This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Products

**Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika
**

Solutions Store Distributors Libstock C ontact Us

se arch he re

Login | C art (0)

**Digital Filter Design
**

TOC Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3

Featured Development Tools dsPICPRO4 Development System

**Chapter 3: Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters
**

3.1. Introduction 3.2. IIR filter design 3.3. Reference analog prototype filter 3.4. Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation 3.5. Bilinear transformation 3.6. Examples

3.1 Introduction

IIR filters are digital filters with infinite impulse response. Unlike FIR filters, they have the feedback (a recursive part of a filter) and are known as recursive digital filters therefore.

The dsPICPRO4 supports the latest 64and 80-pin dsPIC30F microcontrollers from Microchip. It comes w ith a dsPIC30F6014A. The system includes an USB 2.0 programmer, mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger), touch panel controller, CAN, RS485, DAC and RTC. [more info]

EasydsPIC4A Development System

EasydsPIC4A is a full-featured development system that supports the latest 18-, 28- and 40-pin dsPIC30F MCUs. It comes w ith the dsPIC30F4013 microcontroller. The board features a USB 2.0 programmer, mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger), touch panel controller etc. [more info]

Figure 3-1-1. Block diagram s of FIR and IIR filters

For this reason IIR filters have much better frequency response than FIR filters of the same order. Unlike FIR filters, their phase characteristic is not linear which can cause a problem to the systems which need phase linearity. For this reason, it is not preferable to use IIR filters in digital signal processing when the phase is of the essence. Otherwise, when the linear phase characteristic is not important, the use of IIR filters is an excellent solution. There is one problem known as a potential instability that is typical of IIR filters only. FIR filters do not have such a problem as they do not have the feedback. For this reason, it is always necessary to check after the design process whether the resulting IIR filter is stable or not. IIR filters can be designed using different methods. One of the most commonly used is via the reference analog prototype filter. This method is the best for designing all standard types of filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters. This book describes the design method using reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-1-2 illustrates the block diagram of this method.

Figure 3-1-2. Block diagram of design m ethod using reference analog prototype filter

FIR filters can have linear phase characteristic, which is not typical of IIR filters. When it is necessary to have linear phase characteristic,

www.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/

1/45

9/22/13

Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

FIR filters are the only available solution. In other cases when linear phase characteristic is not necessary, such as speech signal processing, FIR filters are not good solution. IIR filters should be used instead. The resulting filter order is considerably lower for the same frequency response. The filter order determines the number of filter delay lines, i.e. number of input and output samples that should be saved in order that the next output sample can be computed. For instance, if the filter order is 10, it means that it is necessary to save 10 input samples plus 10 output samples preceeding the current sample. All these 21 samples will affect the next output sample. The IIR filter transfer function is a ratio of two polynomials of complex variable z-1. The numerator defines location of zeros, whereas the denominator defines location of poles of the resulting IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-1-3. illustrates input and output signals of the system with non-linear phase characteristic.

Figure 3-1-3. The effect of non-linear phase characteristic

The system introduces phase shift of 0 radians at frequency of ω, and π radians at three times higher frequency. Input signal consists of nature frequency ω and harmonics with the same amplitude at three times higher frequency. Figure on the left illustrates an input signal, whereas Figure on the right illustrates an output signal. As seen, these two signals have different waveforms. Neither the power of the signal nor amplitudes of particular harmonics have been changed, but the phase of the second harmonic. Assume that an input represents a speech signal where the phase is not important. In this case such phase distorsion would be negligable as the system satisfies the stated requirements. Otherwise, if the phase is important, such a huge distorsion mustn’t be allowed.

**3.2 Infinite impulse response (IIR) filter design
**

The most commonly used IIR filter design method uses reference analog prototype filter. It is the best method to use when designing standard filters such as low-pass, high-pass, bandpass and band-stop filters. The filter design process starts with specifications and requirements of the desirable IIR filter. A type of reference analog prototype filter to be used is specified according to the specifications and after that everything is ready for analog prototype filter design. The next step in the design process is scaling of the frequency range of analog prototype filter into desirable frequency range. This is how an analog prototype filter is converted into an analog filter. After the analog filter is designed, it is time to go through the last step in the digital IIR filter design process. It is conversion from analog to digital filter. The most popular and most commonly used converting method is bilinear transformation method. The resulting filter, obtained in this way, is always stable. However, instability of the resulting filter, when bilinear transformation is used, may be caused only by the finite word-length side-effect.

**3.2.1 Basic concepts and IIR filter specification
**

First of all, it is necessay to learn the basic concepts that will be used further in this book. You should be aware that without being familiar with these concepts, it is not possible to understand analyses and synthesis of digital filters. Figure 3-2-1 illustrates a low-pass digital filter specification. The word specification refers to the frequency response specification.

www.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/

2/45

9/22/13

Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-1a. Low -pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-1b. Low -pass digital filter specification

ωp – normalized passband cut-off frequency; ωs – normalized stopband cut-off frequency; δ1 – maximum passband ripples; δ2 – minimum stopband attentuation; ε – passband attenuation parameter; A – stopband attenuation parameter; ap – maximum passband ripples [dB]; and as – minimum stopband attenuation [dB].

Frequency normalization can be expressed as follows:

where:

**fs is the sampling frequency; f is the frequency to normalize; and ω is the normalized frequency.
**

Specifications for high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters are defined almost the same way as those for low-pass filters. Figure 3-2-2 illustrates a high-pass filter specification, whereas Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass filter specification.

www.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/

3/45

9/22/13

Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-2a. High-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-2b. High-pass digital filter specification

Comparing these two Figures 3-2-1 and 3-2-2, it is obvious that low-pass and high-pass filters have similar specifications. The same parameters are defined in both cases with the difference that in the later case the passband is substituded by the stopband and vice versa. Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass specification.

