This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
contents: introduction · learning as a product · task-conscious or acquisition learning, and learning-conscious or formalized learning ·learning as a process · the behaviourist orientation to learning · the cognitive orientation to learning · the humanistic orientation to learning · the social/situational orientation to learning · further reading · how to cite this article I want to talk about learning. But not the lifeless, sterile, futile, quickly forgotten stuff that is crammed in to the mind of the poor helpless individual tied into his seat by ironclad bonds of conformity! I am talking about LEARNING - the insatiable curiosity that drives the adolescent boy to absorb everything he can see or hear or read about gasoline engines in order to improve the efficiency and speed of his 'cruiser'. I am talking about the student who says, "I am discovering, drawing in from the outside, and making that which is drawn in a real part of me." I am talking about any learning in which the experience of the learner progresses along this line: "No, no, that's not what I want"; "Wait! This is closer to what I am interested in, what I need"; "Ah, here it is! Now I'm grasping and comprehending what I need and what I want to know!" Carl Rogers 1983: 18-19 For all the talk of learning amongst educational policymakers and practitioners, there is a surprising lack of attention to what it entails. In Britain and Northern Ireland, for example, theories of learning do not figure strongly in professional education programmes for teachers and those within different arenas of informal education. It is almost as if it is something is unproblematic and that can be taken for granted. Get the instructional regime right, the message seems to be, and learning (as measured by tests and assessment regimes) will follow. This lack of attention to the nature of learning inevitably leads to an impoverishment of education. It isn't simply that the process is less effective as a result, but what passes for education can actually diminish well-being. Here we begin by examining learning as a product and as a process. The latter takes us into the arena of competing learning theories - ideas about how learning may happen. We also look at Alan Roger's
and methods that can be retained and used as necessary.(2003) helpful discussion of task-conscious or acquisition learning. Learning involves relating parts of the subject matter to each other and to the real world. Not surprisingly. but excellence at surgery is not the same thing as knowledge of medical science.especially from the 1960s and 1970s and you will probably find learning defined as a change in behaviour. Learning as making sense or abstracting meaning. 5. In a way learning becomes a bit like shopping. Conditioning may result in a change in behaviour. People go out and buy knowledge . It's apparent clarity may also make some sense when conducting experiments. Learning is acquiring information or ‘knowing a lot’. For example: Does a person need to perform in order for learning to have happened? Are there other factors that may cause behaviour to change? Can the change involved include the potential for change? (Merriam and Caffarella 1991: 124) Questions such as these have led to qualification. skills. 3. not is it a simple product of it. learning is approached as an outcome . it is rather a blunt instrument. many theorists have. It may even be something that just happens or is done to you by teachers (as in conception 1). and learning-conscious or formalized learning.the end product of some process. thus. or by his own inductions and observations. Some years ago Säljö (1979) carried out a simple. been less concerned with overt behaviour but with changes in the ways in which people 'understand. Learning is something external to the learner. Some have looked to identifying relatively permanent changes in behaviour (or potential for change) as a result of experiences (see behaviourism below). Learning as acquiring facts. Learning involves comprehending the world by reinterpreting knowledge. In other words. a great number of truths. However.it becomes their possession. (quoted in Ramsden 1992: 26) As Paul Ramsden comments. but very useful piece of research. Learning as interpreting and understanding reality in a different way. 2. Conceptions 1 to 3 imply a less complex view of learning. This approach has the virtue of highlighting a crucial aspect of learning . experience should have been used in some way. (Ryle 1949: 48-49) . Learning as a product Pick up a standard psychology textbook . Learning as a quantitative increase in knowledge. The surgeon must indeed have learned from instruction. However. or conceptualize the world around them' (Ramsden 1992: 4) (see cognitivism below). but he must also have learned by practice a great number of aptitudes. He asked a number of adult students what they understood by learning. but the change may not involved drawing upon experience to generate new knowledge. not all changes in behaviour resulting from experience involve learning. Their responses fell into five main categories: 1. Learning as memorising. It can be recognized or seen. The depth or nature of the changes involved are likely to be different. 'knowing that' and 'knowing how' A man knowing little or nothing of medical science could not be a good surgeon. Learning is seen as something that you do in order to understand the real world. Learning is storing information that can be reproduced. It would seem fair to expect that if we are to say that learning has taken place. The last two conceptions look to the 'internal' or personal aspect of learning. The focus for them. is gaining knowledge or ability through the use of experience. we can see immediately that conceptions 4 and 5 in are qualitatively different from the first three. 4.change. or experience.
