Vibrations
Singiresu S. Rao
SI Edition
Chapter 1
Fundamentals of
Vibration
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
2
1. Fundamentals of Vibration
2. Free Vibration of Single DOF Systems
3. Harmonically Excited Vibration
4. Vibration under General Forcing
Conditions
5. Two DOF Systems
6. Multidegree of Freedom Systems
7. Determination of Natural Frequencies
and Mode Shapes
Course Outline
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
3
8. Continuous Systems
9. Vibration Control
10. Vibration Measurement and Applications
11. Numerical Integration Methods in Vibration
Analysis
12. Finite Element Method
13. Nonlinear Vibration
14. Random Vibration
Course Outline
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
4
1.1 Preliminary Remarks
1.2 Brief History of Vibration
1.3 Importance of the Study of Vibration
1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration
1.5 Classification of Vibration
1.6 Vibration Analysis Procedure
1.7 Spring Elements
Chapter Outline
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
5
1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements
1.9 Damping Elements
1.10 Harmonic Motion
1.11 Harmonic Analysis
Chapter Outline
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
6
1.1 Preliminary Remarks
Brief History of vibration
Examination of vibrations important role
Vibration analysis of an engineering system
Definitions and concepts of vibration
Concept of harmonic analysis for general
periodic motions
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
7
1.2 Brief History of Vibration
Origins of vibration:
582507 B.C.
Pythagoras, the Greek philosopher
and mathematician, is the first to
investigate musical sounds on a
scientific basis. He conducted
experiments on a vibrating string by
using a simple apparatus called a
monochord. He further developed
the concept of pitch.
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
8
1.2 Brief History of Vibration
Around 350 B.C.
Aristotle wrote treatises on music and sound
In 320 B.C.
Aristoxenus wrote a threevolume work entitled
Elements of Harmony
In 300 B.C.
Euclid wrote a treatises Introduction to Harmonics
A.D. 132
Zhang Heng invented the worlds
first seismograph to measure
earthquakes
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
9
1.2 Brief History of Vibration
Galileo to Rayleigh:
Galileo Galilei (1564 1642)
 founder of modern experimental science
 started experimenting on simple pendulum
 published a book, Discourses Concerning
Two New Sciences, in 1638, describing
resonance, frequency, length, tension and
density of a vibrating stretched string
Robert Hooke (1635 1703)
 found relation between pitch and frequency of
vibration of a string
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
10
1.2 Brief History of Vibration
Joseph Sauveur (1653 1716)
 coined the word acoustics for the science of
sound
 founded nodes, loops, harmonics and the
fundamental frequency
 calculated the frequency of a stretched string
from the measured sag of its middle point
Sir Isaac Newton (16421727)
 published his monumental work, Philosophiae
Naturalis Principia Mathematica, in 1686,
discovering three laws of motion
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
11
1.2 Brief History of Vibration
Joseph Lagrange (1736 1813)
 found the analytical solution of the vibrating
string and the wave equation
Simeon Poisson (1781 1840)
 solved the problem of vibration of a
rectangular flexible membrane
R.F.A. Clebsch (1833 1872)
 studied the vibration of a circular membrane
Lord Baron Rayleigh
 founded RayleighRitz method, used to find
frequency of vibration of a conservative
system and multiple natural frequencies
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
12
1.2 Brief History of Vibration
Recent contributions:
1902 Frahm investigated the importance of
torsional vibration study in the design of
propeller shafts of steamships
Aurel Stodola (1859 1943)
 contributed to the study of vibration of beams,
plates, and membranes.
 developed a method for analyzing vibrating
beams which is applicable to turbine blades
C.G.P. De Laval (1845 1913)
 presented a practical solution to the problem
of vibration of an unbalanced rotating disk
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
13
1.2 Brief History of Vibration
1892 Lyapunov laid the foundations of modern
stability theory which is applicable to all
types of dynamical systems
1920 Duffling and Van der Pol brought the first
definite solutions into the theory of
nonlinear vibrations and drew attention to
its importance in engineering
Introduction of the correlation function by
Taylor
1950 advent of highspeed digital computers
generate approximate solutions
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
14
1.2 Brief History of Vibration
1950s developed finite element method enabled
engineers to conduct numerically detailed
vibration analysis of complex mechanical,
vehicular, and structural systems
displaying thousands of degrees of
freedom with the aid of computers
Turner, Clough, Martin and Topp presented the
finite element method as known today
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
15
1.3 Importance of the Study of Vibration
Why study vibration?
Vibrations can lead to excessive deflections
and failure on the machines and structures
To reduce vibration through proper design of
machines and their mountings
To utilize profitably in several consumer and
industrial applications
To improve the efficiency of certain machining,
casting, forging & welding processes
