You are on page 1of 20


This paper focuses on the integration of 'conservation of forest genetic resources' with 'development aimed at local people', and the potential role of seed centres in conserving useful tree species. It is based on an earlier paper by Kjaer and Nathan (2000). The objective of the paper is to suggest how tree seed centres can contribute to conserving and domesticating tree species which would otherwise fall between conservation in national parks and industrial tree improvement programmes. This paper does not give an exhaustive account either of measures to conserve tree genetic resources or of models for integrated conservation and development. There are between 35,000 and 70,000 plant species which have been used at one time or an other on one culture or another for medicinal purposes in the world. At least 6,500 species are used in Asia as home remedies. It is estimated that in India, around 3,000 species are used of which 540 find major uses as herbal drugs. Similarly, in Nepal about 100 species are currently exploited for commercial uses and the numbers for other countries are : about 300 in Bhutan;around 250 in Bangladesh; and 400 in Pakistan. However these lists are too large to be of practical use in concentrating the limited research and development resources these countries have for investment in the medicinal plants sector. In order to effectively utilize the human and financial resources available, a small number of species - perhaps 25-30 - need to be selected for an intensive research and development focus. These species, if properly and holistically examined and improved in terms of biological, medical ecological, and economic benefits, could then be the base of a larger effort to improve and sustain a vibrant and socioeconimically sound medicinal plants sector. It was with these objectives that the two-day consulation on Medical Plants Species Prioritization in South Asia was organized by MAPPA. Participants were invited with diverse interests in

medicinal plants comprising of botanists, health practitioners, conservationists, development planners etc. The wide spread of expertise suited the goal of the meeting which was to devise an agreeable mechanism to select some limited numbers of medicinal plant species for focused and a goal oriented research support - one which would result in tangible benefits for people whose livelihoods are largely dependant on sustainable use of these plant resources. Scare capital and human resources need to be heavily focused to provide improved benefits to the marginalized people who are largely dependant on the medicinal plants for their livelihood. This means concentrating efforts on intensive management of keystone species. The importance of medicinal plants to the individual South Asian nation's economy and primary health care system needs no emphasis. However there remains a wide gap between the potential and the current achievements. One of the reasons for this is, we believe, a lack of focussed R&D efforts by governments, the private sector and NGO's. As a result, impact on both the biodiversity and socioeconomy, of the region has been generally negative. The two-day consultation agreed upon five criteria for selection of species and their prioritization, categorized five eco-geographical zones for prioritization and a list of 30 priority species for South Asia. The meeting also identified priority research areas and recommended coordinated research and an effective system of information exchange among the researchers and scientists working in the region. Deforestation and frontier forests

Eighty percent of the forests that originally covered the earth have been cleared, fragmented or otherwise degraded. Those that remain are found in only a few places, mainly in the Amazon Basin, Central Africa, Canada and Russia (WRI 2001). The World Resources Institute (WRI) has

described the remaining large and intact forest ecosystems as 'frontier forests'. These forests are remote and large enough to maintain all of their biodiversity, including viable populations of the wide-ranging species associated with each forest type (WRI 2001). Globally, tropical deforestation is estimated at 12.6 million hectares per year, or 0.7% of the total forested area (FAO 1997). The depletion and degradation of existing forests and woodlands are major causes of concern. One of the main reasons for this concern is that deforestation and forest degradation dramatically reduce our present and future options for using forests. Remaining frontier forests can be categorized by the degree of threat they face. In threatened frontier forests, human activities such as logging, agricultural clearing and mining are degrading ecosystems. Low-threat, potentially vulnerable frontier forests are not considered under pressure from degradation. However, because they are unprotected and contain valuable natural resources, or because human encroachment is likely, most of these forests are vulnerable to future degradation and destruction. Non-frontier forests are dominated by secondary forests, plantations, degraded forest and smaller patches of primary forest. Such forests are a high priority for conservation and also provide a wide range of economic goods and services. Little frontier forest is left in Southeast Asia, and most of what remains is under threat (Figure 1 and Table 1).
Tree species are important for the well-being of people in all countries, particularly in the humid tropics and arid landscapes around the world. Many tree species are of major economic importance as the source of products such as timber, fruits, nuts, resins and gums. Worldwide, 2 billion people depend on wood for cooking and fuel; millions of others depend on trees for food and medicines. Trees are also the structural components of forests, providing a habitat for many other species and defining the characteristics of forest ecosystems. Information is limited on the distribution and conservation status of tree species. Preliminary surveys undertaken to date suggest that approximately 8,000 tree species are threatened with extinction worldwide. The potential loss of nearly 10 per cent of all tree species is a major conservation issue, requiring international attention and widespread action.

