## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Products

**Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika
**

Solutions Store Distributors Libstock C ontact Us

se arch he re

Login | C art (0)

**Digital Filter Design
**

TOC Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3

Featured Development Tools dsPICPRO4 Development System

**Chapter 3: Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters
**

3.1. Introduction 3.2. IIR filter design 3.3. Reference analog prototype filter 3.4. Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation 3.5. Bilinear transformation 3.6. Examples

3.1 Introduction

IIR filters are digital filters with infinite impulse response. Unlike FIR filters, they have the feedback (a recursive part of a filter) and are known as recursive digital filters therefore.

The dsPICPRO4 supports the latest 64and 80-pin dsPIC30F microcontrollers from Microchip. It comes w ith a dsPIC30F6014A. The system includes an USB 2.0 programmer, mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger), touch panel controller, CAN, RS485, DAC and RTC. [more info]

EasydsPIC4A Development System

EasydsPIC4A is a full-featured development system that supports the latest 18-, 28- and 40-pin dsPIC30F MCUs. It comes w ith the dsPIC30F4013 microcontroller. The board features a USB 2.0 programmer, mikroICD (In-Circuit Debugger), touch panel controller etc. [more info]

Figure 3-1-1. Block diagram s of FIR and IIR filters

For this reason IIR filters have much better frequency response than FIR filters of the same order. Unlike FIR filters, their phase characteristic is not linear which can cause a problem to the systems which need phase linearity. For this reason, it is not preferable to use IIR filters in digital signal processing when the phase is of the essence. Otherwise, when the linear phase characteristic is not important, the use of IIR filters is an excellent solution. There is one problem known as a potential instability that is typical of IIR filters only. FIR filters do not have such a problem as they do not have the feedback. For this reason, it is always necessary to check after the design process whether the resulting IIR filter is stable or not. IIR filters can be designed using different methods. One of the most commonly used is via the reference analog prototype filter. This method is the best for designing all standard types of filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters. This book describes the design method using reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-1-2 illustrates the block diagram of this method.

Figure 3-1-2. Block diagram of design m ethod using reference analog prototype filter

FIR filters can have linear phase characteristic, which is not typical of IIR filters. When it is necessary to have linear phase characteristic,

www.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/

1/45

9/22/13

Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

FIR filters are the only available solution. In other cases when linear phase characteristic is not necessary, such as speech signal processing, FIR filters are not good solution. IIR filters should be used instead. The resulting filter order is considerably lower for the same frequency response. The filter order determines the number of filter delay lines, i.e. number of input and output samples that should be saved in order that the next output sample can be computed. For instance, if the filter order is 10, it means that it is necessary to save 10 input samples plus 10 output samples preceeding the current sample. All these 21 samples will affect the next output sample. The IIR filter transfer function is a ratio of two polynomials of complex variable z-1. The numerator defines location of zeros, whereas the denominator defines location of poles of the resulting IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-1-3. illustrates input and output signals of the system with non-linear phase characteristic.

Figure 3-1-3. The effect of non-linear phase characteristic

The system introduces phase shift of 0 radians at frequency of ω, and π radians at three times higher frequency. Input signal consists of nature frequency ω and harmonics with the same amplitude at three times higher frequency. Figure on the left illustrates an input signal, whereas Figure on the right illustrates an output signal. As seen, these two signals have different waveforms. Neither the power of the signal nor amplitudes of particular harmonics have been changed, but the phase of the second harmonic. Assume that an input represents a speech signal where the phase is not important. In this case such phase distorsion would be negligable as the system satisfies the stated requirements. Otherwise, if the phase is important, such a huge distorsion mustn’t be allowed.

**3.2 Infinite impulse response (IIR) filter design
**

The most commonly used IIR filter design method uses reference analog prototype filter. It is the best method to use when designing standard filters such as low-pass, high-pass, bandpass and band-stop filters. The filter design process starts with specifications and requirements of the desirable IIR filter. A type of reference analog prototype filter to be used is specified according to the specifications and after that everything is ready for analog prototype filter design. The next step in the design process is scaling of the frequency range of analog prototype filter into desirable frequency range. This is how an analog prototype filter is converted into an analog filter. After the analog filter is designed, it is time to go through the last step in the digital IIR filter design process. It is conversion from analog to digital filter. The most popular and most commonly used converting method is bilinear transformation method. The resulting filter, obtained in this way, is always stable. However, instability of the resulting filter, when bilinear transformation is used, may be caused only by the finite word-length side-effect.

**3.2.1 Basic concepts and IIR filter specification
**

First of all, it is necessay to learn the basic concepts that will be used further in this book. You should be aware that without being familiar with these concepts, it is not possible to understand analyses and synthesis of digital filters. Figure 3-2-1 illustrates a low-pass digital filter specification. The word specification refers to the frequency response specification.

www.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/

2/45

9/22/13

Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-1a. Low -pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-1b. Low -pass digital filter specification

ωp – normalized passband cut-off frequency; ωs – normalized stopband cut-off frequency; δ1 – maximum passband ripples; δ2 – minimum stopband attentuation; ε – passband attenuation parameter; A – stopband attenuation parameter; ap – maximum passband ripples [dB]; and as – minimum stopband attenuation [dB].

Frequency normalization can be expressed as follows:

where:

**fs is the sampling frequency; f is the frequency to normalize; and ω is the normalized frequency.
**

Specifications for high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters are defined almost the same way as those for low-pass filters. Figure 3-2-2 illustrates a high-pass filter specification, whereas Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass filter specification.

www.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/

3/45

9/22/13

Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-2a. High-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-2b. High-pass digital filter specification

Comparing these two Figures 3-2-1 and 3-2-2, it is obvious that low-pass and high-pass filters have similar specifications. The same parameters are defined in both cases with the difference that in the later case the passband is substituded by the stopband and vice versa. Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass specification.

