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**Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika
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**Digital Filter Design
**

TOC Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3

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**Chapter 3: Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters
**

3.1. Introduction 3.2. IIR filter design 3.3. Reference analog prototype filter 3.4. Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation 3.5. Bilinear transformation 3.6. Examples

3.1 Introduction

IIR filters are digital filters with infinite impulse response. Unlike FIR filters, they have the feedback (a recursive part of a filter) and are known as recursive digital filters therefore.

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Figure 3-1-1. Block diagram s of FIR and IIR filters

For this reason IIR filters have much better frequency response than FIR filters of the same order. Unlike FIR filters, their phase characteristic is not linear which can cause a problem to the systems which need phase linearity. For this reason, it is not preferable to use IIR filters in digital signal processing when the phase is of the essence. Otherwise, when the linear phase characteristic is not important, the use of IIR filters is an excellent solution. There is one problem known as a potential instability that is typical of IIR filters only. FIR filters do not have such a problem as they do not have the feedback. For this reason, it is always necessary to check after the design process whether the resulting IIR filter is stable or not. IIR filters can be designed using different methods. One of the most commonly used is via the reference analog prototype filter. This method is the best for designing all standard types of filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters. This book describes the design method using reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-1-2 illustrates the block diagram of this method.

Figure 3-1-2. Block diagram of design m ethod using reference analog prototype filter

FIR filters can have linear phase characteristic, which is not typical of IIR filters. When it is necessary to have linear phase characteristic,

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

FIR filters are the only available solution. In other cases when linear phase characteristic is not necessary, such as speech signal processing, FIR filters are not good solution. IIR filters should be used instead. The resulting filter order is considerably lower for the same frequency response. The filter order determines the number of filter delay lines, i.e. number of input and output samples that should be saved in order that the next output sample can be computed. For instance, if the filter order is 10, it means that it is necessary to save 10 input samples plus 10 output samples preceeding the current sample. All these 21 samples will affect the next output sample. The IIR filter transfer function is a ratio of two polynomials of complex variable z-1. The numerator defines location of zeros, whereas the denominator defines location of poles of the resulting IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-1-3. illustrates input and output signals of the system with non-linear phase characteristic.

Figure 3-1-3. The effect of non-linear phase characteristic

The system introduces phase shift of 0 radians at frequency of ω, and π radians at three times higher frequency. Input signal consists of nature frequency ω and harmonics with the same amplitude at three times higher frequency. Figure on the left illustrates an input signal, whereas Figure on the right illustrates an output signal. As seen, these two signals have different waveforms. Neither the power of the signal nor amplitudes of particular harmonics have been changed, but the phase of the second harmonic. Assume that an input represents a speech signal where the phase is not important. In this case such phase distorsion would be negligable as the system satisfies the stated requirements. Otherwise, if the phase is important, such a huge distorsion mustn’t be allowed.

**3.2 Infinite impulse response (IIR) filter design
**

The most commonly used IIR filter design method uses reference analog prototype filter. It is the best method to use when designing standard filters such as low-pass, high-pass, bandpass and band-stop filters. The filter design process starts with specifications and requirements of the desirable IIR filter. A type of reference analog prototype filter to be used is specified according to the specifications and after that everything is ready for analog prototype filter design. The next step in the design process is scaling of the frequency range of analog prototype filter into desirable frequency range. This is how an analog prototype filter is converted into an analog filter. After the analog filter is designed, it is time to go through the last step in the digital IIR filter design process. It is conversion from analog to digital filter. The most popular and most commonly used converting method is bilinear transformation method. The resulting filter, obtained in this way, is always stable. However, instability of the resulting filter, when bilinear transformation is used, may be caused only by the finite word-length side-effect.

**3.2.1 Basic concepts and IIR filter specification
**

First of all, it is necessay to learn the basic concepts that will be used further in this book. You should be aware that without being familiar with these concepts, it is not possible to understand analyses and synthesis of digital filters. Figure 3-2-1 illustrates a low-pass digital filter specification. The word specification refers to the frequency response specification.

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-1a. Low -pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-1b. Low -pass digital filter specification

ωp – normalized passband cut-off frequency; ωs – normalized stopband cut-off frequency; δ1 – maximum passband ripples; δ2 – minimum stopband attentuation; ε – passband attenuation parameter; A – stopband attenuation parameter; ap – maximum passband ripples [dB]; and as – minimum stopband attenuation [dB].

Frequency normalization can be expressed as follows:

where:

**fs is the sampling frequency; f is the frequency to normalize; and ω is the normalized frequency.
**

Specifications for high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters are defined almost the same way as those for low-pass filters. Figure 3-2-2 illustrates a high-pass filter specification, whereas Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass filter specification.

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-2a. High-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-2b. High-pass digital filter specification

Comparing these two Figures 3-2-1 and 3-2-2, it is obvious that low-pass and high-pass filters have similar specifications. The same parameters are defined in both cases with the difference that in the later case the passband is substituded by the stopband and vice versa. Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass specification.

