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**Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika
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**Digital Filter Design
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TOC Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3

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**Chapter 3: Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters
**

3.1. Introduction 3.2. IIR filter design 3.3. Reference analog prototype filter 3.4. Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation 3.5. Bilinear transformation 3.6. Examples

3.1 Introduction

IIR filters are digital filters with infinite impulse response. Unlike FIR filters, they have the feedback (a recursive part of a filter) and are known as recursive digital filters therefore.

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Figure 3-1-1. Block diagram s of FIR and IIR filters

For this reason IIR filters have much better frequency response than FIR filters of the same order. Unlike FIR filters, their phase characteristic is not linear which can cause a problem to the systems which need phase linearity. For this reason, it is not preferable to use IIR filters in digital signal processing when the phase is of the essence. Otherwise, when the linear phase characteristic is not important, the use of IIR filters is an excellent solution. There is one problem known as a potential instability that is typical of IIR filters only. FIR filters do not have such a problem as they do not have the feedback. For this reason, it is always necessary to check after the design process whether the resulting IIR filter is stable or not. IIR filters can be designed using different methods. One of the most commonly used is via the reference analog prototype filter. This method is the best for designing all standard types of filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters. This book describes the design method using reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-1-2 illustrates the block diagram of this method.

Figure 3-1-2. Block diagram of design m ethod using reference analog prototype filter

FIR filters can have linear phase characteristic, which is not typical of IIR filters. When it is necessary to have linear phase characteristic,

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

FIR filters are the only available solution. In other cases when linear phase characteristic is not necessary, such as speech signal processing, FIR filters are not good solution. IIR filters should be used instead. The resulting filter order is considerably lower for the same frequency response. The filter order determines the number of filter delay lines, i.e. number of input and output samples that should be saved in order that the next output sample can be computed. For instance, if the filter order is 10, it means that it is necessary to save 10 input samples plus 10 output samples preceeding the current sample. All these 21 samples will affect the next output sample. The IIR filter transfer function is a ratio of two polynomials of complex variable z-1. The numerator defines location of zeros, whereas the denominator defines location of poles of the resulting IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-1-3. illustrates input and output signals of the system with non-linear phase characteristic.

Figure 3-1-3. The effect of non-linear phase characteristic

The system introduces phase shift of 0 radians at frequency of ω, and π radians at three times higher frequency. Input signal consists of nature frequency ω and harmonics with the same amplitude at three times higher frequency. Figure on the left illustrates an input signal, whereas Figure on the right illustrates an output signal. As seen, these two signals have different waveforms. Neither the power of the signal nor amplitudes of particular harmonics have been changed, but the phase of the second harmonic. Assume that an input represents a speech signal where the phase is not important. In this case such phase distorsion would be negligable as the system satisfies the stated requirements. Otherwise, if the phase is important, such a huge distorsion mustn’t be allowed.

**3.2 Infinite impulse response (IIR) filter design
**

The most commonly used IIR filter design method uses reference analog prototype filter. It is the best method to use when designing standard filters such as low-pass, high-pass, bandpass and band-stop filters. The filter design process starts with specifications and requirements of the desirable IIR filter. A type of reference analog prototype filter to be used is specified according to the specifications and after that everything is ready for analog prototype filter design. The next step in the design process is scaling of the frequency range of analog prototype filter into desirable frequency range. This is how an analog prototype filter is converted into an analog filter. After the analog filter is designed, it is time to go through the last step in the digital IIR filter design process. It is conversion from analog to digital filter. The most popular and most commonly used converting method is bilinear transformation method. The resulting filter, obtained in this way, is always stable. However, instability of the resulting filter, when bilinear transformation is used, may be caused only by the finite word-length side-effect.

**3.2.1 Basic concepts and IIR filter specification
**

First of all, it is necessay to learn the basic concepts that will be used further in this book. You should be aware that without being familiar with these concepts, it is not possible to understand analyses and synthesis of digital filters. Figure 3-2-1 illustrates a low-pass digital filter specification. The word specification refers to the frequency response specification.

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-1a. Low -pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-1b. Low -pass digital filter specification

ωp – normalized passband cut-off frequency; ωs – normalized stopband cut-off frequency; δ1 – maximum passband ripples; δ2 – minimum stopband attentuation; ε – passband attenuation parameter; A – stopband attenuation parameter; ap – maximum passband ripples [dB]; and as – minimum stopband attenuation [dB].

Frequency normalization can be expressed as follows:

where:

**fs is the sampling frequency; f is the frequency to normalize; and ω is the normalized frequency.
**

Specifications for high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters are defined almost the same way as those for low-pass filters. Figure 3-2-2 illustrates a high-pass filter specification, whereas Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass filter specification.

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-2a. High-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-2b. High-pass digital filter specification

Comparing these two Figures 3-2-1 and 3-2-2, it is obvious that low-pass and high-pass filters have similar specifications. The same parameters are defined in both cases with the difference that in the later case the passband is substituded by the stopband and vice versa. Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass specification.

Filter 3-2-3a. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-3b. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-4 illustrates band-stop digital filter specification

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3. The Z-transform is defined as: where z is the complex number.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . 0 ≤ n ≤ 8 z-transform is defined via expression: It becomes: The last expression is the z-transform of the given signal. Example: Assume that samples of a discrete-time signal x(n) are known. Band-stop digital filter specification Figure 3-2-4b.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-4a.1} .5.2.2. It converts a discrete timedomain signal into a complex frequency-domin representation.2 Z-transform The Z-transform is performed upon discrete-time signals.mikroe.Digital Filter Design . x(n)={1.3. The Fourier transformation can be found by rewriting the previous expression in terms of z as z=e^jω.4.2.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 5/45 . Band-stop digital filter specification 3. The z-transform is derived from the Fourier discrete time-domain transformation and is considered the basic operation in digital filter design process.4. It is very suitable for analyzing discrete time-domain signals and systems as well. It is necessary to transform this signal with the z-transform and Fourier fransform. It becomes: www.

