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**Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika
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**Digital Filter Design
**

TOC Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3

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**Chapter 3: Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters
**

3.1. Introduction 3.2. IIR filter design 3.3. Reference analog prototype filter 3.4. Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation 3.5. Bilinear transformation 3.6. Examples

3.1 Introduction

IIR filters are digital filters with infinite impulse response. Unlike FIR filters, they have the feedback (a recursive part of a filter) and are known as recursive digital filters therefore.

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Figure 3-1-1. Block diagram s of FIR and IIR filters

For this reason IIR filters have much better frequency response than FIR filters of the same order. Unlike FIR filters, their phase characteristic is not linear which can cause a problem to the systems which need phase linearity. For this reason, it is not preferable to use IIR filters in digital signal processing when the phase is of the essence. Otherwise, when the linear phase characteristic is not important, the use of IIR filters is an excellent solution. There is one problem known as a potential instability that is typical of IIR filters only. FIR filters do not have such a problem as they do not have the feedback. For this reason, it is always necessary to check after the design process whether the resulting IIR filter is stable or not. IIR filters can be designed using different methods. One of the most commonly used is via the reference analog prototype filter. This method is the best for designing all standard types of filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters. This book describes the design method using reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-1-2 illustrates the block diagram of this method.

Figure 3-1-2. Block diagram of design m ethod using reference analog prototype filter

FIR filters can have linear phase characteristic, which is not typical of IIR filters. When it is necessary to have linear phase characteristic,

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

FIR filters are the only available solution. In other cases when linear phase characteristic is not necessary, such as speech signal processing, FIR filters are not good solution. IIR filters should be used instead. The resulting filter order is considerably lower for the same frequency response. The filter order determines the number of filter delay lines, i.e. number of input and output samples that should be saved in order that the next output sample can be computed. For instance, if the filter order is 10, it means that it is necessary to save 10 input samples plus 10 output samples preceeding the current sample. All these 21 samples will affect the next output sample. The IIR filter transfer function is a ratio of two polynomials of complex variable z-1. The numerator defines location of zeros, whereas the denominator defines location of poles of the resulting IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-1-3. illustrates input and output signals of the system with non-linear phase characteristic.

Figure 3-1-3. The effect of non-linear phase characteristic

The system introduces phase shift of 0 radians at frequency of ω, and π radians at three times higher frequency. Input signal consists of nature frequency ω and harmonics with the same amplitude at three times higher frequency. Figure on the left illustrates an input signal, whereas Figure on the right illustrates an output signal. As seen, these two signals have different waveforms. Neither the power of the signal nor amplitudes of particular harmonics have been changed, but the phase of the second harmonic. Assume that an input represents a speech signal where the phase is not important. In this case such phase distorsion would be negligable as the system satisfies the stated requirements. Otherwise, if the phase is important, such a huge distorsion mustn’t be allowed.

**3.2 Infinite impulse response (IIR) filter design
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The most commonly used IIR filter design method uses reference analog prototype filter. It is the best method to use when designing standard filters such as low-pass, high-pass, bandpass and band-stop filters. The filter design process starts with specifications and requirements of the desirable IIR filter. A type of reference analog prototype filter to be used is specified according to the specifications and after that everything is ready for analog prototype filter design. The next step in the design process is scaling of the frequency range of analog prototype filter into desirable frequency range. This is how an analog prototype filter is converted into an analog filter. After the analog filter is designed, it is time to go through the last step in the digital IIR filter design process. It is conversion from analog to digital filter. The most popular and most commonly used converting method is bilinear transformation method. The resulting filter, obtained in this way, is always stable. However, instability of the resulting filter, when bilinear transformation is used, may be caused only by the finite word-length side-effect.

**3.2.1 Basic concepts and IIR filter specification
**

First of all, it is necessay to learn the basic concepts that will be used further in this book. You should be aware that without being familiar with these concepts, it is not possible to understand analyses and synthesis of digital filters. Figure 3-2-1 illustrates a low-pass digital filter specification. The word specification refers to the frequency response specification.

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-1a. Low -pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-1b. Low -pass digital filter specification

ωp – normalized passband cut-off frequency; ωs – normalized stopband cut-off frequency; δ1 – maximum passband ripples; δ2 – minimum stopband attentuation; ε – passband attenuation parameter; A – stopband attenuation parameter; ap – maximum passband ripples [dB]; and as – minimum stopband attenuation [dB].

Frequency normalization can be expressed as follows:

where:

**fs is the sampling frequency; f is the frequency to normalize; and ω is the normalized frequency.
**

Specifications for high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters are defined almost the same way as those for low-pass filters. Figure 3-2-2 illustrates a high-pass filter specification, whereas Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass filter specification.

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-2a. High-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-2b. High-pass digital filter specification

Comparing these two Figures 3-2-1 and 3-2-2, it is obvious that low-pass and high-pass filters have similar specifications. The same parameters are defined in both cases with the difference that in the later case the passband is substituded by the stopband and vice versa. Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass specification.

Filter 3-2-3a. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-3b. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-4 illustrates band-stop digital filter specification

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com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 5/45 .2. x(n)={1.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-4a. The Fourier transformation can be found by rewriting the previous expression in terms of z as z=e^jω. The Z-transform is defined as: where z is the complex number.2.3. It is very suitable for analyzing discrete time-domain signals and systems as well.mikroe.Digital Filter Design . Band-stop digital filter specification Figure 3-2-4b. Example: Assume that samples of a discrete-time signal x(n) are known.4.5.2.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .1} . 0 ≤ n ≤ 8 z-transform is defined via expression: It becomes: The last expression is the z-transform of the given signal.3. It converts a discrete timedomain signal into a complex frequency-domin representation. The z-transform is derived from the Fourier discrete time-domain transformation and is considered the basic operation in digital filter design process.4. Band-stop digital filter specification 3. It becomes: www.2 Z-transform The Z-transform is performed upon discrete-time signals. It is necessary to transform this signal with the z-transform and Fourier fransform.

www. the Fourier transform is represented as a unit circle.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 6/45 .mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-5 illustrates the (frequency) spectrum of the given signal. Frequency spectrum of the given signal Comparing Z and Fourier transforms. which can be seen in Figure 3-2-6 below. Figure 3-2-5.Digital Filter Design . it is easy to notice some similarities between them: In polar coordinates.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . the complex number z may be expressed as follows: The two last expressions lead us to the conclusion that Fourier transform is just a special form of the z-transform for r=1. In the z plane.