Filter 3-2-3a. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-3b. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-4 illustrates band-stop digital filter specification

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The Z-transform is defined as: where z is the complex number.3. Band-stop digital filter specification Figure 3-2-4b. The Fourier transformation can be found by rewriting the previous expression in terms of z as z=e^jω. It converts a discrete timedomain signal into a complex frequency-domin representation. It is very suitable for analyzing discrete time-domain signals and systems as well. The z-transform is derived from the Fourier discrete time-domain transformation and is considered the basic operation in digital filter design process.mikroe. 0 ≤ n ≤ 8 z-transform is defined via expression: It becomes: The last expression is the z-transform of the given signal.2 Z-transform The Z-transform is performed upon discrete-time signals.2.4. It becomes: www. Band-stop digital filter specification 3.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-4a.Digital Filter Design .3.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 5/45 .2.1} .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .4. Example: Assume that samples of a discrete-time signal x(n) are known. x(n)={1.5.2. It is necessary to transform this signal with the z-transform and Fourier fransform.

mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-5 illustrates the (frequency) spectrum of the given signal. the Fourier transform is represented as a unit circle.mikroe. Frequency spectrum of the given signal Comparing Z and Fourier transforms. www.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 6/45 . which can be seen in Figure 3-2-6 below.Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-2-5. it is easy to notice some similarities between them: In polar coordinates. the complex number z may be expressed as follows: The two last expressions lead us to the conclusion that Fourier transform is just a special form of the z-transform for r=1. In the z plane.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .

whereas its poles are denoted by small crosses. Fourier transform in the z plane The z-transform of the transfer function is of great importance for IIR filters.mikroe. The location of poles in the z plane is used for testing stability of designed IIR filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design . The poles of the IIR filter transfer function must be located within the unit circle in order that filter is stable. Figure 3-2-7a Stable IIR filter Transfer function zeros are denoted by small circles.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 7/45 . Figure 3-2-7a illustrates zeros and poles of the transfer function of a stable IIR filter in the z plane.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-6. www.

then it is single. it is easy to determine whether it refers to FIR or IIR filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 8/45 . which can cause one pole or one pair of poles to be located outside the unit circle. Figure 3-2-7b. The poles of the FIR filter transfer function are located at the origin. If a zero or a pole is located on the real axe in the z plane. In the z plane. This quantization changes the location of zeros and poles of the resulting IIR filter. which means that it refers to IIR. one transfer function zero is located outside the unit circle. Also.mikroElektronika As seen in Figure 3-2-7.mikroe. All four poles of transfer function are located within the unit circle. The result of such a quantization is a filter that is not stable. two poles located outside the unit circle make this IIR filter instable. i. The transfer function of discrete-time systems is defined to be: where: bi are the feedforward filter coefficients (non-recursive part). If bilinear transformation is used in the filter design. www.9/22/13 Re – Real axis Im – Imaginary axis Chapter 3: IIR filters . Instable IIR filter As seen from Figure 3-2-7b.e. H0 is a constant.2. then it has the corresponding pair having the same real value and the same imaginary value with the opposite sign. If either of them is not located on the real axis in the z plane.Digital Filter Design . When the transfer function is found. which guarantees tha stability of IIR filters. It is obviously not the case in Figure 3-2-7.3 Transfer function of discrete-time systems The Z-transform is primarily used for finding the transfer function of linear discrete-time systems. aj are the feedback filter coefficients (recursive part). Figure 3-2-7b illustrates the zeros and poles of the transfer function of an instable IIR filter in the z plane. it is illustrated as a pair of zeros or poles which are symmetric around the real axis. the resulting filter is stable before the coefficient quantization starts. Such a pair is also called a complex-conjugated pair of zeros or poles. the imaginary part is zero. Figure 3-2-7a clearly indicates interrelation between zeros and poles in the z plane. not FIR filter. qi are the zeros of the transfer function. According to the location of poles in the z plane. It doesn’t cause any problem as the location of poles is the only thing that matters. it is necessary to consider the zeros and poles of the transfer function in the z plane. 3.

com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 9/45 . and A(z) the transfer function of recursive part of the system (feedback). the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as follows: OR The later expression is more convenient for software IIR filters realization. In the frequency domain. Figure 3-2-8. Figure 3-2-8 Discrete-tim e system w ith feedback In the time domain. Another expression for convolusion that is more useful in practical applications is: www. the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as the multiplication of Z-transform input signal X(z) and the transform function H(z): The first way of representing discrete-time systems is suitable for both software and hardware IIR filter implementation. Example: The transfer function of a 3th order IIR filter. the IIR filters have feedback which enable them to have greater selectivity as well as nonlinearity of phase characteristic than FIR filters. B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part of the system. whereas the representation in the z domain is suitable for analyzes of designed filters and synthesis itself (design process).mikroElektronika pj are the poles of the transfer function. illustrates block diagram of discrete-time system with feedback.Digital Filter Design . The recursive part of the transfer function is actually a discrete-time system feedback.mikroe.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . designed using Chebyshev function is: The following expression describes the filtering process: This process is also known as convolution. Unlike the FIR filters.

mikroElektronika After making substitutions of impulse response coefficients. when ω = 0. it becomes: Using expression: it is possible to find function for particular normalized frequency.mikroe. For example.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .2π: The numerator is computed first: Then denominator: www.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 10/45 .Digital Filter Design .

which in this case means that the circular buffer is 4 = 2^2 in length.Digital Filter Design . the given IIR filter corresponds to a 6th order FIR filter. which makes them stable. Selectivity and attenuation of this filter are much higher than those of any 6th order FIR filter. Besides.mikroElektronika Figure 2-2-8 illustrates a hardware realization of this IIR filter. affects more frequency characteristic. 3. These are usually circular buffers whose length can be expressed as 2^n. whereas in hardware implementation. it ocurrs due to impossibility of representing the coefficients with apsolute accuracy.2.4 Effects of the poles and zeros of the transfer function The location of poles and zeros of the transfer function is very important for discrete-time system analyses and synthesis. Therefore. The FIR filter coefficient error affects more the frequency response as the spacing between the zero and pole of the transfer function and the origin narrows. is a non-linear phase characteristic.mikroe. the system becomes unstable. Slight errors in coefficient representation may cause large frequency deviations. which provides so high selectivity and attenuation. By complexity. According to their location it is possible to test stability of a discrete-time system. In software implementation. A direct result of such errors is deviation of the frequency of designed discrete-time system. the pole quantization. filter stability is questioned only due to coefficient quantization which is performed at the end of the design process. This property is particularly typical of high-order filters because their zeros are very close each other. In order that a discrete-time system is stable. which is very dangerous. detect round-off errors made due to software implementation of a filter as well as coefficient errors encountered during hardware implementation of a filter. One buffer would be used for input samples and another one for output samples. The result in both cases is that the actual value of coefficients differs from their value obtained in design process. as shown in Figure 3-2-6.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 11/45 . Realization of IIR filter in this exam ple The software realization would require two buffers each of minimum length 3.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-2-9 illustrates the required and obtained frequency characteristic of an IIR filter. The finite word-length effect on the transform www. If this requirement is not satisfied. by rule. However. Recalling that FIR flters do not have a feedback. Deviation of frequency depends on the spacing between the zeros and poles of the FIR filter transfer function and the origin in the z plane. It always happens due to software and hardware implementation that an error in coefficients representation is produced. all poles of the discrete-time system transfer function must be located within the unit circle. an error is triggered by the finite word-length effect. this doesn’t apply on IIR filters. The result of the feedback. The location of zeroes doesn’t affect the stabilty of discrete-time systems. In this case. Figure 3-2-9. it is preferable to use bilinear transformation because it always makes filter stable.

