focal length 15 cm. Find the nature, position and size of
the image.
55. An erect image three times the size of the object is
obtained with the concave mirror of radius of curvature
36 cm. What is the position of the object?
56. Light of wavelength 5000
0
A fall on a reflection surface.
What are the wave length and frequency of reflected
ray normal the incident ray?
57. What type mirror will you prefer for the saving or make
–up?
58. For dividing a car, which type of mirror would you prefer
to see the traffic at your back?
59. What is the difference between virtual image formed by
the plane, concave and convex mirror?
60. Described a simple method of finding the focal length of
a concave mirror.
61. What are spherical aberration?
62. What do you understand by diffuse reflection?
63. Draw three important rays for a concave mirror that are
generally used to locate the position of the image of an
object?

64. Define the dispersive power of a prism.
65. Why does the sky appear blue?
66. A ray of light falls normally on the face of a prism of
refractive index 1.5. Find the angle of the prism if the
ray just fails to emerge from the second face.
67. The minimum deviation produced by a glass prism
having an angle of 60° is 30°. If the velocity of light in
air is 3 × 108 ms–1, calculate its velocity its velocity in
glass.
68. A glass prism has a refracting angle of 60°. The angle
of minimum deviation is 40°. Find the refractive index.
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At what angle the ray of light should be incident so as to
suffer minimum deviation?
69. A ray of light enters a rectangular glass slab of
refractive index 3 at an angle of incidence 60°. It
travels a distance 5 cm inside the slab and emerges out
of the slab. What is the perpendicular distance between
the incident and emergent rays?
70. Prove that the refractive index of denser medium w.r.t.
rarer medium is equal to the reciprocal of the refractive
index of rarer medium w.r.t. denser medium.
71. An object is immersed in water, show that
a
w
Realdepth
Apparent depth
µ ·
72. Describe two applications of atmospheric refraction.
73. A myopic person has been using spectacles of power—
1.0 dioptre for distant vision. During old are he also
needs to use separate reading glass of power +2.0
dioptre. Explain what may have happened.
74. A spherical surface of radius of curvature R separates
air (refractive index 1.0) from glass (refractive index
1.5). The centre of curvature is in the glass. A point
object P placed in air is found to have a real image Q in
the glass. The line PQ cuts the surface at point O and
PO = OQ. Find the distance of the object from the
spherical surface.
75. A small point object is placed in air at a distance of 60
cm from the convex spherical refracting surface of
refractive index 1.5. If the radius of the curvature of the
spherical surface is 25 cm, find the position of the
image and power of the refracting surface.
76. An ink dot marked on the surface of glass sphere
placed in air is viewed
Fig