Fourier transform in the z plane The z-transform of the transfer function is of great importance for IIR filters.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The location of poles in the z plane is used for testing stability of designed IIR filter. Figure 3-2-7a Stable IIR filter Transfer function zeros are denoted by small circles.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 7/45 .mikroe.Digital Filter Design .mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-6. Figure 3-2-7a illustrates zeros and poles of the transfer function of a stable IIR filter in the z plane. whereas its poles are denoted by small crosses. www. The poles of the IIR filter transfer function must be located within the unit circle in order that filter is stable.

two poles located outside the unit circle make this IIR filter instable. it is easy to determine whether it refers to FIR or IIR filter.mikroe. one transfer function zero is located outside the unit circle. then it is single. Figure 3-2-7a clearly indicates interrelation between zeros and poles in the z plane. which means that it refers to IIR.3 Transfer function of discrete-time systems The Z-transform is primarily used for finding the transfer function of linear discrete-time systems.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 8/45 . If a zero or a pole is located on the real axe in the z plane. Such a pair is also called a complex-conjugated pair of zeros or poles.2. it is illustrated as a pair of zeros or poles which are symmetric around the real axis. All four poles of transfer function are located within the unit circle. The result of such a quantization is a filter that is not stable. www. the imaginary part is zero. In the z plane. This quantization changes the location of zeros and poles of the resulting IIR filter. Instable IIR filter As seen from Figure 3-2-7b. it is necessary to consider the zeros and poles of the transfer function in the z plane. If bilinear transformation is used in the filter design. Also. When the transfer function is found.Digital Filter Design . The transfer function of discrete-time systems is defined to be: where: bi are the feedforward filter coefficients (non-recursive part). Figure 3-2-7b. 3. i. not FIR filter. qi are the zeros of the transfer function. the resulting filter is stable before the coefficient quantization starts. It is obviously not the case in Figure 3-2-7. then it has the corresponding pair having the same real value and the same imaginary value with the opposite sign. According to the location of poles in the z plane.mikroElektronika As seen in Figure 3-2-7. which can cause one pole or one pair of poles to be located outside the unit circle. which guarantees tha stability of IIR filters.e. H0 is a constant. It doesn’t cause any problem as the location of poles is the only thing that matters. The poles of the FIR filter transfer function are located at the origin.9/22/13 Re – Real axis Im – Imaginary axis Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-2-7b illustrates the zeros and poles of the transfer function of an instable IIR filter in the z plane. If either of them is not located on the real axis in the z plane. aj are the feedback filter coefficients (recursive part).

whereas the representation in the z domain is suitable for analyzes of designed filters and synthesis itself (design process).9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Unlike the FIR filters.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 9/45 . Another expression for convolusion that is more useful in practical applications is: www. The recursive part of the transfer function is actually a discrete-time system feedback. the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as follows: OR The later expression is more convenient for software IIR filters realization. Figure 3-2-8 Discrete-tim e system w ith feedback In the time domain.Digital Filter Design . the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as the multiplication of Z-transform input signal X(z) and the transform function H(z): The first way of representing discrete-time systems is suitable for both software and hardware IIR filter implementation. Example: The transfer function of a 3th order IIR filter. In the frequency domain. illustrates block diagram of discrete-time system with feedback.mikroElektronika pj are the poles of the transfer function. designed using Chebyshev function is: The following expression describes the filtering process: This process is also known as convolution. B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part of the system. Figure 3-2-8. the IIR filters have feedback which enable them to have greater selectivity as well as nonlinearity of phase characteristic than FIR filters.mikroe. and A(z) the transfer function of recursive part of the system (feedback).

com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 10/45 . For example.2π: The numerator is computed first: Then denominator: www.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroElektronika After making substitutions of impulse response coefficients.Digital Filter Design . it becomes: Using expression: it is possible to find function for particular normalized frequency.mikroe. when ω = 0.

the pole quantization.mikroe. The finite word-length effect on the transform www. The result of the feedback. Deviation of frequency depends on the spacing between the zeros and poles of the FIR filter transfer function and the origin in the z plane.mikroElektronika Figure 2-2-8 illustrates a hardware realization of this IIR filter. which makes them stable. Figure 3-2-9 illustrates the required and obtained frequency characteristic of an IIR filter. whereas in hardware implementation. affects more frequency characteristic. which is very dangerous. this doesn’t apply on IIR filters. 3. One buffer would be used for input samples and another one for output samples. Therefore. the system becomes unstable. Recalling that FIR flters do not have a feedback. This property is particularly typical of high-order filters because their zeros are very close each other. the given IIR filter corresponds to a 6th order FIR filter. Figure 3-2-9. by rule. By complexity. which provides so high selectivity and attenuation. Besides. The result in both cases is that the actual value of coefficients differs from their value obtained in design process. is a non-linear phase characteristic.2. Realization of IIR filter in this exam ple The software realization would require two buffers each of minimum length 3. it is preferable to use bilinear transformation because it always makes filter stable.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 11/45 . Slight errors in coefficient representation may cause large frequency deviations. In order that a discrete-time system is stable. If this requirement is not satisfied. A direct result of such errors is deviation of the frequency of designed discrete-time system. It always happens due to software and hardware implementation that an error in coefficients representation is produced. These are usually circular buffers whose length can be expressed as 2^n. The FIR filter coefficient error affects more the frequency response as the spacing between the zero and pole of the transfer function and the origin narrows. it ocurrs due to impossibility of representing the coefficients with apsolute accuracy. In software implementation. However. an error is triggered by the finite word-length effect.4 Effects of the poles and zeros of the transfer function The location of poles and zeros of the transfer function is very important for discrete-time system analyses and synthesis. which in this case means that the circular buffer is 4 = 2^2 in length.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . filter stability is questioned only due to coefficient quantization which is performed at the end of the design process. The location of zeroes doesn’t affect the stabilty of discrete-time systems. as shown in Figure 3-2-6. In this case. detect round-off errors made due to software implementation of a filter as well as coefficient errors encountered during hardware implementation of a filter.Digital Filter Design . According to their location it is possible to test stability of a discrete-time system. Selectivity and attenuation of this filter are much higher than those of any 6th order FIR filter. all poles of the discrete-time system transfer function must be located within the unit circle.