Filter 3-2-3a. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-3b. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-4 illustrates band-stop digital filter specification

www.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/

4/45

mikroe. The Z-transform is defined as: where z is the complex number.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 5/45 . It is necessary to transform this signal with the z-transform and Fourier fransform. x(n)={1.2. Band-stop digital filter specification 3.5.4.2 Z-transform The Z-transform is performed upon discrete-time signals. It becomes: www.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Band-stop digital filter specification Figure 3-2-4b.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-4a. It is very suitable for analyzing discrete time-domain signals and systems as well.2.Digital Filter Design . 0 ≤ n ≤ 8 z-transform is defined via expression: It becomes: The last expression is the z-transform of the given signal.4. The Fourier transformation can be found by rewriting the previous expression in terms of z as z=e^jω.2. The z-transform is derived from the Fourier discrete time-domain transformation and is considered the basic operation in digital filter design process.3. It converts a discrete timedomain signal into a complex frequency-domin representation.1} . Example: Assume that samples of a discrete-time signal x(n) are known.3.

which can be seen in Figure 3-2-6 below. Figure 3-2-5.Digital Filter Design .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroe. it is easy to notice some similarities between them: In polar coordinates.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-5 illustrates the (frequency) spectrum of the given signal.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 6/45 . www. In the z plane. the complex number z may be expressed as follows: The two last expressions lead us to the conclusion that Fourier transform is just a special form of the z-transform for r=1. the Fourier transform is represented as a unit circle. Frequency spectrum of the given signal Comparing Z and Fourier transforms.

Figure 3-2-7a illustrates zeros and poles of the transfer function of a stable IIR filter in the z plane. www. Fourier transform in the z plane The z-transform of the transfer function is of great importance for IIR filters.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-6. The location of poles in the z plane is used for testing stability of designed IIR filter. Figure 3-2-7a Stable IIR filter Transfer function zeros are denoted by small circles.Digital Filter Design . The poles of the IIR filter transfer function must be located within the unit circle in order that filter is stable.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 7/45 .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . whereas its poles are denoted by small crosses.

It doesn’t cause any problem as the location of poles is the only thing that matters. In the z plane. which guarantees tha stability of IIR filters. then it has the corresponding pair having the same real value and the same imaginary value with the opposite sign. Instable IIR filter As seen from Figure 3-2-7b. then it is single. i. This quantization changes the location of zeros and poles of the resulting IIR filter. which can cause one pole or one pair of poles to be located outside the unit circle.mikroElektronika As seen in Figure 3-2-7. which means that it refers to IIR. If bilinear transformation is used in the filter design. If a zero or a pole is located on the real axe in the z plane. it is necessary to consider the zeros and poles of the transfer function in the z plane. not FIR filter.9/22/13 Re – Real axis Im – Imaginary axis Chapter 3: IIR filters . The transfer function of discrete-time systems is defined to be: where: bi are the feedforward filter coefficients (non-recursive part). H0 is a constant.3 Transfer function of discrete-time systems The Z-transform is primarily used for finding the transfer function of linear discrete-time systems. the imaginary part is zero.Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-2-7a clearly indicates interrelation between zeros and poles in the z plane. The poles of the FIR filter transfer function are located at the origin. qi are the zeros of the transfer function.e. www. aj are the feedback filter coefficients (recursive part). According to the location of poles in the z plane. If either of them is not located on the real axis in the z plane.mikroe. Such a pair is also called a complex-conjugated pair of zeros or poles.2. All four poles of transfer function are located within the unit circle. Figure 3-2-7b. Also. it is easy to determine whether it refers to FIR or IIR filter. When the transfer function is found. Figure 3-2-7b illustrates the zeros and poles of the transfer function of an instable IIR filter in the z plane. one transfer function zero is located outside the unit circle. It is obviously not the case in Figure 3-2-7. two poles located outside the unit circle make this IIR filter instable.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 8/45 . the resulting filter is stable before the coefficient quantization starts. The result of such a quantization is a filter that is not stable. 3. it is illustrated as a pair of zeros or poles which are symmetric around the real axis.

illustrates block diagram of discrete-time system with feedback. Example: The transfer function of a 3th order IIR filter. and A(z) the transfer function of recursive part of the system (feedback). In the frequency domain.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 9/45 . the IIR filters have feedback which enable them to have greater selectivity as well as nonlinearity of phase characteristic than FIR filters. The recursive part of the transfer function is actually a discrete-time system feedback. designed using Chebyshev function is: The following expression describes the filtering process: This process is also known as convolution. whereas the representation in the z domain is suitable for analyzes of designed filters and synthesis itself (design process). Figure 3-2-8 Discrete-tim e system w ith feedback In the time domain. Another expression for convolusion that is more useful in practical applications is: www.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design .mikroElektronika pj are the poles of the transfer function.mikroe. the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as the multiplication of Z-transform input signal X(z) and the transform function H(z): The first way of representing discrete-time systems is suitable for both software and hardware IIR filter implementation. the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as follows: OR The later expression is more convenient for software IIR filters realization. B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part of the system. Unlike the FIR filters. Figure 3-2-8.

com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 10/45 .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . it becomes: Using expression: it is possible to find function for particular normalized frequency.mikroElektronika After making substitutions of impulse response coefficients. For example.2π: The numerator is computed first: Then denominator: www.Digital Filter Design .mikroe. when ω = 0.