To stimulate earthquakes for geological
research and conduct studies in design of
nuclear reactors
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
16
1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration
Vibration = any motion that repeats itself after
an interval of time
Vibratory System consists of:
1) spring or elasticity
2) mass or inertia
3) damper
Involves transfer of potential energy to kinetic
energy and vice versa
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
17
1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration
Degree of Freedom (d.o.f.) =
min. no. of independent coordinates required
to determine completely the positions of all
parts of a system at any instant of time
Examples of single degreeoffreedom
systems:
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
18
1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration
Examples of single degreeoffreedom
systems:
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
19
1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration
Examples of Two degreeoffreedom systems:
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
20
1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration
Examples of Three degree of freedom systems:
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
21
1.4 Basic Concepts of Vibration
Example of Infinitenumberofdegreesof
freedom system:
Infinite number of degrees of freedom system
are termed continuous or distributed systems
Finite number of degrees of freedom are
termed discrete or lumped parameter systems
More accurate results obtained by increasing
number of degrees of freedom
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
22
1.5 Classification of Vibration
Free Vibration:
A system is left to vibrate on its own after an
initial disturbance and no external force acts on
the system. E.g. simple pendulum
Forced Vibration:
A system that is subjected to a repeating
external force. E.g. oscillation arises from diesel
engines
Resonance occurs when the frequency of the
external force coincides with one of the
natural frequencies of the system
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
23
1.5 Classification of Vibration
Undamped Vibration:
When no energy is lost or dissipated in friction
or other resistance during oscillations
Damped Vibration:
When any energy is lost or dissipated in
friction or other resistance during oscillations
Linear Vibration:
When all basic components of a vibratory
system, i.e. the spring, the mass and the
damper behave linearly
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
24
1.5 Classification of Vibration
Nonlinear Vibration:
If any of the components behave nonlinearly
Deterministic Vibration:
If the value or magnitude of the excitation (force
or motion) acting on a vibratory system is
known at any given time
Nondeterministic or random Vibration:
When the value of the excitation at a given
time cannot be predicted
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
25
1.5 Classification of Vibration
Examples of deterministic and random
excitation:
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
26
1.6 Vibration Analysis Procedure
Step 1: Mathematical Modeling
Step 2: Derivation of Governing Equations
Step 3: Solution of the Governing Equations
Step 4: Interpretation of the Results
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
27
1.6 Vibration Analysis Procedure
Example of the modeling of a forging hammer:
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
28
Example 1.1
Mathematical Model of a Motorcycle
Figure 1.18(a) shows a motorcycle with a rider.
Develop a sequence of three mathematical
models of the system for investigating vibration in
the vertical direction. Consider the elasticity of the
tires, elasticity and damping of the struts (in the
vertical direction), masses of the wheels, and
elasticity, damping, and mass of the rider.
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
29
Example 1.1 Solution
We start with the simplest model and refine it
gradually. When the equivalent values of the
mass, stiffness, and damping of the system are
used, we obtain a singledegree of freedom model
of the motorcycle with a rider as indicated in Fig.
1.18(b). In this model, the equivalent stiffness (k
eq
)
includes the stiffness of the tires, struts, and rider.
The equivalent damping constant (c
eq
) includes
the damping of the struts and the rider. The
equivalent mass includes the mass of the wheels,
vehicle body and the rider.
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
30
Example 1.1 Solution
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
31
Example 1.1 Solution
This model can be refined by representing the
masses of wheels, elasticity of tires, and elasticity
and damping of the struts separately, as shown in
Fig. 1.18(c). In this model, the mass of the vehicle
body (m
v
) and the mass of the rider (m
r
) are
shown as a single mass, m
v
+ m
r
. When the
elasticity (as spring constant k
r
) and damping (as
damping constant c
r
) of the rider are considered,
the refined model shown in Fig. 1.18(d) can be
obtained.
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
32
Example 1.1 Solution
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
33
Example 1.1 Solution
Note that the models shown in Figs. 1.18(b) to (d)
are not unique. For example, by combining the
spring constants of both tires, the masses of both
wheels, and the spring and damping constants of
both struts as single quantities, the model shown