5 and 6 are repeated as many times as needed. It is only important that its characteristics can satisfy the given specifications. 4. The coefficients bk and ak are of interest for IIR filter realization (both hardware and software). it should be changed. This book represents the most commonly used conversion known as bilinear transformation. For this reason. then it is necessary to do it. 2. The initial value of the filter order is roughly estimated and is changed after that depending on the obtained characteristics and requirements. Be aware that every type has its good and bad sides. Conversion into digital filter via bilinear transformation. it is necessary to specify or compute the filter order required for a given set of specifications.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-10. maximum passband attenuation and minimum stopband attenuation. the entire IIR filter design process. ωc1. or if the filter order can be less than actual one. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. The type of analog prototype filter as well as the filter order will be specified according to these parameters. Deviation from required frequency characteristic The frequency deviation shown in Figure 3-2-10 is basically slight deviation. 3. it is preferable to specify such a type of analog prototype filter that can produce the lowest order IIR filter. Computing the filter order required for a given set of specifications and specified analog prototype filter.9/22/13 function of an IIR filter is clearly marked in this figure.mikroe. Conversion into analog filter via scaling. even though it is very large at certain frequencies. For this reason. The final objective of defining IIR filter specifications is to find the desirable normalized cutoff frequencies (ωc. bk the coefficient of non-recursive part of IIR filter.e. computing of the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. that is. After this step.6 IIR filter realization FIR filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: N is the filter order. 3.Digital Filter Design . The transfer function of analog prototype filter depends on frequencies which are not scaled into the desirable range. 6.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 12/45 . scaling and obtaining analogue filters and conversion into digital filter. 5. it is necessary to perform scaling of the transfer function so that cut-off frequencies go into the desirable range. it is time to specify the type of reference analog prototype filter. When both type and order of analog prototype filter are known. it is possible to find its transfer function. when the type of analog proptotype filter is known. Now. Defining filter specification. This operation is actually conversion of reference analog prototype filter into analog filter with desirable characteristic.2. Chapter 3: IIR filters . If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications. Finally. The filter order can be increased or decreased according to needs and after that steps 4. i. so that such deviation is acceptable. transition width. and ak the coefficient of recursive part (feedback) of IIR filter. Figure 3-2-11 illustrates the block diagram of www. is repeated. the transfer function of the specified type of reference analog prototype filter is obtained by converting analog filter into digital one. After changing the filter order. Specifying analog prototype filter. and 7. The minimum attenuation and the width of transition region of the resulting IIR filter remain unchanged. 3.5 IIR filters design using bilinear transformation The IIR filter design using bilinear transformation can be split into several steps: 1. ωc2). If the obtained filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. IIR filters have much greater selectivity and attenuation than FIR filters of the same order. it is preferable to increase or decrease the filter order by 1.2. However.

illustrates the block diagram of direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter.2.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 13/45 .6.mikroe. Figure 3-2-12. Chapter 3: IIR filters . The realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is identical to the direct realization of FIR filter. 3. direct canonic.Digital Filter Design . direct transpose canonic and cascade realizations. All of them are very convenient and most commonly used for both hardware and software IIR filter realization. Each of them will be described in detail along with their advantages and disadvantages. these two parts are separately considered and realized.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-11. direct transpose. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter www.9/22/13 IIR filter. In IIR filter direct realization. This chapter covers direct. Figure 3-2-12.1 Direct realization Direct realization of IIR filters starts with this expression: The first part of the expression refers to non-recursive part and the other refers to recursive part of IIR filter. Block diagram of IIR filter There are several types of IIR filter realization.

9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroElektronika As seen from Figure 3-2-12 above. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter As non-recursive and recursive part of IIR filter are separately realized. Figure 3-2-13. Figure 3-2-13. www.mikroe. Realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is similar to that of recursive part. it doesn’t matter which of them will be used first in filtering process. respectively.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 14/45 . Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b illustrate block diagrams of IIR filter realization when non-recursive part is used before and after recursive part of IIR filter.Digital Filter Design . illustrates the direct realization of the filter recursive part. multiplication coefficients are identical to those of the transfer function.

recursive part is used first This structure is also known as a direct form I structure. Some of disadvantages of www. (2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions. As seen from Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b.Digital Filter Design .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . direct realization requires in total of 2N delay lines. IIR filter direct realization. non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-14b. Direct realization is very convenient for software implementation and this is where it is most commonly used.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-14a. IIR filter direct realization.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 15/45 .