The Global Trees Campaign is a joint initiate developed by UNEP-WCMC and FFI in partnership with wide range of other organizations around the world. T aim of the Campaign is to save the world's most

threaten tree species and the habitats in which they grow through the provision of information, delivery of conservation action a support for sustainable use. Reliable and up-to-date information is essential underpin the aims of the Global Trees Campaign. Init information to support the Campaign was derived from the results of the global conservation status survey of tree species undertaken by WCMC (now UNEP-WCMC) association with the Species Survival Commission (SSC) IUCN-The World Conservation Union and additional expect around the world. The WCMC/SSC survey identified mo than 8,000 tree species which are threatened with extinct at a global level, published in The World List of Threaten Trees (Oldfield et al., 1998). Summary information on the species is available on the Internet via the Try Conservation Information Service now connected to the Global Trees Information about tree species reinforces the information needed to conserve habitats and ecosystems. Various initiatives (SBSTTA, 1996; Lammerts van Bueren and Duivenvoorden, 1996) have suggested that tree species diversity can be used as a surrogate for overall species diversity in forest ecosystems. Information on the distri- bution of restricted range species can be used to determine patterns of biodiversity and define priority areas for conservation. Tree species information also provides a crucial link with information on patterns of genetic resources within forest ecosystems.

Table 1. Frontier forests in selected Southeast Asian countries. Source: WRI (2001).

Frontier forest lost (%) Frontier forest threatened (%) Lost It All Philippines On The Edge Lao PDR Thailand Vietnam Not Much Time Myanmar Cambodia Indonesia Malaysia Conservation approaches As a result of continued forest loss, approaches to conservation have changed from 'pure conservation' (usually in national parks) to 'conservation through use' (for example see FAO 1975). Creating national parks to preserve whole ecosystems represents the pure conservation approach. Pure conservation is necessary if populations of large animals and intricate food webs are to be maintained (Bawa 1994; Soule & Terborgh 1999). As Figure 1 demonstrates, it is well justified. Kjaer and Nathan (2000) discussed three different approaches or models for integrating conservation and development: i) Prevent the use of natural resources (the 'hands-off' model); combine with buffer zone compensation for local communities. ii) Reduce the use of natural resources in a manner compatible with both conservation and development objectives (the 'sustainable harvest' model). Resources will be protected by regulating their use in a genetically sustainable manner. iii) Increase the use of valuable genetic resources, thereby conserving them (the 'use it or lose it' model). Planting valuable species or seed sources in forest areas or on farmland can both improve access to their products for rural people and raise their conservation status. 94 90 72 85 56 100 54 48 98 95 98 100 100 100 -

