Satellite communication networks are now an indispensable part of most major telecommunication systems.

Satellites have a unique capability for providing coverage over large geographical areas. Modern communications satellites use a variety of orbits including geostationary orbits, Molniya orbits, other elliptical orbits and low (polar and nonpolar) Earth orbits.

Geostationary orbits

elliptical orbits

The resulting interconnectivity between communication sources provides major advantages in applications such as interconnecting large traffic nodes (e.g. telephone exchanges), provision of end to end connections directly to users, mobile communications, television and sound broadcasts directly to the public.

The advantages offered have enabled this technology to mature within just three decades. To date, most benefits with the telecommunications area have been achieved for point to point communication within the international and domestic systems, direct television broadcasts and mobile communications. In recent years, satellite communication systems have begun to face competition from optical fiber systems for point to point communication between large concentrated traffic sources. To retain a competitive edge, it has been necessary to

develop various new techniques. Therefore, the phenomenal growth of satellite technology continues, the major growth now being in those areas where satellites can provide unique advantages.

Optical fiber The major growth now being in those areas where satellites can provide unique advantages, such applications include service provision directly to customers using small, low cost earth stations; mobile communication to ships, aircrafts, land vehicles and individuals; and direct to public television/sound broadcasts and data distribution/gathering from widely distributed terminals. In many applications, such as video distribution, service providers are combining the benefits of satellite communications with optical fiber systems to produce the best solution to users’ needs because to provide a seamless coverage terrestrial


systems providing service in populated areas and satellite systems in those areas un-served by the terrestrial system.

1.2 Background

and Early mission


"The Earth is the cradle of the mind, but we cannot live forever in a cradle". - (Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky-Kaluga,1911. From a letter.)

The first known use of a device resembling a rocket is said to have been in China in the year 1232. A number of instances of the use of such devices were subsequently recorded over the next few centuries. However, successful progress in the field was not made until the Russian school teacher, Konstantin E. Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935), introduced the basis of liquid propelled rockets.


Robert Hutchings Goddard with his first rocket 1926


His theoretical work on liquid propelled rocket engines was verified when in 1926 Robert H. Goddard launched the first liquid propelled rocket in the United States. Later on, the work of a small German amateur group provided the

V-2 rocket Break through which laid the foundations of the present rocket technology. Their work was later supported by the German military, leading to the successful launch of V-2 rockets in 1942. The satellite era began in October 1957 with the launch of Sputnik-1, a former Soviet Union satellite and this was soon followed by the launch of a US satellite, Explorer-1, in 1958.

Sputnik-1 image

Explorer-1 image

1.3How it work 1.3.1 Brief explanation
Satellites were used as passive reflectors of radio waves for establishing communication. An immediate problem with the use of satellites as passive

reflectors was the extremely low level of signal strength, resulting in a need for very sensitive and hence costly receivers. The main reason favoring the use of passive satellites at the time was the lack of space-qualified electronics. It was recognized that the use of satellites capable of amplifying the received signal on-board before retransmission could greatly enhance the capability of satellites for communications. Therefore considerable research and development effort was spent during the next few years in the development of space qualified electronics, eventually leading to the introduction of active repeaters.


Basic Theory for satellite work

For 10,000 years man has wondered about questions such as "What holds the sun up in the sky?", "Why doesn't the moon fall on us?", and "How do they (the sun and the moon) return from the far west back to the far east to rise again each day?" It is only in the last 300 years, our description of course is based on fundamental laws put forth by the English genius Sir Isaac Newton in the late 17th century. The first of Newton's laws, which was a logical extension of earlier work by Johannes Kepler, proposed that every bit of matter in the universe attracts every other bit of matter with a force which is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between the two bits. That


is, larger masses attract more strongly and the attraction gets weaker as the bodies are moved farther apart.
F = G (M earth M sun) / R2 Where: M earth is the mass of the earth M sun is the mass of the sun R is the distance between the sun and the earth, and G is a constant which was measured by Cavendish in the late 18th century

Newton's law of gravity means that the sun pulls on the earth (and every other planet for that matter) and the earth pulls on the sun. Furthermore, since both are quite large (by our standards at least) the force must also be quite large. The question which every people ask is, "If the sun and the planets are pulling on each other with such a large force, why don't the planets fall into the sun?" The answer is simply Our salvation is that they are also moving "sideways" with a sufficiently large velocity that by the time the earth has fallen the 93,000,000 miles to the sun it has also moved "sideways" about 93,000,000 miles - far enough to miss the sun. By the time the moon has fallen the 240,000 miles to the earth, it has moved sideways about 240,000 miles - far enough to miss the earth. This process is repeated continuously as the earth (and all the other planets) makes their apparently unending trips around the sun and the moon makes its trips around the earth.