5 A DDR. Figure 3-2-15. 2 A DDR. The value of constant k is defined as a minimum value for which N ≤ 2^k is valid. the largest finite word-length effect).2 Direct transpose realization Direct transpose realization is similar to direct realization. where N is the filter order. it is necessary to have two buffers with at least N+1 samples. 6 A DDR. i. A DDR. location addressing in the circular buffer is performed via module 16 operations: Example: A 6th order FIR filter is used in this example. Input samples are denoted by x[n] and each shaded cell represents changed location in buffer. Input circular buffer after receiving 10 sam ples 3. buffer if it is about software implementation. The only difference is in the position of delay lines. 7 A DDR. It is necessary to design this filter using direct structure with circular buffer. 4 A DDR. it is also necessary to have two buffers of minimum length N+1.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The length of circular buffer is obtained from the following expression: It means that the minimum length of circular buffer is 2^3 = 8.Digital Filter Design . where N is the IIR filter order. For their simplicity and effectiveness. most commonly used are the so called circular buffers the length of which can be expressed as 2^k.mikroe. The contents of the buffer after receiving the first 10 samples is shown in the table 3-2-1.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 16/45 . 0 S T EP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x[0] x[1] x[2] x[3] x[4] x[5] x[6] x[7] x[7] x[7] x[6] x[6] x[6] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[9] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[8] x[8] Table 2-2-2.e.6. The length of the buffer needs to be 2^k. Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-17 illustrate the block diagram describing IIR filter direct transpose realization structure of IIR filter.e. On IIR filter software implementation with direct structure.e. Accordingly: where the operator represents rounding down to a less value. Circular buffer of length 16 = 2^4 Since the buffer length is 16.2. needs most resources). Here. 3 A DDR. 1 A DDR.mikroElektronika this realization are the greatest sensitivity to accuracy of realized coefficients (i. www. and the greatest complexity due to implementation (i.

com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 17/45 . recursive part is used first There are no significant differences between direct and direct transpose realizations. Both structures have the same multiplication coefficients. Similar to direct realization structure.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . IIR filter direct transpose realization. IIR filter direct transpose realization.Digital Filter Design . www.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-16. (2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions. the direct transpose realization structure uses 2N delay lines. The only difference is in the position of delay lines. non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-17.mikroe.

which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure. Figure 3-2-19 illustrates the block diagram describing direct transpose canonical realization structure of IIR filter.2. N delay lines.6.3 Direct Canonical Realization Chapter 3: IIR filters .9/22/13 3. Figure 3-2-18.2. The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-14b and 3-2-18 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct canonic realization structure cannot be treated separately. which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure. Recursive and nonrecursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately. but similar to direct canonical structure. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure.6.Digital Filter Design . Direct canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct canonic structure block diagram and direct realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-14b are obvious. Figure 3-2-18 illustrates the block diagram describing direct canonic realization structure of IIR filter. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization. Recursive and non-recursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately. This way. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization. although it is easy to differentiate between them. (2N+1) multipilications and 2N additions. that is.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 18/45 .mikroe. www. 3.4 Direct transpose canonical realization Direct transpose canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum of N delay lines as well as reduced number of adders to N+1. Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures. Direct canonic structure uses N delay elements.mikroElektronika Direct canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum. one of the main disadvantages of direct and direct transpose realization structures is eliminated.

Since the sections are mutually independent after design process. (2N+1) multipilication elements and N+1 adders. modulation of frequency response and IIR filter stability are separately examined for each section. mutually independent sections of the first or second order. pj are the poles of the transfer function. qi are the zeros of the transfer function. It is very convenient for its modular structure and less sensitivity to the accuracy of non-recursive and recursive coefficients realization. B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part. On cascade IIR filter realization. although it is easy to differentiate between them. Individual sections are mostly realized in direct canonical or direct transpose canonical structure. A(z) is the transfer function of recursive part (feedback). The analyse is simplified this way. The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-19 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct transpose canonical realization structure cannot be treated separately. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure. the finite word-length effect on the accuracy of coefficients. Direct transpose canonic structure uses N delay elements. The IIR filter transfer function is expressed as: where: bi are the coefficients of transfer function numerator (non-recursive part). Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures.5 Cascade Realization Cascade realization structure is the most difficult to obtain from the transfer function (comparing to other realization structures given in this book).mikroe. aj are the coefficients of transfer function denominator (recursive part). Cascade realization requires the given expression to be factorized so that the transfer function is expressed as follows: www.6. H0 is a constant. a filter is divided into several.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 19/45 .mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-19. 3.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . and M is the number of sections in cascade realization structure.2.Digital Filter Design . Direct transpose canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct transpose canonical structure block diagram and direct transpose realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-16 are obvious.

b[i. Filter dividing in independent sections reduces the sensitivity to the accuracy of quantization coefficients and simplifies analysing the stability of the resulting filter.3 Reference Analog Prototype Filter IIR filter design process starts with reference analog prototype filter. First-order section Figure 3-2-21 illustrates a second-order section. The transform function of analog filter Hs a (s) is expressed as: www. Cascade IIR filter structure 3. Software realization requires M buffer of length 2 or 1. Figure 3-2-20. Chebyshev (Chebyshev I) and inverse Chebyshev filter (Chebyshev II). Figure 3-2-21 illustrates the block diagram describing cascade IIR filter structure. so the changes of poles locations are smaller. k] are the coefficients of recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section. Such complexity and needed factorization are two main disadvantages of this realization structure. This book explains Butterworth.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 20/45 . Figure 3-2-22. Individual sections are of the first or second order. Besides. Direct transpose canonical structure is most frequently used in realization.Digital Filter Design .mikroe. Figure 3-2-21. k] are the coefficients of non-recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section. Second-order section The use of direct transpose realization structure reduces necessary number of delay lines and adders as well. Each section must have its own buffer for saving samples of intermediate signals. Figure 3-220 illustrates a first-order section. therefore. the possibility that IIR filter becomes instable after quantization is drastically reduced as the coefficients quantization is performed after dividing filter in sections.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroElektronika where: a[i.

