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**Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika
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**Digital Filter Design
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TOC Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3

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**Chapter 3: Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters
**

3.1. Introduction 3.2. IIR filter design 3.3. Reference analog prototype filter 3.4. Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation 3.5. Bilinear transformation 3.6. Examples

3.1 Introduction

IIR filters are digital filters with infinite impulse response. Unlike FIR filters, they have the feedback (a recursive part of a filter) and are known as recursive digital filters therefore.

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Figure 3-1-1. Block diagram s of FIR and IIR filters

For this reason IIR filters have much better frequency response than FIR filters of the same order. Unlike FIR filters, their phase characteristic is not linear which can cause a problem to the systems which need phase linearity. For this reason, it is not preferable to use IIR filters in digital signal processing when the phase is of the essence. Otherwise, when the linear phase characteristic is not important, the use of IIR filters is an excellent solution. There is one problem known as a potential instability that is typical of IIR filters only. FIR filters do not have such a problem as they do not have the feedback. For this reason, it is always necessary to check after the design process whether the resulting IIR filter is stable or not. IIR filters can be designed using different methods. One of the most commonly used is via the reference analog prototype filter. This method is the best for designing all standard types of filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters. This book describes the design method using reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-1-2 illustrates the block diagram of this method.

Figure 3-1-2. Block diagram of design m ethod using reference analog prototype filter

FIR filters can have linear phase characteristic, which is not typical of IIR filters. When it is necessary to have linear phase characteristic,

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

FIR filters are the only available solution. In other cases when linear phase characteristic is not necessary, such as speech signal processing, FIR filters are not good solution. IIR filters should be used instead. The resulting filter order is considerably lower for the same frequency response. The filter order determines the number of filter delay lines, i.e. number of input and output samples that should be saved in order that the next output sample can be computed. For instance, if the filter order is 10, it means that it is necessary to save 10 input samples plus 10 output samples preceeding the current sample. All these 21 samples will affect the next output sample. The IIR filter transfer function is a ratio of two polynomials of complex variable z-1. The numerator defines location of zeros, whereas the denominator defines location of poles of the resulting IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-1-3. illustrates input and output signals of the system with non-linear phase characteristic.

Figure 3-1-3. The effect of non-linear phase characteristic

The system introduces phase shift of 0 radians at frequency of ω, and π radians at three times higher frequency. Input signal consists of nature frequency ω and harmonics with the same amplitude at three times higher frequency. Figure on the left illustrates an input signal, whereas Figure on the right illustrates an output signal. As seen, these two signals have different waveforms. Neither the power of the signal nor amplitudes of particular harmonics have been changed, but the phase of the second harmonic. Assume that an input represents a speech signal where the phase is not important. In this case such phase distorsion would be negligable as the system satisfies the stated requirements. Otherwise, if the phase is important, such a huge distorsion mustn’t be allowed.

**3.2 Infinite impulse response (IIR) filter design
**

The most commonly used IIR filter design method uses reference analog prototype filter. It is the best method to use when designing standard filters such as low-pass, high-pass, bandpass and band-stop filters. The filter design process starts with specifications and requirements of the desirable IIR filter. A type of reference analog prototype filter to be used is specified according to the specifications and after that everything is ready for analog prototype filter design. The next step in the design process is scaling of the frequency range of analog prototype filter into desirable frequency range. This is how an analog prototype filter is converted into an analog filter. After the analog filter is designed, it is time to go through the last step in the digital IIR filter design process. It is conversion from analog to digital filter. The most popular and most commonly used converting method is bilinear transformation method. The resulting filter, obtained in this way, is always stable. However, instability of the resulting filter, when bilinear transformation is used, may be caused only by the finite word-length side-effect.

**3.2.1 Basic concepts and IIR filter specification
**

First of all, it is necessay to learn the basic concepts that will be used further in this book. You should be aware that without being familiar with these concepts, it is not possible to understand analyses and synthesis of digital filters. Figure 3-2-1 illustrates a low-pass digital filter specification. The word specification refers to the frequency response specification.

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-1a. Low -pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-1b. Low -pass digital filter specification

ωp – normalized passband cut-off frequency; ωs – normalized stopband cut-off frequency; δ1 – maximum passband ripples; δ2 – minimum stopband attentuation; ε – passband attenuation parameter; A – stopband attenuation parameter; ap – maximum passband ripples [dB]; and as – minimum stopband attenuation [dB].

Frequency normalization can be expressed as follows:

where:

**fs is the sampling frequency; f is the frequency to normalize; and ω is the normalized frequency.
**

Specifications for high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters are defined almost the same way as those for low-pass filters. Figure 3-2-2 illustrates a high-pass filter specification, whereas Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass filter specification.

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-2a. High-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-2b. High-pass digital filter specification

Comparing these two Figures 3-2-1 and 3-2-2, it is obvious that low-pass and high-pass filters have similar specifications. The same parameters are defined in both cases with the difference that in the later case the passband is substituded by the stopband and vice versa. Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass specification.

Filter 3-2-3a. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-3b. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-4 illustrates band-stop digital filter specification

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com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 5/45 . The Z-transform is defined as: where z is the complex number. Example: Assume that samples of a discrete-time signal x(n) are known. The z-transform is derived from the Fourier discrete time-domain transformation and is considered the basic operation in digital filter design process.mikroe.2. It converts a discrete timedomain signal into a complex frequency-domin representation. The Fourier transformation can be found by rewriting the previous expression in terms of z as z=e^jω.2.1} . It is necessary to transform this signal with the z-transform and Fourier fransform. Band-stop digital filter specification Figure 3-2-4b.2.5. 0 ≤ n ≤ 8 z-transform is defined via expression: It becomes: The last expression is the z-transform of the given signal.4.3.4. x(n)={1.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .3.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-4a.Digital Filter Design .2 Z-transform The Z-transform is performed upon discrete-time signals. It is very suitable for analyzing discrete time-domain signals and systems as well. It becomes: www. Band-stop digital filter specification 3.

which can be seen in Figure 3-2-6 below. Frequency spectrum of the given signal Comparing Z and Fourier transforms.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 6/45 . the complex number z may be expressed as follows: The two last expressions lead us to the conclusion that Fourier transform is just a special form of the z-transform for r=1. Figure 3-2-5.Digital Filter Design . it is easy to notice some similarities between them: In polar coordinates. In the z plane. the Fourier transform is represented as a unit circle.mikroe.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-5 illustrates the (frequency) spectrum of the given signal.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . www.