Filter 3-2-3a. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-3b. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-4 illustrates band-stop digital filter specification

www.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/

4/45

2. It is necessary to transform this signal with the z-transform and Fourier fransform.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-4a.3.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 5/45 . Band-stop digital filter specification Figure 3-2-4b. x(n)={1. The Z-transform is defined as: where z is the complex number.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .2. The Fourier transformation can be found by rewriting the previous expression in terms of z as z=e^jω. It becomes: www.Digital Filter Design .4.2 Z-transform The Z-transform is performed upon discrete-time signals.3.2. The z-transform is derived from the Fourier discrete time-domain transformation and is considered the basic operation in digital filter design process.4.5. Band-stop digital filter specification 3.1} . 0 ≤ n ≤ 8 z-transform is defined via expression: It becomes: The last expression is the z-transform of the given signal. It is very suitable for analyzing discrete time-domain signals and systems as well.mikroe. Example: Assume that samples of a discrete-time signal x(n) are known. It converts a discrete timedomain signal into a complex frequency-domin representation.

which can be seen in Figure 3-2-6 below. In the z plane.mikroe. Frequency spectrum of the given signal Comparing Z and Fourier transforms. the Fourier transform is represented as a unit circle.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 6/45 . Figure 3-2-5. www. the complex number z may be expressed as follows: The two last expressions lead us to the conclusion that Fourier transform is just a special form of the z-transform for r=1.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-5 illustrates the (frequency) spectrum of the given signal.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design . it is easy to notice some similarities between them: In polar coordinates.

The poles of the IIR filter transfer function must be located within the unit circle in order that filter is stable.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 7/45 . Fourier transform in the z plane The z-transform of the transfer function is of great importance for IIR filters. whereas its poles are denoted by small crosses. www. The location of poles in the z plane is used for testing stability of designed IIR filter. Figure 3-2-7a illustrates zeros and poles of the transfer function of a stable IIR filter in the z plane. Figure 3-2-7a Stable IIR filter Transfer function zeros are denoted by small circles.Digital Filter Design .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-6.mikroe.

The poles of the FIR filter transfer function are located at the origin. Also. The result of such a quantization is a filter that is not stable. It is obviously not the case in Figure 3-2-7. which means that it refers to IIR. two poles located outside the unit circle make this IIR filter instable. it is easy to determine whether it refers to FIR or IIR filter.9/22/13 Re – Real axis Im – Imaginary axis Chapter 3: IIR filters . It doesn’t cause any problem as the location of poles is the only thing that matters. www. 3.Digital Filter Design . which can cause one pole or one pair of poles to be located outside the unit circle. which guarantees tha stability of IIR filters.e. When the transfer function is found.2. qi are the zeros of the transfer function. All four poles of transfer function are located within the unit circle. it is illustrated as a pair of zeros or poles which are symmetric around the real axis. then it has the corresponding pair having the same real value and the same imaginary value with the opposite sign. Figure 3-2-7b.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 8/45 . Figure 3-2-7a clearly indicates interrelation between zeros and poles in the z plane. If either of them is not located on the real axis in the z plane. the resulting filter is stable before the coefficient quantization starts. Such a pair is also called a complex-conjugated pair of zeros or poles.mikroElektronika As seen in Figure 3-2-7. it is necessary to consider the zeros and poles of the transfer function in the z plane.mikroe. If a zero or a pole is located on the real axe in the z plane. The transfer function of discrete-time systems is defined to be: where: bi are the feedforward filter coefficients (non-recursive part). According to the location of poles in the z plane. aj are the feedback filter coefficients (recursive part). Instable IIR filter As seen from Figure 3-2-7b. H0 is a constant. In the z plane. If bilinear transformation is used in the filter design.3 Transfer function of discrete-time systems The Z-transform is primarily used for finding the transfer function of linear discrete-time systems. Figure 3-2-7b illustrates the zeros and poles of the transfer function of an instable IIR filter in the z plane. not FIR filter. i. then it is single. the imaginary part is zero. This quantization changes the location of zeros and poles of the resulting IIR filter. one transfer function zero is located outside the unit circle.

Figure 3-2-8. whereas the representation in the z domain is suitable for analyzes of designed filters and synthesis itself (design process).Digital Filter Design . illustrates block diagram of discrete-time system with feedback. the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as follows: OR The later expression is more convenient for software IIR filters realization. the IIR filters have feedback which enable them to have greater selectivity as well as nonlinearity of phase characteristic than FIR filters. Another expression for convolusion that is more useful in practical applications is: www. the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as the multiplication of Z-transform input signal X(z) and the transform function H(z): The first way of representing discrete-time systems is suitable for both software and hardware IIR filter implementation.mikroe. The recursive part of the transfer function is actually a discrete-time system feedback. B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part of the system.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 9/45 . Figure 3-2-8 Discrete-tim e system w ith feedback In the time domain. and A(z) the transfer function of recursive part of the system (feedback).9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Unlike the FIR filters. In the frequency domain. Example: The transfer function of a 3th order IIR filter. designed using Chebyshev function is: The following expression describes the filtering process: This process is also known as convolution.mikroElektronika pj are the poles of the transfer function.

com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 10/45 . when ω = 0.2π: The numerator is computed first: Then denominator: www. it becomes: Using expression: it is possible to find function for particular normalized frequency.mikroElektronika After making substitutions of impulse response coefficients.mikroe. For example.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design .

Figure 3-2-9. whereas in hardware implementation.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 11/45 . which is very dangerous.mikroElektronika Figure 2-2-8 illustrates a hardware realization of this IIR filter. the system becomes unstable. However.mikroe.4 Effects of the poles and zeros of the transfer function The location of poles and zeros of the transfer function is very important for discrete-time system analyses and synthesis.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . In software implementation. A direct result of such errors is deviation of the frequency of designed discrete-time system. filter stability is questioned only due to coefficient quantization which is performed at the end of the design process. In this case. The result of the feedback. which makes them stable. is a non-linear phase characteristic. Deviation of frequency depends on the spacing between the zeros and poles of the FIR filter transfer function and the origin in the z plane. which in this case means that the circular buffer is 4 = 2^2 in length. The result in both cases is that the actual value of coefficients differs from their value obtained in design process. Figure 3-2-9 illustrates the required and obtained frequency characteristic of an IIR filter. According to their location it is possible to test stability of a discrete-time system. the pole quantization. Besides. Therefore.2. it ocurrs due to impossibility of representing the coefficients with apsolute accuracy. The location of zeroes doesn’t affect the stabilty of discrete-time systems. If this requirement is not satisfied. all poles of the discrete-time system transfer function must be located within the unit circle. detect round-off errors made due to software implementation of a filter as well as coefficient errors encountered during hardware implementation of a filter. These are usually circular buffers whose length can be expressed as 2^n. Selectivity and attenuation of this filter are much higher than those of any 6th order FIR filter. The FIR filter coefficient error affects more the frequency response as the spacing between the zero and pole of the transfer function and the origin narrows. Realization of IIR filter in this exam ple The software realization would require two buffers each of minimum length 3. This property is particularly typical of high-order filters because their zeros are very close each other. this doesn’t apply on IIR filters. In order that a discrete-time system is stable. One buffer would be used for input samples and another one for output samples. as shown in Figure 3-2-6. The finite word-length effect on the transform www. By complexity. it is preferable to use bilinear transformation because it always makes filter stable. 3. which provides so high selectivity and attenuation. Recalling that FIR flters do not have a feedback. by rule. Slight errors in coefficient representation may cause large frequency deviations. the given IIR filter corresponds to a 6th order FIR filter. It always happens due to software and hardware implementation that an error in coefficients representation is produced.Digital Filter Design . affects more frequency characteristic. an error is triggered by the finite word-length effect.