which is very dangerous. This property is particularly typical of high-order filters because their zeros are very close each other.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The result of the feedback. which provides so high selectivity and attenuation.mikroe. Besides. However. detect round-off errors made due to software implementation of a filter as well as coefficient errors encountered during hardware implementation of a filter. whereas in hardware implementation. affects more frequency characteristic. Slight errors in coefficient representation may cause large frequency deviations. The result in both cases is that the actual value of coefficients differs from their value obtained in design process. 3. the pole quantization. Therefore. If this requirement is not satisfied. The location of zeroes doesn’t affect the stabilty of discrete-time systems. One buffer would be used for input samples and another one for output samples. the given IIR filter corresponds to a 6th order FIR filter. this doesn’t apply on IIR filters. A direct result of such errors is deviation of the frequency of designed discrete-time system. by rule. In this case. It always happens due to software and hardware implementation that an error in coefficients representation is produced. Figure 3-2-9. Realization of IIR filter in this exam ple The software realization would require two buffers each of minimum length 3. By complexity. an error is triggered by the finite word-length effect. In software implementation. These are usually circular buffers whose length can be expressed as 2^n. Selectivity and attenuation of this filter are much higher than those of any 6th order FIR filter. Recalling that FIR flters do not have a feedback.4 Effects of the poles and zeros of the transfer function The location of poles and zeros of the transfer function is very important for discrete-time system analyses and synthesis. the system becomes unstable.mikroElektronika Figure 2-2-8 illustrates a hardware realization of this IIR filter. The finite word-length effect on the transform www. In order that a discrete-time system is stable. Deviation of frequency depends on the spacing between the zeros and poles of the FIR filter transfer function and the origin in the z plane. filter stability is questioned only due to coefficient quantization which is performed at the end of the design process. as shown in Figure 3-2-6. The FIR filter coefficient error affects more the frequency response as the spacing between the zero and pole of the transfer function and the origin narrows. Figure 3-2-9 illustrates the required and obtained frequency characteristic of an IIR filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 11/45 . which makes them stable. all poles of the discrete-time system transfer function must be located within the unit circle. it is preferable to use bilinear transformation because it always makes filter stable. it ocurrs due to impossibility of representing the coefficients with apsolute accuracy.2. According to their location it is possible to test stability of a discrete-time system. is a non-linear phase characteristic.Digital Filter Design . which in this case means that the circular buffer is 4 = 2^2 in length.

9/22/13 function of an IIR filter is clearly marked in this figure.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 12/45 . ωc2). it is necessary to perform scaling of the transfer function so that cut-off frequencies go into the desirable range. Conversion into digital filter via bilinear transformation.e.6 IIR filter realization FIR filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: N is the filter order. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications. When both type and order of analog prototype filter are known. 4. is repeated. For this reason. This operation is actually conversion of reference analog prototype filter into analog filter with desirable characteristic.mikroe. 5. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. Deviation from required frequency characteristic The frequency deviation shown in Figure 3-2-10 is basically slight deviation. i. 3. For this reason. it is preferable to increase or decrease the filter order by 1. Now.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-10. 6. when the type of analog proptotype filter is known. it is preferable to specify such a type of analog prototype filter that can produce the lowest order IIR filter. The initial value of the filter order is roughly estimated and is changed after that depending on the obtained characteristics and requirements.Digital Filter Design . If the obtained filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. 5 and 6 are repeated as many times as needed. Be aware that every type has its good and bad sides. It is only important that its characteristics can satisfy the given specifications. it is time to specify the type of reference analog prototype filter. The coefficients bk and ak are of interest for IIR filter realization (both hardware and software). it is necessary to specify or compute the filter order required for a given set of specifications. After changing the filter order. IIR filters have much greater selectivity and attenuation than FIR filters of the same order. or if the filter order can be less than actual one. bk the coefficient of non-recursive part of IIR filter. Chapter 3: IIR filters . and ak the coefficient of recursive part (feedback) of IIR filter. The final objective of defining IIR filter specifications is to find the desirable normalized cutoff frequencies (ωc. Specifying analog prototype filter. so that such deviation is acceptable. the transfer function of the specified type of reference analog prototype filter is obtained by converting analog filter into digital one. 3. then it is necessary to do it. Figure 3-2-11 illustrates the block diagram of www. it is possible to find its transfer function. However. maximum passband attenuation and minimum stopband attenuation. Computing the filter order required for a given set of specifications and specified analog prototype filter.2. and 7. The minimum attenuation and the width of transition region of the resulting IIR filter remain unchanged. it should be changed. The type of analog prototype filter as well as the filter order will be specified according to these parameters. 2. ωc1. the entire IIR filter design process. This book represents the most commonly used conversion known as bilinear transformation. The filter order can be increased or decreased according to needs and after that steps 4. even though it is very large at certain frequencies. scaling and obtaining analogue filters and conversion into digital filter. transition width. The transfer function of analog prototype filter depends on frequencies which are not scaled into the desirable range. Conversion into analog filter via scaling. After this step.2. that is.5 IIR filters design using bilinear transformation The IIR filter design using bilinear transformation can be split into several steps: 1. Defining filter specification. 3. Finally. computing of the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter.

illustrates the block diagram of direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter. Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-2-12. The realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is identical to the direct realization of FIR filter.9/22/13 IIR filter. these two parts are separately considered and realized. 3.Digital Filter Design . Block diagram of IIR filter There are several types of IIR filter realization.1 Direct realization Direct realization of IIR filters starts with this expression: The first part of the expression refers to non-recursive part and the other refers to recursive part of IIR filter.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-11.2. This chapter covers direct. Each of them will be described in detail along with their advantages and disadvantages. direct canonic.6. direct transpose.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 13/45 . In IIR filter direct realization. direct transpose canonic and cascade realizations. All of them are very convenient and most commonly used for both hardware and software IIR filter realization. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter www. Figure 3-2-12.

mikroe. www.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 14/45 .mikroElektronika As seen from Figure 3-2-12 above. Figure 3-2-13. respectively. it doesn’t matter which of them will be used first in filtering process. Realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is similar to that of recursive part. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter As non-recursive and recursive part of IIR filter are separately realized. illustrates the direct realization of the filter recursive part. multiplication coefficients are identical to those of the transfer function.Digital Filter Design .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b illustrate block diagrams of IIR filter realization when non-recursive part is used before and after recursive part of IIR filter. Figure 3-2-13.

direct realization requires in total of 2N delay lines. (2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions. Some of disadvantages of www. As seen from Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b. recursive part is used first This structure is also known as a direct form I structure. non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-14b.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 15/45 . IIR filter direct realization.Digital Filter Design .mikroe. IIR filter direct realization. Direct realization is very convenient for software implementation and this is where it is most commonly used.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-14a.