A planet, or any other body, which finds itself at any distance from the sun with no "sideways" velocity will quickly fall without missing the sun, will be drawn into the sun's interior and will be cooked to well-done. Only our sideways motion (physicists call it our "angular velocity”) saves us. The same of course is true for the moon, which would fall to earth but for its angular velocity. This is illustrated in the drawing below.

Very soon after Newton's laws were published, people realized that in principle it should be possible to launch an artificial satellite which would orbit the earth just as the moon does. A simple calculation, however, using the equations which we developed above, will show that an artificial satellite, orbiting near the surface of the earth (R = 4000 miles) will have a period of approximately 90 minutes. This corresponds to a sideways velocity (needed in order to "miss" the earth as it falls);


of approximately 17,000 miles/hour (that's about 5 miles/second). To visualize the "missing the earth" feature, let's imagine cannon firing a cannonball.

Launching an Artificial Satellite

After Sputnik, it was only a few years before the U.S. launched its own satellite; the Soviets launched Yuri Gagarin, the first man to orbit the earth; and the U.S. launched John Glenn, the first American in orbit. All of these flights were at essentially the same altitude (a few hundred miles) and completed one trip around the earth approximately every 90 minutes. People were well aware, however, that the period would be longer if they were able to reach higher altitudes. In particular Arthur Clarke pointed out in the mid-1940s that a satellite orbiting at an altitude of 22,300 miles would require exactly 24 hours to orbit the earth. Hence such an orbit is called "geosynchronous" or "geostationary." If in addition it were orbiting over the equator, it would appear, to

an observer on the earth, to stand still in the sky. Raising a satellite to such an altitude, however, required still more rocket boost, so that the achievement of a geosynchronous orbit did not take place until 1963.

1.3.3 Low Earth-Orbiting Communications Satellites
In 1960, the simplest communications satellite ever conceived was launched. It was called Echo, because it consisted only of a large (100 feet in diameter) aluminized plastic balloon. Radio and TV signals transmitted to the satellite would be reflected back to earth and could be received by any station within view of the satellite.

Echo Satellite Unfortunately, in its low earth orbit, the Echo satellite circled the earth every ninety minutes. This meant that although virtually everybody on earth would eventually see it, no one person, ever saw it for more than 10 minutes or so out of every 90 minute orbit. In 1958, the Score satellite had been put into orbit. It carried a tape recorder which would record messages as it passed over an originating station and then rebroadcast them as it passed over the destination. Once more,

however, it appeared only briefly every 90 minutes - a serious impediment to real communications. In 1962, NASA launched the Telstar satellite for.

Telstar Satellite Telstar's orbit was such that it could "see" Europe" and the US simultaneously during one part of its orbit. During another part of its orbit it could see both Japan and the U.S. As a result, it provided real- time communications between the United States and those two areas - for a few minutes out of every hour. Some of the main advantages of low and medium earth orbit include: (a) the possibility o fusing hand-held receiver terminals because satellites are closer to the Earth and can therefore provide stronger signals at the receiver and ground stations need to transmit at lower power; (b) the possibility of reusing the frequencies more often than is possible with geostationary orbit because the geographical area covered by low earth orbit satellites is much smaller; (c) the possibility of reduction in transmission delay.

1.3.4 Geosynchronous Communications Satellites
The solution to the problem of availability, of course, lay in the use of the geosynchronous orbit. In 1963, the necessary rocket booster power was available for the first time and the first geosynchronous satellite, Syncom 2, was launched by NASA. For those who could "see" it, the satellite was available 100% of the time, 24 hours a day. The satellite could view approximately 42% of the earth. For those outside of that viewing area, of course, the satellite was NEVER available.