there is a concern with what happens when the learning takes place. Formalized learning arises from the process of facilitating learning. suggests that it might be better to speak of it as having a consciousness of the task. When approached in this way it becomes clear that these contrasting ways of learning can appear in the same context. Examples include much of the learning involved in parenting or with running a home. The first two categories mostly involve 'knowing that'. At one extreme lie those unintentional and usually accidental learning events which occur continuously as we walk through life. Acquisition learning is seen as going on all the time. Learning as a process .. As we move through the third we see that alongside 'knowing that' there is growing emphasis on 'knowing how'. in debates around the rather confusing notion of 'informal learning'. More formalized and generalized (and consequently less contextualized) forms of learning are the distance and open education programmes. but often deliberately disregarding engagement with teachers and formal institutions of learning. 'Learning itself is the task. whilst the learner may not be conscious of learning. Then there are various activities in which we are somewhat more more conscious of learning. Some have referred to this kind of learning as unconscious or implicit.. In other words. though even here the focus is still on the task. Are they aware that they are engaged in learning . and while inculcation is a gradual process. Both are present in schools. To this extent there is a consciousness of learning . Learning-conscious or formalized learning. (Ryle 1949: 58) In some ways the difference here involves what Gilbert Ryle (1949) has termed 'knowingthat' and 'knowing how'. It is 'educative learning' rather than the accumulation of experience. It involves guided episodes of learning.. experiential activities arising from immediate life-related concerns. One particularly helpful way of approaching the area has been formulated by Alan Rogers (2003). In this way.task-conscious or acquisition learning and learningconscious or formalized learning In the five categories that Säljö identified we can see learning appearing as a process . Truths can be imparted. they are usually aware of the specific task in hand. Then come more purposeful activities . procedures can only be inculcated. One of the significant questions that arises is the extent to which people are conscious of what is going on. It makes sense to ask at what moment someone became apprised of a truth.and what significance does it have if they are? Such questions have appeared in various guises over the years and have surfaced.. 'In other words.unconscious learning through acquisition methods which occurs in the course of some other activity. Rogers sets out two contrasting approaches: task-conscious or acquisition learning and learning-conscious or formalized learning.. It is 'concrete. Krashen 1982). using whatever comes to hand for that purpose.. This system of categories is hierarchical . Further along the continuum lie the self-directed learning projects on which there is so much literature.each higher conception implies all the rest beneath it. for example. students who conceive of learning as understanding reality are also able to see it as increasing their knowledge' (Ramsden 1992: 27). Drawing especially on the work of those who study the learning of language (for example.. immediate and confined to a specific activity.. What formalized learning does is to make learning more conscious in order to enhance it' (Rogers 2003: 27). Next comes incidental learning . Rogers (2003: 21).Learning how or improving an ability is not like learning that or acquiring information. imparting is relatively sudden.occasions where we set out to learn something in a more systematic way.people are aware that the task they are engaged in entails learning. Task-conscious or acquisition learning. it is not concerned with general principles' (Rogers 2003: 18). learning could be thought of as 'a process by which behaviour changes as a result of experience' (Maples and Webster 1980 quoted in Merriam and Caffarella 1991: 124). It is possible to think of the mix of acquisition and formalized learning as forming a continuum. however. . but not to ask at what moment someone acquired a skill. Both are present in families.