The poles of the IIR filter transfer function must be located within the unit circle in order that filter is stable.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 7/45 . Fourier transform in the z plane The z-transform of the transfer function is of great importance for IIR filters. The location of poles in the z plane is used for testing stability of designed IIR filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . www. Figure 3-2-7a illustrates zeros and poles of the transfer function of a stable IIR filter in the z plane. whereas its poles are denoted by small crosses.Digital Filter Design .mikroe. Figure 3-2-7a Stable IIR filter Transfer function zeros are denoted by small circles.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-6.

mikroElektronika As seen in Figure 3-2-7.Digital Filter Design . one transfer function zero is located outside the unit circle. www. When the transfer function is found.2. Figure 3-2-7a clearly indicates interrelation between zeros and poles in the z plane. In the z plane. H0 is a constant. The result of such a quantization is a filter that is not stable.mikroe. it is easy to determine whether it refers to FIR or IIR filter.3 Transfer function of discrete-time systems The Z-transform is primarily used for finding the transfer function of linear discrete-time systems. It is obviously not the case in Figure 3-2-7. which means that it refers to IIR. Figure 3-2-7b. the imaginary part is zero.e. 3. Also. two poles located outside the unit circle make this IIR filter instable. Such a pair is also called a complex-conjugated pair of zeros or poles. the resulting filter is stable before the coefficient quantization starts. it is illustrated as a pair of zeros or poles which are symmetric around the real axis. If either of them is not located on the real axis in the z plane. not FIR filter. If bilinear transformation is used in the filter design. The poles of the FIR filter transfer function are located at the origin. then it has the corresponding pair having the same real value and the same imaginary value with the opposite sign.9/22/13 Re – Real axis Im – Imaginary axis Chapter 3: IIR filters . All four poles of transfer function are located within the unit circle. It doesn’t cause any problem as the location of poles is the only thing that matters. The transfer function of discrete-time systems is defined to be: where: bi are the feedforward filter coefficients (non-recursive part). then it is single. Instable IIR filter As seen from Figure 3-2-7b. aj are the feedback filter coefficients (recursive part). If a zero or a pole is located on the real axe in the z plane. qi are the zeros of the transfer function. Figure 3-2-7b illustrates the zeros and poles of the transfer function of an instable IIR filter in the z plane.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 8/45 . This quantization changes the location of zeros and poles of the resulting IIR filter. i. According to the location of poles in the z plane. which guarantees tha stability of IIR filters. it is necessary to consider the zeros and poles of the transfer function in the z plane. which can cause one pole or one pair of poles to be located outside the unit circle.

In the frequency domain.mikroElektronika pj are the poles of the transfer function. Figure 3-2-8 Discrete-tim e system w ith feedback In the time domain.Digital Filter Design . Example: The transfer function of a 3th order IIR filter. B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part of the system. Figure 3-2-8. Unlike the FIR filters. the IIR filters have feedback which enable them to have greater selectivity as well as nonlinearity of phase characteristic than FIR filters. the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as the multiplication of Z-transform input signal X(z) and the transform function H(z): The first way of representing discrete-time systems is suitable for both software and hardware IIR filter implementation.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 9/45 . The recursive part of the transfer function is actually a discrete-time system feedback.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . and A(z) the transfer function of recursive part of the system (feedback). illustrates block diagram of discrete-time system with feedback. Another expression for convolusion that is more useful in practical applications is: www.mikroe. designed using Chebyshev function is: The following expression describes the filtering process: This process is also known as convolution. whereas the representation in the z domain is suitable for analyzes of designed filters and synthesis itself (design process). the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as follows: OR The later expression is more convenient for software IIR filters realization.

com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 10/45 .mikroe.mikroElektronika After making substitutions of impulse response coefficients. For example. it becomes: Using expression: it is possible to find function for particular normalized frequency.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . when ω = 0.2π: The numerator is computed first: Then denominator: www.Digital Filter Design .