Syncom II Communications Satellite

However, a system of three such satellites, with the ability to relay messages from one to the other could interconnect virtually all of the earth except the Polar Regions. The one disadvantage (for some purposes) of the geosynchronous orbit is that the time to transmit a signal from earth to the satellite and back is approximately ¼ of a second - the time required to travel 22,000 miles up and 22,000 miles back down at the speed of light. For telephone conversations, this delay can sometimes be annoying. For data transmission and most other uses it is

not significant. In any event, once Syncom had demonstrated the technology necessary to launch a geosynchronous satellite, a virtual explosion of such satellites followed.

Today, there are approximately 150 communications satellites in orbit, with over

100 in geosynchronous orbit. One of the biggest sponsors of satellite development was Intelsat, an internationally-owned corporation which has launched 8 different series of satellites (4 or 5 of each series) over a period of more than 30 years. Spreading their satellites around the globe and making provision to relay from one satellite to another, they made it possible to transmit 1000s of phone calls between almost any two points on the earth. It was also possible for the first time, due to the large capacity of the satellites, to transmit live television pictures between virtually any two points on earth. By 1964 (if you could stay up late enough), you could for the first time watch the Olympic Games live from Tokyo. A few years later of course you could watch the Vietnam War live on the evening news.


1.3.5 Basic Satellite System
A basic satellite system consists of a space segment serving a specific ground segment. The characteristics of each segment depend on whether the system is for fixed mobile or direct broadcast applications. The main features of these services and the main system related issues are briefly addressed in this section. The main elements of a satellite communication system are ground stations (earth stations) in a network transmit radio frequency (RF) signals to the operational satellite. The received signals are processed, translated into another radio frequency and after further amplification retransmitted towards the desired regions of the Earth. Communication can be established between all the earth stations located within the coverage region.


Every communications satellite in its simplest form (whether low earth or geosynchronous) involves the transmission of information from an originating ground station to the satellite (the uplink), followed by a retransmission of the information from the satellite back to the ground (the downlink). The downlink may either be to a select number of ground stations or it may be broadcast to everyone in a large area. Hence the satellite must have a receiver and a receive antenna, a transmitter and a transmit antenna, some method for connecting the uplink to the downlink for retransmission, and prime electrical power to run all of the electronics. The exact nature of these components will differ, depending on the orbit and the system architecture, but every communications satellite must have these basic components. This is illustrated in the drawing below.

1.3.6 Using C-band and K-band
C band is a name given to certain portions of the electromagnetic spectrum, as well as a range of wavelengths of light, used for communications. The IEEE C band and its variations, in particular, are microwave ranges used for certain satellite television broadcasts, and by some Wi-Fi devices, cordless phones, and weather radars. Typical antenna sizes on C-band capable systems ranges from 7.5 to 12 feet (2.5 to 3.5 meters) on consumer satellite dishes, although larger ones also can be used. Slight variations of C band frequencies are approved for use in various parts of the world.
C Band Variants Around The World Transmit Freque Receive Freque Band ncy ncy (GHz) (GHz) Extended C Band 5.850–6.425 3.625–4.200 20

Super Extended C Band INSAT C Band Palapa C Band Russian C Band LMI C Band

5.850–6.725 6.725–7.025 6.425–6.725 5.975–6.475 5.7250–6.025

3.400–4.200 4.500–4.800 6.425–6.725 3.650–4.150 3.700–4.000

K-band, the NATO K band is defined as a frequency band between 20 and 40 GHz (7.5–15 mm). The IEEE K band is a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the microwave range of frequencies ranging between 18 and 27 GHz. K band between 18 and 26.5 GHz is absorbed easily by water vapor (H2O resonance peak at 22.24 GHz, 1.35 cm). Subdivisions The IEEE K band is conventionally divided into three sub-bands: • Ka band: K-above band, 26.5–40 GHz, mainly used for radar and experimental communications. • K-band 18-27 GHz

Ku band: K-under band, 12–18 GHz, mainly used for satellite communications, terrestrial microwave communications, and radar, especially police traffic-speed detectors.


Application for Satellite Communication System

The breakthrough provided by satellites in telecommunications resulted in a major research and development effort in all the related technologies. Most of the early work concentrated on international point to point telecommunications applications. Later, the application of satellite communication was extended to the direct satellite broadcasts (1970s), mobile communications (1980s), and personal communications (1990s). In general, satellites serving the mobile and broadcast

sectors need to transmit at higher power than do satellites serving the fixed network.