Pavlov. Towards the further extreme lie more formalized learning programmes of highly decontextualized learning.where some elements of acquisition learning are often built into the designed learning programme. Chris Argyris. memory. Movement from the periphery to the centre of a community of practice Locus of learning Stimuli in external environment Internal cognitive structuring Affective and cognitive needs Learning is in relationship . the behaviourist orientation to learning the cognitive orientation to learning the humanistic orientation to learning the social/situational orientation to learning As with any categorization of this sort the divisions are a bit arbitrary: there could be further additions and sub-divisions to the scheme. Hull. agendas or needs. or Michael Polanyi. Piaget. Skinner Cognitivist Koffka. Learning as a process . Salomon View of the learning process Change in behaviour Internal mental A personal act to process (including fulfil potential. Guthrie.Donald Schön. Bruner. On these pages we focus on four different orientations (the first three taken from Merriam and Caffarella 1991). perception Interaction /observation in social contexts.ideas about how or why change occurs. Watson. (Rogers 2003: 41-2) This distinction is echoed in different ways in the writings of many of those concerned with education . information processing. insight. Tolman.Lewin. and there a various ways in which the orientations overlap and draw upon each other. Rogers Social and situational Bandura. There are of course no clear boundaries between each of these categories.learning theory The focus on process obviously takes us into the realm of learning theories . Lave and Wenger. Gagne Humanist Maslow. Ausubel. Kohler.but in particular in key theorists such as Kurt Lewin. using material common to all the learners without paying any regard to their individual preferences. The four orientations can be summed up in the following figure: Four orientations to learning (after Merriam and Caffarella 1991: 138) Aspect Learning theorists Behaviourist Thorndike.
For those familiar with Tennant (1997) (which is a set text on a course I teach!). Gagné and Bruner learning styles . Purpose in education Produce behavioural change in desired direction Develop capacity and skills to learn better Become selfactualized.here I chosen Maslow and Rogers. and Kolb on experiential learning. Overviews can be found in Tennant (1997).with Piaget. the cognitive orientation . learning and memory as function of age Learning how to learn Andragogy Self-directed learning Socialization Social participation Associationalism Conversation As can seen from the above schematic presentation and the discussion on the linked pages. For example.Dewey on group investigation. the work of Lave and Wenger is broadly a form of acquisition learning that can involve some more formal interludes. critical awareness . autonomous Full participation in communities of practice and utilization of resources Educator's role Arranges environment to elicit desired response Structures content of learning activity Facilitates development of the whole person Works to establish communities of practice in which conversation and participation can occur. Further reading For this listing I have tried to bring together a selection of books that look to the main themes arising in the literature around learning (and education). Freire on 'conscientization'.Mezirow on the transformative dimensions of learning.represented here by Skinner.and the role that educators may take. It is also important to recognize that the theories may apply to different sectors of the acquision-formalized learning continuum outlined above. psychoanalytical approaches . and Joyce et al (1997).Salzberger-Wittenberg et al provide a useful introduction. building learning communities .between people and environment. . Manifestations in Behavioural adult learning objectives Competency based education Skill development and training Cognitive development Intelligence. the writers can be grouped as follows: humanistic orientations .Witkin on field dependence and independence. these approaches involve contrasting ideas as to the purpose and process of learning and education . behaviourism . Lave and Wenger on situated learning.
and Moon. 178 + xii pages.K. Curriculum and Assessment. A research perspective. In the new edition. Calhoun.) (1999) Learners and Pedagogy. Good discussion of the relevance of psychological theory to adult education. Now pretty much the standard text. S.) (1999) Learning and Knowledge. New edition includes helpful material on situated learning plus updates on the literature . Part two looks at the predominantly functionalist theories of Thorndike. adult development. London: Paul Chapman. Joyce. J. A well written and entertaining introduction to studying and learning in higher education. Tolman. to think metaphorically. M.) (1999) Learners. A. Contemporary learning theory in the tension field between the cognitive. E. This volume has a useful collection of pieces on views of the mind. (1997) An Introduction to Theories of Learning 5e. Illeris. H. It provides a focused introduction to learning and the implications for programme design and encounters in the classroom. but at times debatable exploration. Frederiksberg: Roskilde University Press. Short and very helpful exploration of the nature of learning (with particular attention to current debates around informal learning) and the extent to which adult learning and the teaching of adults is the same or different from that of younger persons.Overviews Hartley. Merriam and Caffarella provide a good overview of learning theory. Part one contains three short chapters examining the nature of learning. standard psychology text on the subject that takes an approach via ‘thinkers’. R. (2002) The Three Dimensions of Learning. (ed. R. through counselling and through simulations. (1997) Models of Learning . Includes material on humanistic psychology and the self-directed learner. Tennant. but very useful outline of different models of learning The writers isolate four 'families' of teaching based on the the types of learning they promote: information processing. 