the entire IIR filter design process. However. 3. ωc2). The transfer function of analog prototype filter depends on frequencies which are not scaled into the desirable range. 5 and 6 are repeated as many times as needed. it is possible to find its transfer function. computing of the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. Specifying analog prototype filter. Conversion into analog filter via scaling. is repeated. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications. Be aware that every type has its good and bad sides. The coefficients bk and ak are of interest for IIR filter realization (both hardware and software). The minimum attenuation and the width of transition region of the resulting IIR filter remain unchanged. and ak the coefficient of recursive part (feedback) of IIR filter. For this reason. 6. and 7.mikroe. The filter order can be increased or decreased according to needs and after that steps 4. it should be changed. ωc1.2. maximum passband attenuation and minimum stopband attenuation. it is time to specify the type of reference analog prototype filter. After this step. i. transition width.5 IIR filters design using bilinear transformation The IIR filter design using bilinear transformation can be split into several steps: 1.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-10. then it is necessary to do it. bk the coefficient of non-recursive part of IIR filter. The type of analog prototype filter as well as the filter order will be specified according to these parameters. When both type and order of analog prototype filter are known. that is. After changing the filter order. 4. This book represents the most commonly used conversion known as bilinear transformation. it is preferable to specify such a type of analog prototype filter that can produce the lowest order IIR filter. even though it is very large at certain frequencies. scaling and obtaining analogue filters and conversion into digital filter. The initial value of the filter order is roughly estimated and is changed after that depending on the obtained characteristics and requirements. IIR filters have much greater selectivity and attenuation than FIR filters of the same order. Deviation from required frequency characteristic The frequency deviation shown in Figure 3-2-10 is basically slight deviation.9/22/13 function of an IIR filter is clearly marked in this figure. This operation is actually conversion of reference analog prototype filter into analog filter with desirable characteristic.e. Computing the filter order required for a given set of specifications and specified analog prototype filter. For this reason. If the obtained filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. The final objective of defining IIR filter specifications is to find the desirable normalized cutoff frequencies (ωc. it is preferable to increase or decrease the filter order by 1. it is necessary to specify or compute the filter order required for a given set of specifications. It is only important that its characteristics can satisfy the given specifications. so that such deviation is acceptable. 2.Digital Filter Design . when the type of analog proptotype filter is known. it is necessary to perform scaling of the transfer function so that cut-off frequencies go into the desirable range.6 IIR filter realization FIR filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: N is the filter order. 3. 3. Defining filter specification. Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 12/45 . the transfer function of the specified type of reference analog prototype filter is obtained by converting analog filter into digital one. 5. Figure 3-2-11 illustrates the block diagram of www. or if the filter order can be less than actual one. Conversion into digital filter via bilinear transformation.2. Finally. Now.

3. direct canonic. Figure 3-2-12.6. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter www. In IIR filter direct realization.Digital Filter Design .mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-11.9/22/13 IIR filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 13/45 . illustrates the block diagram of direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter. Chapter 3: IIR filters . The realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is identical to the direct realization of FIR filter. Figure 3-2-12. Each of them will be described in detail along with their advantages and disadvantages. direct transpose. these two parts are separately considered and realized. This chapter covers direct. All of them are very convenient and most commonly used for both hardware and software IIR filter realization.1 Direct realization Direct realization of IIR filters starts with this expression: The first part of the expression refers to non-recursive part and the other refers to recursive part of IIR filter.2. Block diagram of IIR filter There are several types of IIR filter realization. direct transpose canonic and cascade realizations.mikroe.

mikroElektronika As seen from Figure 3-2-12 above. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter As non-recursive and recursive part of IIR filter are separately realized. respectively.Digital Filter Design .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 14/45 . Realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is similar to that of recursive part.mikroe. Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b illustrate block diagrams of IIR filter realization when non-recursive part is used before and after recursive part of IIR filter. www. illustrates the direct realization of the filter recursive part. multiplication coefficients are identical to those of the transfer function. Figure 3-2-13. Figure 3-2-13. it doesn’t matter which of them will be used first in filtering process.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .

IIR filter direct realization.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 15/45 . As seen from Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b. non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-14b. recursive part is used first This structure is also known as a direct form I structure.mikroe. direct realization requires in total of 2N delay lines. Some of disadvantages of www.Digital Filter Design . Direct realization is very convenient for software implementation and this is where it is most commonly used. IIR filter direct realization.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . (2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-14a.