The only difference is in the position of delay lines. needs most resources). 0 S T EP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x[0] x[1] x[2] x[3] x[4] x[5] x[6] x[7] x[7] x[7] x[6] x[6] x[6] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[9] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[8] x[8] Table 2-2-2. For their simplicity and effectiveness. where N is the IIR filter order. Input samples are denoted by x[n] and each shaded cell represents changed location in buffer. 1 A DDR.mikroElektronika this realization are the greatest sensitivity to accuracy of realized coefficients (i. The length of the buffer needs to be 2^k. where N is the filter order. Circular buffer of length 16 = 2^4 Since the buffer length is 16. The contents of the buffer after receiving the first 10 samples is shown in the table 3-2-1. Accordingly: where the operator represents rounding down to a less value.e.6. 7 A DDR. 5 A DDR. 3 A DDR. A DDR. most commonly used are the so called circular buffers the length of which can be expressed as 2^k.e.Digital Filter Design . Input circular buffer after receiving 10 sam ples 3. and the greatest complexity due to implementation (i. The value of constant k is defined as a minimum value for which N ≤ 2^k is valid. 6 A DDR.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The length of circular buffer is obtained from the following expression: It means that the minimum length of circular buffer is 2^3 = 8.2. it is also necessary to have two buffers of minimum length N+1. the largest finite word-length effect). www. it is necessary to have two buffers with at least N+1 samples. location addressing in the circular buffer is performed via module 16 operations: Example: A 6th order FIR filter is used in this example. i. Figure 3-2-15.2 Direct transpose realization Direct transpose realization is similar to direct realization. Here. buffer if it is about software implementation. On IIR filter software implementation with direct structure.mikroe. Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-17 illustrate the block diagram describing IIR filter direct transpose realization structure of IIR filter.e. 4 A DDR. 2 A DDR.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 16/45 . It is necessary to design this filter using direct structure with circular buffer.

IIR filter direct transpose realization.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . the direct transpose realization structure uses 2N delay lines. The only difference is in the position of delay lines. Similar to direct realization structure.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-16. www. (2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions. IIR filter direct transpose realization.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 17/45 .mikroe. recursive part is used first There are no significant differences between direct and direct transpose realizations. non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-17.Digital Filter Design . Both structures have the same multiplication coefficients.

www. that is. Direct canonic structure uses N delay elements. which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure.6.2.9/22/13 3. Figure 3-2-18. but similar to direct canonical structure. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure. 3. Recursive and nonrecursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately. The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-14b and 3-2-18 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct canonic realization structure cannot be treated separately.6. Figure 3-2-19 illustrates the block diagram describing direct transpose canonical realization structure of IIR filter. N delay lines.Digital Filter Design . (2N+1) multipilications and 2N additions.mikroe.mikroElektronika Direct canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 18/45 .4 Direct transpose canonical realization Direct transpose canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum of N delay lines as well as reduced number of adders to N+1. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization.2. Recursive and non-recursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately. one of the main disadvantages of direct and direct transpose realization structures is eliminated. although it is easy to differentiate between them. Figure 3-2-18 illustrates the block diagram describing direct canonic realization structure of IIR filter.3 Direct Canonical Realization Chapter 3: IIR filters . Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures. Direct canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct canonic structure block diagram and direct realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-14b are obvious. This way. which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure.

2. On cascade IIR filter realization. The IIR filter transfer function is expressed as: where: bi are the coefficients of transfer function numerator (non-recursive part).5 Cascade Realization Cascade realization structure is the most difficult to obtain from the transfer function (comparing to other realization structures given in this book). a filter is divided into several. Direct transpose canonic structure uses N delay elements. Since the sections are mutually independent after design process. modulation of frequency response and IIR filter stability are separately examined for each section. H0 is a constant. qi are the zeros of the transfer function.mikroe. aj are the coefficients of transfer function denominator (recursive part). Direct transpose canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct transpose canonical structure block diagram and direct transpose realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-16 are obvious. mutually independent sections of the first or second order. A(z) is the transfer function of recursive part (feedback). B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part. although it is easy to differentiate between them.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-19.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-19 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct transpose canonical realization structure cannot be treated separately. pj are the poles of the transfer function. The analyse is simplified this way. Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures. (2N+1) multipilication elements and N+1 adders. Cascade realization requires the given expression to be factorized so that the transfer function is expressed as follows: www. It is very convenient for its modular structure and less sensitivity to the accuracy of non-recursive and recursive coefficients realization. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure. the finite word-length effect on the accuracy of coefficients.6. Individual sections are mostly realized in direct canonical or direct transpose canonical structure. 3. and M is the number of sections in cascade realization structure.Digital Filter Design .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 19/45 .

so the changes of poles locations are smaller. Direct transpose canonical structure is most frequently used in realization. Figure 3-2-22. Figure 3-2-20. k] are the coefficients of recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section. The transform function of analog filter Hs a (s) is expressed as: www. Chebyshev (Chebyshev I) and inverse Chebyshev filter (Chebyshev II). b[i. therefore. the possibility that IIR filter becomes instable after quantization is drastically reduced as the coefficients quantization is performed after dividing filter in sections.3 Reference Analog Prototype Filter IIR filter design process starts with reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-2-21.Digital Filter Design . Filter dividing in independent sections reduces the sensitivity to the accuracy of quantization coefficients and simplifies analysing the stability of the resulting filter. Individual sections are of the first or second order. Software realization requires M buffer of length 2 or 1. Figure 3-2-21 illustrates the block diagram describing cascade IIR filter structure.mikroElektronika where: a[i.mikroe. Figure 3-220 illustrates a first-order section.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Besides. Each section must have its own buffer for saving samples of intermediate signals. This book explains Butterworth. Cascade IIR filter structure 3.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 20/45 . Such complexity and needed factorization are two main disadvantages of this realization structure. k] are the coefficients of non-recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section. First-order section Figure 3-2-21 illustrates a second-order section. Second-order section The use of direct transpose realization structure reduces necessary number of delay lines and adders as well.

3. frequency axis scaling.1 Butterworth analog filter Low-pass Butterworth analog filters are filters whose frequency response is a monotonious descending function. Figure 3-3-1.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Frequency response of Butterw orth filter Butterworth filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. Figure 3-3-2. Figure 3-3-1 illustrates S plane. In order that a system described via expression above is stable. no matter the filter order is. i.mikroe. as the first 2N . www. it is necessary that all poles (the square roots of polinomial Aa(s)) are located in the left half of S plane. s is the complex frequency (s = σ + jΩ).mikroElektronika where: N is the filter order.e.3.1 derivatives of the transfer function when Ω = 0 are equal to zero. The conversion into the appropriate type of filter (high-pass.Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-3-2 illustrates frequency responses for a few various parameters N (filter order). S plane and region of stability A low-pass filter is used for analog filter design. band-pass or band-stop) is performed by converting into analog filter. and N is the filter order.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 21/45 . and M ≤ N. Butterworth filter is characterized by 3dB attenuation at the frequency of Ω=1. They are also known as „maximally flat magnitude“ filters at the frequency of Ω = 0.