6 IIR filter realization FIR filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: N is the filter order. it is time to specify the type of reference analog prototype filter. If the obtained filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. scaling and obtaining analogue filters and conversion into digital filter.9/22/13 function of an IIR filter is clearly marked in this figure. The initial value of the filter order is roughly estimated and is changed after that depending on the obtained characteristics and requirements. and 7. The final objective of defining IIR filter specifications is to find the desirable normalized cutoff frequencies (ωc. when the type of analog proptotype filter is known. bk the coefficient of non-recursive part of IIR filter. Be aware that every type has its good and bad sides. that is. is repeated. Conversion into analog filter via scaling. The filter order can be increased or decreased according to needs and after that steps 4. it is possible to find its transfer function. IIR filters have much greater selectivity and attenuation than FIR filters of the same order.2. Conversion into digital filter via bilinear transformation. Deviation from required frequency characteristic The frequency deviation shown in Figure 3-2-10 is basically slight deviation. However. it is preferable to specify such a type of analog prototype filter that can produce the lowest order IIR filter. 4. 6. the entire IIR filter design process. For this reason. 5 and 6 are repeated as many times as needed.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 12/45 . The coefficients bk and ak are of interest for IIR filter realization (both hardware and software). Computing the filter order required for a given set of specifications and specified analog prototype filter. it is necessary to specify or compute the filter order required for a given set of specifications. It is only important that its characteristics can satisfy the given specifications. The transfer function of analog prototype filter depends on frequencies which are not scaled into the desirable range. 3.mikroe. When both type and order of analog prototype filter are known. i. The type of analog prototype filter as well as the filter order will be specified according to these parameters. or if the filter order can be less than actual one. Defining filter specification.e. the transfer function of the specified type of reference analog prototype filter is obtained by converting analog filter into digital one.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-10. and ak the coefficient of recursive part (feedback) of IIR filter. After this step. Specifying analog prototype filter. it should be changed.Digital Filter Design . ωc1. it is necessary to perform scaling of the transfer function so that cut-off frequencies go into the desirable range. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. 3. 5. 3.5 IIR filters design using bilinear transformation The IIR filter design using bilinear transformation can be split into several steps: 1. transition width. After changing the filter order. Finally. This book represents the most commonly used conversion known as bilinear transformation. maximum passband attenuation and minimum stopband attenuation. The minimum attenuation and the width of transition region of the resulting IIR filter remain unchanged.2. ωc2). Now. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications. computing of the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. it is preferable to increase or decrease the filter order by 1. This operation is actually conversion of reference analog prototype filter into analog filter with desirable characteristic. so that such deviation is acceptable. Figure 3-2-11 illustrates the block diagram of www. then it is necessary to do it. even though it is very large at certain frequencies. 2. Chapter 3: IIR filters . For this reason.

direct transpose.9/22/13 IIR filter. these two parts are separately considered and realized. All of them are very convenient and most commonly used for both hardware and software IIR filter realization. Chapter 3: IIR filters . The realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is identical to the direct realization of FIR filter. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter www.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 13/45 . This chapter covers direct. illustrates the block diagram of direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter.2. 3.mikroe. Block diagram of IIR filter There are several types of IIR filter realization. In IIR filter direct realization.Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-2-12.6. Figure 3-2-12. direct canonic. direct transpose canonic and cascade realizations.1 Direct realization Direct realization of IIR filters starts with this expression: The first part of the expression refers to non-recursive part and the other refers to recursive part of IIR filter. Each of them will be described in detail along with their advantages and disadvantages.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-11.

Figure 3-2-13.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 14/45 . Figure 3-2-13. www. respectively. illustrates the direct realization of the filter recursive part.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroElektronika As seen from Figure 3-2-12 above. Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b illustrate block diagrams of IIR filter realization when non-recursive part is used before and after recursive part of IIR filter.Digital Filter Design . it doesn’t matter which of them will be used first in filtering process. Realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is similar to that of recursive part. multiplication coefficients are identical to those of the transfer function. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter As non-recursive and recursive part of IIR filter are separately realized.mikroe.

As seen from Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b. non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-14b. Direct realization is very convenient for software implementation and this is where it is most commonly used. direct realization requires in total of 2N delay lines. IIR filter direct realization. (2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions. IIR filter direct realization. Some of disadvantages of www.Digital Filter Design . recursive part is used first This structure is also known as a direct form I structure.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 15/45 .mikroe.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-14a.