Satellite Communication services
1.4.1 Fixed satellite service (FSS)

Satellites providing Fixed-Satellite Services (FSS) transmit radio communications between ground Earth stations at fixed locations. Satellite-transmitted information is carried in the form of radio-frequency signals. Any number of satellites may be used to link these stations. Earth stations that are part of fixed-satellite services networks also use satellite news gathering vehicles to broadcast from media events, such as sporting events or news conferences. In addition, FSS satellites provide a wide variety of services including paging networks and point-of-sale support, such as credit card transactions and inventory control.

1.4.2 Mobile satellite service (MSS)


Mobile satellite services (MSS) refers to networks of communications satellites intended for use with mobile and portable wireless telephones. There are three major types: AMSS (aeronautical MSS), LMSS (land MSS), and MMSS (maritime MSS). 1.4.3 Broadcasting satellite service (BSS) or Direct-Broadcast Services (DBS)

Direct-broadcast satellites (DBS)/ broadcasting satellite service transmit signals for direct reception by the general public, such as satellite television and radio.

Satellite signals are sent directly to users through their own receiving antennas or satellite dishes, in contrast to satellite/cable systems in which signals are received by a ground station, and re-broadcast to users by cable. 1.4.4 Some other applications for Satellite Communications Systems

:: Banking and Finance

� ATM's � Support for transactions � Software and file updating � On-line commerce � Electronic payment

:: Commercial � Stock control � Credit card check � PoS � Price update � Program for the frequent buyers

1.5 Advantages and Disadvantages of Satellite Communication System
Advantages:  Flexible (if transparent transponders)  Easy to install new circuits  Circuit costs independent of distance  Broadcast possibilities  Temporary applications (restoration)  Niche applications  Mobile applications (especially "fill-in")  Terrestrial network "by-pass"

 Provision of service to remote or underdeveloped areas  User has control over own network  1-for-N multipoint standby possibilities Disadvantages  Large up front capital costs (space segment and launch)  Terrestrial break even distance expanding (now approx. size of Europe)  Interference and propagation  Congestion of frequencies and orbit

1.6 Summary
Satellite communication networks are now an indispensable part of most major telecommunication systems. The satellite era began in October 1957 with the launch of Sputnik-1, a former Soviet Union satellite and this was soon followed by the launch of a US satellite, Explorer-1, in 1958. A basic satellite system consists of a space segment serving a specific ground segment. The characteristics of each segment depend on whether the system is for fixed mobile or direct broadcast applications. The main features of these services and the main system related issues are briefly addressed in this section. The application of satellite communication was extended to the direct satellite broadcasts (1970s), mobile communications (1980s), and personal communications (1990s). In general, satellites serving the mobile and broadcast sectors need to transmit at higher power than do satellites serving the fixed network. Satellite communication bounces off a satellite hence it covers great distances and doesn't suffer from the curvature of the earth it handles a big bandwidth that especially through digital signal compression can squeeze in many channels out of 1 satellite. Satellites could be co-located which will result in receiving many satellites with ONE fixed dish. Signal could be transmitted at high power resulting in small dishes being able to receive. Signal could be encrypted & heaps more


1.1 1.2 1.3 1.3.1 1.3.3 1.3.4 1.3.5 1.3.6 1.4

General…………………………………………………….2 Background and Early mission…………………………..4 How it work………………………………………………..7
Brief explanation………………………………………………………………..7 Low Earth-Orbiting Communications Satellites……………………………..11 Geosynchronous Communications Satellites………………………………….13 Basic Satellite System…………………………………………………………..16 Using C-band and K-band……………………………………………………..17

1.3.2 Basic Theory for satellite work…………………………………………………8

Application for Satellite Communication System……...19

1.4.1 1.4.2 1.4.3 1.4.4 1.5

Fixed satellite service (FSS)…………………………………………………….19 Mobile satellite service (MSS)………………………………………………….20 Broadcasting satellite service (BSS) or Direct-Broadcast Services (DBS)….21 Some other applications for Satellite Communications Systems…………….21

Advantages and Disadvantages of Satellite Communication System……………………………………………………...23 Summary…………………………………………………..23



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