where N is the filter order.Digital Filter Design .mikroElektronika this realization are the greatest sensitivity to accuracy of realized coefficients (i. www. i. 6 A DDR. For their simplicity and effectiveness. Here. buffer if it is about software implementation.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 16/45 . needs most resources). location addressing in the circular buffer is performed via module 16 operations: Example: A 6th order FIR filter is used in this example. Accordingly: where the operator represents rounding down to a less value.2. Figure 3-2-15. 2 A DDR.6.e. Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-17 illustrate the block diagram describing IIR filter direct transpose realization structure of IIR filter. A DDR. The only difference is in the position of delay lines. On IIR filter software implementation with direct structure. where N is the IIR filter order. the largest finite word-length effect). 4 A DDR.e. it is necessary to have two buffers with at least N+1 samples. The length of circular buffer is obtained from the following expression: It means that the minimum length of circular buffer is 2^3 = 8. and the greatest complexity due to implementation (i. 7 A DDR. 1 A DDR. 0 S T EP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x[0] x[1] x[2] x[3] x[4] x[5] x[6] x[7] x[7] x[7] x[6] x[6] x[6] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[9] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[8] x[8] Table 2-2-2. Circular buffer of length 16 = 2^4 Since the buffer length is 16. Input samples are denoted by x[n] and each shaded cell represents changed location in buffer. 3 A DDR. Input circular buffer after receiving 10 sam ples 3. it is also necessary to have two buffers of minimum length N+1. 5 A DDR. The length of the buffer needs to be 2^k. The value of constant k is defined as a minimum value for which N ≤ 2^k is valid.2 Direct transpose realization Direct transpose realization is similar to direct realization.e.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroe. The contents of the buffer after receiving the first 10 samples is shown in the table 3-2-1. It is necessary to design this filter using direct structure with circular buffer. most commonly used are the so called circular buffers the length of which can be expressed as 2^k.

The only difference is in the position of delay lines.Digital Filter Design .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 17/45 . www. recursive part is used first There are no significant differences between direct and direct transpose realizations. Both structures have the same multiplication coefficients. IIR filter direct transpose realization. the direct transpose realization structure uses 2N delay lines. (2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions.mikroe. Similar to direct realization structure.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-16.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-17. IIR filter direct transpose realization.

Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures. This way. Direct canonic structure uses N delay elements.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 18/45 .3 Direct Canonical Realization Chapter 3: IIR filters . (2N+1) multipilications and 2N additions. 3. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization. The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-14b and 3-2-18 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct canonic realization structure cannot be treated separately.6.4 Direct transpose canonical realization Direct transpose canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum of N delay lines as well as reduced number of adders to N+1. one of the main disadvantages of direct and direct transpose realization structures is eliminated. that is. Figure 3-2-19 illustrates the block diagram describing direct transpose canonical realization structure of IIR filter.9/22/13 3. Figure 3-2-18. Figure 3-2-18 illustrates the block diagram describing direct canonic realization structure of IIR filter. but similar to direct canonical structure. N delay lines.6. Direct canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct canonic structure block diagram and direct realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-14b are obvious.2.mikroe.Digital Filter Design . which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure. which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure. www. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure.2. Recursive and nonrecursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately.mikroElektronika Direct canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum. Recursive and non-recursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately. although it is easy to differentiate between them. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization.

pj are the poles of the transfer function.6.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 19/45 . Cascade realization requires the given expression to be factorized so that the transfer function is expressed as follows: www. Direct transpose canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct transpose canonical structure block diagram and direct transpose realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-16 are obvious. Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures.mikroe. modulation of frequency response and IIR filter stability are separately examined for each section. Individual sections are mostly realized in direct canonical or direct transpose canonical structure. aj are the coefficients of transfer function denominator (recursive part). The analyse is simplified this way.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-19. a filter is divided into several. Direct transpose canonic structure uses N delay elements.5 Cascade Realization Cascade realization structure is the most difficult to obtain from the transfer function (comparing to other realization structures given in this book). B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part. H0 is a constant. It is very convenient for its modular structure and less sensitivity to the accuracy of non-recursive and recursive coefficients realization. although it is easy to differentiate between them. The IIR filter transfer function is expressed as: where: bi are the coefficients of transfer function numerator (non-recursive part). which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure.Digital Filter Design . On cascade IIR filter realization. A(z) is the transfer function of recursive part (feedback). qi are the zeros of the transfer function. the finite word-length effect on the accuracy of coefficients.2. The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-19 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct transpose canonical realization structure cannot be treated separately. (2N+1) multipilication elements and N+1 adders. and M is the number of sections in cascade realization structure.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . mutually independent sections of the first or second order. 3. Since the sections are mutually independent after design process.

Figure 3-2-22. Besides. Figure 3-2-20. so the changes of poles locations are smaller. Figure 3-2-21 illustrates the block diagram describing cascade IIR filter structure. Filter dividing in independent sections reduces the sensitivity to the accuracy of quantization coefficients and simplifies analysing the stability of the resulting filter. Figure 3-220 illustrates a first-order section. Figure 3-2-21. Software realization requires M buffer of length 2 or 1. Such complexity and needed factorization are two main disadvantages of this realization structure. Each section must have its own buffer for saving samples of intermediate signals.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 20/45 . therefore.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Individual sections are of the first or second order. Second-order section The use of direct transpose realization structure reduces necessary number of delay lines and adders as well. Chebyshev (Chebyshev I) and inverse Chebyshev filter (Chebyshev II). Direct transpose canonical structure is most frequently used in realization. Cascade IIR filter structure 3. k] are the coefficients of non-recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section. The transform function of analog filter Hs a (s) is expressed as: www.3 Reference Analog Prototype Filter IIR filter design process starts with reference analog prototype filter.Digital Filter Design . the possibility that IIR filter becomes instable after quantization is drastically reduced as the coefficients quantization is performed after dividing filter in sections. First-order section Figure 3-2-21 illustrates a second-order section.mikroe. b[i. k] are the coefficients of recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section. This book explains Butterworth.mikroElektronika where: a[i.

Figure 3-3-1.e. frequency axis scaling. band-pass or band-stop) is performed by converting into analog filter. They are also known as „maximally flat magnitude“ filters at the frequency of Ω = 0. Figure 3-3-2 illustrates frequency responses for a few various parameters N (filter order). S plane and region of stability A low-pass filter is used for analog filter design. and N is the filter order. In order that a system described via expression above is stable.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . and M ≤ N. www. as the first 2N .3.1 Butterworth analog filter Low-pass Butterworth analog filters are filters whose frequency response is a monotonious descending function. it is necessary that all poles (the square roots of polinomial Aa(s)) are located in the left half of S plane.1 derivatives of the transfer function when Ω = 0 are equal to zero.Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-3-2. s is the complex frequency (s = σ + jΩ).com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 21/45 . The conversion into the appropriate type of filter (high-pass.mikroe. Butterworth filter is characterized by 3dB attenuation at the frequency of Ω=1. no matter the filter order is. i. Figure 3-3-1 illustrates S plane. Frequency response of Butterw orth filter Butterworth filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. 3.mikroElektronika where: N is the filter order.

