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**Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika
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**Digital Filter Design
**

TOC Chapter 1 Chapter 2 Chapter 3

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**Chapter 3: Infinite Impulse Response (IIR) Filters
**

3.1. Introduction 3.2. IIR filter design 3.3. Reference analog prototype filter 3.4. Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation 3.5. Bilinear transformation 3.6. Examples

3.1 Introduction

IIR filters are digital filters with infinite impulse response. Unlike FIR filters, they have the feedback (a recursive part of a filter) and are known as recursive digital filters therefore.

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Figure 3-1-1. Block diagram s of FIR and IIR filters

For this reason IIR filters have much better frequency response than FIR filters of the same order. Unlike FIR filters, their phase characteristic is not linear which can cause a problem to the systems which need phase linearity. For this reason, it is not preferable to use IIR filters in digital signal processing when the phase is of the essence. Otherwise, when the linear phase characteristic is not important, the use of IIR filters is an excellent solution. There is one problem known as a potential instability that is typical of IIR filters only. FIR filters do not have such a problem as they do not have the feedback. For this reason, it is always necessary to check after the design process whether the resulting IIR filter is stable or not. IIR filters can be designed using different methods. One of the most commonly used is via the reference analog prototype filter. This method is the best for designing all standard types of filters such as low-pass, high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters. This book describes the design method using reference analog prototype filter. Figure 3-1-2 illustrates the block diagram of this method.

Figure 3-1-2. Block diagram of design m ethod using reference analog prototype filter

FIR filters can have linear phase characteristic, which is not typical of IIR filters. When it is necessary to have linear phase characteristic,

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

FIR filters are the only available solution. In other cases when linear phase characteristic is not necessary, such as speech signal processing, FIR filters are not good solution. IIR filters should be used instead. The resulting filter order is considerably lower for the same frequency response. The filter order determines the number of filter delay lines, i.e. number of input and output samples that should be saved in order that the next output sample can be computed. For instance, if the filter order is 10, it means that it is necessary to save 10 input samples plus 10 output samples preceeding the current sample. All these 21 samples will affect the next output sample. The IIR filter transfer function is a ratio of two polynomials of complex variable z-1. The numerator defines location of zeros, whereas the denominator defines location of poles of the resulting IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-1-3. illustrates input and output signals of the system with non-linear phase characteristic.

Figure 3-1-3. The effect of non-linear phase characteristic

The system introduces phase shift of 0 radians at frequency of ω, and π radians at three times higher frequency. Input signal consists of nature frequency ω and harmonics with the same amplitude at three times higher frequency. Figure on the left illustrates an input signal, whereas Figure on the right illustrates an output signal. As seen, these two signals have different waveforms. Neither the power of the signal nor amplitudes of particular harmonics have been changed, but the phase of the second harmonic. Assume that an input represents a speech signal where the phase is not important. In this case such phase distorsion would be negligable as the system satisfies the stated requirements. Otherwise, if the phase is important, such a huge distorsion mustn’t be allowed.

**3.2 Infinite impulse response (IIR) filter design
**

The most commonly used IIR filter design method uses reference analog prototype filter. It is the best method to use when designing standard filters such as low-pass, high-pass, bandpass and band-stop filters. The filter design process starts with specifications and requirements of the desirable IIR filter. A type of reference analog prototype filter to be used is specified according to the specifications and after that everything is ready for analog prototype filter design. The next step in the design process is scaling of the frequency range of analog prototype filter into desirable frequency range. This is how an analog prototype filter is converted into an analog filter. After the analog filter is designed, it is time to go through the last step in the digital IIR filter design process. It is conversion from analog to digital filter. The most popular and most commonly used converting method is bilinear transformation method. The resulting filter, obtained in this way, is always stable. However, instability of the resulting filter, when bilinear transformation is used, may be caused only by the finite word-length side-effect.

**3.2.1 Basic concepts and IIR filter specification
**

First of all, it is necessay to learn the basic concepts that will be used further in this book. You should be aware that without being familiar with these concepts, it is not possible to understand analyses and synthesis of digital filters. Figure 3-2-1 illustrates a low-pass digital filter specification. The word specification refers to the frequency response specification.