through the glass from a position directly opposite. If the
diameter of the sphere is 15 cm and the refractive index
of glass is 1.5, find the position of the image.
77. A convex refracting surface of radius of curvature 15 cm
separates two media of refractive indices 4/3 and 1.5.
An object is kept in the first medium at a distance of 240
cm from the refracting surface. Calculate the position of
the image.
78. A real image of an object id formed at a distance 20cm
from a lens. On putting another lens in contact with it,
the image is shifted 10 cm toward the combination.
Determine the power of the second lens.
79. How does the focal length of a convex lens change if
monochromatic red light is used instead of
monochromatic blue light?
80. Draw a ray diagram of an astronomical telescope in the
normal adjustment position. Write down the expression
for its magnifying power.
81. Draw a ray diagram of an astronomical telescope in the
near adjustment position. Write down the expression for
its magnifying power.
82. Explain why does a convex lens behave as a
converging lens when immersed in water (µ = 1.33) and
as a diverging lens, when immersed in carbon
disulphide (µ = 1.6).
5 Marks Questions
83. Obtain the relation between radius of curvature (R) and
the focal length (f) of a convex mirror?
84. A 2.0 cm tall is placed 15 cm from a concave mirror of
focal length 10 cm. Find the position, size and nature of
the image?
85. Two planes are mirror are inclined to each at angleθ. A
ray of light is reflected first at one mirror and mirror then
at the other. Fined the total deviation of the ray and
show that it is independent of the angle of the incidence
at first t mirror.
86. A square wire of side 3.0 cm is placed 25 cm away from
a concave mirror of focal length is on the axis of the
mirror with the two sides normal to the axis.
87. Two objects A and B when the placed in front of the
concave mirror of focal length 7.5 cm give the image
of equal size If A is three times the size from the mirror
of B and is place 30cm, Find the distance of the object
from the pole of the mirror,
88. The angle of minimum deviation for yellow light in a
prism of refractive index 1.6 is found to be 46°.
Calculate the refracting angle of the prism.
89. In a spectrometer, for the prism A = 60°, calculate the
angle of minimum deviation if µ of the prism for orange
light is 1.64?
90. Define critical angle, obtain a relation for it. Define total
internal reflection. State essential conditions for its
occurance.
91. A ray of light is incident at an angle of 60° on one face
of a prism which has an angle of 30°. The ray emerging
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out of the prism makes an angle of 30° with the incident
ray. Show that the emergent ray is perpendicular to the
face through which it emerges and calculate the
refractive index of the material of the prism.
92. A ray of monochromatic light is incident on the
refracting face of a prism of refracting angle 75°. It
passes through the prism and is incident on the other
face at the critical angle. If the refraction index of the
prism is 2 , find the angle of incidence on the first face
of the prism.
93. A glass prism of angle 72° and refractive index 1.66 is
immersed in a liquid of refractive index 1.33.Find the
angle of minimum deviation for a parallel beam of light
passing through the prism.
94. An object is placed 20 cm to the left of a convex lens of
focal length 10 cm. If a concave mirror of focal length 5
cm is placed 30 cm to right of the lens, what is the
position of the final image?
95. A diverging lens of focal length 20 cm is placed 60 cm
from a pin and a concave mirror of radius of curvature
20cm is placed on the opposite side of the lens. Where
should the mirror be placed so that image of the pin
may coincide with the pin itself?
96. With the help of the data shown in the ray diagram in
fig, calculate the focal length of the concave lens.
QUESTION BANK FOR COMPETITIONS
1. A ray is reflected in turn be three plane mirrors mutually
at right angles to each other. The angle between the
incident and the reflected rays is:
(a) 90° (b) 60°
(c) 180° (d) None of these
2. A plane mirror is in front of you in which you can see
your image. It is approaching towards you at a speed of
10 cm/s’ then at what speed will your image approach
you?
(a) 10 cm/s (b) 5 cm/s
(c) 20 cm/s (d) 15 cm/s
3. The size of the image, if an object of 2.5 m height is
placed at a distance of 10 cm from a concave mirror is:
(a) 10.5 m (b) 9.2 m
(c) 7.5 m (d) 5.6 m
4. Ray optics fails when the size of the obstacle is:
(a) 5 cm
(b) 3 cm
(c) Less than the wavelength of light
(d) (a) and (b) both.
5. Arrange the following in ascending order of frequency.
(a) Red, Blue, yellow, green
(b) Blue, green ,yellow ,red
(c) Red, yellow, green, blue
(d) Red, green, yellow, blue
6. One can not see through fog because:
(a) Fog absorbs light
(b) Light is scattered by the droplets in fog
(c) Light surface total internal reflection by the droplets
in fog
(d) The refractive index of fog is infinity
7. The refractive index of the medium if a light wave has a
frequency of 4 × 10
14
Hz and a wavelength of 5 × 10
–7

m in a medium, will be:
(a) 1.5 (b) 1.33
(c) 1.0 (d) 0.66
8. The number of wavelengths in the visible spectrum is:
(a) 4000 (b) 6000
(c) 2000 (d) Infinite
9. Find the length of the optical path of two media in
contact of lengths d1 and d2 of refractive indices µ1 and
µ2 respectively.
(a) µ1 d1 + µ2d2 (b) µ1 d2 + µ2d1
(b)
1 2
1 2
d d
µ µ
(d)
1 2
1 2
d d +
µ µ

10. Calculate the refractive index of glass with respect to
water. It is given that refractive indices of glass and
water with respect to air are
3 3
and
2 4
respectively:
(a)
8
9
(b)
9
8

(c)
7
6
(d) None of these
11. When a prism is dipped in water then the angle of
minimum deviation of a prism with respect to air will be:

a g a w
3 4
,
2 3
¸ _
µ · µ ·

¸ ,

(a)
1
8
(b)
1
2

(c)
3
4
(d)
1
4

12. An astronomical telescope has a large aperture to:
(a) Reduce spherical aberration
(b) Have high resolution
(c) Increase span of observation
(d) Have low dispersion
13. To get three images of a single object, one should have
two plane mirrors at an angle of:
(a) 60º (b) 90º
(c) 120º (d) 30º
14. A thin glass (refractive index 1.5) lens has optical power
of – 5D in air. Its optical power in a liquid medium with
refractive index 1.6 will be:
(a) 1D (b) –1D
(c) 25D (d) –25D
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15. A plane mirror.
(i) Can form real object
(ii) Neither converges nor diverges the rays
(iii) Cannot form real image of a real object.
Choose the correct option or options.
(a) (i) is correct
(b) (i) and (ii) are correct
(c) (ii) and (iii) are correct
(d) None of all above
16. A man of height 1.8 m stands in front of large vertical
plane mirror. The distance of the image from the main if
he stands at a dis tance of 1.5 m from the mirror is:
(a) 1 m (b) 2 m
(c) 3 m (d) 4 m
17. A man is running towards a plane mirror with some
velocity. If the relative velocity of his image with respect
to him is 4 m/s, then the velocity of a man is:
(a) 2 m/s
(b) 4 m/s
(c) 15 m/s
(d) 16 m/s
18. The mirrors are perpendicular to each other as shown
in figure. A light ray a light ray AB is incident on the
mirror M1. Then the reflected ray wills also surfer a
reflection from the mirror M2. Then the final ray after
reflection from M2 will be parallel to the incident ray, if:
i
B
M
2
M
1

(a) I =45°
(b) I = 65°
(c) I < 30°
(d) for any I between 0° and 90°
19. A pole 5 m high on a horizontal surface. Sun rays rare
incident at an angle 30° with vertical. The size or
shadow on horizontal surface is:
(a) 5 m
(b)
5
m
3

(c)
10
m
3

(d) None of these
20. A point object P is situated in front of plane mirror
shown in figure. The width of mirror AB is d. The visual
region on a line passing through point P and parallel to
the mirror is:
d
A
B
45°
P

(a) d (b) 2d
(c) 3d (d) None of the above
21. A beautiful girl with two normal eyes wants to see full
width of her face by a plane mirror. The eye to eye and
ear to ear distances of her face are 4 inch and 6 inch
respectively. The minimum width of the required mirror
is:
(a) 1 inch (b) 2 inch
(c) 3 inch (d) 4 inch
22. A ray f light falls on a plane mirror. When th e mirror is
turned, about an axis at right angle to the plane of the
mirror through 20°, the angle between the incident ray
and new reflected ray is 45°.The angle between the
incident ray and original reflected ray is:
(a) 15° (b) 30°
(c) 45° (d) 60°
23. A lamp and scale arrangement, used to measure small
deflected is shown in the figure. SS’ is the glass scale
placed at a distance of 1 MM and I is the position of the
light spot formed after reflection from the under
deflected mirror MM. the mirror is deflected by 10° and
comes to the deflected position MM. the distance
moved by the spot on the scale is:
M’
M
R
S
I
1 m
10°
M’
M
S

(a) 24.6 cm (b) 36.4 cm
(c) 46.4 cm (d) 34.9 cm
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24. A plane mirror, reflecting a ray of incident light, is
rotated through an angle θ about an axis through the
point of incidence in the plane of the mirror
perpendicular of the plane of incidence, then:
(a) The reflected ray does not rotated
(b) The reflected ray rotates through an angle θ
(c) The reflected ray rotates through an angle θ
(d) The incident ray is fixed
25. In the given figure, the angle between reflected rays is
equal to:
A

(a) A
(b) 2A
(c) 3A
(d) 4A
26. A vessel consists of two plane mirrors at right angles
(as shown in figure). The vessel is filled with water. The
total deviation in incident ray is:
90°

(a) 0°
(b) 90°
(c) 180°
(d) None of the above









27. Two plane mirrors are placed parallel to each other as
shown in the figure. There is an object O placed
between the mirrors, at 5 cm from mirror M2. What are
the distances of first three images from M2?
O
15 cm
M
1 M
2

(a) 5,10,15
(b) 5,15,30
(c) 5, 25, 25
(d) 5,15,25
28. If two mirrors are inclined at some angle and an object
is placed between the mirrors and there are 7 images
formed for an object, then what is angle between the
mirrors?
(a) 54°
(b) 50°
(c) 60°
(d) 45°
29. If u represents object distance from pole of spherical
mirror and v represents image distance from pole of
mirror and f is the focal length of the mirror, then a
straight line u = v measurement of f is:
(a) (f,f)
(b) (2f,2f)
(c) (f, 2f)
(d) (0,0)
30. The position of 1 cm tall object which speed is placed 8
cm in front of a concave mirror of radius of curvature 24
cm is:
(a) 24 cm
(b) 25 cm
(c) 26 cm
(d) 27 cm