The length of circular buffer is obtained from the following expression: It means that the minimum length of circular buffer is 2^3 = 8. 6 A DDR.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . where N is the filter order. location addressing in the circular buffer is performed via module 16 operations: Example: A 6th order FIR filter is used in this example. It is necessary to design this filter using direct structure with circular buffer. Input samples are denoted by x[n] and each shaded cell represents changed location in buffer. needs most resources). 2 A DDR. it is also necessary to have two buffers of minimum length N+1. the largest finite word-length effect).e.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 16/45 . www.2 Direct transpose realization Direct transpose realization is similar to direct realization. The contents of the buffer after receiving the first 10 samples is shown in the table 3-2-1. Circular buffer of length 16 = 2^4 Since the buffer length is 16. 4 A DDR. i. Input circular buffer after receiving 10 sam ples 3. and the greatest complexity due to implementation (i.mikroElektronika this realization are the greatest sensitivity to accuracy of realized coefficients (i. 0 S T EP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x[0] x[1] x[2] x[3] x[4] x[5] x[6] x[7] x[7] x[7] x[6] x[6] x[6] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[9] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[8] x[8] Table 2-2-2. On IIR filter software implementation with direct structure.Digital Filter Design . A DDR. The only difference is in the position of delay lines.6. 7 A DDR.2.e. For their simplicity and effectiveness. most commonly used are the so called circular buffers the length of which can be expressed as 2^k. 3 A DDR. buffer if it is about software implementation. 5 A DDR. Here.e. The value of constant k is defined as a minimum value for which N ≤ 2^k is valid. The length of the buffer needs to be 2^k. 1 A DDR. it is necessary to have two buffers with at least N+1 samples.mikroe. where N is the IIR filter order. Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-17 illustrate the block diagram describing IIR filter direct transpose realization structure of IIR filter. Accordingly: where the operator represents rounding down to a less value. Figure 3-2-15.

com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 17/45 .mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-16. (2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions. the direct transpose realization structure uses 2N delay lines. recursive part is used first There are no significant differences between direct and direct transpose realizations. non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-17. www. The only difference is in the position of delay lines. Similar to direct realization structure.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design . IIR filter direct transpose realization. Both structures have the same multiplication coefficients.mikroe. IIR filter direct transpose realization.

www. Direct canonic structure uses N delay elements. although it is easy to differentiate between them. that is.2.mikroElektronika Direct canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum. Figure 3-2-19 illustrates the block diagram describing direct transpose canonical realization structure of IIR filter. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization.6.Digital Filter Design .6. one of the main disadvantages of direct and direct transpose realization structures is eliminated. N delay lines. Direct canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct canonic structure block diagram and direct realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-14b are obvious. Recursive and nonrecursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately. 3. but similar to direct canonical structure. Recursive and non-recursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 18/45 . Figure 3-2-18 illustrates the block diagram describing direct canonic realization structure of IIR filter. which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure. The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-14b and 3-2-18 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct canonic realization structure cannot be treated separately.3 Direct Canonical Realization Chapter 3: IIR filters .9/22/13 3. which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure.mikroe. Figure 3-2-18. This way.4 Direct transpose canonical realization Direct transpose canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum of N delay lines as well as reduced number of adders to N+1. Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures.2. (2N+1) multipilications and 2N additions.

aj are the coefficients of transfer function denominator (recursive part). It is very convenient for its modular structure and less sensitivity to the accuracy of non-recursive and recursive coefficients realization. The IIR filter transfer function is expressed as: where: bi are the coefficients of transfer function numerator (non-recursive part). and M is the number of sections in cascade realization structure. H0 is a constant. 3. On cascade IIR filter realization.mikroe. modulation of frequency response and IIR filter stability are separately examined for each section. Direct transpose canonic structure uses N delay elements. The analyse is simplified this way.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 19/45 .2. (2N+1) multipilication elements and N+1 adders. mutually independent sections of the first or second order. pj are the poles of the transfer function. The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-19 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct transpose canonical realization structure cannot be treated separately. B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part.5 Cascade Realization Cascade realization structure is the most difficult to obtain from the transfer function (comparing to other realization structures given in this book). Direct transpose canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct transpose canonical structure block diagram and direct transpose realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-16 are obvious. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure. the finite word-length effect on the accuracy of coefficients.Digital Filter Design .mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-19. Cascade realization requires the given expression to be factorized so that the transfer function is expressed as follows: www. a filter is divided into several. Individual sections are mostly realized in direct canonical or direct transpose canonical structure.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Since the sections are mutually independent after design process. qi are the zeros of the transfer function. Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures. A(z) is the transfer function of recursive part (feedback).6. although it is easy to differentiate between them.

Such complexity and needed factorization are two main disadvantages of this realization structure. Cascade IIR filter structure 3. Figure 3-2-21 illustrates the block diagram describing cascade IIR filter structure.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 20/45 .3 Reference Analog Prototype Filter IIR filter design process starts with reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-2-21.mikroe. Filter dividing in independent sections reduces the sensitivity to the accuracy of quantization coefficients and simplifies analysing the stability of the resulting filter. Software realization requires M buffer of length 2 or 1. Direct transpose canonical structure is most frequently used in realization. therefore. Besides. Chebyshev (Chebyshev I) and inverse Chebyshev filter (Chebyshev II). k] are the coefficients of recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section. Figure 3-2-22. so the changes of poles locations are smaller. Each section must have its own buffer for saving samples of intermediate signals. the possibility that IIR filter becomes instable after quantization is drastically reduced as the coefficients quantization is performed after dividing filter in sections.mikroElektronika where: a[i. Figure 3-2-20. Second-order section The use of direct transpose realization structure reduces necessary number of delay lines and adders as well. b[i. This book explains Butterworth. The transform function of analog filter Hs a (s) is expressed as: www. First-order section Figure 3-2-21 illustrates a second-order section. Individual sections are of the first or second order. Figure 3-220 illustrates a first-order section.Digital Filter Design . k] are the coefficients of non-recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .

com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 21/45 .1 Butterworth analog filter Low-pass Butterworth analog filters are filters whose frequency response is a monotonious descending function. Figure 3-3-1.Digital Filter Design .e. it is necessary that all poles (the square roots of polinomial Aa(s)) are located in the left half of S plane. and M ≤ N. Frequency response of Butterw orth filter Butterworth filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. Figure 3-3-2 illustrates frequency responses for a few various parameters N (filter order).3. frequency axis scaling. Figure 3-3-1 illustrates S plane. The conversion into the appropriate type of filter (high-pass.mikroe. In order that a system described via expression above is stable.1 derivatives of the transfer function when Ω = 0 are equal to zero. s is the complex frequency (s = σ + jΩ). They are also known as „maximally flat magnitude“ filters at the frequency of Ω = 0.mikroElektronika where: N is the filter order. 3. S plane and region of stability A low-pass filter is used for analog filter design. as the first 2N . and N is the filter order. Butterworth filter is characterized by 3dB attenuation at the frequency of Ω=1.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . band-pass or band-stop) is performed by converting into analog filter. i. Figure 3-3-2. www. no matter the filter order is.

and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial. ε is a parameter used to define maximum oscillations in the passband frequency response.2 Chebyshev Analog Filter Chebyshev analog low-pass filter of the first kind is a type of analog filter that has the least oscillation in frequency response in the entire passband. Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. 2. IIR filter specification Figure 3-3-3 illustrates IIR filter specification with parameters of most interest for Butterworth filter. Therefore it is characterized by equal ripple in the passband and the stopband frequency response is monotoniously descending function. where: N is the filter order. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained via recursive relations: If the filter order is known in advance. the transfer function is: 3.. N. filter is stab le if all poles are located within the unit circle.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 22/45 . i. To design Butterworth reference analog prototype filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . it is necessary to know the filter order.. .Digital Filter Design . Note: In the z plane. N is the filter order. Position of Butterw orth filter poles for N=5 and N=6 The transfer function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter is expressed as follows: where: Sk is the k-th pole of the Butterworth filter transfer function For N=5. they should not b e mixed up concerning the filter stab ility analyse. σi is the pole. Figure 3-3-4. The value of parameter ε is obtained via expression: Transfer function is expressed as: www. Figure 3-3-5 illustrates frequency response for a 4th order band-stop Chebyshev reference analog filter.mikroe.3. All poles of the resulting filter must be located in the left half of the S plane. Frequency response of Chebyshev analog filter To design Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. Z-transform is used for digital filters. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order Chebyshev reference analog filter.mikroElektronika Figure 3-3-3. it is easy to find its poles using expression: Butterworth poles are equally allocated (equidistantly) on the unit circle within the left half of the s plane. filter is stab le if all poles are located in the left half of the s plane. In the s plane.. Even though these two types of transformations are similar to some extent. Figure 3-3-5. to the left of the imaginary axis.e. whereas Laplase transform (s plane) is used for analog filters. and i=1. When the filter order is known. The location of poles for N=5 and N=6 is shown in Figure 3-3-4. neither recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary. and Ωi is the imaginary pole. The values of poles are expressed as: where: si is the i-th transfer function pole of analog prototype filter (complex value). it is necessary to know the filter order.

where: N is the filter order.9/22/13 The value of A0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . . 3. Frequency characteristic of inverse Chebyshev analog filter To design inverse Chebyshev reference analog pototype filter.mikroe. The poles of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter are expressed as: where: si is the i-th pole of the transfer function of analog prototype filter (complex value). it is necessary to know the filter order. Table 3-3-1 provides a few examples of values of k. 5. ε is the parameter of maximum oscillation in the passband frequency response. σi is the real pole.Digital Filter Design . and s2i is the pole of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter.. Similar to Butterworth filter. In the stopband.mikroElektronika For N=5. N. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are considered reciprocal poles of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter. 2.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 23/45 . inverse Chebyshev filter has the least oscillation in the frequency response. Transfer function is expressed as: The coefficient k in numerator can be only an odd number.3 Inverse Chebyshev Analog Filter Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is also known as Chebyshev analog filter of the second kind.. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial. 5 1.1 derivatives of the transfer function for Ω = 0 are equal to zero. neither these recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained from recursive relation: If the filter order is familiar in advance. and i=1. Figure 3-3-7. coefficient k in the transfer function num erator The values Ωk are found via expression: www. 3. the frequency response is extremely flat function at the frequency of Ω = 0. 3. 5 1. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are found via expression: where: si is the pole of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter. 3. Location of the poles of Chebyshev filter for N=5 3. and Ωi is the imaginary pole. N 5 6 7 8 M IN 1 1 1 1 M AX 5 5 7 7 V A L UES 1. 7 1. Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. N is the filter order. the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-6. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order inverse Chebyshev reference analog filter. 5. Figure 3-3-7 illustrates the frequency response for an inverse Chebyshev reference analog band-stop filter of the 4th order.. as the first 2N . The frequency response of this filter monotoniously falls in the passband and transition region. 7 Table 3-3-1.3.