Our concern in this paper is with the third approach-'use it or lose it'-because the livelihoods of millions of rural people in tropical countries depend on access to products and services from trees and forests. These people are now forced to live in the fragmented landscapes of nonfrontier forests, from which they obtain products such as timber, building materials, fuelwood, food, medicine, fodder and important services such as shade, shelter, erosion control, watershed protection and soil enrichment. When forests and trees disappear, rural people lose a vital source of livelihood. Biodiversity of species in use Biodiversity consists of variation at many levels-diversity between ecosystems, species and genes (CBD 1992). A loss of diversity at any of these levels means a loss of options for future use. Many species used by local people in non-frontier forests are not protected by the formal national parks system (see Graudal et al. 1999), and are often underutilized in the sense that their full potential is not recognized nor conserved. Trees are genetically diverse organisms. In many tree species, substantial genetic differentiation is found between populations and between single trees within populations (Mouna 1990). Better growth, quality and adaptability can be achieved, therefore, through careful selection of the best seed sources when raising seedlings for a given planting purpose. The selection of superior individuals (genetic improvement) can increase the productivity of trees considerably (for example see Foster et al. 1995 and Graudal & Kjaer 2000). Improvements-even marginal improvements-in the survival rate and productivity of trees will often be of particular importance to subsistence farmers or other tree planters. Selection, however, requires the presence of genetic diversity (Namkoong et al. 1988). In this sense, a loss of biodiversity reduces the options for future use. Similarly, genetic variation within and between species is important to the long-term natural adaptation of species (Falk & Holsinger 1991). Populations under stress may respond through natural selection, but only if genetic variation exists with regard to breeding fitness (Fisher 1958). Within species, low levels of genetic diversity can lead to inbreeding depression and affect growth, survival and adaptation (Kjaer 1997). At the level of ecosystems, species compete and interact constantly. Rapid co-adaptation and development, therefore, are necessary for any species to avoid extinction in the long run (Van Valen 1973). In this sense, too, conservation of biodiversity is important for preserving future options. Conservation of trees and biodiversity is thus important to development at local and national levels. Conservation and development are linked further in that successful conservation often requires integration with short-term benefits for local people.

The need to protect and conserve natural resources in tandem with social and economic development has been widely acknowledged. It is the experience of the Danida Forest Seed Centre (DFSC) that development and conservation efforts can be improved by integrating conservation with short-term benefits for local users of natural resources. It is also DFSC's experience that conservation and development for people have rarely been integrated fully in the past. A need still exists, therefore, to discuss different ways of integration. Efforts to conserve forest genetic resources usually begin after a threat to these resources is identified. The nature of such threats, and the options for conservation, both institutional and social, will vary from place to place. The availability of trained staff and financial resources are other critical factors to consider when implementing conservation plans in the field (for example see Graudal et al. 1997 and Thomson et al. 2001). Conservation strategies and techniques should be selected on the basis of a careful assessment of the context. Increased use Tree species often become rare and endangered because they provide valuable wood or nonwood products, and consequently are much sought after. In such cases, one option could be to increase the use of the endangered tree species. Increased use of genetic resources in terms of planting in forest areas, watershed areas, degraded areas and, not least, farms, can be a very efficient way of protecting valuable genetic resources. Cultivation of a valuable but endangered tree species can result in the multiplication and distribution of its germplasm. Moreover, planting and using a rare species can often reduce exploitation pressures on its natural populations. From the point of view of rural people, the clear advantage of this model is that cultivation of threatened high-value species can help to meet local needs for tree products and services, or for cash income. The 'increased use' model can also be effective for tree species with less valuable products. It can be used in planting programmes for land rehabilitation or watershed management. Local species may be suited to such purposes because they have adapted to local conditions and so carry less risk of die-back due to biotic or abiotic factors. Moreover, they will often be suited to mixed species plantations where future management can be reduced to a minimum. Like other models, the 'use it or lose it' approach has a range of problems. These relate to the genetic resource as well as to people. From a purely genetic perspective, the model involves a series of processes that can (though not do not necessarily) have implications for genetic diversity. Many random as well as intended selections take place during seed collection, seed production, planting, tending and harvesting (El-Kassaby & Namkoong 1997). Hybridization between species can also be a problem. Genetic diversity can be reduced if seed is collected only from a few easily accessible trees (Simons 1996). Seeds may also be moved around different ecological zones without keeping records of their origin. Using a plant species, therefore, is not a