ε is a parameter used to define maximum oscillations in the passband frequency response. filter is stab le if all poles are located in the left half of the s plane. All poles of the resulting filter must be located in the left half of the S plane. Figure 3-3-4. N.mikroe. Frequency response of Chebyshev analog filter To design Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. filter is stab le if all poles are located within the unit circle.. Figure 3-3-5 illustrates frequency response for a 4th order band-stop Chebyshev reference analog filter. Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. σi is the pole. to the left of the imaginary axis.e.. i. whereas Laplase transform (s plane) is used for analog filters. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order Chebyshev reference analog filter. IIR filter specification Figure 3-3-3 illustrates IIR filter specification with parameters of most interest for Butterworth filter. Z-transform is used for digital filters. The location of poles for N=5 and N=6 is shown in Figure 3-3-4.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 22/45 .2 Chebyshev Analog Filter Chebyshev analog low-pass filter of the first kind is a type of analog filter that has the least oscillation in frequency response in the entire passband. Figure 3-3-5. it is necessary to know the filter order. The values of poles are expressed as: where: si is the i-th transfer function pole of analog prototype filter (complex value). neither recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary. and Ωi is the imaginary pole. where: N is the filter order. . 2. Even though these two types of transformations are similar to some extent. the transfer function is: 3. In the s plane. Position of Butterw orth filter poles for N=5 and N=6 The transfer function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter is expressed as follows: where: Sk is the k-th pole of the Butterworth filter transfer function For N=5. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained via recursive relations: If the filter order is known in advance. The value of parameter ε is obtained via expression: Transfer function is expressed as: www. To design Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. it is necessary to know the filter order.3. When the filter order is known. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial.mikroElektronika Figure 3-3-3.. and i=1. Note: In the z plane.Digital Filter Design . they should not b e mixed up concerning the filter stab ility analyse. Therefore it is characterized by equal ripple in the passband and the stopband frequency response is monotoniously descending function. it is easy to find its poles using expression: Butterworth poles are equally allocated (equidistantly) on the unit circle within the left half of the s plane. N is the filter order.

The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are found via expression: where: si is the pole of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter. 5 1.Digital Filter Design . as the first 2N . the frequency response is extremely flat function at the frequency of Ω = 0. In the stopband. Figure 3-3-7 illustrates the frequency response for an inverse Chebyshev reference analog band-stop filter of the 4th order. Figure 3-3-7. the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-6. Similar to Butterworth filter. 7 1. The poles of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter are expressed as: where: si is the i-th pole of the transfer function of analog prototype filter (complex value). neither these recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary. and s2i is the pole of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter.. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained from recursive relation: If the filter order is familiar in advance. σi is the real pole. Frequency characteristic of inverse Chebyshev analog filter To design inverse Chebyshev reference analog pototype filter.3. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are considered reciprocal poles of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter. 5 1. 3. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial. where: N is the filter order. N is the filter order. and Ωi is the imaginary pole. Transfer function is expressed as: The coefficient k in numerator can be only an odd number.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 23/45 .9/22/13 The value of A0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . 3... ε is the parameter of maximum oscillation in the passband frequency response. inverse Chebyshev filter has the least oscillation in the frequency response. Location of the poles of Chebyshev filter for N=5 3. The frequency response of this filter monotoniously falls in the passband and transition region. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order inverse Chebyshev reference analog filter.3 Inverse Chebyshev Analog Filter Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is also known as Chebyshev analog filter of the second kind.1 derivatives of the transfer function for Ω = 0 are equal to zero. 3. 2. 3. coefficient k in the transfer function num erator The values Ωk are found via expression: www. 5. . N 5 6 7 8 M IN 1 1 1 1 M AX 5 5 7 7 V A L UES 1.mikroElektronika For N=5. N. Table 3-3-1 provides a few examples of values of k.mikroe. Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. it is necessary to know the filter order. and i=1. 7 Table 3-3-1. 5.

high-pass. it is necessary to scale filter during the design process. band-pass or band-stop filter. band-pass and band-stop filters. have scaled frequency range so that the passband cut-off frequency amounts to Ω = 1. if needed. the zeros of the transfer function are always complex-conjugated values. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. so that passband and stopband cut-off frequencies have the appropriate.e. By performing the transformation: each expression within brackets in the transfer function numerator is transformed into: and the whole numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: By replacing numerator and denominator by their transformed expressions. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where H0 is a costant. Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency of Ωp =1. Location of poles and zeros of inverse Chebyshev filter for N=5 As seen from Figure 3-3-8 and expression for Ωk. Generally. 3. regardless of their type. In the transform function.mikroElektronika For N=5. predetermined values. the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-8. 3. For this reason.Digital Filter Design . In this case. i. Transformation from an analog prototype filter to appropriate analog filter is performed before transforming it in digital filter. the transformation comes to a simple frequency scaling.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 24/45 .2929 in the passband is obtained via expression: Example: The transform function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: www. Reference analog prototype filter is also a low-pass filter so it requires to be transformed into the appropriate type of filter.mikroe. which is not the case with the poles of the transfer function. s\\Ω c is used instead of s. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.1 Low-pass filter The transformation from a reference analog prototype filter to a low-pass analog filter is the simplest type of transformation. where Ω c is a desirable cut-off frequency in the passband.9/22/13 The value H0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transform function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. Scaling is explained for low-pass. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. high-pass.4 Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation All analog prototype filters.4. All the results obtained in this chapter are tested in the Filter designer tool program. Frequency scaling depends on the type of analog filter being designed.