2 Chebyshev Analog Filter Chebyshev analog low-pass filter of the first kind is a type of analog filter that has the least oscillation in frequency response in the entire passband.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The values of poles are expressed as: where: si is the i-th transfer function pole of analog prototype filter (complex value)... and i=1.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 22/45 . When the filter order is known. they should not b e mixed up concerning the filter stab ility analyse.mikroe. The value of parameter ε is obtained via expression: Transfer function is expressed as: www.. Figure 3-3-5 illustrates frequency response for a 4th order band-stop Chebyshev reference analog filter. Figure 3-3-4. it is necessary to know the filter order. Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. IIR filter specification Figure 3-3-3 illustrates IIR filter specification with parameters of most interest for Butterworth filter. All poles of the resulting filter must be located in the left half of the S plane. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial.e. The location of poles for N=5 and N=6 is shown in Figure 3-3-4. neither recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary. Frequency response of Chebyshev analog filter To design Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. Z-transform is used for digital filters.Digital Filter Design . where: N is the filter order. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order Chebyshev reference analog filter. Figure 3-3-5. whereas Laplase transform (s plane) is used for analog filters. and Ωi is the imaginary pole. it is necessary to know the filter order. it is easy to find its poles using expression: Butterworth poles are equally allocated (equidistantly) on the unit circle within the left half of the s plane. filter is stab le if all poles are located within the unit circle. N is the filter order. σi is the pole. Note: In the z plane. 2. Position of Butterw orth filter poles for N=5 and N=6 The transfer function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter is expressed as follows: where: Sk is the k-th pole of the Butterworth filter transfer function For N=5. ε is a parameter used to define maximum oscillations in the passband frequency response. To design Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. filter is stab le if all poles are located in the left half of the s plane.3. N. Therefore it is characterized by equal ripple in the passband and the stopband frequency response is monotoniously descending function. i. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained via recursive relations: If the filter order is known in advance.mikroElektronika Figure 3-3-3. In the s plane. to the left of the imaginary axis. the transfer function is: 3. . Even though these two types of transformations are similar to some extent.

3. neither these recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary. the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-6. N. Figure 3-3-7 illustrates the frequency response for an inverse Chebyshev reference analog band-stop filter of the 4th order.Digital Filter Design . and i=1. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are found via expression: where: si is the pole of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter.mikroe. 3. 3. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order inverse Chebyshev reference analog filter.mikroElektronika For N=5. coefficient k in the transfer function num erator The values Ωk are found via expression: www. and s2i is the pole of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained from recursive relation: If the filter order is familiar in advance. In the stopband. 3. Figure 3-3-7. . The frequency response of this filter monotoniously falls in the passband and transition region. 5. inverse Chebyshev filter has the least oscillation in the frequency response.3 Inverse Chebyshev Analog Filter Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is also known as Chebyshev analog filter of the second kind. Frequency characteristic of inverse Chebyshev analog filter To design inverse Chebyshev reference analog pototype filter. N 5 6 7 8 M IN 1 1 1 1 M AX 5 5 7 7 V A L UES 1.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 23/45 . Similar to Butterworth filter. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are considered reciprocal poles of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter. Transfer function is expressed as: The coefficient k in numerator can be only an odd number. Table 3-3-1 provides a few examples of values of k. 5.9/22/13 The value of A0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Location of the poles of Chebyshev filter for N=5 3. and Ωi is the imaginary pole. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial. 3. σi is the real pole. 7 Table 3-3-1. 5 1. the frequency response is extremely flat function at the frequency of Ω = 0. 2. The poles of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter are expressed as: where: si is the i-th pole of the transfer function of analog prototype filter (complex value). 5 1. 7 1. where: N is the filter order. Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. it is necessary to know the filter order. ε is the parameter of maximum oscillation in the passband frequency response... as the first 2N . N is the filter order.1 derivatives of the transfer function for Ω = 0 are equal to zero..

the zeros of the transfer function are always complex-conjugated values.mikroElektronika For N=5. have scaled frequency range so that the passband cut-off frequency amounts to Ω = 1. high-pass. Reference analog prototype filter is also a low-pass filter so it requires to be transformed into the appropriate type of filter. In this case.1 Low-pass filter The transformation from a reference analog prototype filter to a low-pass analog filter is the simplest type of transformation.e.9/22/13 The value H0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . the transformation comes to a simple frequency scaling. if needed. Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency of Ωp =1. 3. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Frequency scaling depends on the type of analog filter being designed. 3. the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-8. Transformation from an analog prototype filter to appropriate analog filter is performed before transforming it in digital filter. All the results obtained in this chapter are tested in the Filter designer tool program. which is not the case with the poles of the transfer function.4. s\\Ω c is used instead of s. the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transform function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. Scaling is explained for low-pass. In the transform function. Generally.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 24/45 . i. so that passband and stopband cut-off frequencies have the appropriate.Digital Filter Design . For this reason. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where H0 is a costant.4 Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation All analog prototype filters. band-pass or band-stop filter. Location of poles and zeros of inverse Chebyshev filter for N=5 As seen from Figure 3-3-8 and expression for Ωk. band-pass and band-stop filters. where Ω c is a desirable cut-off frequency in the passband. it is necessary to scale filter during the design process. high-pass.mikroe. predetermined values. regardless of their type. By performing the transformation: each expression within brackets in the transfer function numerator is transformed into: and the whole numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: By replacing numerator and denominator by their transformed expressions. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.2929 in the passband is obtained via expression: Example: The transform function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: www.