guarantee of protection of its genetic resources. Any usage must be based on genetically sound principles, otherwise domestication could deplete the genetic resource and lead to a situation where conservation measures are needed simply to avoid the negative effects of domestication. Provided that genetic considerations are taken into account, genetic diversity can be protected effectively within domesticated plantings (see Namkoong 1984). Other constraints to overcome are mainly technical in nature. Valuable tree species are sometimes not planted because farmers do not have access to their germplasm. A practical solution to this problem could be to mobilize the genepool (for example by establishing locally available seed sources). Another solution could involve improved methods for collecting and handling seed. A large number of tropical species have recalcitrant seeds, which means that the seed must be handled with care and is difficult to store. Germination capacity is often lost within days (Schmidt 2000). If the problem concerns marketing of a product, then support for storage, transport or trade may be useful (see Hansen and Kjaer (1999) for a more detailed discussion of technical constraints and options). In Southeast Asia, two valuable timber species that have been heavily exploited in natural stands and are now being recognized for their planting potential are Dalbergia cochinchinensis and Chukrasia tabularis. D. cochinchinensis is one of the indigenous priority species identified by the Danida-supported Indochina Tree Seed Programme (ITSP). ITSP, in collaboration with the Lao Department of Forestry, has incorporated this species into planting programmes in Lao PDR in a number of different ways. The wood is extremely valuable, and its value per unit area far exceeds that of fast-growing eucalypts or Acacia mangium (often by a factor of ten). Planting D. cochinchinensis as an alternative to eucalyptus can thus both provide greater income and protect the genetic resources of the species. In order to provide access to the germplasm, ITSP supports identification of good seed sources and provides support to genetically broad seed collections from natural populations in collaboration with provincial authorities. Part of the seed is reserved for plantings that will serve as seed sources for future commercial seed procurement (Thomsen 2000). Such plantings may form the basis for future domestication of the species across large areas of the country. It is important, therefore, that at this initial stage seeds are not collected from a few random trees. C. tabularis/velutina is another valuable timber species distributed throughout Southeast Asia. The species is now being investigated by a collaborative project between CSIRO (Australia) and Vietnam, Thailand, Lao PDR and Malaysia (A. Kalingare pers. comm.; Thomson, Midgley, Pinyopusarek & Kalinganire in these proceedings). Eco-geographic surveys have been made in Lao PDR, Malaysia, Thailand and Vietnam, and provenance tests have been established in Australia, Lao PDR, Malaysia, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam (Kalinganire & Pinyopusarerk 2000).

Compared with the total number of tree species in the region, the number of species currently under a formal domestication programme is low. It is unlikely that forestry departments or tree seed centres in the region will have the capacity to launch formal domestication programmes for large numbers of tree species. It may be possible, however, to conserve many species by using more informal seed source establishment and seed distribution programmes, which rely less on direct intervention by government staff and more on collaboration between seed centres and local people. Such programmes should be based on sound genetic principles and a decentralized structure that empowers local seed supply organizations and seed source owners. Decentralized establishment of seed sources and seed distribution-an example from Nepal The importance and rarity of the most-valued fodder species In Nepal, Danida is supporting the Tree Improvement and Silviculture Component (TISC) of a larger sectoral programme, the Natural Resources Management Sector Assistance Programme. One of the main objectives of TISC is to organize the distribution of seed of indigenous tree species to farmers. Livestock malnutrition is a major constraint to agricultural development in Nepal, and tree fodder is an indispensable part of the livestock system. Tree fodder is thus an important tree product in Nepal, and holds a special key to poverty alleviation. The most highly valued fodder tree species are now rare in natural forests, and survive mainly on private farmland (Table 2). In much of Nepal, therefore, community management of natural forests does not provide the quantity and quality of leaf fodder that would otherwise be expected from Nepal's indigenous species. Similarly, on private land, few agencies are working to provide farmers with access to improved material. Extension services for fodder trees and the diffusion of species among farmers are limited. Furthermore, it is likely that inbreeding reduces the efficiency of tree fodder production on private farmland (Lilles et al. 2001a). Table 2. Frequency of species in Nepal's national forest inventory. The inventory recorded 266 species. Source: Data were kindly made available by the Director General, Department of Forest Research and Survey, Kathmandu. Two most common species Shorea robusta Quercus sp. Fodder species Total 24 highly valued fodder species 4 Percentage of all stems 16 10