www. frequency axis scaling. Figure 3-3-2 illustrates frequency responses for a few various parameters N (filter order). it is necessary that all poles (the square roots of polinomial Aa(s)) are located in the left half of S plane.3. band-pass or band-stop) is performed by converting into analog filter. Figure 3-3-1 illustrates S plane. 3.mikroElektronika where: N is the filter order. and M ≤ N. Figure 3-3-1. s is the complex frequency (s = σ + jΩ).1 derivatives of the transfer function when Ω = 0 are equal to zero. S plane and region of stability A low-pass filter is used for analog filter design.e. Figure 3-3-2. no matter the filter order is. The conversion into the appropriate type of filter (high-pass.Digital Filter Design .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 21/45 . and N is the filter order. In order that a system described via expression above is stable. Frequency response of Butterw orth filter Butterworth filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. as the first 2N .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . They are also known as „maximally flat magnitude“ filters at the frequency of Ω = 0.1 Butterworth analog filter Low-pass Butterworth analog filters are filters whose frequency response is a monotonious descending function. i. Butterworth filter is characterized by 3dB attenuation at the frequency of Ω=1.mikroe.

σi is the pole. Even though these two types of transformations are similar to some extent. The value of parameter ε is obtained via expression: Transfer function is expressed as: www. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial. N is the filter order. Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The location of poles for N=5 and N=6 is shown in Figure 3-3-4.e. 2.2 Chebyshev Analog Filter Chebyshev analog low-pass filter of the first kind is a type of analog filter that has the least oscillation in frequency response in the entire passband.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 22/45 . filter is stab le if all poles are located in the left half of the s plane. IIR filter specification Figure 3-3-3 illustrates IIR filter specification with parameters of most interest for Butterworth filter. it is easy to find its poles using expression: Butterworth poles are equally allocated (equidistantly) on the unit circle within the left half of the s plane. Frequency response of Chebyshev analog filter To design Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. All poles of the resulting filter must be located in the left half of the S plane... The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order Chebyshev reference analog filter. Position of Butterw orth filter poles for N=5 and N=6 The transfer function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter is expressed as follows: where: Sk is the k-th pole of the Butterworth filter transfer function For N=5. i. Therefore it is characterized by equal ripple in the passband and the stopband frequency response is monotoniously descending function. it is necessary to know the filter order.mikroe. and Ωi is the imaginary pole.3. Note: In the z plane. ε is a parameter used to define maximum oscillations in the passband frequency response. Z-transform is used for digital filters. they should not b e mixed up concerning the filter stab ility analyse. and i=1.. Figure 3-3-5 illustrates frequency response for a 4th order band-stop Chebyshev reference analog filter. When the filter order is known. In the s plane. the transfer function is: 3. N. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained via recursive relations: If the filter order is known in advance. To design Butterworth reference analog prototype filter.mikroElektronika Figure 3-3-3. to the left of the imaginary axis. filter is stab le if all poles are located within the unit circle. where: N is the filter order. neither recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary. . Figure 3-3-4. it is necessary to know the filter order.Digital Filter Design . whereas Laplase transform (s plane) is used for analog filters. Figure 3-3-5. The values of poles are expressed as: where: si is the i-th transfer function pole of analog prototype filter (complex value).

In the stopband.3. Location of the poles of Chebyshev filter for N=5 3. 5.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 23/45 . where: N is the filter order.Digital Filter Design . N. Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency.mikroe. 2. the frequency response is extremely flat function at the frequency of Ω = 0. 5 1. and Ωi is the imaginary pole. N is the filter order. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are considered reciprocal poles of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter. and i=1. Figure 3-3-7 illustrates the frequency response for an inverse Chebyshev reference analog band-stop filter of the 4th order. 5. coefficient k in the transfer function num erator The values Ωk are found via expression: www. 5 1... as the first 2N . 3. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial. the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-6. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order inverse Chebyshev reference analog filter. inverse Chebyshev filter has the least oscillation in the frequency response.9/22/13 The value of A0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters .3 Inverse Chebyshev Analog Filter Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is also known as Chebyshev analog filter of the second kind. 7 Table 3-3-1. 3. Figure 3-3-7.mikroElektronika For N=5. it is necessary to know the filter order. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained from recursive relation: If the filter order is familiar in advance. The frequency response of this filter monotoniously falls in the passband and transition region. 3. The poles of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter are expressed as: where: si is the i-th pole of the transfer function of analog prototype filter (complex value). . Transfer function is expressed as: The coefficient k in numerator can be only an odd number. Frequency characteristic of inverse Chebyshev analog filter To design inverse Chebyshev reference analog pototype filter. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are found via expression: where: si is the pole of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter. 3. ε is the parameter of maximum oscillation in the passband frequency response. neither these recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary. N 5 6 7 8 M IN 1 1 1 1 M AX 5 5 7 7 V A L UES 1.1 derivatives of the transfer function for Ω = 0 are equal to zero. Similar to Butterworth filter.. and s2i is the pole of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter. 7 1. σi is the real pole. Table 3-3-1 provides a few examples of values of k.