if needed. Generally.9/22/13 The value H0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-8. Reference analog prototype filter is also a low-pass filter so it requires to be transformed into the appropriate type of filter.4. By performing the transformation: each expression within brackets in the transfer function numerator is transformed into: and the whole numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: By replacing numerator and denominator by their transformed expressions.2929 in the passband is obtained via expression: Example: The transform function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: www.mikroElektronika For N=5.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 24/45 . high-pass.e. 3. Location of poles and zeros of inverse Chebyshev filter for N=5 As seen from Figure 3-3-8 and expression for Ωk. In the transform function. i. In this case. it is necessary to scale filter during the design process. the zeros of the transfer function are always complex-conjugated values. where Ω c is a desirable cut-off frequency in the passband. Transformation from an analog prototype filter to appropriate analog filter is performed before transforming it in digital filter.mikroe. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.4 Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation All analog prototype filters. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. For this reason. band-pass or band-stop filter. Frequency scaling depends on the type of analog filter being designed. high-pass. so that passband and stopband cut-off frequencies have the appropriate. the transformation comes to a simple frequency scaling. Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency of Ωp =1. 3. band-pass and band-stop filters.1 Low-pass filter The transformation from a reference analog prototype filter to a low-pass analog filter is the simplest type of transformation. s\\Ω c is used instead of s. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. All the results obtained in this chapter are tested in the Filter designer tool program. the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transform function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where H0 is a costant. predetermined values. regardless of their type.Digital Filter Design . which is not the case with the poles of the transfer function. have scaled frequency range so that the passband cut-off frequency amounts to Ω = 1. Scaling is explained for low-pass.

3721 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 25/45 . Its transformation to a high-pass analog filter can be split into two steps. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.4.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .1434 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transform function of analog filter: 3.mikroe. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. The transformation to a high-pass analog filter: Scaling of frequency axis is performed by transformation: These two transformations can be represented by one transformation: Generally.4. This is why it is not possible to design an odd order band-pass filter. the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0.2 High-pass filter Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency Ωp = 1. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. whereas the second one refers to frequency scaling. By performing the following transformation: each bracket in the numerator of the transfer function is transformed into and the entire numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: Substituting these transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. www.mikroElektronika The transformation to a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. The final objective is that passband cut-off frequency of the resulting high-pass analog filter amounts to Ωc.Digital Filter Design . the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant. The first step refers to the transformation to a high-pass analog filter. The filter order is doubled by this transformation.3 Band-pass filter The transformation in a band-pass analog filter is more complex than the transformation in a low-pass and high-pass analog filters.3719 in the passband is obtained via expression: 3.

mikroe. which is necessary for normalization. The order of the resulting filter is 8. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. Band-pass filter specification The value of Ωc. By transforming it into a band-pass analog filter the filter order is doubled. The resulting filter order is used to design a low-pass reference analog prototype filter. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. is found via expression: The transfer function of an analog prototype filter is transformed first in a band-pass analog filter. and normalized after that with Ωc. Generally.mikroElektronika When designing. Figure 3-4-1. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0.Digital Filter Design . Reference analog filter is further transformed in a bandpass analog filter. the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant.1626 in the passband is expressed as: www. and Ωp2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1). M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The required filter order is obtained this way.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 26/45 . By performing the transformation: each bracket in numerator of the transfer function is transformed into: and the entire numerator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. This transformation doubles the filter order. the required filter order is divided by two. The transformation into a band-pass analog filter is expressed as: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωp1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1). A low-pass reference analog filter of the 4th order is designed first. Example: Assume that it is necessary to design an 8th order band-pass digital filter.

Band-stop filter specification The value of Ωc. This transformation causes the filter order to double. The first step refers to normalization with the frequency Ωc: The transformation is performed in the second step: and each bracket in the transfer function numerator is transformed in: and the entire numerator is transformed in: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed in: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-4-2.Digital Filter Design . is found via expression: The transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter is transformed first into a band-stop analog filter. The reference analog filter is transformed in a band-stop analog filter. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. A low-pass reference analog filter of the 5th order is designed first.mikroElektronika 3. the filter order is doubled and the order of a band-stop digital filter cannot be an odd number. Example: It is necessary to design a band-stop digital filter of the 10th order. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. which is necessary for normalization. When designing. Similarly.mikroe. the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant. and Ωs2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2).com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 27/45 .4 Band-stop filter The transformation in a band-stop analog filter is similar to the transformation in a bandpass analog filter. the required filter order is divided by two. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. The resulting filter order is used for designing a low-pass reference analog prototype filter.4.9/22/13 The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Chapter 3: IIR filters . The transformation in a band-stop analog filter: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωs1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2). This is how the required filter order is obtained. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: www. The result is a 10th order filter. Generally. The transformation into a bandstop analog filter causes the filter order to double. and normalized after that with Ωc.

it is necessary to transform the resulting analog filter into a digital one. The analog filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . For this reason. zk is the zero of the analog filter transfer function. It is done by transforming the analog filter transfer function into a digital one. fs=44100Hz. faithfully approximate the frequency response of analog filter. The transformation is supposed to: 1. the transformation must provide that the left half of s plane coincides with the area within the unit circle of z plane. This transformation also transforms s plane into z plane.2692 www.5 Bilinear transformation Digital IIR filters are designed using analog filters.252.5727 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: 3. Using expression for linear transformation: we obtain: where: N=2 M=2 z1=j0. If s=0 then H(s)=H0 .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 28/45 . It is defined via expression: Using the previous expression. fc=2KHz. After transformation. and 2. Transform ation of s plane into z plane One of most commonly used method of transforming analog filters into appropriate IIR filters is known as bilinear transformation.1014 z2=-j0.2692 p2=-2. the transformation is performed by a simple change of variable s in the expression for the transfer function of the resulting analog filter. After the frequency scaling and transformation into a desirable type of filter have been performed.267+j2.mikroe.Digital Filter Design . 60dB) is expressed as: It is necessary to transform the given analog filter into the appropriate digital filter by bilinear transformation.mikroElektronika The transformation into a band-stop analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. the transformation of the analog filter transform function into a digital one can be expressed as: As seen.1014 p1=-2. Analog filter is stable if the poles of the transfer function are located in the left half of s plane. the analog filter transfer function is further transformed into: where: Hoz is a constant of the digital IIR filter transfer function Example: The transfer function of a second-order high-pass analog filter (inverse Chebyshev. and pk is the pole of the analog filter transfer function. whereas digital filter is stable if the poles are located within the unit circle. Figure 3-5-1. provide that the resulting digital filter is guaranteed to be stable. as shown in Figure 3-5-1.267-j2.