In terms of biomass, fodder is one of the most heavily used tree and forest products in Nepal. The species used for fodder should appear in a forest inventory if they are contributing substantially to fodder production. What is interesting, however, is that only a few of the most highly valued fodder species actually appear in the national forest inventory (see Table 2 above). A total of 266 species (including unidentified species) in 545 plots were registered in the inventory. The two most common species and genera are Shorea robusta (sal) from the upper tropical zone and Quercus spp. from the temperate (and alpine) zone. Both S. robusta and Quercus spp. are dominant members of particular forest types and their commonness is to be expected. The 24 most highly valued fodder species together account for about 4% of the stems recorded in the plots. This finding runs counter to the fact that fodder tree leaves, in terms of biomass, are the most important products from the accessible forests of Nepal. The two most obvious explanations for this discrepancy are: i) Fodder from forests generally does not come from the most highly valued tree species because these are rare in natural forests. ii) A large volume of fodder does in fact come from private land (farmland trees). Given the intense exploitation pressure on forests in Nepal, it is probable that many of the most heavily used (most highly valued) species have become rare in accessible forests. Furthermore, it is likely that fodder species still survive on private farmland, where they are tended by landowners[23]. This scenario raises two new questions: i) What is the actual and potential productivity of farmland fodder species? If farmers are moving wildlings around their land and tending natural regeneration, it is likely that the trees are inbred and that even simple domestication measures (such as bringing together unrelated individuals in seed orchards) could increase production significantly within a few years, and that more intensive selection could raise production even further. ii) What is the conservation status of these species? Given the lack of seed distribution mechanisms for the most highly valued fodder species (Dhakal & Lilles 2000; Dhakal et al. 2001; Lilles et al. 2001a), and the highly diverse ecological conditions in Nepal, it is likely that populations adapted to different parts of the species' environmental range are becoming extinct locally (and that maladapted populations may be used in their place). Conservation through use TISC has prepared a nationwide vegetation map (Shrestha et al. 2001) that provides the best understanding so far of the ecology of Nepal, and has prepared planting zones in the most

densely populated ecological zones for use in a decentralized seed distribution system (Lilles et al. 2001b). The distribution of individual tree species across planting zones can be estimated and seed sources planned accordingly (Figure 2 is an example of a distribution map across ecological zones).

A substantial number of fodder species are being planted, but many 'new'[24] species cannot be used by farmers because they are not available on the market. This situation is often representedinaccurately-as a lack of demand for new fodder seeds. In fact, bringing 'new' fodder species onto the market would be the only test of such demand. The market in fodder seeds is distorted because alternatives are not available and cannot tested for their acceptance by tree growers (Dhakal et al. 2001). TISC expects decentralized entities such as farmers' associations or seed cooperatives to be the main tool for distributing tree seed (two seed cooperatives are already functioning and more are expected to follow), and will support the introduction of 'new' species. The objectives of the seed cooperatives will be: i) to collect and supply seeds of known origin and broad genetic base to a transparent market; and ii) to conserve the gene resource base of economically important farmland tree species and improve the desired traits of these species (Dhakal et al. 2001). The five main aspects of the programme are as follows (Dhakal et al. 2001): i) Seed sources should be established in each of the relevant zones in the tree planting zoning system. This system has been established to represent environmental variation in the country. It

attempts to minimize genotype by environment (GxE) interactions between seed sources and planting sites. ii) A relatively large number of species will be distributed through the system[25]. iii) The domestication intensity for individual species should reflect the demand for the species. Intensities will range from farmland seed sources to the establishment of different types of breeding seedling orchards. iv) The process should be demand-driven and decentralized, led by local farmers' associations or seed cooperatives. v) TISC will provide technical assistance for seed source establishment, seed handling and networking. The main areas in which TISC will support the seed cooperatives are:

Species-site matching (seed zoning system); Establishment, registration and certification of seed sources of the best fodder species; Assistance to organize seed collection and provision of technical advice; General extension and awareness raising on the use of quality seeds; and Creation of a forum for production and sale of seed. This will involve: Marketing species and seed stands; Creating a network for sale and purchase of seed; and Extension and raising awareness on the use of quality seeds.

The current status of fodder species on farmland in Nepal is largely unknown, but a clearer picture is expected to emerge through the networking of the seed cooperatives. Through the use of fodder species (and from an evaluation of indigenous knowledge on these species), their population structures, flowering and seed production will be analysed. From a conservation point of view, the decentralized distribution system will ensure the survival of fodder species through use. For poor farmers, the quality and quantity of their fodder production will increase, thereby improving their livelihood. Conservation measures will be carried out for a large number of species simultaneously, but without setting up a network of ex situ conservation stands that would have to be maintained by government staff.