mikroElektronika The transformation to a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0.mikroe. The first step refers to the transformation to a high-pass analog filter. www.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 25/45 . Its transformation to a high-pass analog filter can be split into two steps. whereas the second one refers to frequency scaling.3721 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. The transformation to a high-pass analog filter: Scaling of frequency axis is performed by transformation: These two transformations can be represented by one transformation: Generally.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The final objective is that passband cut-off frequency of the resulting high-pass analog filter amounts to Ωc. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. By performing the following transformation: each bracket in the numerator of the transfer function is transformed into and the entire numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: Substituting these transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. The filter order is doubled by this transformation. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant.2 High-pass filter Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency Ωp = 1.3 Band-pass filter The transformation in a band-pass analog filter is more complex than the transformation in a low-pass and high-pass analog filters. This is why it is not possible to design an odd order band-pass filter.3719 in the passband is obtained via expression: 3. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.4.4. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.1434 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transform function of analog filter: 3.Digital Filter Design . and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well.

is found via expression: The transfer function of an analog prototype filter is transformed first in a band-pass analog filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 26/45 . Generally. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. By performing the transformation: each bracket in numerator of the transfer function is transformed into: and the entire numerator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. which is necessary for normalization. Reference analog filter is further transformed in a bandpass analog filter. A low-pass reference analog filter of the 4th order is designed first. The resulting filter order is used to design a low-pass reference analog prototype filter. the required filter order is divided by two.1626 in the passband is expressed as: www.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroElektronika When designing. The transformation into a band-pass analog filter is expressed as: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωp1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1). and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. This transformation doubles the filter order. Figure 3-4-1. and normalized after that with Ωc. The order of the resulting filter is 8. and Ωp2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1). Band-pass filter specification The value of Ωc. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.Digital Filter Design . M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Example: Assume that it is necessary to design an 8th order band-pass digital filter. the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant.mikroe. The required filter order is obtained this way. By transforming it into a band-pass analog filter the filter order is doubled.

and normalized after that with Ωc.4 Band-stop filter The transformation in a band-stop analog filter is similar to the transformation in a bandpass analog filter. A low-pass reference analog filter of the 5th order is designed first. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: www. The transformation in a band-stop analog filter: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωs1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2). This is how the required filter order is obtained.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 27/45 . M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.mikroe. The first step refers to normalization with the frequency Ωc: The transformation is performed in the second step: and each bracket in the transfer function numerator is transformed in: and the entire numerator is transformed in: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed in: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. is found via expression: The transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter is transformed first into a band-stop analog filter. When designing.9/22/13 The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Chapter 3: IIR filters . The transformation into a bandstop analog filter causes the filter order to double. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. the required filter order is divided by two. which is necessary for normalization. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. This transformation causes the filter order to double. Band-stop filter specification The value of Ωc.mikroElektronika 3. The result is a 10th order filter. Generally. Figure 3-4-2. Example: It is necessary to design a band-stop digital filter of the 10th order. Similarly. The reference analog filter is transformed in a band-stop analog filter.Digital Filter Design .4. the filter order is doubled and the order of a band-stop digital filter cannot be an odd number. The resulting filter order is used for designing a low-pass reference analog prototype filter. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant. and Ωs2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2).

Using expression for linear transformation: we obtain: where: N=2 M=2 z1=j0. This transformation also transforms s plane into z plane. faithfully approximate the frequency response of analog filter. the transformation is performed by a simple change of variable s in the expression for the transfer function of the resulting analog filter. and pk is the pole of the analog filter transfer function.2692 p2=-2. whereas digital filter is stable if the poles are located within the unit circle.5 Bilinear transformation Digital IIR filters are designed using analog filters.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .267+j2.1014 z2=-j0.mikroe.2692 www. After transformation. It is done by transforming the analog filter transfer function into a digital one. the transformation of the analog filter transform function into a digital one can be expressed as: As seen.mikroElektronika The transformation into a band-stop analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. Figure 3-5-1. If s=0 then H(s)=H0 .5727 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: 3. After the frequency scaling and transformation into a desirable type of filter have been performed. fs=44100Hz. For this reason. It is defined via expression: Using the previous expression. the analog filter transfer function is further transformed into: where: Hoz is a constant of the digital IIR filter transfer function Example: The transfer function of a second-order high-pass analog filter (inverse Chebyshev. zk is the zero of the analog filter transfer function.1014 p1=-2. and 2. as shown in Figure 3-5-1. fc=2KHz.267-j2. Transform ation of s plane into z plane One of most commonly used method of transforming analog filters into appropriate IIR filters is known as bilinear transformation.252. the transformation must provide that the left half of s plane coincides with the area within the unit circle of z plane. The analog filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant. 60dB) is expressed as: It is necessary to transform the given analog filter into the appropriate digital filter by bilinear transformation. Analog filter is stable if the poles of the transfer function are located in the left half of s plane. provide that the resulting digital filter is guaranteed to be stable.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 28/45 . it is necessary to transform the resulting analog filter into a digital one. The transformation is supposed to: 1.Digital Filter Design .

Some steps are skipped in some cases. which is not the case with the rest of the frequency axis. it is impossible to represent coefficients without an error. Transformation into digital filter by bilinear transformation. Figure 3-6-1 illustrates the design steps along with input and output data for each of them. Realization structure is illustrated in Figure 3-5-2 below. 4. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Such a non-linear transformation of analog filter frequencies causes the phase characteristic distorsion.2. However. the cut-off frequencies are defined on the basis of the given specifications and type of a filter. which also generates a certain error. Regardless of the type of reference analog prototype filter in use.6 Examples This chapter discusses various IIR filter design methods. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. The specified filter order is increased or decreased according to needs. When transforming. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Transformation into analog filter by range scaling. and steps 4. Special care is required when quantizing feedback coefficients as it causes the location of the digital IIR filter transfer function poles to change their location. When designing.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 29/45 . and 7. pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. high-pass filter. these frequencies have appropriate locations.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Reference analog prototype filter is always a low-pass filter. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well. Figure 3-5-2. Steps in designing digital IIR filter The first block refers to design of reference analog prototype filter of appropriate order. The final result is the transfer function H(s) given by: where: H0 is a constant. The quantization effect on digital filter stability is much more dangerous. M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. The IIR filter design process can be split into several steps described in Chapter 3. Defining filter specifications. The output data is a reference analog prototype filter transfer function Ha (s). 5 and 6 are repeated after that as many times as needed. If the type of reference analog prototype filter is predetermined. then it is necessary to do it. The expression used to transform the reference analog prototype filter transfer function depends on the type of filter that needs to be obtained. 5. If the filter order is known. band-pass filter. step 3 is skipped.Digital Filter Design .mikroElektronika The result is the transfer function of a digital high-pass IIR filter. These are: 1. The design method used here is known as bilinear transformation. Specifying the type of analog prototype filter. IIR filter realization Digital filters designed via bilinear trasnformation are guaranteed to be stable. and band-stop filter. A disadvantage of the bilinear transformation is a non-linear transformation of the analog filter frequency axis into a digital one. if it happens. However. the resulting IIR filter is not stable and is useless therefore. Figure 3-6-1. the IIR filter design process will be described through these steps in order to make it easier for you to observe similarities and differencies between various design methodes. 6. so that it is not linear. the accurate values of coefficients are obtained immediately after the implementation of bilinear transformation. The four standard types of filters are used here: low-pass filter. the resulting coefficients are quantized. analog prototype filters and design of various types of filters as well.mikroe. step 2 is skipped. the transfer function is given by: where: H0 is a constant. The next step is the transformation into an analog filter of appropriate type. On filter realization. In software digital filter realization (implementation). 3. which may further cause the stopband attenuation to decrease. It is very important to prevent the poles from being located outside the unite circle.5 Designing IIR filters b y b ilinear transformation. www. 3. Any error made during the quantization of coefficients affects more or less the frequency response. Computing the filter order according to the filter specifications and specified analog prototype filter. 2. In every given example.