Figure 3-2-5.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . it is easy to notice some similarities between them: In polar coordinates. Frequency spectrum of the given signal Comparing Z and Fourier transforms. the Fourier transform is represented as a unit circle. which can be seen in Figure 3-2-6 below. the complex number z may be expressed as follows: The two last expressions lead us to the conclusion that Fourier transform is just a special form of the z-transform for r=1.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 6/45 .mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-5 illustrates the (frequency) spectrum of the given signal.mikroe. www.Digital Filter Design . In the z plane.

Digital Filter Design . www.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-6.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 7/45 . Figure 3-2-7a Stable IIR filter Transfer function zeros are denoted by small circles. The location of poles in the z plane is used for testing stability of designed IIR filter. The poles of the IIR filter transfer function must be located within the unit circle in order that filter is stable. Fourier transform in the z plane The z-transform of the transfer function is of great importance for IIR filters.mikroe. Figure 3-2-7a illustrates zeros and poles of the transfer function of a stable IIR filter in the z plane. whereas its poles are denoted by small crosses.

H0 is a constant. 3. the resulting filter is stable before the coefficient quantization starts. www. The poles of the FIR filter transfer function are located at the origin. it is necessary to consider the zeros and poles of the transfer function in the z plane. which means that it refers to IIR. All four poles of transfer function are located within the unit circle.mikroElektronika As seen in Figure 3-2-7. The transfer function of discrete-time systems is defined to be: where: bi are the feedforward filter coefficients (non-recursive part).e. According to the location of poles in the z plane. aj are the feedback filter coefficients (recursive part). which can cause one pole or one pair of poles to be located outside the unit circle. Also.2. If bilinear transformation is used in the filter design. Figure 3-2-7a clearly indicates interrelation between zeros and poles in the z plane.Digital Filter Design . qi are the zeros of the transfer function. i. Figure 3-2-7b. Figure 3-2-7b illustrates the zeros and poles of the transfer function of an instable IIR filter in the z plane. It is obviously not the case in Figure 3-2-7.3 Transfer function of discrete-time systems The Z-transform is primarily used for finding the transfer function of linear discrete-time systems. not FIR filter. the imaginary part is zero.mikroe. it is illustrated as a pair of zeros or poles which are symmetric around the real axis. Instable IIR filter As seen from Figure 3-2-7b. then it is single. Such a pair is also called a complex-conjugated pair of zeros or poles. If either of them is not located on the real axis in the z plane. which guarantees tha stability of IIR filters. In the z plane. it is easy to determine whether it refers to FIR or IIR filter. then it has the corresponding pair having the same real value and the same imaginary value with the opposite sign.9/22/13 Re – Real axis Im – Imaginary axis Chapter 3: IIR filters . When the transfer function is found. one transfer function zero is located outside the unit circle. It doesn’t cause any problem as the location of poles is the only thing that matters.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 8/45 . This quantization changes the location of zeros and poles of the resulting IIR filter. If a zero or a pole is located on the real axe in the z plane. The result of such a quantization is a filter that is not stable. two poles located outside the unit circle make this IIR filter instable.

In the frequency domain. Figure 3-2-8. Unlike the FIR filters. Another expression for convolusion that is more useful in practical applications is: www.Digital Filter Design . illustrates block diagram of discrete-time system with feedback. and A(z) the transfer function of recursive part of the system (feedback).mikroElektronika pj are the poles of the transfer function. The recursive part of the transfer function is actually a discrete-time system feedback. Example: The transfer function of a 3th order IIR filter. B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part of the system.mikroe. the IIR filters have feedback which enable them to have greater selectivity as well as nonlinearity of phase characteristic than FIR filters.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 9/45 . the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as follows: OR The later expression is more convenient for software IIR filters realization. Figure 3-2-8 Discrete-tim e system w ith feedback In the time domain. designed using Chebyshev function is: The following expression describes the filtering process: This process is also known as convolution. whereas the representation in the z domain is suitable for analyzes of designed filters and synthesis itself (design process). the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as the multiplication of Z-transform input signal X(z) and the transform function H(z): The first way of representing discrete-time systems is suitable for both software and hardware IIR filter implementation.

it becomes: Using expression: it is possible to find function for particular normalized frequency.Digital Filter Design .mikroElektronika After making substitutions of impulse response coefficients.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .2π: The numerator is computed first: Then denominator: www. For example. when ω = 0.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 10/45 .

is a non-linear phase characteristic. which makes them stable.mikroe. Recalling that FIR flters do not have a feedback. The FIR filter coefficient error affects more the frequency response as the spacing between the zero and pole of the transfer function and the origin narrows. the pole quantization. Figure 3-2-9 illustrates the required and obtained frequency characteristic of an IIR filter. affects more frequency characteristic. The result of the feedback. By complexity.Digital Filter Design .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 11/45 . If this requirement is not satisfied. Selectivity and attenuation of this filter are much higher than those of any 6th order FIR filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The finite word-length effect on the transform www.mikroElektronika Figure 2-2-8 illustrates a hardware realization of this IIR filter. as shown in Figure 3-2-6. it is preferable to use bilinear transformation because it always makes filter stable. Deviation of frequency depends on the spacing between the zeros and poles of the FIR filter transfer function and the origin in the z plane.2. In this case. A direct result of such errors is deviation of the frequency of designed discrete-time system. Realization of IIR filter in this exam ple The software realization would require two buffers each of minimum length 3. Slight errors in coefficient representation may cause large frequency deviations. filter stability is questioned only due to coefficient quantization which is performed at the end of the design process. all poles of the discrete-time system transfer function must be located within the unit circle. Figure 3-2-9. by rule. the given IIR filter corresponds to a 6th order FIR filter. an error is triggered by the finite word-length effect. 3.4 Effects of the poles and zeros of the transfer function The location of poles and zeros of the transfer function is very important for discrete-time system analyses and synthesis. which provides so high selectivity and attenuation. According to their location it is possible to test stability of a discrete-time system. Besides. It always happens due to software and hardware implementation that an error in coefficients representation is produced. it ocurrs due to impossibility of representing the coefficients with apsolute accuracy. detect round-off errors made due to software implementation of a filter as well as coefficient errors encountered during hardware implementation of a filter. which is very dangerous. the system becomes unstable. The location of zeroes doesn’t affect the stabilty of discrete-time systems. This property is particularly typical of high-order filters because their zeros are very close each other. These are usually circular buffers whose length can be expressed as 2^n. In software implementation. this doesn’t apply on IIR filters. which in this case means that the circular buffer is 4 = 2^2 in length. In order that a discrete-time system is stable. One buffer would be used for input samples and another one for output samples. However. Therefore. The result in both cases is that the actual value of coefficients differs from their value obtained in design process. whereas in hardware implementation.