in Fig. 1.18(e) can be obtained instead of Fig.
1.18(c).
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
34
( ) 1 . 1 kx F =
F = spring force,
k = spring stiffness or spring constant, and
x = deformation (displacement of one end
with respect to the other)
1.7 Spring Elements
Linear spring is a type of mechanical link that is
generally assumed to have negligible mass and
damping
Spring force is given by:
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
35
Work done (U) in deforming a spring or the
strain (potential) energy is given by:
When an incremental force F is added to F:
( ) 2 . 1
2
1
2
kx U =
( ) 3 . 1 ... ) (
! 2
1
) ( ) (
) (
2
2
2
*
*
*
*
+ A +
A + =
A + = A +
x
dx
F d
x
dx
dF
x F
x x F F F
x
x
1.7 Spring Elements
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
36
1.7 Spring Elements
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
37
1.7 Spring Elements
Static deflection of a beam at the free end is
given by:
Spring Constant is given by:
( ) 6 . 1
3
3
EI
Wl
st
= o
W = mg is the weight of the mass m,
E = Youngs Modulus, and
I = moment of inertia of crosssection of beam
( ) 7 . 1
3
3
l
EI W
k
st
= =
o
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
38
1.7 Spring Elements
Combination of Springs:
1) Springs in parallel if we have n spring
constants k
1
, k
2
, , k
n
in parallel, then the
equivalent spring constant k
eq
is:
( )
11 . 1
2 1
...
n eq
k k k k + + + =
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
39
1.7 Spring Elements
Combination of Springs:
2) Springs in series if we
have n spring constants k
1
,
k
2
, , k
n
in series, then the
equivalent spring constant
k
eq
is:
( ) 17 . 1
1
...
1 1 1
2 1 n eq
k k k k
+ + + =
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
40
Example 1.3
Torsional Spring Constant of a Propeller Shaft
Determine the torsional spring constant of the
speed propeller shaft shown in Fig. 1.25.
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
41
Example 1.3 Solution
We need to consider the segments 12 and 23 of
the shaft as springs in combination. From Fig.
1.25, the torque induced at any cross section of
the shaft (such as AA or BB) can be seen to be
equal to the torque applied at the propeller, T.
Hence, the elasticities (springs) corresponding to
the two segments 12 and 23 are to be considered
as series springs. The spring constants of
segments 12 and 23 of the shaft (k
t12
and k
t23
) are
given by
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
42
Example 1.3 Solution
m/rad  N 10 9012 . 8
) 3 ( 32
) 15 . 0 25 . 0 ( ) 10 80 (
32
) (
6
4 4 9
23
4
23
4
23
23
23
23
=
=
= =
t t
l
d D G
l
GJ
k
t
m/rad  N 10 5255 . 25
) 2 ( 32
) 2 . 0 3 . 0 ( ) 10 80 (
32
) (
6
4 4 9
12
4
12
4
12
12
12
12
=
=
= =
t t
l
d D G
l
GJ
k
t
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
43
Example 1.3 Solution
Since the springs are in series, Eq. (1.16) gives
m/rad  N 10 5997 . 6
) 10 9012 . 8 10 5255 . 25 (
) 10 9012 . 8 )( 10 5255 . 25 (
6
6 6
6 6
23 12
23 12
=
+
=
+
=
t t
t t
t
k k
k k
k
eq
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
44
Example 1.5
Equivalent k of a Crane
The boom AB of crane is a uniform steel bar of
length 10 m and xsection area of 2,500 mm
2
.
A weight W is suspended while the crane is
stationary. Steel cable CDEBF has xsectional
area of 100 mm
2
. Neglect effect of cable CDEB,
find equivalent spring constant of system in the
vertical direction.
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
45
m 3055 . 12
426 . 151 135 cos ) 10 )( 3 ( 2 10 3
1
2 2 2
1
=
= + =
l
l
Example 1.5 Solution
A vertical displacement x of pt B will cause the
spring k
2
(boom) to deform by x
2
= x cos 45 and
the spring k
1
(cable) to deform by an amount
x
1
= x cos (90 ). Length of cable FB, l
1
is as
shown.
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
46
Example 1.5 Solution
The angle satisfies the relation:
The total potential energy (U):
= =
= +
0736 . 35 , 8184 . 0 cos
10 cos ) 3 )( ( 2 3
2
1
2 2
1
u u
u l l
( ) 1 . E )] 90 cos( [
2
1
) 45 cos (
2
1
2
2
2
1
u + = x k x k U
N/m 10 6822 . 1
0355 . 12
) 10 207 )( 10 100 (
6
9 6
1
1 1
1
=
= =
l
E A
k
N/m 10 1750 . 5
10
) 10 207 )( 10 2500 (
7
9 6
2
2 2
2
=
= =
l
E A
k
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
47
Example 1.5 Solution
Potential Energy of the equivalent spring is:
By setting U = U
eq
, hence:
( ) 2 . E
2
1
2
x k U
eq eq
=
N/m 10 4304 . 26
6
eq
= k
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
48
Using mathematical model to represent the
actual vibrating system
E.g. In figure below, the mass and damping
of the beam can be disregarded; the system
can thus be modeled as a springmass
system as shown.
1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
49
1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements
Combination of Masses
E.g. Assume that the
mass of the frame is
negligible compared to
the masses of the floors.
The masses of various
floor levels represent the
mass elements, and the
elasticities of the vertical
members denote the
spring elements.
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
50
Case 1: Translational Masses Connected by a
Rigid Bar
Velocities of masses can be expressed as:
( ) 18 . 1
1
1
3
3 1
1
2
2
x
l
l
x x
l
l
x = =
1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
51
Case 1: Translational Masses Connected by a
Rigid Bar
By equating the kinetic energy of the system:
( ) 19 . 1
1
x x
eq
=
( ) 20 . 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
eq eq
2
3 3
2
2 2
2
1 1
x m x m x m x m = + +
( ) 21 . 1
3
2
1
3
2
2
1
2
1 eq
m
l
l
m
l
l
m m 
.