254 + xiv pages. Learning and Assessment. learning styles. curriculum implications. They have chapters on learning: to think inductively. 1998) Learning in Adulthood. See. Buckingham: Open University Press. and part four looks at predominantly cognitive theorists: Gestalt. and behavioural. Guthrie and Estes. and early notions of learning. Murphy. Leach. and Caffarella (1991. cognitive developmental psychology. Piaget. and learning and assessment processes. and Paetcher. Upper Saddle River. London: Routledge. (eds. the emotional and the social. 502 + x pages. Leicester: NIACE. mnemonically. J. (1992) Learning to Teach in Higher Education. Skinner and Hull. P. social/building a learning community. B. One of four readers for the Open University MA in Education course Learning. critical awareness. Ramsden. and Olson. 85 pages. 352 + xiii pages. NJ: Prentice-Hall. Hergenhahn. A concluding section examines implications for educators. B. 205 + viii pages. P. B. and teaching and learning together. (1998) Learning and Studying. Slightly quirky. Ramsden's text can be profitably read by those teaching in other arenas. group dynamics. to explore concepts. M. Concluding chapters exami integrating models. (1988. Rogers. London: Paul Chapman. 290 + xiv pages. Part three turns to ‘associationalist’ theorists: Pavlov. (eds. different approaches to study. 182 + xii pages. part two deals with adult development and learning. Merriam. The focus is very much on practice. and part three with the learning process. and Hopkins. 280 + viii pages. also. the psychoanalytical approach. A comprehensive guide. Norman. London: Routledge. behaviourism.tools for teaching. Part five explores Hebb as a neurophysiological theorist. personal. 1997) Psychology and Adult Learning. Good. through co-operative disciplined enquiry.. and McCormick. to study values. 528 pages. London: Routledge. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. C. Bandura. Interesting. D. (2003) What is the Difference? A new critique of adult learning and teaching. London: Paul Chapman.
lovely. Gagné. hypothesis. 218 + xvii pages. problem. and to put the ideas and ideals involved into complete. (1933) How We Think 2e. pages 28-9. basic forms of learning (signal. Rinehart and Winston. with Dewey's famous five elements: suggestion. intuitive and analytical thinking. and Wenger. When the school introduces and trains each child of society into membership within such a little community. The introduction of active occupations. Freire. learning structures. thus. M. active with types of occupations that reflect the life of the larger society and permeated throughout with the spirit of art. and teacherlearner relationship. Substantial discussion of the ideas underpinning Kolb's well-known model. Heath. and self-directing factors . 5). (1987) Adult Learning in the Social Context. Freire and A. learning decisions. 2e. Geneva: World Council of Churches. Significant exploration of learning as participation in communities of practice. 1977) The Process of Education. and science. M. practical intelligence and expertise. testing.. J. uncompromising possession of our school system. P. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. Cambridge: University of Cambridge Press. (1972) Pedagogy of the Oppressed. saturating him with the spirit of service. J. 97 + xxvi pages. not seen as the acquisition of knowledge by individuals so much as a process of social participation. John Dewey (1915) The School and Society. Basically a systems approach with chapters on varieties of learning (8 types). (1960. history. of art. J.: Prentice Hall. J. Englewood Cliffs.all these are not mere accidents. Classic and highly influential discussion of reflective enquiry. Classic account of Freire's position. problem solving. A developmental perspective. and harmonious. motives for learning. and Pogson. the motivation and control of learning. D. to appreciate them in their fullness of meaning. and providing him with the instruments of effective self-direction. Jarvis. (1991) Situated Learning. of elementary science. experience. chaining: motor and verbal. reasoning. (1995) Learning and Change in the Adult Years. P. Dewey. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. See. that 'attempts to consider the sets of circumstances that obtain when learning occurs. 220 pages. when certain observable changes in human behaviour take place that justify the inference of learning' (p. also. Important study. intellectual and cognitive development. of nature-study.. Lave.Tennant.of discipline. Participation moves from the periphery to the 'centre'. they are necessities of the larger social evolution. (1984) Experiential Learning. Harmondsworth: Penguin. stimulus response). P. we shall have the deepest and best guaranty of a larger society which is worthy. Argues for 'the spiral curriculum' with a discussion of the importance of structure. theories of the life course. concept learning. readiness for learning. Dewey (1915) The School and Society. London: Routledge. Faundez (1989) Learning to Question. New York: Holt. and aids to teaching. Cambridge Ma. the change in the moral school atmosphere. NJ. To do this means to make each one of our schools an embryonic community life. A pedagogy of liberation. Examines relationships between development and learning in adulthood. Kolb. Important attempt to ground thinking about adult learning in a sociological perspective. the introduction of more active. A. that is. 138 pages. Provides a helpful series of insights drawn from a developmental psychology tradition. New York: D. R. (1985) The Conditions of Learning 4e. in the relation of pupils and teachers . Key texts Bruner. Gives an account of learning through problem-posing.: Harvard University Press. It remains to but to organize all these factors. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. P. expressive. The . For a discussion that focuses on learning communities see. A useful addition to thinking around reflection and experiential learning. autonomy and self-direction. 256 pages. first published in 1965. C. of history. Legitimate peripheral participation. the relegation of the merely symbolic and formal to a secondary position. E. 308 + viii pages. Learning is approached as a process leading to the production of knowledge. Learning is. 2e.