whereas it is different if the analog filter is a band-pass or band-stop filter. the analog filter order (N) is twice that of the reference analog prototype filter. The next step is the transformation into appropriate digital IIR filter using bilinear transformation given by expression: Filter Designer Tool is used for testing and analysing the resulting IIR filters in this chapter. which is sufficient for most examples.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 30/45 . pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well.1. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.Digital Filter Design . All data are calculated with the accuracy of 4 decimal digits. and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros.6. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: www. In the later case. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Passband cut-off frequency – fc=2.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=2. They differ only in the value of constant H0 . and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.6. These can be computed via expression: As N = 2.mikroElektronika M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Step 2: Method. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. N=2. the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. The filter order is the same if the analog filter is a low-pass or high-pass filter.1 Filter design using Butterworth filter 3. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. only poles.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroe. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. 3.5KHz. As seen. the values of the transfer function poles and zeros zk and pk as well as in the number of transfer function zeros M.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. the transfer functions of reference analog prototype filter and analog filter are very similar.

com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 31/45 . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-2 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. Step 2: Method. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: www. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3.Digital Filter Design . Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-3. Passband cut-off frequency – fc=5KHz.1. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . only poles. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.mikroe.6. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=3. There is no need to additionally change it. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. N = 3.mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-2. whereas Figure 3-6-3 illustrates the frequency response of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros.

Filter realization: Figure 3-6-4 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. only poles. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. In this example for N=4. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=4KHz. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-5. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3.6.mikroe. fc2=6KHz. There is no need to additionally change it.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 32/45 . Figure 3-6-4. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4.Digital Filter Design . the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function. N = 4. so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.9/22/13 A more condensed form of the previous expression is: Chapter 3: IIR filters . the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order.1. www. Step 2: Method .

Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. In this example for N = 4. N = 4. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-6 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. There is no need to additionally change it.mikroElektronika In this example. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=3000Hz. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.1.mikroe. only poles. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-7. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. Step 2: Method . by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Figure 3-6-6.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4. www. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.6. fc2=3300Hz.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 33/45 . the order of reference prototype filter is 2.

Filter realization: Figure 3-6-8 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. The solution is redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as=40dB. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: www. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 34/45 . Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.6. Step 2: Method .1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs=44100Hz.mikroElektronika In this example. These can be computed via expression: As N = 4. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. There is no need to additionally change it. Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2=18KHz.mikroe. Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4. the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case.2 Filter design using Chebyshev filter 3. only poles.2. Figure 3-6-8. Maximum passband attenuation – ap=1dB.2457 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .6. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-9.Digital Filter Design . Passband cut-off frequency– fc1=15KHz. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3.

Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . These can be computed via expression: As N = 5. Step3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration. A new filter order is 5. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. the values of poles are: The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Figure 3-6-10. Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied. The filter order is incremented by 1 and is 5 therefore. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 31. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = . Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool.Digital Filter Design . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-10 below. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. www. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.2dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient.mikroe.0. only poles. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 35/45 .1228 so the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated.mikroElektronika The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.

whereas Figure 3-6-13 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 41.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-11 below. The whole procedure is the same. Figure 3-6-12. N = 3. Step 2: Method . Digital IIR filter direct realization Figure 3-6-13.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3. Passband cut-off frequency – fc = 5KHz. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. Figure 3-6-11. the expression for transfer function is simpler: www.mikroElektronika This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order. only poles. the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 36/45 . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-12 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter 3.1. only it takes more time.6dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = .6.0. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is appropriate.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz.mikroe.4913 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.Digital Filter Design .

Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. N = 4. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.mikroElektronika Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 37/45 . substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.1. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0. In this example for N = 4.9/22/13 After substitution of poles and Ωc into expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-15.mikroe.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: www. Step 2: Method filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. fc2 = 6KHz. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. There is no need to additionally change it. Figure 3-6-14.Digital Filter Design . Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz. only poles. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example.3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-14 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.6. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.

only poles. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 3000Hz. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Step 2: Method . the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 38/45 . Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-17. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.1. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. Filter 3-6-16.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz.Digital Filter Design . fc2 = 3300Hz. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: www.mikroElektronika First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. N = 4. There is no need to additionally change it.6.9/22/13 Step 5: Chapter 3: IIR filters . In this example for N = 4.mikroe. In this expression. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-16 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB.

Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.3. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-19. Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2 = 18KHz. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros.3 Filter design using inverse Chebyshev filter 3. Passband cut-off frequency – fc1 = 15KHz.9/22/13 In this example. Figure 3-6-18.mikroElektronika A0 = 0.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 39/45 .1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter –low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs = 44100Hz. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as = 40dB.mikroe.Digital Filter Design .6. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. The solution is www.6. Filter realization Figure 3-6-18 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined. Step 2: Method . so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. the value of constant A0 is: Chapter 3: IIR filters . In this expression. There is no need to additionally change it.

Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Step 3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 40/45 . substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 5. Frequency charactersitic of designed IIR filter The attenuation at 15KHz is higher than 1dB and the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the specifications therefore. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. and becomes 5 therefore. A new filter order is 5. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example.2dB approximately at the frequency of 15KHZ is not sufficient. The filter order is incremented by 1. Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. only poles. It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied.mikroe. These can be computed via expression: As N = 4. only poles. Figure 3-6-20.01 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-20 below. the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5.mikroElektronika redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied.Digital Filter Design . the values of poles are: www.

0. Figure 3-6-21.mikroe. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.mikroElektronika In this case. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 41/45 .8dB).05 so the inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Passband cut-off frequency– fc = 5KHz. The whole procedure is the same.1. Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-23. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-21 below. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Step 7: By analysing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool.Digital Filter Design . Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. Figure 3-6-22. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. www.6. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = . only it takes more time. whereas Figure 3-6-23 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. it is obvious that the attenuation at 18KHZ is less than 1dB (approximately 0. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-22 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.9/22/13 The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Frequency characteristic of IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is approriate.

filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-6-24. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined.9/22/13 Step 2: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-24 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.6. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. There is no need to additionally change it. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-25. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.mikroElektronika Method .Digital Filter Design . This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.1.3 Example 3 www. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 42/45 . N=3.mikroe. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. only poles. the transfer function is: After substituting the poles and Ωc into expression: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = -0.03 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.

9/22/13 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specification: Chapter 3: IIR filters . and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.Digital Filter Design . N = 4. In this example.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 43/45 .mikroe. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: For this example. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-26 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter. www.mikroElektronika Filter order – N = 4. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. fc2 = 6KHz. There is no need to additionally change it. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. In this example for N=4. Step 2: Method . the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. only poles. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz.

Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.mikroe.1. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. In this example for N = 4. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. only poles.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. www. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-27. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. In this expression. the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.Digital Filter Design . the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-26.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 44/45 . N = 4. Step 2: Method . substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specification: Filter order – N=4. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.6. Stopband cut-off frequencies – fc1=3000Hz. so the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . fc2=3300Hz.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.

www. All rights reserved.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-28 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-29.2013. Filter realization: Chapter 3: IIR filters . MikroElektronika.mikroe. Figure 3-6-28.Digital Filter Design . There is no need to additionally change it. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple ← previous chapter | table of contents MikroElektronika Embedded Solutions PIC Solution PIC De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC C om pile rs PIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC Kits PIC Book s Follow us on PIC32 Solution PIC 32 De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC 32 C om pile rs PIC 32 Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC 32 Kits dsPIC Solution dsPIC De ve lopm e nt Boards dsPIC C om pile rs dsPIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs dsPIC Kits dsPIC Book s Add-on boards C lick Boards m ik rom e dia shie lds C om m unication boards Storage boards R e al Tim e C lock boards Display boards Me asure m e nt boards Audio & Voice boards Powe r Supply boards GPS boards GSM/GPR S boards Additional Software Visual TFT Visual GLC D Pack age Manage r GLC D Font C re ator 8051 Solution 8051 De ve lopm e nt Boards 8051 C om pile rs 8051 Program m e rs/De bugge rs 8051 Book s 8051 Kits AVR Solution AVR De ve lopm e nt Boards AVR C om pile rs AVR Program m e rs/De bugge rs AVR Kits ARM Solution AR M De ve lopm e nt Boards AR M C om pile rs AR M Program m e rs/De bugge rs AR M Kits Support Forum m ik roBUS Le ts m ak e Pre ss Le gal Inform ation Product Archive About Us C opyright © 1998 . All trade and/or services marks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 45/45 .9/22/13 Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.

- Infinite Impulse Response
- Adc Cognitive
- [51]. a Real-Time QRS Detection Algorithm
- Noise Cancellation Using Adapter Filter
- Filter Design 2
- Chapter 15
- vlsi sp.doc
- Syllabus B.sc(IT) - Sem v-VI
- Untitled
- 1.Introduction for Digital Signal Processing
- IEEE DFR Report
- Sound Processing in MATLAB
- Reprort on Adaptive Filter 1
- Design of Linear Phase FIR Filter Using Differential Evolution Optimization2003(2)
- Engindeniz Gunes Thesis
- DESIGN OF A MICROWAVE CHANNELIZED ACTIVE FILTER FOR MMIC
- saqrx
- DSP Finale 20081
- DigitalSignalProcessing.pdf
- Pyramid method and Wavelet
- Implementation of Discrete-time Systems
- Psd
- vtest60e_V441ff
- 6. Comp Sci - Ijcseitr -Assessment of Ans Using Hrv Data - Mahesh Kumar
- Filters
- AD1859
- DSP LAB MANUAL
- ssplo
- Band Pass
- 1MRK511311-UEN - En Technical Manual Bay Control REC670 2.0 IEC

- unit1-KSS.pdf
- BloomPolygon.pdf
- 4.pdf
- 69289554 Linear Convolution of Two Sequences Using DFT and IDFT
- 4.pdf
- 89177128-Digital-Signal-Processing-Lab-Manual.pdf
- Lab2(1)
- Direction No 37 of 2017
- Application Book
- Bandwidth
- 4.pdf
- S15
- 89177128-Digital-Signal-Processing-Lab-Manual.pdf
- dspimp
- eleng_DSP
- An_Overview_of_Digital_Signal_Processing_and_its_Applications.pdf
- dsp lab.pdf
- Project Ppt
- BIGI006.pdf
- dsp lab.pdf
- Operational Amplifiers Basics, Characteristics, Types and Applications
- ADHOC MAC New MAC Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks
- ADHOC MAC New MAC Architecture for Ad Hoc Networks Providing Efficient and Reliable Point to Point and Broadcast Services
- Lecture-3.pptx
- EEE 3 8 Sem R2013 Syllabus
- EC 6511 DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING LAB MANUAL.pdf
- WhatAndWhyAdhoc
- Differential Amplifier Circuit Tutorial Using BJT and Opamp – Electronic Circuits and Diagram-Electronics Projects and Design_IMPP
- Lesson-16.pdf
- 25-7-16

Sign up to vote on this title

UsefulNot usefulRead Free for 30 Days

Cancel anytime.

Close Dialog## Are you sure?

This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?

Loading