\

+ 
.

\

+ =
1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
52
m
eq
= single equivalent translational mass
= translational velocity
= rotational velocity
J
0
= mass moment of inertia
J
eq
= single equivalent rotational mass
x
u
J x m T + =
( ) 23 . 1
2
1
2
eq eq eq
x m T =
1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
54
Case 2: Translational and Rotational Masses
Coupled Together
2. Equivalent rotational mass:
Here, and , equating T
eq
and T gives
u u
=
eq
R x u
=
( )
( ) 25 . 1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
0 eq
2
0
2
2
eq
mR J J or
J R m J
+ =
+ = u u u
( ) 24 . 1
2
0
eq
R
J
m m + =
Since and , equating T
eq
& T
gives
R
x
= u x x =
eq
1.8 Mass or Inertia Elements
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
55
Example 1.6
Equivalent Mass of a System
Find the equivalent mass of the system shown in
Fig. 1.31, where the rigid link 1 is attached to the
pulley and rotates with it.
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
56
Example 1.6 Solution
Assuming small displacements, the equivalent
mass (m
eq
) can be determined using the
equivalence of the kinetic energies of the two
systems. When the mass m is displaced by a
distance , the pulley and the rigid link 1 rotate by
an angle . This causes the rigid link 2
and the cylinder to be displaced by a distance
. Since the cylinder rolls without
slippage, it rotates by an angle .
The kinetic energy of the system (T) can be
expressed (for small displacements) as:
x
p p
r x/
1
= =u u
p p
r xl l x /
1 1 2
= =u
c p c c
r r xl r x / /
1 2
= = u
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
57
Example 1.6 Solution
) E.1 (
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
2 2
2 2
2
1 1
2 2
x m J x m J J x m T
c c c p p
+ + + + + = u u u
where Jp, J1, and Jc denote the mass moments of
inertia of the pulley, link 1 (about O), and cylinder,
respectively, indicate the angular
velocities of the pulley, link 1 (about O), and
cylinder, respectively, and represent the
linear velocities of the mass m and link 2,
respectively. Noting that ,
Equation (E.1) can be rewritten as
c p
u u u
and ,
1
2
and x x
2 /
2
c c c
r m J = 3 / and
2
1 1 1
l m J =
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
58
Example 1.6 Solution
) E.2 (
2
1
2 2
1
2
1
3 2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
1 1
2
2