com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 29/45 . When designing.Digital Filter Design . analog prototype filters and design of various types of filters as well. These are: 1. 3. which may further cause the stopband attenuation to decrease. it is impossible to represent coefficients without an error. and band-stop filter. the accurate values of coefficients are obtained immediately after the implementation of bilinear transformation. The specified filter order is increased or decreased according to needs. Figure 3-6-1 illustrates the design steps along with input and output data for each of them. if it happens. In software digital filter realization (implementation). The final result is the transfer function H(s) given by: where: H0 is a constant. 6. The quantization effect on digital filter stability is much more dangerous. the resulting IIR filter is not stable and is useless therefore. However. The four standard types of filters are used here: low-pass filter. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. Transformation into digital filter by bilinear transformation. and 7. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well. pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function.mikroElektronika The result is the transfer function of a digital high-pass IIR filter. Figure 3-6-1. step 3 is skipped.6 Examples This chapter discusses various IIR filter design methods. step 2 is skipped. The output data is a reference analog prototype filter transfer function Ha (s). Figure 3-5-2. Regardless of the type of reference analog prototype filter in use. the cut-off frequencies are defined on the basis of the given specifications and type of a filter. Transformation into analog filter by range scaling. A disadvantage of the bilinear transformation is a non-linear transformation of the analog filter frequency axis into a digital one. On filter realization. 4. 3. If the type of reference analog prototype filter is predetermined. the transfer function is given by: where: H0 is a constant. The expression used to transform the reference analog prototype filter transfer function depends on the type of filter that needs to be obtained. which also generates a certain error.5 Designing IIR filters b y b ilinear transformation. 5. 5 and 6 are repeated after that as many times as needed. Any error made during the quantization of coefficients affects more or less the frequency response. then it is necessary to do it. If the filter order is known. M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. the resulting coefficients are quantized. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. Reference analog prototype filter is always a low-pass filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Defining filter specifications. However. Realization structure is illustrated in Figure 3-5-2 below. It is very important to prevent the poles from being located outside the unite circle. In every given example. Such a non-linear transformation of analog filter frequencies causes the phase characteristic distorsion. www. The IIR filter design process can be split into several steps described in Chapter 3. so that it is not linear. Steps in designing digital IIR filter The first block refers to design of reference analog prototype filter of appropriate order. these frequencies have appropriate locations. and steps 4. the IIR filter design process will be described through these steps in order to make it easier for you to observe similarities and differencies between various design methodes. The next step is the transformation into an analog filter of appropriate type. When transforming.2. IIR filter realization Digital filters designed via bilinear trasnformation are guaranteed to be stable. 2. Some steps are skipped in some cases. The design method used here is known as bilinear transformation. Computing the filter order according to the filter specifications and specified analog prototype filter. which is not the case with the rest of the frequency axis. high-pass filter.mikroe. Specifying the type of analog prototype filter. band-pass filter. Special care is required when quantizing feedback coefficients as it causes the location of the digital IIR filter transfer function poles to change their location. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function.

the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.5KHz. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well. As seen. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: www.1 Filter design using Butterworth filter 3. which is sufficient for most examples.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 30/45 . the transfer functions of reference analog prototype filter and analog filter are very similar. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. only poles. The filter order is the same if the analog filter is a low-pass or high-pass filter. the values of the transfer function poles and zeros zk and pk as well as in the number of transfer function zeros M.1. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. Step 2: Method. whereas it is different if the analog filter is a band-pass or band-stop filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design . Passband cut-off frequency – fc=2. They differ only in the value of constant H0 . All data are calculated with the accuracy of 4 decimal digits. These can be computed via expression: As N = 2. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the analog filter order (N) is twice that of the reference analog prototype filter. and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB. pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function.mikroe. the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. In the later case. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.6.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=2. The next step is the transformation into appropriate digital IIR filter using bilinear transformation given by expression: Filter Designer Tool is used for testing and analysing the resulting IIR filters in this chapter.mikroElektronika M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function.6. N=2. 3.

the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: www.1. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-3. the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Passband cut-off frequency – fc=5KHz. N = 3. only poles.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 31/45 . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-2 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. There is no need to additionally change it.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design .mikroe.mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. Step 2: Method. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3.6. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-2. and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=3. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. whereas Figure 3-6-3 illustrates the frequency response of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool.

Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 2: Method . only poles. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=4KHz. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-5.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.9/22/13 A more condensed form of the previous expression is: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. N = 4. In this example for N=4.6. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.mikroe. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order.Digital Filter Design . Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 32/45 . so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-4 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. fc2=6KHz.3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. www.mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-4. There is no need to additionally change it.1.

www.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-6-6.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4. There is no need to additionally change it.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.mikroe. fc2=3300Hz. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-6 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=3000Hz.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 33/45 .Digital Filter Design . the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. Step 2: Method .1. In this example for N = 4. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. only poles. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-7. N = 4.mikroElektronika In this example. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.6.

Step 2: Method .mikroElektronika In this example. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-8 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 34/45 . the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: www. the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as=40dB. Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts.mikroe. Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2=18KHz. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. Maximum passband attenuation – ap=1dB. only poles. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-9.6. The solution is redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied. There is no need to additionally change it. Passband cut-off frequency– fc1=15KHz.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined.Digital Filter Design . These can be computed via expression: As N = 4.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs=44100Hz.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-6-8. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3.2457 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.2 Filter design using Chebyshev filter 3.6. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.2. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0.