The result of the feedback. filter stability is questioned only due to coefficient quantization which is performed at the end of the design process. According to their location it is possible to test stability of a discrete-time system. This property is particularly typical of high-order filters because their zeros are very close each other. Recalling that FIR flters do not have a feedback. Slight errors in coefficient representation may cause large frequency deviations. Realization of IIR filter in this exam ple The software realization would require two buffers each of minimum length 3.2. the given IIR filter corresponds to a 6th order FIR filter. affects more frequency characteristic. which makes them stable. which is very dangerous.mikroe. Deviation of frequency depends on the spacing between the zeros and poles of the FIR filter transfer function and the origin in the z plane. is a non-linear phase characteristic. by rule. this doesn’t apply on IIR filters. The finite word-length effect on the transform www. These are usually circular buffers whose length can be expressed as 2^n. In this case.Digital Filter Design . as shown in Figure 3-2-6. Selectivity and attenuation of this filter are much higher than those of any 6th order FIR filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 11/45 . A direct result of such errors is deviation of the frequency of designed discrete-time system. Therefore. In software implementation. the pole quantization. the system becomes unstable. detect round-off errors made due to software implementation of a filter as well as coefficient errors encountered during hardware implementation of a filter. all poles of the discrete-time system transfer function must be located within the unit circle. Figure 3-2-9.4 Effects of the poles and zeros of the transfer function The location of poles and zeros of the transfer function is very important for discrete-time system analyses and synthesis. 3. The location of zeroes doesn’t affect the stabilty of discrete-time systems.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroElektronika Figure 2-2-8 illustrates a hardware realization of this IIR filter. It always happens due to software and hardware implementation that an error in coefficients representation is produced. Figure 3-2-9 illustrates the required and obtained frequency characteristic of an IIR filter. which in this case means that the circular buffer is 4 = 2^2 in length. In order that a discrete-time system is stable. Besides. which provides so high selectivity and attenuation. However. it is preferable to use bilinear transformation because it always makes filter stable. By complexity. The FIR filter coefficient error affects more the frequency response as the spacing between the zero and pole of the transfer function and the origin narrows. One buffer would be used for input samples and another one for output samples. whereas in hardware implementation. If this requirement is not satisfied. The result in both cases is that the actual value of coefficients differs from their value obtained in design process. it ocurrs due to impossibility of representing the coefficients with apsolute accuracy. an error is triggered by the finite word-length effect.

com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 12/45 . it is possible to find its transfer function. ωc2). The initial value of the filter order is roughly estimated and is changed after that depending on the obtained characteristics and requirements. transition width.2. or if the filter order can be less than actual one. Defining filter specification. It is only important that its characteristics can satisfy the given specifications. 5.5 IIR filters design using bilinear transformation The IIR filter design using bilinear transformation can be split into several steps: 1.Digital Filter Design . so that such deviation is acceptable. 4. 5 and 6 are repeated as many times as needed. when the type of analog proptotype filter is known. The type of analog prototype filter as well as the filter order will be specified according to these parameters. If the obtained filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. then it is necessary to do it. The minimum attenuation and the width of transition region of the resulting IIR filter remain unchanged. For this reason. The final objective of defining IIR filter specifications is to find the desirable normalized cutoff frequencies (ωc. ωc1. 3.2. and 7. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. bk the coefficient of non-recursive part of IIR filter. even though it is very large at certain frequencies. IIR filters have much greater selectivity and attenuation than FIR filters of the same order. it is necessary to perform scaling of the transfer function so that cut-off frequencies go into the desirable range. Now. Specifying analog prototype filter. Finally. For this reason. it is time to specify the type of reference analog prototype filter. is repeated. 3. computing of the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. i. 3.mikroe.6 IIR filter realization FIR filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: N is the filter order. The coefficients bk and ak are of interest for IIR filter realization (both hardware and software). The filter order can be increased or decreased according to needs and after that steps 4. it is preferable to specify such a type of analog prototype filter that can produce the lowest order IIR filter. it is preferable to increase or decrease the filter order by 1. Conversion into digital filter via bilinear transformation. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications. Be aware that every type has its good and bad sides.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-10.9/22/13 function of an IIR filter is clearly marked in this figure. the entire IIR filter design process. Chapter 3: IIR filters . scaling and obtaining analogue filters and conversion into digital filter. 2.e. it should be changed. The transfer function of analog prototype filter depends on frequencies which are not scaled into the desirable range. After changing the filter order. Deviation from required frequency characteristic The frequency deviation shown in Figure 3-2-10 is basically slight deviation. the transfer function of the specified type of reference analog prototype filter is obtained by converting analog filter into digital one. 6. that is. and ak the coefficient of recursive part (feedback) of IIR filter. Conversion into analog filter via scaling. it is necessary to specify or compute the filter order required for a given set of specifications. Figure 3-2-11 illustrates the block diagram of www. This book represents the most commonly used conversion known as bilinear transformation. After this step. This operation is actually conversion of reference analog prototype filter into analog filter with desirable characteristic. When both type and order of analog prototype filter are known. However. Computing the filter order required for a given set of specifications and specified analog prototype filter. maximum passband attenuation and minimum stopband attenuation.

1 Direct realization Direct realization of IIR filters starts with this expression: The first part of the expression refers to non-recursive part and the other refers to recursive part of IIR filter. direct transpose canonic and cascade realizations. 3. illustrates the block diagram of direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter.6.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-11. All of them are very convenient and most commonly used for both hardware and software IIR filter realization. direct transpose. Figure 3-2-12.Digital Filter Design . these two parts are separately considered and realized.mikroe. The realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is identical to the direct realization of FIR filter. Chapter 3: IIR filters . Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter www. In IIR filter direct realization. Each of them will be described in detail along with their advantages and disadvantages.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 13/45 . Block diagram of IIR filter There are several types of IIR filter realization. This chapter covers direct. direct canonic.9/22/13 IIR filter.2. Figure 3-2-12.

respectively.mikroElektronika As seen from Figure 3-2-12 above. Realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is similar to that of recursive part. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter As non-recursive and recursive part of IIR filter are separately realized.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroe. multiplication coefficients are identical to those of the transfer function. illustrates the direct realization of the filter recursive part. Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b illustrate block diagrams of IIR filter realization when non-recursive part is used before and after recursive part of IIR filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 14/45 . Figure 3-2-13. Figure 3-2-13.Digital Filter Design . it doesn’t matter which of them will be used first in filtering process. www.

direct realization requires in total of 2N delay lines.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Direct realization is very convenient for software implementation and this is where it is most commonly used. non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-14b.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-14a. IIR filter direct realization.Digital Filter Design . As seen from Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b. IIR filter direct realization.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 15/45 . (2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions. recursive part is used first This structure is also known as a direct form I structure. Some of disadvantages of www.