1 Low-pass filter The transformation from a reference analog prototype filter to a low-pass analog filter is the simplest type of transformation. 3. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. band-pass and band-stop filters. Transformation from an analog prototype filter to appropriate analog filter is performed before transforming it in digital filter. high-pass. By performing the transformation: each expression within brackets in the transfer function numerator is transformed into: and the whole numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: By replacing numerator and denominator by their transformed expressions.2929 in the passband is obtained via expression: Example: The transform function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: www. In the transform function. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 24/45 .4. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.4 Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation All analog prototype filters. which is not the case with the poles of the transfer function. high-pass. Location of poles and zeros of inverse Chebyshev filter for N=5 As seen from Figure 3-3-8 and expression for Ωk. In this case. so that passband and stopband cut-off frequencies have the appropriate. For this reason. the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transform function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0.9/22/13 The value H0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. regardless of their type. s\\Ω c is used instead of s. it is necessary to scale filter during the design process. if needed. where Ω c is a desirable cut-off frequency in the passband.mikroElektronika For N=5. 3. Reference analog prototype filter is also a low-pass filter so it requires to be transformed into the appropriate type of filter. Generally. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where H0 is a costant. Frequency scaling depends on the type of analog filter being designed. Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency of Ωp =1. All the results obtained in this chapter are tested in the Filter designer tool program. the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-8. have scaled frequency range so that the passband cut-off frequency amounts to Ω = 1.mikroe. predetermined values.e. Scaling is explained for low-pass. band-pass or band-stop filter. the transformation comes to a simple frequency scaling. the zeros of the transfer function are always complex-conjugated values. i.Digital Filter Design .

2 High-pass filter Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency Ωp = 1.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 25/45 . The transformation to a high-pass analog filter: Scaling of frequency axis is performed by transformation: These two transformations can be represented by one transformation: Generally.3719 in the passband is obtained via expression: 3. This is why it is not possible to design an odd order band-pass filter. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.3721 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. The final objective is that passband cut-off frequency of the resulting high-pass analog filter amounts to Ωc. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Its transformation to a high-pass analog filter can be split into two steps. whereas the second one refers to frequency scaling.Digital Filter Design .4.1434 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transform function of analog filter: 3. By performing the following transformation: each bracket in the numerator of the transfer function is transformed into and the entire numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: Substituting these transformed expressions for numerator and denominator.mikroElektronika The transformation to a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. The filter order is doubled by this transformation.mikroe. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.3 Band-pass filter The transformation in a band-pass analog filter is more complex than the transformation in a low-pass and high-pass analog filters. www. The first step refers to the transformation to a high-pass analog filter. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0.4.

By transforming it into a band-pass analog filter the filter order is doubled. Generally.Digital Filter Design . which is necessary for normalization. The resulting filter order is used to design a low-pass reference analog prototype filter. and Ωp2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1).com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 26/45 . This transformation doubles the filter order.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0.1626 in the passband is expressed as: www. Figure 3-4-1. the required filter order is divided by two. The transformation into a band-pass analog filter is expressed as: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωp1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1). and normalized after that with Ωc. Reference analog filter is further transformed in a bandpass analog filter. A low-pass reference analog filter of the 4th order is designed first. Example: Assume that it is necessary to design an 8th order band-pass digital filter.mikroElektronika When designing. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. The order of the resulting filter is 8. is found via expression: The transfer function of an analog prototype filter is transformed first in a band-pass analog filter. The required filter order is obtained this way.mikroe. By performing the transformation: each bracket in numerator of the transfer function is transformed into: and the entire numerator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. Band-pass filter specification The value of Ωc.

the required filter order is divided by two. is found via expression: The transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter is transformed first into a band-stop analog filter. Example: It is necessary to design a band-stop digital filter of the 10th order. Figure 3-4-2. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. This is how the required filter order is obtained. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.9/22/13 The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroElektronika 3. The resulting filter order is used for designing a low-pass reference analog prototype filter. This transformation causes the filter order to double. A low-pass reference analog filter of the 5th order is designed first.4.mikroe.Digital Filter Design . The transformation into a bandstop analog filter causes the filter order to double. and Ωs2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2). The transformation in a band-stop analog filter: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωs1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2). When designing. the filter order is doubled and the order of a band-stop digital filter cannot be an odd number. Generally. and normalized after that with Ωc.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 27/45 . the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Band-stop filter specification The value of Ωc. The reference analog filter is transformed in a band-stop analog filter.4 Band-stop filter The transformation in a band-stop analog filter is similar to the transformation in a bandpass analog filter. The result is a 10th order filter. which is necessary for normalization. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. Similarly. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: www. The first step refers to normalization with the frequency Ωc: The transformation is performed in the second step: and each bracket in the transfer function numerator is transformed in: and the entire numerator is transformed in: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed in: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator.

Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-5-1. fs=44100Hz. After the frequency scaling and transformation into a desirable type of filter have been performed. faithfully approximate the frequency response of analog filter. The analog filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant. For this reason. the analog filter transfer function is further transformed into: where: Hoz is a constant of the digital IIR filter transfer function Example: The transfer function of a second-order high-pass analog filter (inverse Chebyshev.2692 www. and pk is the pole of the analog filter transfer function.267+j2. It is done by transforming the analog filter transfer function into a digital one. provide that the resulting digital filter is guaranteed to be stable. the transformation is performed by a simple change of variable s in the expression for the transfer function of the resulting analog filter. The transformation is supposed to: 1. If s=0 then H(s)=H0 . This transformation also transforms s plane into z plane. Using expression for linear transformation: we obtain: where: N=2 M=2 z1=j0. and 2.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .267-j2. fc=2KHz. After transformation. Analog filter is stable if the poles of the transfer function are located in the left half of s plane. zk is the zero of the analog filter transfer function. the transformation must provide that the left half of s plane coincides with the area within the unit circle of z plane. it is necessary to transform the resulting analog filter into a digital one. whereas digital filter is stable if the poles are located within the unit circle.1014 z2=-j0. It is defined via expression: Using the previous expression.mikroElektronika The transformation into a band-stop analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0.1014 p1=-2.252.5 Bilinear transformation Digital IIR filters are designed using analog filters.5727 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: 3.mikroe. 60dB) is expressed as: It is necessary to transform the given analog filter into the appropriate digital filter by bilinear transformation.2692 p2=-2. the transformation of the analog filter transform function into a digital one can be expressed as: As seen.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 28/45 . as shown in Figure 3-5-1. Transform ation of s plane into z plane One of most commonly used method of transforming analog filters into appropriate IIR filters is known as bilinear transformation.