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-1a. Low -pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-1b. Low -pass digital filter specification

ωp – normalized passband cut-off frequency; ωs – normalized stopband cut-off frequency; δ1 – maximum passband ripples; δ2 – minimum stopband attentuation; ε – passband attenuation parameter; A – stopband attenuation parameter; ap – maximum passband ripples [dB]; and as – minimum stopband attenuation [dB].

Frequency normalization can be expressed as follows:

where:

**fs is the sampling frequency; f is the frequency to normalize; and ω is the normalized frequency.
**

Specifications for high-pass, band-pass and band-stop filters are defined almost the same way as those for low-pass filters. Figure 3-2-2 illustrates a high-pass filter specification, whereas Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass filter specification.

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Chapter 3: IIR filters - Digital Filter Design - mikroElektronika

Figure 3-2-2a. High-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-2b. High-pass digital filter specification

Comparing these two Figures 3-2-1 and 3-2-2, it is obvious that low-pass and high-pass filters have similar specifications. The same parameters are defined in both cases with the difference that in the later case the passband is substituded by the stopband and vice versa. Figure 3-2-3 illustrates a band-pass specification.

Filter 3-2-3a. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-3b. Band-pass digital filter specification

Figure 3-2-4 illustrates band-stop digital filter specification

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Band-stop digital filter specification Figure 3-2-4b. It becomes: www. The Fourier transformation can be found by rewriting the previous expression in terms of z as z=e^jω.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-4a. Example: Assume that samples of a discrete-time signal x(n) are known. The z-transform is derived from the Fourier discrete time-domain transformation and is considered the basic operation in digital filter design process.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .4.mikroe. Band-stop digital filter specification 3.1} .4.2. It is very suitable for analyzing discrete time-domain signals and systems as well.3. It is necessary to transform this signal with the z-transform and Fourier fransform.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 5/45 .3.Digital Filter Design . x(n)={1. 0 ≤ n ≤ 8 z-transform is defined via expression: It becomes: The last expression is the z-transform of the given signal. The Z-transform is defined as: where z is the complex number.2 Z-transform The Z-transform is performed upon discrete-time signals.2.2. It converts a discrete timedomain signal into a complex frequency-domin representation.5.

mikroe. the complex number z may be expressed as follows: The two last expressions lead us to the conclusion that Fourier transform is just a special form of the z-transform for r=1. which can be seen in Figure 3-2-6 below. Figure 3-2-5. Frequency spectrum of the given signal Comparing Z and Fourier transforms. www.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . In the z plane. it is easy to notice some similarities between them: In polar coordinates. the Fourier transform is represented as a unit circle.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 6/45 .mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-5 illustrates the (frequency) spectrum of the given signal.Digital Filter Design .

mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-6.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 7/45 . The location of poles in the z plane is used for testing stability of designed IIR filter. The poles of the IIR filter transfer function must be located within the unit circle in order that filter is stable. Figure 3-2-7a illustrates zeros and poles of the transfer function of a stable IIR filter in the z plane. whereas its poles are denoted by small crosses. www.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design . Fourier transform in the z plane The z-transform of the transfer function is of great importance for IIR filters. Figure 3-2-7a Stable IIR filter Transfer function zeros are denoted by small circles.

If a zero or a pole is located on the real axe in the z plane. According to the location of poles in the z plane. which means that it refers to IIR. i. Instable IIR filter As seen from Figure 3-2-7b. which can cause one pole or one pair of poles to be located outside the unit circle.mikroe. It is obviously not the case in Figure 3-2-7. The poles of the FIR filter transfer function are located at the origin.2. then it has the corresponding pair having the same real value and the same imaginary value with the opposite sign. All four poles of transfer function are located within the unit circle. www. Figure 3-2-7b illustrates the zeros and poles of the transfer function of an instable IIR filter in the z plane. In the z plane. it is easy to determine whether it refers to FIR or IIR filter. aj are the feedback filter coefficients (recursive part). 3. Such a pair is also called a complex-conjugated pair of zeros or poles. it is illustrated as a pair of zeros or poles which are symmetric around the real axis. the imaginary part is zero. the resulting filter is stable before the coefficient quantization starts.9/22/13 Re – Real axis Im – Imaginary axis Chapter 3: IIR filters .3 Transfer function of discrete-time systems The Z-transform is primarily used for finding the transfer function of linear discrete-time systems. Also. Figure 3-2-7a clearly indicates interrelation between zeros and poles in the z plane. then it is single. which guarantees tha stability of IIR filters.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 8/45 . It doesn’t cause any problem as the location of poles is the only thing that matters.e. If either of them is not located on the real axis in the z plane. When the transfer function is found. This quantization changes the location of zeros and poles of the resulting IIR filter. Figure 3-2-7b. The result of such a quantization is a filter that is not stable. not FIR filter. qi are the zeros of the transfer function. it is necessary to consider the zeros and poles of the transfer function in the z plane. one transfer function zero is located outside the unit circle. If bilinear transformation is used in the filter design. H0 is a constant.Digital Filter Design . two poles located outside the unit circle make this IIR filter instable. The transfer function of discrete-time systems is defined to be: where: bi are the feedforward filter coefficients (non-recursive part).mikroElektronika As seen in Figure 3-2-7.