and the greatest complexity due to implementation (i. it is necessary to have two buffers with at least N+1 samples. 4 A DDR. where N is the IIR filter order.e. Input circular buffer after receiving 10 sam ples 3. 1 A DDR.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . 0 S T EP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x[0] x[1] x[2] x[3] x[4] x[5] x[6] x[7] x[7] x[7] x[6] x[6] x[6] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[9] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[8] x[8] Table 2-2-2. A DDR.e. 6 A DDR. The length of circular buffer is obtained from the following expression: It means that the minimum length of circular buffer is 2^3 = 8.2 Direct transpose realization Direct transpose realization is similar to direct realization. buffer if it is about software implementation. 2 A DDR.e. The length of the buffer needs to be 2^k. Figure 3-2-15. For their simplicity and effectiveness.2. most commonly used are the so called circular buffers the length of which can be expressed as 2^k.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 16/45 .6. Input samples are denoted by x[n] and each shaded cell represents changed location in buffer. Circular buffer of length 16 = 2^4 Since the buffer length is 16. www. i. Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-17 illustrate the block diagram describing IIR filter direct transpose realization structure of IIR filter. The value of constant k is defined as a minimum value for which N ≤ 2^k is valid. 5 A DDR. location addressing in the circular buffer is performed via module 16 operations: Example: A 6th order FIR filter is used in this example.Digital Filter Design . On IIR filter software implementation with direct structure. The contents of the buffer after receiving the first 10 samples is shown in the table 3-2-1. needs most resources). it is also necessary to have two buffers of minimum length N+1.mikroElektronika this realization are the greatest sensitivity to accuracy of realized coefficients (i. It is necessary to design this filter using direct structure with circular buffer. Here. 3 A DDR. Accordingly: where the operator represents rounding down to a less value. 7 A DDR. where N is the filter order.mikroe. The only difference is in the position of delay lines. the largest finite word-length effect).

the direct transpose realization structure uses 2N delay lines. www. Similar to direct realization structure. recursive part is used first There are no significant differences between direct and direct transpose realizations. IIR filter direct transpose realization. Both structures have the same multiplication coefficients. The only difference is in the position of delay lines. (2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-16. non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-17.mikroe. IIR filter direct transpose realization.Digital Filter Design .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 17/45 .

Figure 3-2-19 illustrates the block diagram describing direct transpose canonical realization structure of IIR filter. Recursive and nonrecursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately. Direct canonic structure uses N delay elements.mikroe. that is. Direct canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct canonic structure block diagram and direct realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-14b are obvious. which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure. N delay lines. but similar to direct canonical structure.9/22/13 3. Figure 3-2-18. which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure. Recursive and non-recursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately.6.Digital Filter Design .mikroElektronika Direct canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum. This way.2.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 18/45 . The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-14b and 3-2-18 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct canonic realization structure cannot be treated separately. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization. although it is easy to differentiate between them. www.2.4 Direct transpose canonical realization Direct transpose canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum of N delay lines as well as reduced number of adders to N+1. Figure 3-2-18 illustrates the block diagram describing direct canonic realization structure of IIR filter. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure. Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures.6. one of the main disadvantages of direct and direct transpose realization structures is eliminated. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization. (2N+1) multipilications and 2N additions.3 Direct Canonical Realization Chapter 3: IIR filters . 3.

Since the sections are mutually independent after design process. It is very convenient for its modular structure and less sensitivity to the accuracy of non-recursive and recursive coefficients realization. The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-19 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct transpose canonical realization structure cannot be treated separately.mikroe. modulation of frequency response and IIR filter stability are separately examined for each section. B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part.6.5 Cascade Realization Cascade realization structure is the most difficult to obtain from the transfer function (comparing to other realization structures given in this book).Digital Filter Design . A(z) is the transfer function of recursive part (feedback). H0 is a constant. the finite word-length effect on the accuracy of coefficients. Direct transpose canonic structure uses N delay elements. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure.2.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-19. although it is easy to differentiate between them. The IIR filter transfer function is expressed as: where: bi are the coefficients of transfer function numerator (non-recursive part). Cascade realization requires the given expression to be factorized so that the transfer function is expressed as follows: www. pj are the poles of the transfer function. 3. On cascade IIR filter realization.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . a filter is divided into several. (2N+1) multipilication elements and N+1 adders. aj are the coefficients of transfer function denominator (recursive part). Direct transpose canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct transpose canonical structure block diagram and direct transpose realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-16 are obvious. and M is the number of sections in cascade realization structure. mutually independent sections of the first or second order. Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 19/45 . qi are the zeros of the transfer function. The analyse is simplified this way. Individual sections are mostly realized in direct canonical or direct transpose canonical structure.

Figure 3-220 illustrates a first-order section. Direct transpose canonical structure is most frequently used in realization. First-order section Figure 3-2-21 illustrates a second-order section. b[i.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Chebyshev (Chebyshev I) and inverse Chebyshev filter (Chebyshev II). k] are the coefficients of recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section. Figure 3-2-21 illustrates the block diagram describing cascade IIR filter structure.mikroElektronika where: a[i. Individual sections are of the first or second order. This book explains Butterworth. Each section must have its own buffer for saving samples of intermediate signals. the possibility that IIR filter becomes instable after quantization is drastically reduced as the coefficients quantization is performed after dividing filter in sections. k] are the coefficients of non-recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section. Figure 3-2-21. Such complexity and needed factorization are two main disadvantages of this realization structure. therefore. Figure 3-2-22.3 Reference Analog Prototype Filter IIR filter design process starts with reference analog prototype filter. Besides. Cascade IIR filter structure 3.mikroe. Software realization requires M buffer of length 2 or 1. Filter dividing in independent sections reduces the sensitivity to the accuracy of quantization coefficients and simplifies analysing the stability of the resulting filter. The transform function of analog filter Hs a (s) is expressed as: www.Digital Filter Design . so the changes of poles locations are smaller.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 20/45 . Second-order section The use of direct transpose realization structure reduces necessary number of delay lines and adders as well. Figure 3-2-20.