the transfer function of the specified type of reference analog prototype filter is obtained by converting analog filter into digital one. The minimum attenuation and the width of transition region of the resulting IIR filter remain unchanged. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications. Conversion into analog filter via scaling. ωc1. it is time to specify the type of reference analog prototype filter.5 IIR filters design using bilinear transformation The IIR filter design using bilinear transformation can be split into several steps: 1. It is only important that its characteristics can satisfy the given specifications. After this step. the entire IIR filter design process. so that such deviation is acceptable. Conversion into digital filter via bilinear transformation. Specifying analog prototype filter. The initial value of the filter order is roughly estimated and is changed after that depending on the obtained characteristics and requirements.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-10. Deviation from required frequency characteristic The frequency deviation shown in Figure 3-2-10 is basically slight deviation. or if the filter order can be less than actual one. is repeated. 3.2. 2. However. maximum passband attenuation and minimum stopband attenuation.9/22/13 function of an IIR filter is clearly marked in this figure. 5 and 6 are repeated as many times as needed. it is necessary to perform scaling of the transfer function so that cut-off frequencies go into the desirable range. and 7. it is possible to find its transfer function. it is necessary to specify or compute the filter order required for a given set of specifications. When both type and order of analog prototype filter are known.2. scaling and obtaining analogue filters and conversion into digital filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 12/45 . it is preferable to increase or decrease the filter order by 1. This book represents the most commonly used conversion known as bilinear transformation. For this reason. The filter order can be increased or decreased according to needs and after that steps 4.mikroe. After changing the filter order. i.6 IIR filter realization FIR filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: N is the filter order. 5. The coefficients bk and ak are of interest for IIR filter realization (both hardware and software). it should be changed.e. IIR filters have much greater selectivity and attenuation than FIR filters of the same order. 4. 3. Figure 3-2-11 illustrates the block diagram of www.Digital Filter Design . then it is necessary to do it. The transfer function of analog prototype filter depends on frequencies which are not scaled into the desirable range. that is. it is preferable to specify such a type of analog prototype filter that can produce the lowest order IIR filter. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. when the type of analog proptotype filter is known. Now. computing of the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. even though it is very large at certain frequencies. The type of analog prototype filter as well as the filter order will be specified according to these parameters. If the obtained filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. This operation is actually conversion of reference analog prototype filter into analog filter with desirable characteristic. Finally. ωc2). 6. For this reason. Defining filter specification. Chapter 3: IIR filters . The final objective of defining IIR filter specifications is to find the desirable normalized cutoff frequencies (ωc. 3. and ak the coefficient of recursive part (feedback) of IIR filter. transition width. Computing the filter order required for a given set of specifications and specified analog prototype filter. Be aware that every type has its good and bad sides. bk the coefficient of non-recursive part of IIR filter.

This chapter covers direct. these two parts are separately considered and realized.mikroe. 3. direct transpose. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter www. Figure 3-2-12. illustrates the block diagram of direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter. The realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is identical to the direct realization of FIR filter. Chapter 3: IIR filters . direct canonic.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-11.1 Direct realization Direct realization of IIR filters starts with this expression: The first part of the expression refers to non-recursive part and the other refers to recursive part of IIR filter. Block diagram of IIR filter There are several types of IIR filter realization. Figure 3-2-12.Digital Filter Design .2. Each of them will be described in detail along with their advantages and disadvantages.6. All of them are very convenient and most commonly used for both hardware and software IIR filter realization.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 13/45 .9/22/13 IIR filter. In IIR filter direct realization. direct transpose canonic and cascade realizations.

www.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 14/45 . Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b illustrate block diagrams of IIR filter realization when non-recursive part is used before and after recursive part of IIR filter. Realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is similar to that of recursive part.mikroe. multiplication coefficients are identical to those of the transfer function. illustrates the direct realization of the filter recursive part.mikroElektronika As seen from Figure 3-2-12 above. respectively. Figure 3-2-13. it doesn’t matter which of them will be used first in filtering process.Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-2-13. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter As non-recursive and recursive part of IIR filter are separately realized.

(2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions. As seen from Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b. non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-14b.Digital Filter Design .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . IIR filter direct realization.mikroe. Some of disadvantages of www. IIR filter direct realization. direct realization requires in total of 2N delay lines. recursive part is used first This structure is also known as a direct form I structure. Direct realization is very convenient for software implementation and this is where it is most commonly used.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-14a.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 15/45 .