.

\

+


.

\


.

\

+


.

\

+


.

\


.

\

+


.

\

+ =
p
c
c p
c c
p p p
p
r
l x
m
r r
l x r m
r
l x
m
r
x l m
r
x
J x m T
+ + + = u
x x =
eq
( ) 2 . E
2
1
2
eq eq eq
x m T =
Example 1.7 Solution
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
62
By equating T and T
eq
, and note that
Similarly, if equivalent mass is located at point C,
hence,
1 1
3
1
2
and , , ,
l
x
l
l x
x
l
l x
x x x
r r v p
= = = = u
( ) 3 . E
2
1
2
3
2
1
2
2
2
1
eq
l
l
m
l
l
m
l
J
m m
r v
r
p
+ + + =
,
eq v
x x =
( ) 4 . E
2
1
2
1
2
eq
2
eq eq eq v
x m x m T = =
Example 1.7 Solution
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
63
Equating (E.4) and (E.1) gives
( ) 5 . E
2
2
1
2
3
2
2
1
2
2
eq


.

\

+ 
.

\

+ + =
l
l
m
l
l
m
l
J
m m
r p
r
v
Example 1.7 Solution
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
64
1.9 Damping Elements
Viscous Damping:
Damping force is proportional to the velocity of
the vibrating body in a fluid medium such as air,
water, gas, and oil.
Coulomb or Dry Friction Damping:
Damping force is constant in magnitude but
opposite in direction to that of the motion of the
vibrating body between dry surfaces
Material or Solid or Hysteretic Damping:
Energy is absorbed or dissipated by material
during deformation due to friction between
internal planes
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
65
Hysteresis loop for elastic materials:
1.9 Damping Elements
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
66
Shear Stress (t ) developed in the fluid layer at
a distance y from the fixed plate is:
where du/dy = v/h is the velocity gradient.
Shear or Resisting Force (F) developed at the
bottom surface of the moving plate is:
where A is the surface area of the moving plate.
( ) 26 . 1
dy
du
t =
( ) 27 . 1 cv
h
Av
A F = = = t
Where A is the surface area of the moving
plate and is the damping constant
h
A
c
=
1.9 Damping Elements
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
67
1.9 Damping Elements
and
is called the damping constant.
If a damper is nonlinear, a linearization process
is used about the operating velocity (v*) and the
equivalent damping constant is:
( ) 28 . 1
h
A
c
=
( ) 29 . 1
* v
dv
dF
c =
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
68
Example 1.9
PistonCylinder Dashpot
Develop an expression for the damping constant
of the dashpot as shown in Fig. 1.36(a).
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
69
Example 1.9 Solution
The damping constant of the dashpot can be
determined using the shear stress equation for
viscous fluid flow and the rate of fluid flow
equation. As shown in Fig. 1.36(a), the dashpot
consists of a piston diameter D and length l,
moving with velocity v
0
in a cylinder filled with a
liquid of viscosity . Let the clearance between the
piston and the cylinder wall be d. At a distance y
from the moving surface, let the velocity and shear
stress be v and , and at a distance (y + dy) let the
velocity and shear stress be (v dv) and ( + d),
respectively (see Fig. 1.36b).
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
70
Example 1.9 Solution
The negative sign for dv shows that the velocity
decreases as we move toward the cylinder wall.
The viscous force on this annular ring is equal to
E.1) ( dy
dy
d
Dl Dld F
t
t t t = =
But the shear stress is given by
(E.2)
dy
dv
t =
where the negative sign is consistent with a
decreasing velocity gradient. Using Eq. (E.2) in
Eq. (E.1), we obtain
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
71
Example 1.9 Solution
E.3) (
2
2
dy
v d
Dldy F t =
E.4) (
4
4
2
2
D
P
D
P
p
t
t
=

.