Figure 3-3-1. Figure 3-3-2. i.e. They are also known as „maximally flat magnitude“ filters at the frequency of Ω = 0. no matter the filter order is.mikroe. www. frequency axis scaling. In order that a system described via expression above is stable. S plane and region of stability A low-pass filter is used for analog filter design. and M ≤ N. s is the complex frequency (s = σ + jΩ).Digital Filter Design . as the first 2N . it is necessary that all poles (the square roots of polinomial Aa(s)) are located in the left half of S plane.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 21/45 .3. and N is the filter order. Figure 3-3-1 illustrates S plane.1 derivatives of the transfer function when Ω = 0 are equal to zero. 3.mikroElektronika where: N is the filter order. Figure 3-3-2 illustrates frequency responses for a few various parameters N (filter order).1 Butterworth analog filter Low-pass Butterworth analog filters are filters whose frequency response is a monotonious descending function. band-pass or band-stop) is performed by converting into analog filter. Butterworth filter is characterized by 3dB attenuation at the frequency of Ω=1. The conversion into the appropriate type of filter (high-pass. Frequency response of Butterw orth filter Butterworth filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .

In the s plane. All poles of the resulting filter must be located in the left half of the S plane. The values of poles are expressed as: where: si is the i-th transfer function pole of analog prototype filter (complex value). and i=1. 2.3.e. Even though these two types of transformations are similar to some extent. it is easy to find its poles using expression: Butterworth poles are equally allocated (equidistantly) on the unit circle within the left half of the s plane. and Ωi is the imaginary pole. neither recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial.mikroe..9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-3-5 illustrates frequency response for a 4th order band-stop Chebyshev reference analog filter. filter is stab le if all poles are located within the unit circle. IIR filter specification Figure 3-3-3 illustrates IIR filter specification with parameters of most interest for Butterworth filter. filter is stab le if all poles are located in the left half of the s plane. it is necessary to know the filter order.. whereas Laplase transform (s plane) is used for analog filters. Frequency response of Chebyshev analog filter To design Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. N is the filter order. To design Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-3-4. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained via recursive relations: If the filter order is known in advance. Therefore it is characterized by equal ripple in the passband and the stopband frequency response is monotoniously descending function.. ε is a parameter used to define maximum oscillations in the passband frequency response. Figure 3-3-5.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 22/45 . i. Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. The value of parameter ε is obtained via expression: Transfer function is expressed as: www.2 Chebyshev Analog Filter Chebyshev analog low-pass filter of the first kind is a type of analog filter that has the least oscillation in frequency response in the entire passband. it is necessary to know the filter order. Note: In the z plane.Digital Filter Design . to the left of the imaginary axis. The location of poles for N=5 and N=6 is shown in Figure 3-3-4. Position of Butterw orth filter poles for N=5 and N=6 The transfer function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter is expressed as follows: where: Sk is the k-th pole of the Butterworth filter transfer function For N=5. they should not b e mixed up concerning the filter stab ility analyse. the transfer function is: 3. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order Chebyshev reference analog filter. where: N is the filter order. When the filter order is known. . σi is the pole. N.mikroElektronika Figure 3-3-3. Z-transform is used for digital filters.

ε is the parameter of maximum oscillation in the passband frequency response. inverse Chebyshev filter has the least oscillation in the frequency response.3. neither these recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary.mikroe. 7 1. coefficient k in the transfer function num erator The values Ωk are found via expression: www. 3.. N is the filter order. 5 1. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are considered reciprocal poles of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter. Transfer function is expressed as: The coefficient k in numerator can be only an odd number. N. 5. . Figure 3-3-7 illustrates the frequency response for an inverse Chebyshev reference analog band-stop filter of the 4th order. Similar to Butterworth filter. as the first 2N . Figure 3-3-7.. The poles of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter are expressed as: where: si is the i-th pole of the transfer function of analog prototype filter (complex value). 5. Table 3-3-1 provides a few examples of values of k. and s2i is the pole of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter. In the stopband. and i=1. The frequency response of this filter monotoniously falls in the passband and transition region. 3.Digital Filter Design . Location of the poles of Chebyshev filter for N=5 3. 3.1 derivatives of the transfer function for Ω = 0 are equal to zero. 7 Table 3-3-1. where: N is the filter order. and Ωi is the imaginary pole. it is necessary to know the filter order. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained from recursive relation: If the filter order is familiar in advance. the frequency response is extremely flat function at the frequency of Ω = 0.3 Inverse Chebyshev Analog Filter Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is also known as Chebyshev analog filter of the second kind. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are found via expression: where: si is the pole of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter. 2. N 5 6 7 8 M IN 1 1 1 1 M AX 5 5 7 7 V A L UES 1. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial.. the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-6.9/22/13 The value of A0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Frequency characteristic of inverse Chebyshev analog filter To design inverse Chebyshev reference analog pototype filter.mikroElektronika For N=5.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 23/45 . 5 1. 3. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order inverse Chebyshev reference analog filter. Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. σi is the real pole.