the accurate values of coefficients are obtained immediately after the implementation of bilinear transformation. In software digital filter realization (implementation). the transfer function is given by: where: H0 is a constant.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . these frequencies have appropriate locations.5 Designing IIR filters b y b ilinear transformation.Digital Filter Design . Any error made during the quantization of coefficients affects more or less the frequency response. If the filter order is known. The specified filter order is increased or decreased according to needs. When designing. The expression used to transform the reference analog prototype filter transfer function depends on the type of filter that needs to be obtained. Such a non-linear transformation of analog filter frequencies causes the phase characteristic distorsion. and band-stop filter. However. Computing the filter order according to the filter specifications and specified analog prototype filter. Regardless of the type of reference analog prototype filter in use. if it happens. 2. analog prototype filters and design of various types of filters as well. band-pass filter. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. 6. A disadvantage of the bilinear transformation is a non-linear transformation of the analog filter frequency axis into a digital one.mikroElektronika The result is the transfer function of a digital high-pass IIR filter. Figure 3-6-1. The IIR filter design process can be split into several steps described in Chapter 3. The design method used here is known as bilinear transformation. However. step 3 is skipped. the IIR filter design process will be described through these steps in order to make it easier for you to observe similarities and differencies between various design methodes. On filter realization. 5 and 6 are repeated after that as many times as needed. IIR filter realization Digital filters designed via bilinear trasnformation are guaranteed to be stable. In every given example. These are: 1. Figure 3-6-1 illustrates the design steps along with input and output data for each of them. When transforming. Realization structure is illustrated in Figure 3-5-2 below. 3. The next step is the transformation into an analog filter of appropriate type. Steps in designing digital IIR filter The first block refers to design of reference analog prototype filter of appropriate order. 5. Transformation into analog filter by range scaling. www. Figure 3-5-2. Reference analog prototype filter is always a low-pass filter. Some steps are skipped in some cases. and steps 4. and 7. then it is necessary to do it.2. Defining filter specifications. The output data is a reference analog prototype filter transfer function Ha (s). M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. so that it is not linear. which is not the case with the rest of the frequency axis. 3. high-pass filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 29/45 . The four standard types of filters are used here: low-pass filter. step 2 is skipped. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Transformation into digital filter by bilinear transformation. which may further cause the stopband attenuation to decrease. the resulting IIR filter is not stable and is useless therefore. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Specifying the type of analog prototype filter.mikroe. it is impossible to represent coefficients without an error. 4. the cut-off frequencies are defined on the basis of the given specifications and type of a filter. It is very important to prevent the poles from being located outside the unite circle. The quantization effect on digital filter stability is much more dangerous.6 Examples This chapter discusses various IIR filter design methods. Special care is required when quantizing feedback coefficients as it causes the location of the digital IIR filter transfer function poles to change their location. If the type of reference analog prototype filter is predetermined. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. which also generates a certain error. the resulting coefficients are quantized. The final result is the transfer function H(s) given by: where: H0 is a constant.

3. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.6.6. N=2. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: www.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 30/45 .1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=2. whereas it is different if the analog filter is a band-pass or band-stop filter.5KHz. They differ only in the value of constant H0 . The next step is the transformation into appropriate digital IIR filter using bilinear transformation given by expression: Filter Designer Tool is used for testing and analysing the resulting IIR filters in this chapter. Step 2: Method. Passband cut-off frequency – fc=2.mikroe. All data are calculated with the accuracy of 4 decimal digits. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.1 Filter design using Butterworth filter 3. the values of the transfer function poles and zeros zk and pk as well as in the number of transfer function zeros M. which is sufficient for most examples.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . As seen. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.1. the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.Digital Filter Design . pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function.mikroElektronika M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. In the later case. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. only poles. and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB. The filter order is the same if the analog filter is a low-pass or high-pass filter. the analog filter order (N) is twice that of the reference analog prototype filter. These can be computed via expression: As N = 2. the transfer functions of reference analog prototype filter and analog filter are very similar.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter.

the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. N = 3. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-2 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=3.1. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.Digital Filter Design . and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. whereas Figure 3-6-3 illustrates the frequency response of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3.mikroe. Step 2: Method.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: www. Passband cut-off frequency – fc=5KHz.6.mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. There is no need to additionally change it. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-3. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 31/45 . Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. Figure 3-6-2. only poles. and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB.

Figure 3-6-4. fc2=6KHz. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=4KHz. so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. There is no need to additionally change it. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.Digital Filter Design .3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4. N = 4. only poles. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.mikroe. Step 2: Method .6. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 32/45 . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-4 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. In this example for N=4. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. www.mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.1. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-5.9/22/13 A more condensed form of the previous expression is: Chapter 3: IIR filters .filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.

Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.Digital Filter Design . Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. N = 4. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. Step 2: Method . There is no need to additionally change it. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. www.1.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-7. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. only poles. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-6 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Figure 3-6-6. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=3000Hz.6. In this example for N = 4. fc2=3300Hz.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 33/45 . so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.mikroe.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4.mikroElektronika In this example.

1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs=44100Hz.6.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 34/45 . Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. Maximum passband attenuation – ap=1dB. Step 2: Method .2. Figure 3-6-8. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts. There is no need to additionally change it. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: www. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. only poles. The solution is redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. These can be computed via expression: As N = 4. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-8 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Passband cut-off frequency– fc1=15KHz.mikroElektronika In this example. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2=18KHz.mikroe. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-9. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as=40dB.Digital Filter Design .6. the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case.2457 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.2 Filter design using Chebyshev filter 3.