mikroe. Example: The transfer function of a 3th order IIR filter.mikroElektronika pj are the poles of the transfer function. whereas the representation in the z domain is suitable for analyzes of designed filters and synthesis itself (design process). and A(z) the transfer function of recursive part of the system (feedback). Figure 3-2-8. The recursive part of the transfer function is actually a discrete-time system feedback. illustrates block diagram of discrete-time system with feedback.Digital Filter Design . Another expression for convolusion that is more useful in practical applications is: www. the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as the multiplication of Z-transform input signal X(z) and the transform function H(z): The first way of representing discrete-time systems is suitable for both software and hardware IIR filter implementation. the discrete-time system shown in Figure 3-2-8 can be expressed as follows: OR The later expression is more convenient for software IIR filters realization. designed using Chebyshev function is: The following expression describes the filtering process: This process is also known as convolution. In the frequency domain. the IIR filters have feedback which enable them to have greater selectivity as well as nonlinearity of phase characteristic than FIR filters.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part of the system. Figure 3-2-8 Discrete-tim e system w ith feedback In the time domain.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 9/45 . Unlike the FIR filters.

it becomes: Using expression: it is possible to find function for particular normalized frequency.2π: The numerator is computed first: Then denominator: www. when ω = 0.mikroElektronika After making substitutions of impulse response coefficients. For example.mikroe.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 10/45 .Digital Filter Design .

By complexity. it is preferable to use bilinear transformation because it always makes filter stable. the given IIR filter corresponds to a 6th order FIR filter.mikroe. This property is particularly typical of high-order filters because their zeros are very close each other. is a non-linear phase characteristic. These are usually circular buffers whose length can be expressed as 2^n. In software implementation. The FIR filter coefficient error affects more the frequency response as the spacing between the zero and pole of the transfer function and the origin narrows. affects more frequency characteristic. all poles of the discrete-time system transfer function must be located within the unit circle. Slight errors in coefficient representation may cause large frequency deviations. In order that a discrete-time system is stable. Figure 3-2-9. it ocurrs due to impossibility of representing the coefficients with apsolute accuracy. However. the system becomes unstable. filter stability is questioned only due to coefficient quantization which is performed at the end of the design process.2. which makes them stable. One buffer would be used for input samples and another one for output samples. by rule. which is very dangerous. Selectivity and attenuation of this filter are much higher than those of any 6th order FIR filter. 3. this doesn’t apply on IIR filters. The finite word-length effect on the transform www. The result of the feedback.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . which in this case means that the circular buffer is 4 = 2^2 in length. Recalling that FIR flters do not have a feedback.Digital Filter Design . A direct result of such errors is deviation of the frequency of designed discrete-time system. The result in both cases is that the actual value of coefficients differs from their value obtained in design process. Figure 3-2-9 illustrates the required and obtained frequency characteristic of an IIR filter. as shown in Figure 3-2-6.4 Effects of the poles and zeros of the transfer function The location of poles and zeros of the transfer function is very important for discrete-time system analyses and synthesis. Besides.mikroElektronika Figure 2-2-8 illustrates a hardware realization of this IIR filter. the pole quantization. The location of zeroes doesn’t affect the stabilty of discrete-time systems. According to their location it is possible to test stability of a discrete-time system. If this requirement is not satisfied. Realization of IIR filter in this exam ple The software realization would require two buffers each of minimum length 3. which provides so high selectivity and attenuation. Therefore. It always happens due to software and hardware implementation that an error in coefficients representation is produced. whereas in hardware implementation. detect round-off errors made due to software implementation of a filter as well as coefficient errors encountered during hardware implementation of a filter. In this case.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 11/45 . Deviation of frequency depends on the spacing between the zeros and poles of the FIR filter transfer function and the origin in the z plane. an error is triggered by the finite word-length effect.