Digital Filter Design . 3.mikroElektronika For N=5.9/22/13 The value H0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroe. where Ω c is a desirable cut-off frequency in the passband. All the results obtained in this chapter are tested in the Filter designer tool program. regardless of their type. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. band-pass and band-stop filters. predetermined values. Transformation from an analog prototype filter to appropriate analog filter is performed before transforming it in digital filter. Location of poles and zeros of inverse Chebyshev filter for N=5 As seen from Figure 3-3-8 and expression for Ωk. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency of Ωp =1. Frequency scaling depends on the type of analog filter being designed. By performing the transformation: each expression within brackets in the transfer function numerator is transformed into: and the whole numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: By replacing numerator and denominator by their transformed expressions. i.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 24/45 . the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-8. high-pass. the zeros of the transfer function are always complex-conjugated values. In this case. For this reason.2929 in the passband is obtained via expression: Example: The transform function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: www. the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transform function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. Generally. have scaled frequency range so that the passband cut-off frequency amounts to Ω = 1. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where H0 is a costant. so that passband and stopband cut-off frequencies have the appropriate.1 Low-pass filter The transformation from a reference analog prototype filter to a low-pass analog filter is the simplest type of transformation.4.4 Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation All analog prototype filters. 3. high-pass. band-pass or band-stop filter. if needed. Reference analog prototype filter is also a low-pass filter so it requires to be transformed into the appropriate type of filter. the transformation comes to a simple frequency scaling. s\\Ω c is used instead of s. which is not the case with the poles of the transfer function. Scaling is explained for low-pass. In the transform function. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. it is necessary to scale filter during the design process.e.

4. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. www.3719 in the passband is obtained via expression: 3. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant.1434 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transform function of analog filter: 3. The filter order is doubled by this transformation. This is why it is not possible to design an odd order band-pass filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The first step refers to the transformation to a high-pass analog filter.2 High-pass filter Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency Ωp = 1.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 25/45 .3 Band-pass filter The transformation in a band-pass analog filter is more complex than the transformation in a low-pass and high-pass analog filters. Its transformation to a high-pass analog filter can be split into two steps. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. The final objective is that passband cut-off frequency of the resulting high-pass analog filter amounts to Ωc.3721 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. The transformation to a high-pass analog filter: Scaling of frequency axis is performed by transformation: These two transformations can be represented by one transformation: Generally. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. whereas the second one refers to frequency scaling.mikroElektronika The transformation to a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0.4. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.Digital Filter Design . By performing the following transformation: each bracket in the numerator of the transfer function is transformed into and the entire numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: Substituting these transformed expressions for numerator and denominator.

This transformation doubles the filter order. is found via expression: The transfer function of an analog prototype filter is transformed first in a band-pass analog filter. By transforming it into a band-pass analog filter the filter order is doubled. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. The required filter order is obtained this way. which is necessary for normalization. Generally. the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant. The transformation into a band-pass analog filter is expressed as: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωp1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1). pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Reference analog filter is further transformed in a bandpass analog filter. and normalized after that with Ωc. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.Digital Filter Design . the required filter order is divided by two.mikroe. The resulting filter order is used to design a low-pass reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-4-1. Example: Assume that it is necessary to design an 8th order band-pass digital filter. and Ωp2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1). By performing the transformation: each bracket in numerator of the transfer function is transformed into: and the entire numerator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. A low-pass reference analog filter of the 4th order is designed first.mikroElektronika When designing. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. The order of the resulting filter is 8. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Band-pass filter specification The value of Ωc.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 26/45 .1626 in the passband is expressed as: www.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .

zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: www. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. The transformation into a bandstop analog filter causes the filter order to double.mikroe. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Generally. the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant. Band-stop filter specification The value of Ωc.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 27/45 . Similarly.mikroElektronika 3. This is how the required filter order is obtained. the required filter order is divided by two. The resulting filter order is used for designing a low-pass reference analog prototype filter. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. is found via expression: The transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter is transformed first into a band-stop analog filter.4. A low-pass reference analog filter of the 5th order is designed first. which is necessary for normalization.4 Band-stop filter The transformation in a band-stop analog filter is similar to the transformation in a bandpass analog filter. The transformation in a band-stop analog filter: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωs1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2). and normalized after that with Ωc. the filter order is doubled and the order of a band-stop digital filter cannot be an odd number.Digital Filter Design . and Ωs2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2). The first step refers to normalization with the frequency Ωc: The transformation is performed in the second step: and each bracket in the transfer function numerator is transformed in: and the entire numerator is transformed in: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed in: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. The result is a 10th order filter. This transformation causes the filter order to double. Example: It is necessary to design a band-stop digital filter of the 10th order. The reference analog filter is transformed in a band-stop analog filter.9/22/13 The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-4-2. When designing.

After transformation. and pk is the pole of the analog filter transfer function. as shown in Figure 3-5-1. For this reason. fs=44100Hz.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 28/45 .267+j2. It is done by transforming the analog filter transfer function into a digital one.5 Bilinear transformation Digital IIR filters are designed using analog filters.5727 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: 3.2692 www. If s=0 then H(s)=H0 .1014 z2=-j0. provide that the resulting digital filter is guaranteed to be stable.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . the transformation must provide that the left half of s plane coincides with the area within the unit circle of z plane.mikroe. the analog filter transfer function is further transformed into: where: Hoz is a constant of the digital IIR filter transfer function Example: The transfer function of a second-order high-pass analog filter (inverse Chebyshev.1014 p1=-2. The transformation is supposed to: 1.2692 p2=-2. fc=2KHz. After the frequency scaling and transformation into a desirable type of filter have been performed. the transformation of the analog filter transform function into a digital one can be expressed as: As seen. The analog filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant.Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-5-1. Using expression for linear transformation: we obtain: where: N=2 M=2 z1=j0. and 2. Transform ation of s plane into z plane One of most commonly used method of transforming analog filters into appropriate IIR filters is known as bilinear transformation. whereas digital filter is stable if the poles are located within the unit circle. It is defined via expression: Using the previous expression. the transformation is performed by a simple change of variable s in the expression for the transfer function of the resulting analog filter. it is necessary to transform the resulting analog filter into a digital one.252.267-j2. faithfully approximate the frequency response of analog filter. zk is the zero of the analog filter transfer function. 60dB) is expressed as: It is necessary to transform the given analog filter into the appropriate digital filter by bilinear transformation.mikroElektronika The transformation into a band-stop analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. This transformation also transforms s plane into z plane. Analog filter is stable if the poles of the transfer function are located in the left half of s plane.