London: Penguin. H. Learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. See. Kirschenbaum and V. J. Salzberger-Wittenberg. Maslow. social world. B. Salomon. A new developmental way of learning. G. L. Henry. Wenger. See. Witkin. (1999) Communities of Practice. J. J. processes and strategies for creating learning communities. London: Fontana for a succinct introduction. Explores the theory and practice of learning communities from an international perspective. leading researchers discuss: theoretical issues and debate. Rogers. and psychological distractions'. 248 pages. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 185 + viii pages. K. 155 + xii pages. Maslow (1970) Motivation and Personality 2e. and Coombe. New York: Merrill. (ed. (1998) Learning Communities in Education. Boden's (1979) Piaget. A. It is difficult to know which of Piaget's 50 or more books to choose here . Looks at learning as performed activity. C. L. See. and learning communities in action . and Osborne. safety. B. behaviouristic and humanistic theories. also. Newman. London: Cassell. (2003) What is the difference? a new critique of adult learning and teaching. A . Mezirow. 247 + xix pages. New York: International Universities Press. person. self-esteem. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. E.). Cocklin. Probably the most accessible entry into Skinner's work and provides a classic account of his all embracing vision of behaviourism. (1973) Beyond Freedom and Dignity. Path-breaking collection of pieces that explore the extent to which learning lies in the resources to which people have access. H. . H.. E. and Holzman. 318 + xv pages.). (1981) Cognitive Styles. (1968) Towards a Psychology of Being 2e. Retallick. habits of perception. A. Very helpful. I. Essence and Origins: Field dependence and field independence. A. (1926) The Child's Conception of the World. J. H. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul. also. self-actualization). Distributed Cognitions. His 'theory of motivation' moves from low to high level needs (physiological. London: Constable. this book demonstrates the power of psychoanalytical insight into a range of learning relationships. In which he argues for the significance of self-actualization. Gruber and J. G.but this and The Origin of Intelligence in Children are classic starting points. London is good collection. D. Reworking of the classic Carl Rogers text first published in 1969. F.. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. While largely focused on adultchild interactions. Skinner. for a full discussion of the model. F. Voneche (1977) The Essential Piaget: an interpretative reference and guide. E. Draws on psycho-analytical. 526 + xvi pages. Henderson (eds. (1997) The End of Knowing. specific communities of practice. meaning and identity. M. practice. London: Routledge. J. (1993) Freedom to Learn (3rd edn. Exploration of some of the processes by which people can free themselves from 'oppressive ideologies. Account of Witkin's very influential exploration of the impact of context on perceptual judgements. secondary and tertiary levels in a variety of educational contexts.Leicester: NIACE. also. (1983) The Emotional Experience of Learning and Teaching.nature of the situation impacts significantly on the process. love and belongingness. Chapters on legitimate peripheral participation. Piaget. Substantial exploration of situated learning and communities of practice. (1991) Transformative Dimensions of Learning. and Freiberg.) (1990) The Carl Rogers Reader. New York: Van Nostrand. Looks at how person-centred learning can be used in schooling and other situations and the nature of facilitation. New York: Harper and Row. short discussion that distinguishes between task-conscious or acquisition learning and learning-conscious or formalized learning Rogers. and Goodenough. Covering primary/elementary.