There are no simple guidelines for conservation. In this paper, we have discussed the model strategy 'use it or loose it', and have presented an example from Nepal in which this strategy is being implemented. Other models and strategies exist, but have not been mentioned here. In our experience, strategies based on integrated conservation and development are the most promising in terms of both conservation of a large number of valuable species and local economic development. The focus of this paper should not distract attention from the importance of selecting models and strategies based on careful assessments of social and ecological contexts. Different models of conservation can often complement each other. For example, a large number of species cannot be protected by planting schemes either because they cannot be cultivated or because they cannot meet the needs of rural communities. Such species will require protection in a network of protected areas (model 1) or managed areas (model 2), or a completely different model, depending on what is technically and socially feasible and appropriate. Nevertheless, we maintain that, compared with the hands-off and sustainable harvest models, the 'increased use model' receives less attention than it deserves. This is true in theory as well as in practice. Moreover, as the example in this paper illustrates, true integration of conservation and development objectives will remain a challenge whatever model is selected. Appendix 1. Priority species for the decentralized seed distribution and species conservation system in Nepal Farmland species Mainly fodder: Albizia lebbeck Albizia procera Artocarpus lakoocha Bauhinia purpurea Bauhinia variegata Brassaiopsis glomerulata Brassaiopis hainla Bridelia retusa Celtis australis Ficus auriculata Ficus glaberrima Ficus hispida Natural forest species Mainly timber: Alnus nepalensis Anthocephalus chinensis Celtis australis Cordia dichotoma Dalbergia latifolia Dalbergia sissoo Garuga pinnata Gmelina arborea Michelia champaca Michelia kisopa Pinus roxburghii Prunus cerasoides

Ficus lacor Ficus neriifolia Ficus semicordata Ficus subincisa Garuga pinnata Grewia optiva Litsea monopetala Premna interrupta Prunus cerasoides Saurauia napaulensis Mainly fruit: Aesandra butyracea Choerospondias axillaris

Pterocarpus marsupium Toona ciliata Mainly non-timber: Cinnamomum tama

List of Trees in India Name of Trees of India *Indian Mangrove *Caucasian Maple *Himalayan Maple *Singkrang *Lobed-leaf Alangium *Sage Leaved Alangium *Wild Mango *Netted Custard Apple *Sugar Apple *Mango *Kakkar *Brazilian Pepper *Cashew *Chironji Tree *Indian Ash Tree *Ylang Ylang *Ashok *Batino *Crape Jasmine *Mexican Oleander *Woolly Dyeing Rosebay *Frangipani pink *Frangipani red *Nag Kuda *Madagascar Palm *White Frangipani *Common White Frangipani *Devil Tree *Sea Mango *Indrajao *Peacock Chaste Tree *Chaste Tree *Tree of Life *Asian Bushbeech *Parrot's Beak *Teak *West Indian Elm *East-Indian Screw Tree *Looking Glass Mangrove *Bothi *Scarlet Sterculia *Pale Sterculia *Buddha Coconut *Java Olive *Spotted Sterculia *Large Leaf Looking Glass Tree *Guest Tree *Kanak Champa *Fiddlewood *Arni *Gamhar *Wild Tamarind *Moulmein Rosewood *Pongam Tree *Badminton Ball Tree *Tree Bean *Jerusalem Thorn *Jhand *Algaroba *Prickly Padauk *White Locust Tree *Rain Tree *Agati *Common Sesban *Tipu Tree *Sweet Chestnut *Woolly Leaved Oak *Blackjack Oak *Governor's Plum *Coffee Plum *Mountain Sweet Thorn *Chhal Mogra *Fried Egg Tree *Dandal *Ginkgo *Himalayan Tree Hydrangea *Pisa *Nelthare *Indian Bay Leaf *Cinnamon *Meda

Splay Tree A splay tree is a self-balancing binary search tree with the additional unusual property that recently accessed elements are quick to access again. It performs basic operations such as insertion, look-up and removal in O(log(n)) amortized time. For many nonuniform sequences of operations, splay trees perform better than other search trees, even when the specific pattern of the sequence is unknown. The splay tree was invented by All normal operations on a binary search tree are combined with one basic operation, called splaying. Splaying the tree for a certain element rearranges the tree so that the element is placed at the root of the tree. One way to do this is to first perform a standard binary tree search for the element in question, and then use tree rotations in a specific fashion to bring the element to the top. Alternatively, a top-down algorithm can combine the search and the tree reorganization into a single phase.