The only difference is in the position of delay lines. 7 A DDR. it is also necessary to have two buffers of minimum length N+1. For their simplicity and effectiveness.mikroe. Accordingly: where the operator represents rounding down to a less value.e. Here. 1 A DDR. Figure 3-2-15.Digital Filter Design . it is necessary to have two buffers with at least N+1 samples. buffer if it is about software implementation. where N is the IIR filter order. 6 A DDR. 5 A DDR. The length of the buffer needs to be 2^k. Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-17 illustrate the block diagram describing IIR filter direct transpose realization structure of IIR filter. Circular buffer of length 16 = 2^4 Since the buffer length is 16. It is necessary to design this filter using direct structure with circular buffer. i. and the greatest complexity due to implementation (i. the largest finite word-length effect). 3 A DDR. On IIR filter software implementation with direct structure.2 Direct transpose realization Direct transpose realization is similar to direct realization. location addressing in the circular buffer is performed via module 16 operations: Example: A 6th order FIR filter is used in this example. 2 A DDR.e. The contents of the buffer after receiving the first 10 samples is shown in the table 3-2-1.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 16/45 . where N is the filter order.2.e. The value of constant k is defined as a minimum value for which N ≤ 2^k is valid. 4 A DDR. most commonly used are the so called circular buffers the length of which can be expressed as 2^k. A DDR. www. 0 S T EP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x[0] x[1] x[2] x[3] x[4] x[5] x[6] x[7] x[7] x[7] x[6] x[6] x[6] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[9] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[8] x[8] Table 2-2-2. Input samples are denoted by x[n] and each shaded cell represents changed location in buffer.6. The length of circular buffer is obtained from the following expression: It means that the minimum length of circular buffer is 2^3 = 8.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroElektronika this realization are the greatest sensitivity to accuracy of realized coefficients (i. Input circular buffer after receiving 10 sam ples 3. needs most resources).

Digital Filter Design . non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-17. recursive part is used first There are no significant differences between direct and direct transpose realizations. Both structures have the same multiplication coefficients. Similar to direct realization structure. the direct transpose realization structure uses 2N delay lines.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 17/45 .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . www. (2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions. The only difference is in the position of delay lines. IIR filter direct transpose realization. IIR filter direct transpose realization.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-16.

mikroe. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization. N delay lines. 3.6. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure. which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure. Figure 3-2-19 illustrates the block diagram describing direct transpose canonical realization structure of IIR filter.Digital Filter Design .6. Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures. that is.2. one of the main disadvantages of direct and direct transpose realization structures is eliminated. Direct canonic structure uses N delay elements.3 Direct Canonical Realization Chapter 3: IIR filters .4 Direct transpose canonical realization Direct transpose canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum of N delay lines as well as reduced number of adders to N+1. www. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization.mikroElektronika Direct canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum. This way.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 18/45 . Figure 3-2-18. Direct canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct canonic structure block diagram and direct realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-14b are obvious. The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-14b and 3-2-18 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct canonic realization structure cannot be treated separately. although it is easy to differentiate between them. but similar to direct canonical structure.2. Recursive and nonrecursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately. (2N+1) multipilications and 2N additions. Recursive and non-recursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately.9/22/13 3. which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure. Figure 3-2-18 illustrates the block diagram describing direct canonic realization structure of IIR filter.

3. aj are the coefficients of transfer function denominator (recursive part). It is very convenient for its modular structure and less sensitivity to the accuracy of non-recursive and recursive coefficients realization. On cascade IIR filter realization.5 Cascade Realization Cascade realization structure is the most difficult to obtain from the transfer function (comparing to other realization structures given in this book). although it is easy to differentiate between them. (2N+1) multipilication elements and N+1 adders.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-19. Since the sections are mutually independent after design process.Digital Filter Design . Cascade realization requires the given expression to be factorized so that the transfer function is expressed as follows: www. mutually independent sections of the first or second order. Individual sections are mostly realized in direct canonical or direct transpose canonical structure. pj are the poles of the transfer function. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Direct transpose canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct transpose canonical structure block diagram and direct transpose realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-16 are obvious.6. H0 is a constant. The analyse is simplified this way.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 19/45 . qi are the zeros of the transfer function. the finite word-length effect on the accuracy of coefficients. Direct transpose canonic structure uses N delay elements.mikroe. A(z) is the transfer function of recursive part (feedback).2. Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures. B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part. The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-19 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct transpose canonical realization structure cannot be treated separately. a filter is divided into several. The IIR filter transfer function is expressed as: where: bi are the coefficients of transfer function numerator (non-recursive part). modulation of frequency response and IIR filter stability are separately examined for each section. and M is the number of sections in cascade realization structure.

mikroElektronika where: a[i. Second-order section The use of direct transpose realization structure reduces necessary number of delay lines and adders as well.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 20/45 . The transform function of analog filter Hs a (s) is expressed as: www.mikroe. First-order section Figure 3-2-21 illustrates a second-order section. Each section must have its own buffer for saving samples of intermediate signals. Besides. k] are the coefficients of recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section. Filter dividing in independent sections reduces the sensitivity to the accuracy of quantization coefficients and simplifies analysing the stability of the resulting filter. Such complexity and needed factorization are two main disadvantages of this realization structure. Figure 3-2-21. This book explains Butterworth.3 Reference Analog Prototype Filter IIR filter design process starts with reference analog prototype filter. therefore. Figure 3-220 illustrates a first-order section.Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-2-22. Direct transpose canonical structure is most frequently used in realization. Cascade IIR filter structure 3. b[i.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-2-20. Chebyshev (Chebyshev I) and inverse Chebyshev filter (Chebyshev II). Figure 3-2-21 illustrates the block diagram describing cascade IIR filter structure. Individual sections are of the first or second order. Software realization requires M buffer of length 2 or 1. so the changes of poles locations are smaller. the possibility that IIR filter becomes instable after quantization is drastically reduced as the coefficients quantization is performed after dividing filter in sections. k] are the coefficients of non-recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section.