1. It is through play that children can understand more about their environment. The above statement refers to a A learning community B learning experience C learning environment D psychosocial environment 2. Copy teacher’s note D. Creative works are produced when children play by using various types of materials. Oxford: Pergamon. I.Other references Krashen. learn together actively and learn from other individuals. Which of these following statement does not reflect the importance of play in a child’s learning process? A Children can learn ways of solving problems B play helps in shaping the identity of children C Children learn to interact positively with others D children can show off their talents and abilities 3. she will be rewarded. S. The type of play described refers to – C. Some common-sense conceptions'. D. (1982) Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. University of Gothenburg. Which type of reinforcement schedule applies in the case? A fixed ratio B continuous C fixed interval D variable ratio 6. A group of people who share values and beliefs.One of the important principles of learning in Ewell’s model is active environment. Read books B. Säljö. but is aware that if she continues to do her task well. (1979) 'Learning in the learner's perspective. Which of the following learning activities can be carried out to promote active involvement in class? A. Engage discussion C. Reports from the Institute of Education. R.Farhana does not know when reinforcement is coming. Which of the following statements is true of constructivism? A bottom up processing is emphasized B The learner acquires expertise through interaction with an expert C The teacher is both a facilitator and the constructor of knowledge D learning begin with the general and then moves on to the specific . 76. constructive play 4. View educational video clips 5.
Mastery learning based on the behaviorist theory. ensures that all students achieve the learning objectives by A dividing students into smaller groups for discussion purposes B arranging for educational visits to give students experiential learning C giving students a range of exercises on the topic to give them more practice D breaking up a lesson into smaller units so that students can easily acquire knowledge before progressing further . She talks about her latest song at home and in school all the time. How can a teacher ensure that students with special needs are developed according to their potentials based on the humanist theory? A Give verbal reinforcement B Always use drill and repetition C Teach from specific to general so as to simplify understanding D Identify the ability of students and prepare an individual learning plans 11. Which phase of Bandura’s observational learning is Aminah in? A attention B retention C motivation D reproduction 8.7.Which of the following is one of the implicationsof the behaviorist theory with regards to students with special needs? A Always reprimand negative behavior B determine realistic goals to shape behavior C Use real or symbolic models to shape behavior D Create suitable learning environment for students 10. She has also formed a mental image of singing in public like Siti Nurhaliza in the future.Students with special needs require different treatment compared to normal students.Aminah is a great fan of Siti Nurhaliza. Which of the following statements best explains the Humanist Theory? A Learning occurs better if the teacher plans many activities B Learning occurs by observing another person performing an act C Self directed learning will result in the learning processing be more meaningful D Every learning stage must be in line with the level of students cognitive development 9.Which of the following involves the lowest level of processing information? A Scan a text and jot down notes B Scan a text and circle all the pronouns C Scan a text and get specific information D Scan a text and circle all the uppercase letters 12.
Then the teacher relates the characteristics of her pet to other pets.Which of the following students is inclined towards verbal linguistic intelligence? A student A likes to jokes in the classroom . The social Model emphasis group inquiry such as cooperative learning. The approach used by teacher A is A eclectic B inductive C deductive D generative 18.Teacher A starts her lesson by explaining the characteristics of a cat. Which of the following techniques is described above A discussion B story telling C brainstorming D problem solving 17.The personal Model which involves learning through counseling aims to A activate students prior knowledge to recall what they know B direct students towards achieving better mental health and emotion C ensure students acquire knowledge and skills that are in the curriculum D enhance students creative thinking by using analogy to solve problems 15. Which of the following are principles of cooperative learning? I interdependence among students ii create competition among students iii students accountability toward task iv emphasis given to high performance students A I and ii only B i and iii only C ii and iv only D iii and iv only 14. Which of the following is an implication of the use of The cognitive Teaching Model? A enables teachers to repeat desired behaviours among students B enables teachers to try the memorization strategy among students C Give students opportunities to encode. remember and solve problems D Gives students freedom to select learning activities most suitable for them 16.The cognitive teaching Models helps teachers in the teaching and learning process in the classroom.13.
Based Bandura self efficacy theory of motivation.On receiving her assignment Alia said ‘ I don’t think I can do the assignment on time and have outstanding quality. Alia’s teacher needs to do these following to increase Alia’s confident Like · · Follow post · about an .B student B draws mind map during revision C student C takes part actively when the teacher conducts group works D student D always sits in the mini garden in her school during recess to enjoy the beauty of the scenery 19.
This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
We've moved you to where you read on your other device.
Get the full title to continue listening from where you left off, or restart the preview.