Advantages and disadvantages

Good performance for a splay tree depends on the fact that it is self-balancing, and indeed self optimizing, in that frequently accessed nodes will move nearer to the root where they can be accessed more quickly. This is an advantage for nearly all practical applications, and is particularly useful for implementing caches and garbage collection algorithms; however it is important to note that for uniform access, a splay tree's performance will be considerably (although not asymptotically) worse than a somewhat balanced simple binary search tree. Splay trees also have the advantage of being considerably simpler to implement than other self-balancing binary search trees, such as red-black trees or AVL trees, while their

average-case performance is just as efficient. Also, splay trees don't need to store any bookkeeping data, thus minimizing memory requirements. However, these other data structures provide worst-case time guarantees, and can be more efficient in practice for uniform access. One worst case issue with the basic splay tree algorithm is that of sequentially accessing all the elements of the tree in the sorted order. This leaves the tree completely unbalanced (this takes n accesses - each a O(log n) operation). Reaccessing the first item triggers an operation that takes O(n) operations to rebalance the tree before returning the first item. This is a significant delay for that final operation, although the amortized performance over the entire sequence is actually O(log n). However, recent research shows that randomly rebalancing the tree can avoid this unbalancing effect and give similar performance to the other self-balancing algorithms.[citation needed] It is possible to create a persistent version of splay trees which allows access to both the previous and new versions after an update. This requires amortized O(log n) space per update. Contrary to other types of self balancing trees, splay trees work well with nodes containing identical keys. Even with identical keys, performance remains amortized O(log n). All tree operations preserve the order of the identical nodes within the tree, which is a property similar to stable sorting algorithms. A carefully designed find operation can return the left most or right most node of a given key. The splay operation When a node x is accessed, a splay operation is performed on x to move it to the root. To perform a splay operation we carry out a sequence of splay steps, each of which moves x closer to the root. By performing a splay operation on the node of interest after every access, the recently accessed nodes are kept near the root and the tree remains roughly balanced, so that we achieve the desired amortized time bounds. Each particular step can depend on three factors: * Whether x is the left or right child of its parent node, p, * whether p is the root or not, and if not * whether p is the left or right child of its parent, g (the grandparent of x). The three types of splay steps are: Zig Step: This step is done when p is the root. The tree is rotated on the edge between x

and p. Zig steps exist to deal with the parity issue and will be done only as the last step in a splay operation and only when x has odd depth at the beginning of the operation. Zig-zig Step: This step is done when p is not the root and x and p are either both right children or are both left children. The picture below shows the case where x and p are both left children. The tree is rotated on the edge joining p with its parent g, then rotate the edge joining x with p. Note that zig-zig steps are the only thing that differentiate splay trees from the rotate to root method indroduced by Allen and Munro prior to the introduction of splay trees. Zig-zag Step: This step is done when p is not the root and x is a left child and p is a right child or vice versa. The tree is rotated on the edge between x and p, then rotated on the edge between x and its new parent g.

Baobob trees seen in the tropical regions (having hot climate) have trunks 10 meters in diameter.

Conservation biology is the scientific study of the nature and status of Earth's biodiversity with the aim of protecting species, their habitats, and ecosystems from excessive rates of extinction. It is an interdisciplinary subject drawing on sciences, economics, and the practice of natural resource management. 1. Trees help purify the air we breathe by absorbing pollutants. 2. Trees increase property values and improve the tax base in communities. 3. Trees improve neighborhood appeal, attracting business, shoppers, and homeowners. 4. Trees cool our cities and towns by reducing heat generated by buildings and paved surfaces. 5. Tree shade, properly placed, can save an average household up to $250 annually in energy costs. 6. Trees reduce the amount of pollutants in sewer systems, saving communities millions of dollars in water treatment costs. 7. Trees soften harsh building lines and large expanses of pavement, making urban environments much more pleasant.