The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-10 below. Step3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . the value of constant A0 is: A0 = . Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool.1228 so the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. www. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 31. Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Figure 3-6-10. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 35/45 . substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. The filter order is incremented by 1 and is 5 therefore. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated. A new filter order is 5. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros.0.2dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.Digital Filter Design . the values of poles are: The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.mikroe.mikroElektronika The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. only poles. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.

the expression for transfer function is simpler: www.mikroElektronika This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-12.6dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-12 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-11 below. only poles.6. Figure 3-6-11.0. whereas Figure 3-6-13 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 41. only it takes more time. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is appropriate. Digital IIR filter direct realization Figure 3-6-13. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3.mikroe. N = 3. the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .1.4913 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Step 2: Method . These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. The whole procedure is the same. Passband cut-off frequency – fc = 5KHz. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 36/45 . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter 3.Digital Filter Design .

Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. In this example for N = 4. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: www. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz.Digital Filter Design . N = 4. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.6.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 37/45 . Figure 3-6-14. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-15. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.1. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter.9/22/13 After substitution of poles and Ωc into expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.mikroe. fc2 = 6KHz. There is no need to additionally change it. only poles. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-14 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Step 2: Method filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.mikroElektronika Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.

the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. Step 2: Method . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. In this expression. There is no need to additionally change it.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 38/45 . N = 4. fc2 = 3300Hz.mikroElektronika First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: www. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-16 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. In this example for N = 4.1.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 3000Hz.mikroe. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-17. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.6. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 Step 5: Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design . Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. Filter 3-6-16. only poles.

Digital Filter Design . There is no need to additionally change it.3.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter –low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs = 44100Hz.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.9/22/13 In this example.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 39/45 . Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined.mikroe.mikroElektronika A0 = 0. Step 2: Method . Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-19. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. the value of constant A0 is: Chapter 3: IIR filters .3 Filter design using inverse Chebyshev filter 3. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros.6. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.6. In this expression. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2 = 18KHz. Filter realization Figure 3-6-18 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Figure 3-6-18. Passband cut-off frequency – fc1 = 15KHz. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. The solution is www. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as = 40dB. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.

only poles. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-20. and becomes 5 therefore. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5. Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the values of poles are: www. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 5. These can be computed via expression: As N = 4. It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.2dB approximately at the frequency of 15KHZ is not sufficient. A new filter order is 5. Step 3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 40/45 . only poles. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-20 below. the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. The filter order is incremented by 1. Frequency charactersitic of designed IIR filter The attenuation at 15KHz is higher than 1dB and the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the specifications therefore. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0.mikroe. the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.mikroElektronika redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied.01 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.Digital Filter Design . Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4.

0. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-22 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. The whole procedure is the same. Frequency characteristic of IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is approriate.05 so the inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. it is obvious that the attenuation at 18KHZ is less than 1dB (approximately 0.9/22/13 The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: Chapter 3: IIR filters .8dB). Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-21 below. the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. www. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.Digital Filter Design .mikroe. Step 7: By analysing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = . and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. only it takes more time.mikroElektronika In this case.6. Passband cut-off frequency– fc = 5KHz.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 41/45 . and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-23. Figure 3-6-22.1. Figure 3-6-21. whereas Figure 3-6-23 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.

mikroe. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. N=3.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-24 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = -0.Digital Filter Design .1.6.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 42/45 .3 Example 3 www. There is no need to additionally change it. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-25.03 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. only poles.9/22/13 Step 2: Chapter 3: IIR filters . This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.mikroElektronika Method . by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-24. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. the transfer function is: After substituting the poles and Ωc into expression: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.

In this example for N=4.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 43/45 .9/22/13 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specification: Chapter 3: IIR filters . and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. In this example. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: For this example. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. www. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB.mikroe. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Step 2: Method . Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz. fc2 = 6KHz.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. There is no need to additionally change it. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-26 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter. N = 4. only poles. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.mikroElektronika Filter order – N = 4.Digital Filter Design . the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.

the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 44/45 . In this expression. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. so the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. www.Digital Filter Design . N = 4. only poles.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-26.1. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.mikroe. Stopband cut-off frequencies – fc1=3000Hz. Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.6. Step 2: Method . In this example for N = 4. fc2=3300Hz. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-27. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specification: Filter order – N=4.

Figure 3-6-28.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 45/45 . Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple ← previous chapter | table of contents MikroElektronika Embedded Solutions PIC Solution PIC De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC C om pile rs PIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC Kits PIC Book s Follow us on PIC32 Solution PIC 32 De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC 32 C om pile rs PIC 32 Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC 32 Kits dsPIC Solution dsPIC De ve lopm e nt Boards dsPIC C om pile rs dsPIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs dsPIC Kits dsPIC Book s Add-on boards C lick Boards m ik rom e dia shie lds C om m unication boards Storage boards R e al Tim e C lock boards Display boards Me asure m e nt boards Audio & Voice boards Powe r Supply boards GPS boards GSM/GPR S boards Additional Software Visual TFT Visual GLC D Pack age Manage r GLC D Font C re ator 8051 Solution 8051 De ve lopm e nt Boards 8051 C om pile rs 8051 Program m e rs/De bugge rs 8051 Book s 8051 Kits AVR Solution AVR De ve lopm e nt Boards AVR C om pile rs AVR Program m e rs/De bugge rs AVR Kits ARM Solution AR M De ve lopm e nt Boards AR M C om pile rs AR M Program m e rs/De bugge rs AR M Kits Support Forum m ik roBUS Le ts m ak e Pre ss Le gal Inform ation Product Archive About Us C opyright © 1998 .mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-28 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. www.Digital Filter Design .2013. MikroElektronika.9/22/13 Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. All rights reserved. All trade and/or services marks mentioned are the property of their respective owners. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-29. There is no need to additionally change it.mikroe. Filter realization: Chapter 3: IIR filters .

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