5 and 6 are repeated after that as many times as needed. On filter realization. and band-stop filter. However. It is very important to prevent the poles from being located outside the unite circle. the IIR filter design process will be described through these steps in order to make it easier for you to observe similarities and differencies between various design methodes. 3.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . the transfer function is given by: where: H0 is a constant. The IIR filter design process can be split into several steps described in Chapter 3. Defining filter specifications. if it happens. then it is necessary to do it. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. IIR filter realization Digital filters designed via bilinear trasnformation are guaranteed to be stable. In software digital filter realization (implementation). Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. 4. The expression used to transform the reference analog prototype filter transfer function depends on the type of filter that needs to be obtained. the resulting coefficients are quantized. step 2 is skipped. However. 5.mikroElektronika The result is the transfer function of a digital high-pass IIR filter. Regardless of the type of reference analog prototype filter in use. The output data is a reference analog prototype filter transfer function Ha (s).6 Examples This chapter discusses various IIR filter design methods. In every given example. Transformation into digital filter by bilinear transformation. high-pass filter. If the type of reference analog prototype filter is predetermined.Digital Filter Design . 6. the accurate values of coefficients are obtained immediately after the implementation of bilinear transformation. the resulting IIR filter is not stable and is useless therefore.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 29/45 . Realization structure is illustrated in Figure 3-5-2 below. and steps 4. Reference analog prototype filter is always a low-pass filter. The specified filter order is increased or decreased according to needs. These are: 1. A disadvantage of the bilinear transformation is a non-linear transformation of the analog filter frequency axis into a digital one. When designing. which may further cause the stopband attenuation to decrease. Figure 3-5-2. The quantization effect on digital filter stability is much more dangerous. Some steps are skipped in some cases. The four standard types of filters are used here: low-pass filter. Any error made during the quantization of coefficients affects more or less the frequency response. Steps in designing digital IIR filter The first block refers to design of reference analog prototype filter of appropriate order. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order.2. Figure 3-6-1. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well. Such a non-linear transformation of analog filter frequencies causes the phase characteristic distorsion.5 Designing IIR filters b y b ilinear transformation. 3. these frequencies have appropriate locations. Specifying the type of analog prototype filter. analog prototype filters and design of various types of filters as well. the cut-off frequencies are defined on the basis of the given specifications and type of a filter. The design method used here is known as bilinear transformation. step 3 is skipped. When transforming. The next step is the transformation into an analog filter of appropriate type.mikroe. M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. so that it is not linear. it is impossible to represent coefficients without an error. Transformation into analog filter by range scaling. which also generates a certain error. and 7. 2. band-pass filter. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. The final result is the transfer function H(s) given by: where: H0 is a constant. which is not the case with the rest of the frequency axis. Special care is required when quantizing feedback coefficients as it causes the location of the digital IIR filter transfer function poles to change their location. If the filter order is known. Computing the filter order according to the filter specifications and specified analog prototype filter. www. Figure 3-6-1 illustrates the design steps along with input and output data for each of them. pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function.

Digital Filter Design . Passband cut-off frequency – fc=2.1 Filter design using Butterworth filter 3. The next step is the transformation into appropriate digital IIR filter using bilinear transformation given by expression: Filter Designer Tool is used for testing and analysing the resulting IIR filters in this chapter. the analog filter order (N) is twice that of the reference analog prototype filter. the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=2. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.5KHz.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: www.6. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . the transfer functions of reference analog prototype filter and analog filter are very similar. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well. In the later case.mikroe. N=2. Step 2: Method. the values of the transfer function poles and zeros zk and pk as well as in the number of transfer function zeros M.1. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. These can be computed via expression: As N = 2. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. As seen. only poles. They differ only in the value of constant H0 .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 30/45 . 3. whereas it is different if the analog filter is a band-pass or band-stop filter. which is sufficient for most examples. The filter order is the same if the analog filter is a low-pass or high-pass filter. pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function.6. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. All data are calculated with the accuracy of 4 decimal digits.mikroElektronika M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.

substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Passband cut-off frequency – fc=5KHz.6. only poles.mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3.mikroe. N = 3. and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-3.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-2 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.Digital Filter Design .filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. There is no need to additionally change it.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=3. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. Figure 3-6-2. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: www. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. whereas Figure 3-6-3 illustrates the frequency response of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. Step 2: Method.1. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 31/45 . the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.

Digital Filter Design . Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. only poles. www. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined.mikroe.3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4. N = 4.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-5. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=4KHz. In this example for N=4.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 32/45 . These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.1. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Figure 3-6-4. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. fc2=6KHz. Step 2: Method . There is no need to additionally change it. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-4 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function.6. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order.9/22/13 A more condensed form of the previous expression is: Chapter 3: IIR filters .

There is no need to additionally change it. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. N = 4. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.Digital Filter Design . Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-7. www.1. Figure 3-6-6. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-6 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.mikroe. so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=3000Hz.6.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 33/45 . Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.mikroElektronika In this example. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Step 2: Method . In this example for N = 4. fc2=3300Hz. only poles.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.

2457 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Maximum passband attenuation – ap=1dB.2 Filter design using Chebyshev filter 3. Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4.2.mikroElektronika In this example. only poles.6. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as=40dB. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs=44100Hz. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: www. Passband cut-off frequency– fc1=15KHz.6.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 34/45 . Step 2: Method . Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.mikroe. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-8 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. These can be computed via expression: As N = 4. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-6-8. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case.Digital Filter Design . Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-9. There is no need to additionally change it. Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2=18KHz. The solution is redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts.

Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5.0. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 35/45 . The filter order is incremented by 1 and is 5 therefore. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = .2dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. www. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-10. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 31.mikroElektronika The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.Digital Filter Design . A new filter order is 5.mikroe. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated. only poles. Step3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration. the values of poles are: The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case.1228 so the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-10 below. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.

only poles.Digital Filter Design . Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3.0. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = .filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. The whole procedure is the same.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 36/45 . only it takes more time. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-12 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. whereas Figure 3-6-13 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 41. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter 3.6. Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is appropriate.4913 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-11 below. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .1. Figure 3-6-12. Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order. Passband cut-off frequency – fc = 5KHz. N = 3.mikroElektronika This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.6dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient. Step 2: Method . the expression for transfer function is simpler: www. Figure 3-6-11. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool.mikroe. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. Digital IIR filter direct realization Figure 3-6-13.

Figure 3-6-14. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-15.1. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz.mikroElektronika Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. only poles.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: www.mikroe. Step 2: Method filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. In this example for N = 4.9/22/13 After substitution of poles and Ωc into expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-14 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.6. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. fc2 = 6KHz. N = 4. There is no need to additionally change it. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 37/45 . substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.Digital Filter Design .

4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-16 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter.1. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-17. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. only poles. In this example for N = 4. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. Step 2: Method . In this expression. There is no need to additionally change it. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 Step 5: Chapter 3: IIR filters . the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: www. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. fc2 = 3300Hz.mikroe. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Filter 3-6-16.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.6. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros.mikroElektronika First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.Digital Filter Design . Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. N = 4.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 38/45 . Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 3000Hz.

mikroElektronika A0 = 0.mikroe.9/22/13 In this example. Step 2: Method .filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts. There is no need to additionally change it. In this expression. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2 = 18KHz.6. Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB.6.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 39/45 .3. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-19. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. Filter realization Figure 3-6-18 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.3 Filter design using inverse Chebyshev filter 3. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter –low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs = 44100Hz. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as = 40dB. Passband cut-off frequency – fc1 = 15KHz. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.Digital Filter Design . the value of constant A0 is: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-6-18. The solution is www.

The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 5. Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4. The filter order is incremented by 1.mikroe. the values of poles are: www. Figure 3-6-20. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5. These can be computed via expression: As N = 4. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.2dB approximately at the frequency of 15KHZ is not sufficient. A new filter order is 5. Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. Step 3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration. It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied. and becomes 5 therefore. only poles. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-20 below.01 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. Frequency charactersitic of designed IIR filter The attenuation at 15KHz is higher than 1dB and the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the specifications therefore.Digital Filter Design . This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 40/45 . the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. only poles.mikroElektronika redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied. the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example.

only it takes more time.mikroElektronika In this case.mikroe. whereas Figure 3-6-23 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool.0.6.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = . the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Passband cut-off frequency– fc = 5KHz. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. Figure 3-6-21.05 so the inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. The whole procedure is the same. Frequency characteristic of IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is approriate. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example.Digital Filter Design .9/22/13 The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-6-22. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-21 below. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.8dB). www.1. Step 7: By analysing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-23. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-22 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. it is obvious that the attenuation at 18KHZ is less than 1dB (approximately 0.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 41/45 . Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order.

mikroElektronika Method . the value of constant H0 is: H0 = -0. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-24 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. only poles.6.mikroe.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.03 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 42/45 . the transfer function is: After substituting the poles and Ωc into expression: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.3 Example 3 www. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. Figure 3-6-24. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.Digital Filter Design .9/22/13 Step 2: Chapter 3: IIR filters . the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. There is no need to additionally change it. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3.1. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. N=3. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-25. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined.

Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. www. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.Digital Filter Design . In this example. the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. only poles. N = 4. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz. There is no need to additionally change it. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.mikroElektronika Filter order – N = 4.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 43/45 . so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. In this example for N=4. fc2 = 6KHz. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB.mikroe.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: For this example. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-26 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter.9/22/13 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specification: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Step 2: Method . the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.

In this expression. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. fc2=3300Hz. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. N = 4. only poles.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specification: Filter order – N=4. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-26. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.Digital Filter Design . the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Stopband cut-off frequencies – fc1=3000Hz. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. so the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. www.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 44/45 .6. the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0.1. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-27. In this example for N = 4. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.mikroe. Step 2: Method . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example.

9/22/13 Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-29. Figure 3-6-28. All trade and/or services marks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.Digital Filter Design .2013. Filter realization: Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 45/45 . MikroElektronika.mikroe.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-28 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. There is no need to additionally change it. www. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple ← previous chapter | table of contents MikroElektronika Embedded Solutions PIC Solution PIC De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC C om pile rs PIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC Kits PIC Book s Follow us on PIC32 Solution PIC 32 De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC 32 C om pile rs PIC 32 Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC 32 Kits dsPIC Solution dsPIC De ve lopm e nt Boards dsPIC C om pile rs dsPIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs dsPIC Kits dsPIC Book s Add-on boards C lick Boards m ik rom e dia shie lds C om m unication boards Storage boards R e al Tim e C lock boards Display boards Me asure m e nt boards Audio & Voice boards Powe r Supply boards GPS boards GSM/GPR S boards Additional Software Visual TFT Visual GLC D Pack age Manage r GLC D Font C re ator 8051 Solution 8051 De ve lopm e nt Boards 8051 C om pile rs 8051 Program m e rs/De bugge rs 8051 Book s 8051 Kits AVR Solution AVR De ve lopm e nt Boards AVR C om pile rs AVR Program m e rs/De bugge rs AVR Kits ARM Solution AR M De ve lopm e nt Boards AR M C om pile rs AR M Program m e rs/De bugge rs AR M Kits Support Forum m ik roBUS Le ts m ak e Pre ss Le gal Inform ation Product Archive About Us C opyright © 1998 . All rights reserved.

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