8. Trees provide habitat for birds and other wildlife, maintaining a balance with nature even in urban areas. 9. Trees reduce the amount of water-borne pollutants that reach streams and rivers. 10. Trees reduce levels of domestic violence and foster safer, more sociable neighborhood environments.

Conservation is the sustainable use and protection of natural resources (both renewable and non-renewable) including plants, animals, mineral deposits, soils, clean water, clean air, and fossil fuels such as coal, petroleum, and natural gas. The goal of conservation is to either ensure that such resources are not consumed faster than they are replaced, or to maintain an adequate supply of these resources well into the future.

The main cause for the conservation of trees (or forest conservation) is because huge areas of the richest forests in the world have been cleared for wood fuel, timber products, agriculture, and livestock. The tropical rain forests of the Brazilian Amazon River basin were cut down at an estimated rate of 14 million hectares each year in the 1990s. This in turn led to negative effects on the environment like decreasing the wildlife habitats and recreational opportunities; increasing rate of soil erosion and flooding; and rising sea level due steps to : 1 Conserve trees by recycling whenever possible. Instead of dumping paper into a landfill, participate in any recycling programs your local government sponsors. Establish a recycling program to conserve paper at your office. 2 Buy paper that's made from recycled materials. From notebooks to printer paper, it's easy to conserve trees by choosing to purchase recycled paper products exclusively. 3 Support corporations that make an effort to conserve trees. More and more major corporations are hopping on the environmentalist bandwagon by taking steps to conserve natural resources. Show your support of their efforts by giving your hard-earned money to responsible corporations.

4 Construct a new home using environmentally friendly building methods. Traditional home construction designs use an unnecessary amount of trees. You can save hundreds of trees by building a home from cob, poured earth or through the PSP building method. 5 Find some creative uses for junk mail. The practice of mass-mailing unsolicited advertisements is ineffective and needlessly wasteful. Instead of throwing away pieces of junk mail, consider using them to make grocery lists or take phone messages. 6 Configure your printers and copy machines to print on both sides of a page. There's no practical reason for printing documents on only one side of a page, and by printing on both sides, you can instantly cut your paper consumption in half. 7 Cancel your subscriptions to daily newspapers. It's estimated that nearly 30 million trees are cleared each year solely for the purpose of printing newspapers. Read online versions of newspapers during the week and limit your hard copies to special Sunday editions. 8 Limit your beef consumption. The beef used to supply many American restaurants and grocery stores comes from tropical rain forests that have been cleared so that cattle herds can graze. Consider eating more fish, chicken or vegetarian dishes. 9 Abandon the practice of using paper products to clean. Instead of using roll after roll of paper towels, consider switching to washable rags. Use a handkerchief instead of tissues.

Bawa, K. (1994) Effects of deforestation and forest fragmentation on genetic diversity in tropical tree populations. In Drysdale, R. M., John, S. E. T. & Yapa, A. C. (eds.), Proceedings of International Symposium on Genetic Conservation and Production of Tropical Forest Tree Seed, 14-16 June 1993, Chiang Mai, Thailand. ASEAN-Canada Forest Tree Seed Centre, Muak Lek. CBD (1992) United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity. Basic Text. Secretariat of the Convention of Biological Diversity, Montreal. Dhakal, L. P. & Lilles, J. P. B. (2000) Fodder domestication issues and use of potential vegetation map in increasing fodder production in the Mid-hills of Nepal. Paper presented at

National Workshop on Improved Strategies for Identifying and Addressing Fodder Deficits in the Mid-hills of Nepal, 5-6 September 2000, Kathmandu, Nepal. Dhakal, L. P., Lilles, J. P. B., Jha, P. K., Aryal, H. L. & Kjaer, E. D. (2001) Addressing small holders demand for propagation material of woody species. Vol. II: Part II: Elements of an operational programme. HMG/Danida Tree Improvement and Silviculture Component and Danida Tree Seed Centre, Humlebaek.