Conversion into digital filter via bilinear transformation.5 IIR filters design using bilinear transformation The IIR filter design using bilinear transformation can be split into several steps: 1. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. The filter order can be increased or decreased according to needs and after that steps 4. For this reason. and ak the coefficient of recursive part (feedback) of IIR filter. ωc1. 5 and 6 are repeated as many times as needed. Chapter 3: IIR filters . it is time to specify the type of reference analog prototype filter. bk the coefficient of non-recursive part of IIR filter. it is necessary to perform scaling of the transfer function so that cut-off frequencies go into the desirable range. The initial value of the filter order is roughly estimated and is changed after that depending on the obtained characteristics and requirements. the entire IIR filter design process. even though it is very large at certain frequencies. The coefficients bk and ak are of interest for IIR filter realization (both hardware and software). This book represents the most commonly used conversion known as bilinear transformation. 3. For this reason. Now. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications. 5. is repeated. After changing the filter order. then it is necessary to do it. and 7. Specifying analog prototype filter. When both type and order of analog prototype filter are known.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 12/45 . it is preferable to increase or decrease the filter order by 1. After this step. Be aware that every type has its good and bad sides. If the obtained filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. Figure 3-2-11 illustrates the block diagram of www. The type of analog prototype filter as well as the filter order will be specified according to these parameters. transition width.e. it is possible to find its transfer function. The minimum attenuation and the width of transition region of the resulting IIR filter remain unchanged.9/22/13 function of an IIR filter is clearly marked in this figure. However. Computing the filter order required for a given set of specifications and specified analog prototype filter. the transfer function of the specified type of reference analog prototype filter is obtained by converting analog filter into digital one. it should be changed. ωc2). 2. Finally.Digital Filter Design . so that such deviation is acceptable. or if the filter order can be less than actual one. 3.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-10. It is only important that its characteristics can satisfy the given specifications. This operation is actually conversion of reference analog prototype filter into analog filter with desirable characteristic.2. 3. maximum passband attenuation and minimum stopband attenuation. 6. Conversion into analog filter via scaling. when the type of analog proptotype filter is known. 4. it is necessary to specify or compute the filter order required for a given set of specifications.6 IIR filter realization FIR filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: N is the filter order. Deviation from required frequency characteristic The frequency deviation shown in Figure 3-2-10 is basically slight deviation. Defining filter specification. IIR filters have much greater selectivity and attenuation than FIR filters of the same order. that is. The transfer function of analog prototype filter depends on frequencies which are not scaled into the desirable range. scaling and obtaining analogue filters and conversion into digital filter. it is preferable to specify such a type of analog prototype filter that can produce the lowest order IIR filter.2.mikroe. computing of the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. The final objective of defining IIR filter specifications is to find the desirable normalized cutoff frequencies (ωc. i.

This chapter covers direct.9/22/13 IIR filter. 3. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter www. Each of them will be described in detail along with their advantages and disadvantages. direct transpose.Digital Filter Design . All of them are very convenient and most commonly used for both hardware and software IIR filter realization. Figure 3-2-12.mikroe.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 13/45 . direct transpose canonic and cascade realizations. direct canonic.2.mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-11.1 Direct realization Direct realization of IIR filters starts with this expression: The first part of the expression refers to non-recursive part and the other refers to recursive part of IIR filter. Block diagram of IIR filter There are several types of IIR filter realization. Chapter 3: IIR filters . In IIR filter direct realization. these two parts are separately considered and realized. Figure 3-2-12. illustrates the block diagram of direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter. The realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is identical to the direct realization of FIR filter.6.