it is necessary that all poles (the square roots of polinomial Aa(s)) are located in the left half of S plane.3. Butterworth filter is characterized by 3dB attenuation at the frequency of Ω=1.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 21/45 . frequency axis scaling. band-pass or band-stop) is performed by converting into analog filter.Digital Filter Design . s is the complex frequency (s = σ + jΩ). Figure 3-3-1. no matter the filter order is.mikroe.e. i. 3. and N is the filter order. Frequency response of Butterw orth filter Butterworth filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. The conversion into the appropriate type of filter (high-pass.1 Butterworth analog filter Low-pass Butterworth analog filters are filters whose frequency response is a monotonious descending function. S plane and region of stability A low-pass filter is used for analog filter design.1 derivatives of the transfer function when Ω = 0 are equal to zero.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . In order that a system described via expression above is stable. Figure 3-3-1 illustrates S plane. They are also known as „maximally flat magnitude“ filters at the frequency of Ω = 0.mikroElektronika where: N is the filter order. Figure 3-3-2. www. Figure 3-3-2 illustrates frequency responses for a few various parameters N (filter order). as the first 2N . and M ≤ N.

Frequency response of Chebyshev analog filter To design Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. When the filter order is known. Position of Butterw orth filter poles for N=5 and N=6 The transfer function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter is expressed as follows: where: Sk is the k-th pole of the Butterworth filter transfer function For N=5.. The values of poles are expressed as: where: si is the i-th transfer function pole of analog prototype filter (complex value). 2. and Ωi is the imaginary pole.. and i=1. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order Chebyshev reference analog filter. i. The location of poles for N=5 and N=6 is shown in Figure 3-3-4.mikroElektronika Figure 3-3-3. the transfer function is: 3. σi is the pole. whereas Laplase transform (s plane) is used for analog filters. N is the filter order. they should not b e mixed up concerning the filter stab ility analyse. All poles of the resulting filter must be located in the left half of the S plane. ε is a parameter used to define maximum oscillations in the passband frequency response. Z-transform is used for digital filters. Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. . it is easy to find its poles using expression: Butterworth poles are equally allocated (equidistantly) on the unit circle within the left half of the s plane. Figure 3-3-4.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 22/45 . Even though these two types of transformations are similar to some extent. it is necessary to know the filter order. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial.Digital Filter Design .mikroe. it is necessary to know the filter order. filter is stab le if all poles are located in the left half of the s plane. neither recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary. Note: In the z plane. IIR filter specification Figure 3-3-3 illustrates IIR filter specification with parameters of most interest for Butterworth filter. Figure 3-3-5..3. where: N is the filter order. Therefore it is characterized by equal ripple in the passband and the stopband frequency response is monotoniously descending function. Figure 3-3-5 illustrates frequency response for a 4th order band-stop Chebyshev reference analog filter. The value of parameter ε is obtained via expression: Transfer function is expressed as: www.2 Chebyshev Analog Filter Chebyshev analog low-pass filter of the first kind is a type of analog filter that has the least oscillation in frequency response in the entire passband. to the left of the imaginary axis.e. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained via recursive relations: If the filter order is known in advance. N. To design Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. In the s plane.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . filter is stab le if all poles are located within the unit circle.

inverse Chebyshev filter has the least oscillation in the frequency response.. where: N is the filter order. The frequency response of this filter monotoniously falls in the passband and transition region. 5 1. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are found via expression: where: si is the pole of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter. 5. N. Figure 3-3-7. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial. σi is the real pole. the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-6. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order inverse Chebyshev reference analog filter. and Ωi is the imaginary pole. 2. N is the filter order.3 Inverse Chebyshev Analog Filter Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is also known as Chebyshev analog filter of the second kind.mikroElektronika For N=5. 3. Figure 3-3-7 illustrates the frequency response for an inverse Chebyshev reference analog band-stop filter of the 4th order. coefficient k in the transfer function num erator The values Ωk are found via expression: www. .Digital Filter Design . Location of the poles of Chebyshev filter for N=5 3. Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency.1 derivatives of the transfer function for Ω = 0 are equal to zero. it is necessary to know the filter order. N 5 6 7 8 M IN 1 1 1 1 M AX 5 5 7 7 V A L UES 1..3. 3. and i=1. The poles of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter are expressed as: where: si is the i-th pole of the transfer function of analog prototype filter (complex value). In the stopband. as the first 2N . 3. 7 Table 3-3-1. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained from recursive relation: If the filter order is familiar in advance. and s2i is the pole of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter. 3. 5 1. Similar to Butterworth filter. Frequency characteristic of inverse Chebyshev analog filter To design inverse Chebyshev reference analog pototype filter. 5.9/22/13 The value of A0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 23/45 . Transfer function is expressed as: The coefficient k in numerator can be only an odd number. ε is the parameter of maximum oscillation in the passband frequency response.. 7 1. the frequency response is extremely flat function at the frequency of Ω = 0. Table 3-3-1 provides a few examples of values of k.mikroe. neither these recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are considered reciprocal poles of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter.