1228 so the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Figure 3-6-10. www.mikroElektronika The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. The filter order is incremented by 1 and is 5 therefore. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5.mikroe. only poles. Step3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-10 below. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.2dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient.Digital Filter Design .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 35/45 . the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 31.0. A new filter order is 5.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. the values of poles are: The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = . and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated.

Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is appropriate. whereas Figure 3-6-13 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. N = 3. only poles. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 41.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = . Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz.0.Digital Filter Design . Step 2: Method .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. only it takes more time.mikroe.4913 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-12 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. the expression for transfer function is simpler: www. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-11 below.6.1.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3. The whole procedure is the same. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. Figure 3-6-12.mikroElektronika This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter 3. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. Digital IIR filter direct realization Figure 3-6-13. Figure 3-6-11.6dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 36/45 . Passband cut-off frequency – fc = 5KHz. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool.

Figure 3-6-14. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-14 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.6.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 37/45 . Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. fc2 = 6KHz. There is no need to additionally change it. In this example for N = 4. only poles.Digital Filter Design .3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 After substitution of poles and Ωc into expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. Step 2: Method filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. N = 4. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: www. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.1. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-15.mikroElektronika Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined.mikroe.

substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.Digital Filter Design . Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. There is no need to additionally change it. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.mikroElektronika First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 3000Hz. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-17. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. Step 2: Method . Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB.6. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. N = 4. only poles. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. In this expression.1. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. fc2 = 3300Hz. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. In this example for N = 4. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: www. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 38/45 . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-16 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Filter 3-6-16.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.9/22/13 Step 5: Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroe.

Passband cut-off frequency – fc1 = 15KHz. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as = 40dB. Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.mikroElektronika A0 = 0.6. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.3 Filter design using inverse Chebyshev filter 3. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. the value of constant A0 is: Chapter 3: IIR filters . There is no need to additionally change it. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter –low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs = 44100Hz.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 39/45 . the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.mikroe. Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2 = 18KHz. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. The solution is www. Step 2: Method . In this expression.Digital Filter Design . Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. Filter realization Figure 3-6-18 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-19. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Figure 3-6-18.6. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.3. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 In this example.

mikroe. Figure 3-6-20. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. Frequency charactersitic of designed IIR filter The attenuation at 15KHz is higher than 1dB and the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the specifications therefore. Step 3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.mikroElektronika redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied. the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-20 below. The filter order is incremented by 1. the values of poles are: www. These can be computed via expression: As N = 4. Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 40/45 . only poles.01 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 5. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4.2dB approximately at the frequency of 15KHZ is not sufficient. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated. the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. A new filter order is 5. and becomes 5 therefore. only poles.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design . It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied.

8dB). and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. www. the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-23.9/22/13 The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: Chapter 3: IIR filters .05 so the inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Frequency characteristic of IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is approriate.mikroe. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-21 below. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz.6. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-21. The whole procedure is the same. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 41/45 .2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3. it is obvious that the attenuation at 18KHZ is less than 1dB (approximately 0. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = . only it takes more time. whereas Figure 3-6-23 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool.0.Digital Filter Design . Passband cut-off frequency– fc = 5KHz. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.mikroElektronika In this case. Step 7: By analysing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. Figure 3-6-22.1. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-22 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.

Figure 3-6-24. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3.Digital Filter Design . and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 42/45 .mikroe. the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. There is no need to additionally change it.3 Example 3 www.6.9/22/13 Step 2: Chapter 3: IIR filters . the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-25. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-24 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. only poles. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = -0.03 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. the transfer function is: After substituting the poles and Ωc into expression: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.1. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example.mikroElektronika Method . Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. N=3. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.

only poles. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. In this example. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. In this example for N=4.Digital Filter Design . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-26 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. fc2 = 6KHz. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.9/22/13 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specification: Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 43/45 . the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Step 2: Method . the order of reference prototype filter is 2.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. N = 4. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: For this example. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. www. There is no need to additionally change it. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB.mikroe.mikroElektronika Filter order – N = 4.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.

6. Stopband cut-off frequencies – fc1=3000Hz. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. N = 4.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-26. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. so the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-27. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 44/45 .Digital Filter Design . Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Step 2: Method . the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. fc2=3300Hz. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.1. In this example for N = 4.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. only poles. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specification: Filter order – N=4. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. In this expression.mikroe. www. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter.

There is no need to additionally change it. Filter realization: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-6-28. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple ← previous chapter | table of contents MikroElektronika Embedded Solutions PIC Solution PIC De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC C om pile rs PIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC Kits PIC Book s Follow us on PIC32 Solution PIC 32 De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC 32 C om pile rs PIC 32 Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC 32 Kits dsPIC Solution dsPIC De ve lopm e nt Boards dsPIC C om pile rs dsPIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs dsPIC Kits dsPIC Book s Add-on boards C lick Boards m ik rom e dia shie lds C om m unication boards Storage boards R e al Tim e C lock boards Display boards Me asure m e nt boards Audio & Voice boards Powe r Supply boards GPS boards GSM/GPR S boards Additional Software Visual TFT Visual GLC D Pack age Manage r GLC D Font C re ator 8051 Solution 8051 De ve lopm e nt Boards 8051 C om pile rs 8051 Program m e rs/De bugge rs 8051 Book s 8051 Kits AVR Solution AVR De ve lopm e nt Boards AVR C om pile rs AVR Program m e rs/De bugge rs AVR Kits ARM Solution AR M De ve lopm e nt Boards AR M C om pile rs AR M Program m e rs/De bugge rs AR M Kits Support Forum m ik roBUS Le ts m ak e Pre ss Le gal Inform ation Product Archive About Us C opyright © 1998 . Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-29.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-28 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.9/22/13 Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.Digital Filter Design .mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 45/45 . All rights reserved. MikroElektronika. All trade and/or services marks mentioned are the property of their respective owners. www.2013.

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