\

=
The force on the piston will cause a pressure
difference on the ends of the element, given by
Thus the pressure force on the end of the element
is
( ) E.5) (
4
dy
D
P
Ddy p = t
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
72
where denotes the annular area between y
and (y + dy). If we assume uniform mean velocity
in the direction of motion of the fluid, the forces
given in Eqs. (E.3) and (E.5) must be equal. Thus
we get
Example 1.9 Solution
2
2
4
dy
v d
Dldy dy
D
P
t =
( ) Ddy t
or
E.6) (
4
2 2
2
t l D
P
dy
v d
=
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
73
The rate of flow through the clearance space can
be obtained by integrating the rate of flow through
an element between the limits y = 0 and y = d:
Example 1.9 Solution
0
v v =
( ) E.7) ( 1
2
0
2
2

.

\

=
d
y
v y yd
l D
P
v
t
Integrating this equation twice and using the
boundary conditions at y = 0 and v = 0 at
y = d, we obtain
E.8) (
2
1
6
2
0
0
2
3
}
(
= =
d
d v
l D
Pd
D Ddy v Q
t
t t
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
74
Example 1.9 Solution
The volume of the liquid flowing through the
clearance space per second must be equal to the
volume per second displaced by the piston. Hence
the velocity of the piston will be equal to this rate of
flow divided by the piston area. This gives
E.9) (
4
2
0

.

\

=
D
Q
v
t
Equations (E.8) and (E.9) lead to
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
75
Example 1.9 Solution
E.10) (
4
2
1 3
0
3
3
v
d
D
d
l D
P
t
(
(
(
(

.

\

+
=
By writing the force as P = cv
0
, the damping
constant c can be found as
E.11) (
2
1
4
3
3
3
(

.

\

+ =
D
d
d
l D
c
t
E.2) (
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
d d d d d
s s s s s
F F F F F
F F F F F
+ + + =
+ + + =
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
81
Example 1.10 Solution
E.3) ( x c F
x k F
eq d
eq s
=
=
where F
s
+ F
d
= W, with W denoting the total
vertical force (including the inertia force) acting on
the milling machine. From Fig. 1.37(d), we have
Equation (E.2) along with Eqs. (E.1) and (E.3),
yield
E.4) ( 4
4
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
c c c c c c
k k k k k k
eq
eq
= + + + =
= + + + =
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
82
where k
i
= k and c
i
= c for i = 1, 2, 3, 4.
Note: If the center of mass, G, is not located
symmetrically with respect to the four springs and
dampers, the ith spring experiences a
displacement of and the ith damper experiences
a velocity of where and can be related to
the displacement and velocity of the center of
mass of the milling machine, G. In such a case,
Eqs. (E.1) and (E.4) need to be modified suitably.
Example 1.10 Solution
x x
i
x
i
x
i
x
i
x
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
83
( ) 30 . 1 sin sin t A A x e u = =
( ) 31 . 1 cos t A
dt
dx
e e =
( ) 32 . 1 sin
2 2
2
2
x t A
dt
x d
e e e = =
1.10 Harmonic Motion
Periodic Motion: motion repeated after equal
intervals of time
Harmonic Motion: simplest type of periodic
motion
Displacement (x): (on horizontal axis)
Velocity:
Acceleration:
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
84
1.10 Harmonic Motion
Scotch yoke
mechanism:
The similarity
between cyclic
(harmonic) and
sinusoidal
motion.
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
85
Complex number representation of harmonic
motion:
where i = (1) and a and b denote the real and
imaginary x and y components of X,
respectively.
( ) 35 . 1 ib a X + =
( ) 47 . 1 2 , 1 ; ) (
2 2
= + = j b a A
j j j
( ) 48 . 1 2 , 1 ; tan
1
=


.