4.4 Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation All analog prototype filters. s\\Ω c is used instead of s. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. band-pass or band-stop filter. For this reason.Digital Filter Design . Generally. Scaling is explained for low-pass. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. 3.9/22/13 The value H0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . high-pass. which is not the case with the poles of the transfer function. if needed. All the results obtained in this chapter are tested in the Filter designer tool program. the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transform function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. have scaled frequency range so that the passband cut-off frequency amounts to Ω = 1. so that passband and stopband cut-off frequencies have the appropriate. the zeros of the transfer function are always complex-conjugated values. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where H0 is a costant. predetermined values. In this case. Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency of Ωp =1. where Ω c is a desirable cut-off frequency in the passband.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 24/45 . the transformation comes to a simple frequency scaling. Location of poles and zeros of inverse Chebyshev filter for N=5 As seen from Figure 3-3-8 and expression for Ωk. regardless of their type. the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-8. Transformation from an analog prototype filter to appropriate analog filter is performed before transforming it in digital filter. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.e.2929 in the passband is obtained via expression: Example: The transform function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: www.mikroElektronika For N=5. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. high-pass. Frequency scaling depends on the type of analog filter being designed. Reference analog prototype filter is also a low-pass filter so it requires to be transformed into the appropriate type of filter.mikroe. i. it is necessary to scale filter during the design process. 3. By performing the transformation: each expression within brackets in the transfer function numerator is transformed into: and the whole numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: By replacing numerator and denominator by their transformed expressions. In the transform function.1 Low-pass filter The transformation from a reference analog prototype filter to a low-pass analog filter is the simplest type of transformation. band-pass and band-stop filters.

2 High-pass filter Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency Ωp = 1. The first step refers to the transformation to a high-pass analog filter.3721 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0.mikroe. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.4. www. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 25/45 . The filter order is doubled by this transformation.3 Band-pass filter The transformation in a band-pass analog filter is more complex than the transformation in a low-pass and high-pass analog filters. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.4. the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. By performing the following transformation: each bracket in the numerator of the transfer function is transformed into and the entire numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: Substituting these transformed expressions for numerator and denominator.1434 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transform function of analog filter: 3. whereas the second one refers to frequency scaling.Digital Filter Design . Its transformation to a high-pass analog filter can be split into two steps. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. The final objective is that passband cut-off frequency of the resulting high-pass analog filter amounts to Ωc. This is why it is not possible to design an odd order band-pass filter.mikroElektronika The transformation to a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0.3719 in the passband is obtained via expression: 3.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The transformation to a high-pass analog filter: Scaling of frequency axis is performed by transformation: These two transformations can be represented by one transformation: Generally.

The resulting filter order is used to design a low-pass reference analog prototype filter. Reference analog filter is further transformed in a bandpass analog filter.mikroElektronika When designing. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. and normalized after that with Ωc. the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant. Example: Assume that it is necessary to design an 8th order band-pass digital filter. Generally. which is necessary for normalization.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . By performing the transformation: each bracket in numerator of the transfer function is transformed into: and the entire numerator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator.Digital Filter Design .1626 in the passband is expressed as: www. Band-pass filter specification The value of Ωc.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 26/45 . pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. the required filter order is divided by two. The transformation into a band-pass analog filter is expressed as: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωp1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1). By transforming it into a band-pass analog filter the filter order is doubled. Figure 3-4-1. and Ωp2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1). The required filter order is obtained this way. A low-pass reference analog filter of the 4th order is designed first. The order of the resulting filter is 8. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. is found via expression: The transfer function of an analog prototype filter is transformed first in a band-pass analog filter.mikroe. This transformation doubles the filter order.

4. The resulting filter order is used for designing a low-pass reference analog prototype filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 27/45 . The transformation into a bandstop analog filter causes the filter order to double. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Example: It is necessary to design a band-stop digital filter of the 10th order.Digital Filter Design . the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant. This transformation causes the filter order to double. Band-stop filter specification The value of Ωc. the required filter order is divided by two. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.mikroElektronika 3. This is how the required filter order is obtained. A low-pass reference analog filter of the 5th order is designed first. is found via expression: The transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter is transformed first into a band-stop analog filter.9/22/13 The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroe. When designing. The transformation in a band-stop analog filter: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωs1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2). which is necessary for normalization.4 Band-stop filter The transformation in a band-stop analog filter is similar to the transformation in a bandpass analog filter. and Ωs2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2). Similarly. Generally. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. The reference analog filter is transformed in a band-stop analog filter. The result is a 10th order filter. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: www. The first step refers to normalization with the frequency Ωc: The transformation is performed in the second step: and each bracket in the transfer function numerator is transformed in: and the entire numerator is transformed in: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed in: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. and normalized after that with Ωc. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. the filter order is doubled and the order of a band-stop digital filter cannot be an odd number. Figure 3-4-2.

faithfully approximate the frequency response of analog filter. For this reason. fs=44100Hz.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . the transformation must provide that the left half of s plane coincides with the area within the unit circle of z plane.mikroElektronika The transformation into a band-stop analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. the transformation is performed by a simple change of variable s in the expression for the transfer function of the resulting analog filter. provide that the resulting digital filter is guaranteed to be stable.1014 p1=-2. whereas digital filter is stable if the poles are located within the unit circle.1014 z2=-j0.Digital Filter Design . fc=2KHz. it is necessary to transform the resulting analog filter into a digital one. Using expression for linear transformation: we obtain: where: N=2 M=2 z1=j0. The transformation is supposed to: 1. It is done by transforming the analog filter transfer function into a digital one.2692 p2=-2. The analog filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant. Figure 3-5-1. the analog filter transfer function is further transformed into: where: Hoz is a constant of the digital IIR filter transfer function Example: The transfer function of a second-order high-pass analog filter (inverse Chebyshev.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 28/45 . It is defined via expression: Using the previous expression.mikroe. as shown in Figure 3-5-1. This transformation also transforms s plane into z plane. zk is the zero of the analog filter transfer function. 60dB) is expressed as: It is necessary to transform the given analog filter into the appropriate digital filter by bilinear transformation. and pk is the pole of the analog filter transfer function.267-j2. and 2.252.267+j2. After transformation.5727 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: 3. Transform ation of s plane into z plane One of most commonly used method of transforming analog filters into appropriate IIR filters is known as bilinear transformation.2692 www. If s=0 then H(s)=H0 . the transformation of the analog filter transform function into a digital one can be expressed as: As seen.5 Bilinear transformation Digital IIR filters are designed using analog filters. After the frequency scaling and transformation into a desirable type of filter have been performed. Analog filter is stable if the poles of the transfer function are located in the left half of s plane.