Figure 3-2-13. multiplication coefficients are identical to those of the transfer function.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 14/45 . it doesn’t matter which of them will be used first in filtering process.mikroe.mikroElektronika As seen from Figure 3-2-12 above.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . respectively. illustrates the direct realization of the filter recursive part.Digital Filter Design . www. Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b illustrate block diagrams of IIR filter realization when non-recursive part is used before and after recursive part of IIR filter. Realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter is similar to that of recursive part. Figure 3-2-13. Direct realization of non-recursive part of IIR filter As non-recursive and recursive part of IIR filter are separately realized.

mikroe. (2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions. As seen from Figures 3-2-14a and 3-2-14b. Direct realization is very convenient for software implementation and this is where it is most commonly used. Some of disadvantages of www.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 15/45 .mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-14a. non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-14b. direct realization requires in total of 2N delay lines. IIR filter direct realization. IIR filter direct realization.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . recursive part is used first This structure is also known as a direct form I structure.Digital Filter Design .

It is necessary to design this filter using direct structure with circular buffer. 0 S T EP 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 x[0] x[1] x[2] x[3] x[4] x[5] x[6] x[7] x[7] x[7] x[6] x[6] x[6] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[5] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[4] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[3] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[2] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[1] x[9] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[0] x[8] x[8] Table 2-2-2. it is necessary to have two buffers with at least N+1 samples.6. and the greatest complexity due to implementation (i. Accordingly: where the operator represents rounding down to a less value. The only difference is in the position of delay lines. The length of the buffer needs to be 2^k. Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-17 illustrate the block diagram describing IIR filter direct transpose realization structure of IIR filter. Input samples are denoted by x[n] and each shaded cell represents changed location in buffer. Figure 3-2-15.mikroe. www.mikroElektronika this realization are the greatest sensitivity to accuracy of realized coefficients (i. 6 A DDR. needs most resources).e. A DDR.Digital Filter Design . Circular buffer of length 16 = 2^4 Since the buffer length is 16. The value of constant k is defined as a minimum value for which N ≤ 2^k is valid. 2 A DDR. i. 1 A DDR.e. 3 A DDR. 7 A DDR. where N is the IIR filter order. The length of circular buffer is obtained from the following expression: It means that the minimum length of circular buffer is 2^3 = 8. 5 A DDR. Input circular buffer after receiving 10 sam ples 3.2. location addressing in the circular buffer is performed via module 16 operations: Example: A 6th order FIR filter is used in this example. most commonly used are the so called circular buffers the length of which can be expressed as 2^k. 4 A DDR.e. buffer if it is about software implementation. For their simplicity and effectiveness. On IIR filter software implementation with direct structure. the largest finite word-length effect).com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 16/45 .2 Direct transpose realization Direct transpose realization is similar to direct realization. Here. it is also necessary to have two buffers of minimum length N+1.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . The contents of the buffer after receiving the first 10 samples is shown in the table 3-2-1. where N is the filter order.

(2N+1) multiplications and 2N additions.mikroe. The only difference is in the position of delay lines.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 17/45 . recursive part is used first There are no significant differences between direct and direct transpose realizations. www. Similar to direct realization structure. Both structures have the same multiplication coefficients.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . non-recursive part is used first Figure 3-2-17. IIR filter direct transpose realization. IIR filter direct transpose realization.Digital Filter Design .mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-16. the direct transpose realization structure uses 2N delay lines.

4 Direct transpose canonical realization Direct transpose canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum of N delay lines as well as reduced number of adders to N+1. Figure 3-2-18 illustrates the block diagram describing direct canonic realization structure of IIR filter. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization. although it is easy to differentiate between them.6.2. The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-14b and 3-2-18 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct canonic realization structure cannot be treated separately.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 18/45 . www. Recursive and non-recursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately. (2N+1) multipilications and 2N additions.2.mikroe. N delay lines. which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure. Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures. that is. Recursive and nonrecursive parts of IIR filter are not considered separately. A good thing is that the coefficients are the same as for direct realization. one of the main disadvantages of direct and direct transpose realization structures is eliminated. Direct canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct canonic structure block diagram and direct realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-14b are obvious. Figure 3-2-18. This way. Direct canonic structure uses N delay elements.mikroElektronika Direct canonical realization structure has reduced number of delay lines to the minimum.Digital Filter Design . which causes implementation to be more complex than for direct realization structure. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure. but similar to direct canonical structure.6. Figure 3-2-19 illustrates the block diagram describing direct transpose canonical realization structure of IIR filter.3 Direct Canonical Realization Chapter 3: IIR filters .9/22/13 3. 3.