\

=
j
a
b
j
j
j
u
1.10 Harmonic Motion
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
87
Operations on Harmonic Functions:
Rotating Vector,
where Re denotes the real part
( ) 51 . 1
t i
Ae X
e
=
+ =
That is,
That is,
By equating the corresponding coefficients of
cost and sint on both sides, we obtain
( )
E.4) ( 1477 . 14
) 2 sin 15 ( 2 cos 15 10
2 sin 15 sin
2 cos 15 10 cos
2
2
=
+ + =
=
+ =
A
A
A
o
o
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
91
Example 1.11 Solution
E.5) ( 5963 . 74
2 cos 15 10
2 sin 15
tan
1
=

.

\

+
=
o
and
Method 2: By using vectors: For an arbitrary value
of t, the harmonic motions x
1
(t) and x
2
(t) can be
denoted graphically as shown in Fig. 1.43. By
adding them vectorially, the resultant vector x(t)
can be found to be
E.6) ( ) 5963 . 74 cos( 1477 . 14 ) ( + = t t x e
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
92
Example 1.11 Solution
   
    E.7) ( 15 Re Re ) (
10 Re Re ) (
) 2 ( ) 2 (
2 2
1 1
+ +
=
=
t i t i
t i t i
e e A t x
e e A t x
e e
e e
Method 3: By using complex number
representation: the two harmonic motions can be
denoted in terms of complex numbers:
The sum of x
1
(t) and x
2
(t) can be expressed as
  E.8) ( Re ) (
) ( o e +
=
t i
Ae t x
where A and can be determined using Eqs. (1.47)
and (1.48) as A = 14.1477 and = 74.5963
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
93
Definitions of Terminology:
Amplitude (A) is the maximum displacement
of a vibrating body from its equilibrium
position
Period of oscillation (T) is time taken to
complete one cycle of motion
Frequency of oscillation (f) is the no. of
cycles per unit time
( ) 59 . 1
2
e
[
= T
( ) 60 . 1
2
1
t
e
= =
T
f
1.10 Harmonic Motion
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
94
1.10 Harmonic Motion
Definitions of Terminology:
Natural frequency is the frequency which a
system oscillates without external forces
Phase angle () is the angular difference
between two synchronous harmonic motions
( )
( ) ( ) 62 . 1 sin
61 . 1 sin
2 2
1 1
 e
e
+ =
=
t A x
t A x
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
95
1.10 Harmonic Motion
Definitions of Terminology:
Beats are formed when two harmonic
motions, with frequencies close to one
another, are added
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
96
1.10 Harmonic Motion
Definitions of Terminology:
Decibel is originally defined as a ratio of
electric powers. It is now often used as a
notation of various quantities such as
displacement, velocity, acceleration,
pressure, and power
1.69) ( log 20 dB
1.68) ( log 10 dB
0
0


.

\

=


.