Digital Filter Design . the resulting IIR filter is not stable and is useless therefore. and 7. The specified filter order is increased or decreased according to needs.mikroElektronika The result is the transfer function of a digital high-pass IIR filter. A disadvantage of the bilinear transformation is a non-linear transformation of the analog filter frequency axis into a digital one. so that it is not linear. the resulting coefficients are quantized. step 2 is skipped. If the filter order is known. and steps 4. 5. Regardless of the type of reference analog prototype filter in use. In every given example. It is very important to prevent the poles from being located outside the unite circle. and band-stop filter. Reference analog prototype filter is always a low-pass filter. Figure 3-6-1. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. When designing. which may further cause the stopband attenuation to decrease. 3. it is impossible to represent coefficients without an error. then it is necessary to do it. high-pass filter. The final result is the transfer function H(s) given by: where: H0 is a constant. The four standard types of filters are used here: low-pass filter. The IIR filter design process can be split into several steps described in Chapter 3. If the type of reference analog prototype filter is predetermined. the IIR filter design process will be described through these steps in order to make it easier for you to observe similarities and differencies between various design methodes. Realization structure is illustrated in Figure 3-5-2 below. step 3 is skipped. IIR filter realization Digital filters designed via bilinear trasnformation are guaranteed to be stable. When transforming. M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. if it happens.2. The expression used to transform the reference analog prototype filter transfer function depends on the type of filter that needs to be obtained. 4. 2. The quantization effect on digital filter stability is much more dangerous. Any error made during the quantization of coefficients affects more or less the frequency response. In software digital filter realization (implementation). pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. band-pass filter. Some steps are skipped in some cases. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well. www. On filter realization. However. However. The output data is a reference analog prototype filter transfer function Ha (s).mikroe. which is not the case with the rest of the frequency axis. Such a non-linear transformation of analog filter frequencies causes the phase characteristic distorsion. the accurate values of coefficients are obtained immediately after the implementation of bilinear transformation.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 29/45 . Special care is required when quantizing feedback coefficients as it causes the location of the digital IIR filter transfer function poles to change their location. The next step is the transformation into an analog filter of appropriate type. Transformation into analog filter by range scaling. 3. analog prototype filters and design of various types of filters as well. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Computing the filter order according to the filter specifications and specified analog prototype filter. Transformation into digital filter by bilinear transformation. Specifying the type of analog prototype filter. 6. the transfer function is given by: where: H0 is a constant. Figure 3-5-2.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The design method used here is known as bilinear transformation. Defining filter specifications. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. the cut-off frequencies are defined on the basis of the given specifications and type of a filter.5 Designing IIR filters b y b ilinear transformation. these frequencies have appropriate locations. These are: 1. Figure 3-6-1 illustrates the design steps along with input and output data for each of them.6 Examples This chapter discusses various IIR filter design methods. 5 and 6 are repeated after that as many times as needed. Steps in designing digital IIR filter The first block refers to design of reference analog prototype filter of appropriate order. which also generates a certain error. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter.

substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. whereas it is different if the analog filter is a band-pass or band-stop filter. Passband cut-off frequency – fc=2.mikroElektronika M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB. These can be computed via expression: As N = 2. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: www. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.Digital Filter Design .mikroe. the analog filter order (N) is twice that of the reference analog prototype filter.6. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well. which is sufficient for most examples. In the later case.5KHz. They differ only in the value of constant H0 . 3. N=2. As seen. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. only poles.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 30/45 . Step 2: Method.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. the values of the transfer function poles and zeros zk and pk as well as in the number of transfer function zeros M. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the transfer functions of reference analog prototype filter and analog filter are very similar. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=2. pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. All data are calculated with the accuracy of 4 decimal digits. The next step is the transformation into appropriate digital IIR filter using bilinear transformation given by expression: Filter Designer Tool is used for testing and analysing the resulting IIR filters in this chapter.1.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .1 Filter design using Butterworth filter 3. The filter order is the same if the analog filter is a low-pass or high-pass filter.6. the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.

and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB.6. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-3. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. whereas Figure 3-6-3 illustrates the frequency response of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. There is no need to additionally change it. the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.Digital Filter Design .1. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: www. N = 3. Passband cut-off frequency – fc=5KHz.mikroe. Step 2: Method. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=3.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 31/45 .mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-2. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-2 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. only poles. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.

Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3.mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-4. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=4KHz. N = 4. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter.Digital Filter Design . Step 2: Method . In this example for N=4.1. so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-5. www. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-4 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.6. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. fc2=6KHz. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. There is no need to additionally change it. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined.mikroe. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. only poles. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.9/22/13 A more condensed form of the previous expression is: Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 32/45 . the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4.

1. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-6 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. fc2=3300Hz. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-7. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. only poles.mikroe. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. There is no need to additionally change it. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 33/45 . so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. Figure 3-6-6.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . In this example for N = 4. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. www. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.mikroElektronika In this example. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=3000Hz. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. Step 2: Method . N = 4.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter.Digital Filter Design .6.

Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. Passband cut-off frequency– fc1=15KHz. only poles. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts. The solution is redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied.mikroe. Maximum passband attenuation – ap=1dB. Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4. There is no need to additionally change it.mikroElektronika In this example. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: www. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-9. Figure 3-6-8. Step 2: Method . Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2=18KHz. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0.6.6. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.2457 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.2 Filter design using Chebyshev filter 3.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 34/45 . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-8 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.Digital Filter Design .2. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as=40dB. These can be computed via expression: As N = 4.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs=44100Hz. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3.