www.4. The final objective is that passband cut-off frequency of the resulting high-pass analog filter amounts to Ωc. The transformation to a high-pass analog filter: Scaling of frequency axis is performed by transformation: These two transformations can be represented by one transformation: Generally.3 Band-pass filter The transformation in a band-pass analog filter is more complex than the transformation in a low-pass and high-pass analog filters.3721 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0.3719 in the passband is obtained via expression: 3. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant. This is why it is not possible to design an odd order band-pass filter.1434 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transform function of analog filter: 3.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroe. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. The first step refers to the transformation to a high-pass analog filter. Its transformation to a high-pass analog filter can be split into two steps. whereas the second one refers to frequency scaling. The filter order is doubled by this transformation.mikroElektronika The transformation to a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.2 High-pass filter Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency Ωp = 1.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 25/45 .Digital Filter Design .4. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. By performing the following transformation: each bracket in the numerator of the transfer function is transformed into and the entire numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: Substituting these transformed expressions for numerator and denominator.

the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant. The required filter order is obtained this way. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. is found via expression: The transfer function of an analog prototype filter is transformed first in a band-pass analog filter. The transformation into a band-pass analog filter is expressed as: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωp1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1). A low-pass reference analog filter of the 4th order is designed first. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Reference analog filter is further transformed in a bandpass analog filter. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-4-1. This transformation doubles the filter order. The order of the resulting filter is 8.Digital Filter Design . By performing the transformation: each bracket in numerator of the transfer function is transformed into: and the entire numerator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Example: Assume that it is necessary to design an 8th order band-pass digital filter. and normalized after that with Ωc. Generally. By transforming it into a band-pass analog filter the filter order is doubled. the required filter order is divided by two.1626 in the passband is expressed as: www.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 26/45 .mikroElektronika When designing.mikroe. The resulting filter order is used to design a low-pass reference analog prototype filter. which is necessary for normalization. Band-pass filter specification The value of Ωc. and Ωp2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1).

Similarly. The resulting filter order is used for designing a low-pass reference analog prototype filter. the required filter order is divided by two. The result is a 10th order filter. Example: It is necessary to design a band-stop digital filter of the 10th order. The first step refers to normalization with the frequency Ωc: The transformation is performed in the second step: and each bracket in the transfer function numerator is transformed in: and the entire numerator is transformed in: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed in: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. This transformation causes the filter order to double.mikroe. This is how the required filter order is obtained. the filter order is doubled and the order of a band-stop digital filter cannot be an odd number. Band-stop filter specification The value of Ωc. Generally.4. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. The transformation in a band-stop analog filter: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωs1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2). M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. and normalized after that with Ωc.Digital Filter Design . A low-pass reference analog filter of the 5th order is designed first. is found via expression: The transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter is transformed first into a band-stop analog filter. the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant. The transformation into a bandstop analog filter causes the filter order to double. which is necessary for normalization. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. The reference analog filter is transformed in a band-stop analog filter. When designing. and Ωs2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2).com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 27/45 . zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: www.9/22/13 The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-4-2.mikroElektronika 3.4 Band-stop filter The transformation in a band-stop analog filter is similar to the transformation in a bandpass analog filter.

the analog filter transfer function is further transformed into: where: Hoz is a constant of the digital IIR filter transfer function Example: The transfer function of a second-order high-pass analog filter (inverse Chebyshev.mikroe. For this reason. provide that the resulting digital filter is guaranteed to be stable. 60dB) is expressed as: It is necessary to transform the given analog filter into the appropriate digital filter by bilinear transformation.252. faithfully approximate the frequency response of analog filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The analog filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant.mikroElektronika The transformation into a band-stop analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. After transformation. This transformation also transforms s plane into z plane. fs=44100Hz.1014 p1=-2. and 2.1014 z2=-j0. whereas digital filter is stable if the poles are located within the unit circle.5727 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: 3.2692 www. fc=2KHz. the transformation must provide that the left half of s plane coincides with the area within the unit circle of z plane. and pk is the pole of the analog filter transfer function. Using expression for linear transformation: we obtain: where: N=2 M=2 z1=j0. as shown in Figure 3-5-1. The transformation is supposed to: 1. Transform ation of s plane into z plane One of most commonly used method of transforming analog filters into appropriate IIR filters is known as bilinear transformation. the transformation is performed by a simple change of variable s in the expression for the transfer function of the resulting analog filter. it is necessary to transform the resulting analog filter into a digital one. Analog filter is stable if the poles of the transfer function are located in the left half of s plane. zk is the zero of the analog filter transfer function.Digital Filter Design . After the frequency scaling and transformation into a desirable type of filter have been performed. the transformation of the analog filter transform function into a digital one can be expressed as: As seen.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 28/45 .5 Bilinear transformation Digital IIR filters are designed using analog filters. It is done by transforming the analog filter transfer function into a digital one. Figure 3-5-1.267-j2.2692 p2=-2. If s=0 then H(s)=H0 .267+j2. It is defined via expression: Using the previous expression.