\

=
X
X
P
P
where P
0
is some reference value of power
and X
0
is specified reference voltage.
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
97
1.11 Harmonic Analysis
Fourier Series Expansion:
If x(t) is a periodic function with period , its
Fourier Series representation is given by
t
=
+ + =
+ + +
+ + + =
1
0
2 1
2 1
0
) 70 . 1 ( ) sin cos (
2
... 2 sin sin
... 2 cos cos
2
) (
n
n n
t n b t n a
a
t b t b
t a t a
a
t x
e e
e e
e e
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
98
1.11 Harmonic Analysis
Gibbs Phenomenon:
An anomalous behavior observed from a
periodic function that is being represented by
Fourier series.
As n increases, the
approximation can be seen
to improve everywhere
except in the vicinity of the
discontinuity, P. The error
in amplitude remains at
approximately 9 percent,
even when .
k
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
99
Complex Fourier Series:
The Fourier series can also be represented in
terms of complex numbers.
1.11 Harmonic Analysis
) 79 . 1 ( sin cos
) 78 . 1 ( sin cos
t i t e
t i t e
t i
t i
e e
e e
e
e
=
+ =
Also,
) 81 . 1 (
2
sin
) 80 . 1 (
2
cos
i
e e
t
e e
t
t i t i
t i t i
e e
e e
e
e
+
=
+
=
and
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
100
Frequency Spectrum:
1.11 Harmonic Analysis
Harmonics plotted as vertical lines on a diagram
of amplitude (a
n
and b
n
or d
n
and
n
) versus
frequency (n)
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
101
A periodic function:
Representation of a function in time and
frequency domain:
1.11 Harmonic Analysis
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
102
1.11 Harmonic Analysis
Even and odd functions:
=
+ =
=
1
0
) 88 . 1 ( cos
2
) (
) 87 . 1 ( ) ( ) (
n
n
t n a
a
t x
t x t x
e
Even function & its Fourier
series expansion
Odd function & its Fourier
series expansion
=
=
=
1
) 90 . 1 ( sin ) (
) 89 . 1 ( ) ( ) (
n
n
t n b t x
t x t x
e
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
103
1.11 Harmonic Analysis
HalfRange Expansions:
The function is extended to include
the interval as shown in the
figure. The Fourier series
expansions of x
1
(t) and x
2
(t) are
known as halfrange expansions.
0 to t
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
104
1.11 Harmonic Analysis
Numerical Computation
of Coefficients
If x(t) is not in a simple
form, experimental
determination of the
amplitude of vibration
and numerical
integration procedure
like the trapezoidal or
Simpsons rule is used
to determine the
coefficients a
n
and b
n
.
) 99 . 1 (
2
sin
2
) 98 . 1 (
2
cos
2
) 97 . 1 (
2
1
1
1
0
t
t
t
t
i
N
i
i n
i
N
i
i n
N
i
i
t n
x
N
b
t n
x
N
a
x
N
a
=
=
=
=
=
=
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
105
Example 1.12
Fourier Series Expansion
Determine the Fourier series expansion of the
motion of the valve in the camfollower system
shown in the Figure.
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
106
Example 1.12 Solution
E.1) ( ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
tan
1
2
2 1
t y
l
l
t x
l
t x
l
t y
=
= = u
E.2) ( 0 ; ) ( t
t
s s = t
t
Y t y
If y(t) denotes the vertical motion of the pushrod,
the motion of the valve, x(t), can be determined
from the relation:
or
where
and the period is given by .
e
t
t
2
=
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
107
Example 1.12 Solution
1
2
l
Yl
A =
E.3) ( 0 ; ) ( t
t
s s = t
t
A t x
By defining
x(t) can be expressed as
Equation (E.3) is shown in the Figure.
To compute the Fourier coefficients a
n
and b
n
, we
use Eqs. (1.71) to (1.73):
E.4) (
2
) (
/ 2
0
2
/ 2
0
/ 2
0
0
A
t A
dt
t
A dt t x a =

.

\

= = =
} }
e t
e t e t
t t
e
t t
e
t
e
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
108
Example 1.12 Solution
E.5) ( .. 2, , 1 , 0
sin cos
2
cos
cos cos ) (
/ 2
0
2 2
/ 2
0
/ 2
0
/ 2
0
= =
(
+ = =
= =
}
} }
n
n
t n t
n
t n A
dt t n t
A
dt t n
t
A dt t n t x a
n
e t
e t
e t e t
e e e
t
e
tt
e
e
t t
e
e
t
e
E.6) ( .. 2, , 1 ,
cos sin
2
sin
sin sin ) (
/ 2
0
2 2
/ 2
0
/ 2
0
/ 2
0
= =
(
+ = =
= =
}
} }
n
n
A
n
t n t
n
t n A
dt t n t
A
dt t n
t
A dt t n t x b
n
t
e e e
t
e
tt
e
e
t t
e
e
t
e
e t
e t
e t e t
2005 Pearson Education South Asia Pte Ltd.
109
Example 1.12 Solution
Therefore the Fourier series expansion of x(t) is
E.7) ( ... 3 sin
3
1
2 sin
2
1
sin
2
... 2 sin
2
2 sin
2
) (
(
)
`
+ + + =
=
t t t
A
t
A
t
A A
t x
e e e
t
t
e
t
e
t
The first three terms of the
series are shown plotted in the
figure. It can be seen that the
approximation reaches the
sawtooth shape even with a
small number of terms.