1228 so the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.mikroElektronika The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The filter order is incremented by 1 and is 5 therefore. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated.Digital Filter Design .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 35/45 . Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-10 below. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5. Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = . www. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. A new filter order is 5. the values of poles are: The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. only poles.mikroe. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.0. Figure 3-6-10. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 31. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.2dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient. Step3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.

only it takes more time. Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order.mikroe. whereas Figure 3-6-13 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-11 below. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-12 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. the expression for transfer function is simpler: www. Digital IIR filter direct realization Figure 3-6-13. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 41.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Step 2: Method . the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. Figure 3-6-12.0. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. Figure 3-6-11.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3.1. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is appropriate.6dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 36/45 .mikroElektronika This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. only poles.4913 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. N = 3. The whole procedure is the same. Passband cut-off frequency – fc = 5KHz.6.Digital Filter Design . Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter 3.

9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: www. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. In this example for N = 4. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-15. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz.mikroe.Digital Filter Design . substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-14. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. Step 2: Method filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. There is no need to additionally change it. N = 4. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0. fc2 = 6KHz. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-14 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order.1.6.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 37/45 .9/22/13 After substitution of poles and Ωc into expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . only poles.mikroElektronika Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.

The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. Filter 3-6-16.1. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. In this example for N = 4. fc2 = 3300Hz. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB.mikroElektronika First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-17. Step 2: Method . N = 4. In this expression. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 38/45 . only poles. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 3000Hz. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. There is no need to additionally change it. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter.6. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: www.9/22/13 Step 5: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-16 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.Digital Filter Design . the order of reference prototype filter is 2. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order.mikroe. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.

Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. the value of constant A0 is: Chapter 3: IIR filters . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros.9/22/13 In this example. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as = 40dB.6. Passband cut-off frequency – fc1 = 15KHz.Digital Filter Design . Step 2: Method . There is no need to additionally change it. Figure 3-6-18.6.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 39/45 . In this expression.mikroElektronika A0 = 0. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.3 Filter design using inverse Chebyshev filter 3. Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. The solution is www. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-19. Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2 = 18KHz.mikroe.3.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter –low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs = 44100Hz. Filter realization Figure 3-6-18 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.

A new filter order is 5.mikroe. only poles. Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-20 below. The filter order is incremented by 1.2dB approximately at the frequency of 15KHZ is not sufficient. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated. Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.Digital Filter Design . Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. the values of poles are: www. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. and becomes 5 therefore. It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .01 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. Figure 3-6-20. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: As N = 4. the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Step 3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration. Frequency charactersitic of designed IIR filter The attenuation at 15KHz is higher than 1dB and the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the specifications therefore. only poles. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5.mikroElektronika redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 5.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 40/45 .

and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-23. it is obvious that the attenuation at 18KHZ is less than 1dB (approximately 0. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. The whole procedure is the same. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-22 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Step 7: By analysing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order. Figure 3-6-21.0.6. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-21 below. whereas Figure 3-6-23 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.mikroe.05 so the inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.8dB). the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3. only it takes more time. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 41/45 . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. Figure 3-6-22. www.mikroElektronika In this case.Digital Filter Design . the value of constant H0 is: H0 = . Frequency characteristic of IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is approriate.1. Passband cut-off frequency– fc = 5KHz.

the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. only poles. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = -0. There is no need to additionally change it. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 Step 2: Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 42/45 .mikroElektronika Method . N=3.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.3 Example 3 www.6.mikroe.03 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-25. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-24 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. the transfer function is: After substituting the poles and Ωc into expression: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.1. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-6-24. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.

the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. N = 4.mikroElektronika Filter order – N = 4. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.mikroe. fc2 = 6KHz. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 43/45 .Digital Filter Design . These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. www. Step 2: Method . Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: For this example. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-26 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter. only poles. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. In this example.9/22/13 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specification: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. There is no need to additionally change it. In this example for N=4.

the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-27. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.6. Stopband cut-off frequencies – fc1=3000Hz. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. fc2=3300Hz. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB.mikroe. www.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.1. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. In this example for N = 4. the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-26.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter. only poles. N = 4. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specification: Filter order – N=4.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 44/45 . the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. Step 2: Method .Digital Filter Design . so the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. In this expression. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order.

MikroElektronika. Figure 3-6-28.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-28 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.2013. All rights reserved.Digital Filter Design .9/22/13 Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple ← previous chapter | table of contents MikroElektronika Embedded Solutions PIC Solution PIC De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC C om pile rs PIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC Kits PIC Book s Follow us on PIC32 Solution PIC 32 De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC 32 C om pile rs PIC 32 Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC 32 Kits dsPIC Solution dsPIC De ve lopm e nt Boards dsPIC C om pile rs dsPIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs dsPIC Kits dsPIC Book s Add-on boards C lick Boards m ik rom e dia shie lds C om m unication boards Storage boards R e al Tim e C lock boards Display boards Me asure m e nt boards Audio & Voice boards Powe r Supply boards GPS boards GSM/GPR S boards Additional Software Visual TFT Visual GLC D Pack age Manage r GLC D Font C re ator 8051 Solution 8051 De ve lopm e nt Boards 8051 C om pile rs 8051 Program m e rs/De bugge rs 8051 Book s 8051 Kits AVR Solution AVR De ve lopm e nt Boards AVR C om pile rs AVR Program m e rs/De bugge rs AVR Kits ARM Solution AR M De ve lopm e nt Boards AR M C om pile rs AR M Program m e rs/De bugge rs AR M Kits Support Forum m ik roBUS Le ts m ak e Pre ss Le gal Inform ation Product Archive About Us C opyright © 1998 .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 45/45 . All trade and/or services marks mentioned are the property of their respective owners. www. There is no need to additionally change it.mikroe. Filter realization: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-29.