2. 3. A disadvantage of the bilinear transformation is a non-linear transformation of the analog filter frequency axis into a digital one. Any error made during the quantization of coefficients affects more or less the frequency response. and band-stop filter. In software digital filter realization (implementation). the accurate values of coefficients are obtained immediately after the implementation of bilinear transformation. so that it is not linear. M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function.6 Examples This chapter discusses various IIR filter design methods. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. If the type of reference analog prototype filter is predetermined. The output data is a reference analog prototype filter transfer function Ha (s). When transforming. www. It is very important to prevent the poles from being located outside the unite circle. high-pass filter. step 3 is skipped.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well. 3. which is not the case with the rest of the frequency axis. which may further cause the stopband attenuation to decrease. it is impossible to represent coefficients without an error. Transformation into analog filter by range scaling. band-pass filter. Special care is required when quantizing feedback coefficients as it causes the location of the digital IIR filter transfer function poles to change their location. step 2 is skipped. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. and 7. The quantization effect on digital filter stability is much more dangerous.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 29/45 .mikroElektronika The result is the transfer function of a digital high-pass IIR filter. In every given example. pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Some steps are skipped in some cases.mikroe. the IIR filter design process will be described through these steps in order to make it easier for you to observe similarities and differencies between various design methodes. When designing. 4. If the filter order is known. these frequencies have appropriate locations. Such a non-linear transformation of analog filter frequencies causes the phase characteristic distorsion. 5. analog prototype filters and design of various types of filters as well. Computing the filter order according to the filter specifications and specified analog prototype filter. On filter realization. The final result is the transfer function H(s) given by: where: H0 is a constant. 2. The design method used here is known as bilinear transformation. The IIR filter design process can be split into several steps described in Chapter 3. the resulting coefficients are quantized. Transformation into digital filter by bilinear transformation.Digital Filter Design . However. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-1. Steps in designing digital IIR filter The first block refers to design of reference analog prototype filter of appropriate order. which also generates a certain error. 6. The four standard types of filters are used here: low-pass filter. the transfer function is given by: where: H0 is a constant. Figure 3-6-1 illustrates the design steps along with input and output data for each of them. Defining filter specifications. The specified filter order is increased or decreased according to needs. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. 5 and 6 are repeated after that as many times as needed. The expression used to transform the reference analog prototype filter transfer function depends on the type of filter that needs to be obtained. and steps 4. Realization structure is illustrated in Figure 3-5-2 below. if it happens. These are: 1. The next step is the transformation into an analog filter of appropriate type. Reference analog prototype filter is always a low-pass filter. Regardless of the type of reference analog prototype filter in use. then it is necessary to do it.5 Designing IIR filters b y b ilinear transformation. However. Figure 3-5-2. the cut-off frequencies are defined on the basis of the given specifications and type of a filter. the resulting IIR filter is not stable and is useless therefore. IIR filter realization Digital filters designed via bilinear trasnformation are guaranteed to be stable. Specifying the type of analog prototype filter.

1 Filter design using Butterworth filter 3. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. In the later case.mikroElektronika M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.6. the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. 3. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.6. and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Passband cut-off frequency – fc=2. the transfer functions of reference analog prototype filter and analog filter are very similar.mikroe.5KHz. the values of the transfer function poles and zeros zk and pk as well as in the number of transfer function zeros M. only poles. which is sufficient for most examples. All data are calculated with the accuracy of 4 decimal digits. Step 2: Method.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. The filter order is the same if the analog filter is a low-pass or high-pass filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 30/45 . N=2. These can be computed via expression: As N = 2. pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. The next step is the transformation into appropriate digital IIR filter using bilinear transformation given by expression: Filter Designer Tool is used for testing and analysing the resulting IIR filters in this chapter. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. They differ only in the value of constant H0 . whereas it is different if the analog filter is a band-pass or band-stop filter. As seen. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: www. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. the analog filter order (N) is twice that of the reference analog prototype filter.Digital Filter Design . the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=2.1. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.

and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB.Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-6-2. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. whereas Figure 3-6-3 illustrates the frequency response of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. There is no need to additionally change it.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .1.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=3.mikroe. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: www.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 31/45 .6. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-3. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. N = 3. Passband cut-off frequency – fc=5KHz. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. only poles. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-2 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Step 2: Method.

mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function.9/22/13 A more condensed form of the previous expression is: Chapter 3: IIR filters .6. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. N = 4.3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4.Digital Filter Design . and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. fc2=6KHz. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=4KHz. www. There is no need to additionally change it.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 32/45 . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-4 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.1. In this example for N=4. so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. Figure 3-6-4. only poles. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-5. Step 2: Method . the order of reference prototype filter is 2.mikroe.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3.

so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. Figure 3-6-6. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 33/45 . the order of reference prototype filter is 2. fc2=3300Hz. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-7.1. There is no need to additionally change it.mikroElektronika In this example. N = 4.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=3000Hz. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-6 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.6. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. only poles. In this example for N = 4.Digital Filter Design .4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4. www.mikroe. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. Step 2: Method .

Figure 3-6-8. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts. only poles. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. Step 2: Method . Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-9. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0. These can be computed via expression: As N = 4. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-8 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Passband cut-off frequency– fc1=15KHz.6. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as=40dB. Maximum passband attenuation – ap=1dB. The solution is redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied.2.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 34/45 .2457 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined.mikroElektronika In this example. the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case.6.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . There is no need to additionally change it.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs=44100Hz.mikroe.Digital Filter Design .2 Filter design using Chebyshev filter 3. Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2=18KHz. Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: www.

2dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated. Figure 3-6-10. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.1228 so the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. www. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.0.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. only poles. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 31. Step3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration.mikroe. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-10 below.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 35/45 . substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool.Digital Filter Design . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. the values of poles are: The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = . The filter order is incremented by 1 and is 5 therefore.mikroElektronika The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. A new filter order is 5. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.

Filter realization: Figure 3-6-12 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Figure 3-6-12.mikroElektronika This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.6dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient.mikroe. the expression for transfer function is simpler: www. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 41.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. Step 2: Method . Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter 3. Figure 3-6-11.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3. N = 3. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. The whole procedure is the same.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 36/45 .1.4913 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-11 below.0. only it takes more time.Digital Filter Design .filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. only poles. Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order. Digital IIR filter direct realization Figure 3-6-13. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = . Passband cut-off frequency – fc = 5KHz. whereas Figure 3-6-13 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is appropriate. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB.6.

Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. N = 4. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-15.3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. Step 2: Method filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.Digital Filter Design . These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 37/45 . substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. There is no need to additionally change it. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example.9/22/13 After substitution of poles and Ωc into expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz.mikroe. fc2 = 6KHz. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.1. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. Figure 3-6-14.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: www. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.mikroElektronika Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.6. In this example for N = 4. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-14 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. only poles. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.

Step 2: Method . only poles. N = 4. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 3000Hz.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.6. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Filter 3-6-16. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. There is no need to additionally change it.9/22/13 Step 5: Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroElektronika First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. fc2 = 3300Hz.Digital Filter Design .mikroe.1. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. In this example for N = 4. In this expression. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-17. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: www.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 38/45 . Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-16 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter.

The solution is www. Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2 = 18KHz. the value of constant A0 is: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.6. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts. Figure 3-6-18.3.9/22/13 In this example. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-19. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Passband cut-off frequency – fc1 = 15KHz. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined.3 Filter design using inverse Chebyshev filter 3. Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as = 40dB.mikroe. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. Step 2: Method . substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.mikroElektronika A0 = 0.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 39/45 . Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Filter realization Figure 3-6-18 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.6. In this expression.Digital Filter Design .1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter –low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs = 44100Hz. There is no need to additionally change it.

Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. A new filter order is 5. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-20 below. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. Frequency charactersitic of designed IIR filter The attenuation at 15KHz is higher than 1dB and the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the specifications therefore. Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. and becomes 5 therefore. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated. The filter order is incremented by 1.mikroElektronika redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-20. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5. the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example.2dB approximately at the frequency of 15KHZ is not sufficient. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 40/45 . These can be computed via expression: As N = 4.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . only poles. Step 3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration. It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied.mikroe. Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4. the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 5.Digital Filter Design . the values of poles are: www.01 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. only poles.

Figure 3-6-22. Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order. it is obvious that the attenuation at 18KHZ is less than 1dB (approximately 0. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz.mikroElektronika In this case. only it takes more time. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = . the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example.0. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Step 7: By analysing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool.Digital Filter Design . www. Passband cut-off frequency– fc = 5KHz. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 41/45 . Frequency characteristic of IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is approriate. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.6.8dB). Filter realization: Figure 3-6-22 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.1. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-23. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3.05 so the inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. The whole procedure is the same. whereas Figure 3-6-23 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool.mikroe. Figure 3-6-21.9/22/13 The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: Chapter 3: IIR filters . and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-21 below. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.

Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-25. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 42/45 .03 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. only poles. the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-24 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.mikroElektronika Method . N=3. Figure 3-6-24.1.9/22/13 Step 2: Chapter 3: IIR filters . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.6.Digital Filter Design . This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. There is no need to additionally change it.mikroe.3 Example 3 www. the transfer function is: After substituting the poles and Ωc into expression: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = -0. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.

Step 2: Method . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-26 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. www. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.9/22/13 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specification: Chapter 3: IIR filters . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: For this example. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. only poles. the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. fc2 = 6KHz. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz.mikroElektronika Filter order – N = 4. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. In this example for N=4.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 43/45 .mikroe. N = 4. There is no need to additionally change it. In this example. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.Digital Filter Design . Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.

Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-27. www. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-26. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specification: Filter order – N=4. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. N = 4. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. fc2=3300Hz. only poles. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.mikroe.Digital Filter Design .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Step 2: Method . In this expression. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. Stopband cut-off frequencies – fc1=3000Hz.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 44/45 . the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.1. In this example for N = 4. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. so the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example.6.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.

9/22/13 Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.Digital Filter Design . Filter realization: Chapter 3: IIR filters . There is no need to additionally change it.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 45/45 . Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple ← previous chapter | table of contents MikroElektronika Embedded Solutions PIC Solution PIC De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC C om pile rs PIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC Kits PIC Book s Follow us on PIC32 Solution PIC 32 De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC 32 C om pile rs PIC 32 Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC 32 Kits dsPIC Solution dsPIC De ve lopm e nt Boards dsPIC C om pile rs dsPIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs dsPIC Kits dsPIC Book s Add-on boards C lick Boards m ik rom e dia shie lds C om m unication boards Storage boards R e al Tim e C lock boards Display boards Me asure m e nt boards Audio & Voice boards Powe r Supply boards GPS boards GSM/GPR S boards Additional Software Visual TFT Visual GLC D Pack age Manage r GLC D Font C re ator 8051 Solution 8051 De ve lopm e nt Boards 8051 C om pile rs 8051 Program m e rs/De bugge rs 8051 Book s 8051 Kits AVR Solution AVR De ve lopm e nt Boards AVR C om pile rs AVR Program m e rs/De bugge rs AVR Kits ARM Solution AR M De ve lopm e nt Boards AR M C om pile rs AR M Program m e rs/De bugge rs AR M Kits Support Forum m ik roBUS Le ts m ak e Pre ss Le gal Inform ation Product Archive About Us C opyright © 1998 . All rights reserved. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-29.mikroe.2013. MikroElektronika.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-28 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Figure 3-6-28. All trade and/or services marks mentioned are the property of their respective owners. www.

- Differential Amplifier Circuit Tutorial Using BJT and Opamp – Electronic Circuits and Diagram-Electronics Projects and Design_IMPP
- 25-7-16
- Lecture-3.pptx
- An_Overview_of_Digital_Signal_Processing_and_its_Applications.pdf
- SNS
- labs-2012.pdf
- Loa
- spru226.pdf
- Mohanty - VLSI Microwind
- 14 Interpolation Decimation
- Chapter 2_ FIR Filters - Digital Filter Design
- Chapter 1_ Basic Concepts of Digital Filtering and Types of Digital Filters
- MOS Transistor Definitions
- MOS Transistor Definitions
- PCBM1112syllabus
- chap2
- 000447
- Subnetting Made Simple
- bi_sova
- 144. Microcontroller Based Clockwise Anticlockwise
- Digital Stopwatch 0-99sec
- Understanding Bandwidth
- To Improve Bit Error Rate of Ofdm Transmission Using Turbo Codes
- Serial Idm

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot useful- Infinite Impulse Response
- AFD Assignment
- Design of Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) digital filters
- FIR Filter Design
- Filters- Comm Sys
- V2I500482
- DSPLAB
- Theory
- FIR Filter Design Ch10(1) 3e
- Active Filter Design Techniques
- 06 Digital Filters_2012
- Filtros FIR - Ejemplos de Diseño
- Filtros Analogicos Con Matlab
- Filtri
- Widmann Schroeger Maess 2014 J of Neuroscience Methods
- filtros word.rtf
- fifr
- L2_f08.pdf
- Dual Band and Dual Mode SIW Symmetric
- timevarying lms
- M0543
- 3F3 6 Design of IIR Filters
- CH20
- Filter Design
- unit 6
- L2_f05
- Theory of world
- LICA
- Lecture 9 - Poles Zeros & Filters
- Digital Filter Design
- Chapter 3_ IIR Filters - Digital Filter Design

Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

We've moved you to where you read on your other device.

Get the full title to continue

Get the full title to continue reading from where you left off, or restart the preview.

scribd