It is very convenient for its modular structure and less sensitivity to the accuracy of non-recursive and recursive coefficients realization. qi are the zeros of the transfer function. the finite word-length effect on the accuracy of coefficients. The difference between realization structures shown in Figures 3-2-16 and 3-2-19 is that non-recursive and recursive part for direct transpose canonical realization structure cannot be treated separately. A(z) is the transfer function of recursive part (feedback). B(z) is the transfer function of non-recursive part. On cascade IIR filter realization. The analyse is simplified this way.6.Digital Filter Design .2. Individual sections are mostly realized in direct canonical or direct transpose canonical structure. Direct transpose canonic structure uses N delay elements. although it is easy to differentiate between them. mutually independent sections of the first or second order.mikroe. modulation of frequency response and IIR filter stability are separately examined for each section. (2N+1) multipilication elements and N+1 adders.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . 3. which is the main disadvantage of this realization structure. and M is the number of sections in cascade realization structure. Direct transpose canonic realization structure block diagram Similarities between direct transpose canonical structure block diagram and direct transpose realization structure shown in Figure 3-2-16 are obvious. Sensitivity to the accuracy of coefficients is the same as for all previously described structures.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 19/45 . The IIR filter transfer function is expressed as: where: bi are the coefficients of transfer function numerator (non-recursive part).mikroElektronika Figure 3-2-19.5 Cascade Realization Cascade realization structure is the most difficult to obtain from the transfer function (comparing to other realization structures given in this book). Since the sections are mutually independent after design process. a filter is divided into several. pj are the poles of the transfer function. aj are the coefficients of transfer function denominator (recursive part). H0 is a constant. Cascade realization requires the given expression to be factorized so that the transfer function is expressed as follows: www.

3 Reference Analog Prototype Filter IIR filter design process starts with reference analog prototype filter. Such complexity and needed factorization are two main disadvantages of this realization structure.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 20/45 . Figure 3-2-21. Each section must have its own buffer for saving samples of intermediate signals. b[i. k] are the coefficients of non-recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section. Figure 3-2-22. Direct transpose canonical structure is most frequently used in realization. Second-order section The use of direct transpose realization structure reduces necessary number of delay lines and adders as well. k] are the coefficients of recursive part of the i-th IIR filter section.Digital Filter Design . Individual sections are of the first or second order. This book explains Butterworth. Software realization requires M buffer of length 2 or 1. the possibility that IIR filter becomes instable after quantization is drastically reduced as the coefficients quantization is performed after dividing filter in sections. Figure 3-220 illustrates a first-order section. therefore. Chebyshev (Chebyshev I) and inverse Chebyshev filter (Chebyshev II). Figure 3-2-20. Besides. The transform function of analog filter Hs a (s) is expressed as: www. Figure 3-2-21 illustrates the block diagram describing cascade IIR filter structure. so the changes of poles locations are smaller.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Cascade IIR filter structure 3. Filter dividing in independent sections reduces the sensitivity to the accuracy of quantization coefficients and simplifies analysing the stability of the resulting filter. First-order section Figure 3-2-21 illustrates a second-order section.mikroElektronika where: a[i.mikroe.

www.e. Butterworth filter is characterized by 3dB attenuation at the frequency of Ω=1. Figure 3-3-2.1 derivatives of the transfer function when Ω = 0 are equal to zero.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . and N is the filter order.mikroe. Frequency response of Butterw orth filter Butterworth filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. S plane and region of stability A low-pass filter is used for analog filter design.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 21/45 .Digital Filter Design .3. Figure 3-3-1 illustrates S plane. band-pass or band-stop) is performed by converting into analog filter. frequency axis scaling. no matter the filter order is. Figure 3-3-2 illustrates frequency responses for a few various parameters N (filter order). as the first 2N . and M ≤ N.1 Butterworth analog filter Low-pass Butterworth analog filters are filters whose frequency response is a monotonious descending function. Figure 3-3-1. The conversion into the appropriate type of filter (high-pass. s is the complex frequency (s = σ + jΩ). i.mikroElektronika where: N is the filter order. it is necessary that all poles (the square roots of polinomial Aa(s)) are located in the left half of S plane. 3. In order that a system described via expression above is stable. They are also known as „maximally flat magnitude“ filters at the frequency of Ω = 0.

Note: In the z plane.mikroElektronika Figure 3-3-3.2 Chebyshev Analog Filter Chebyshev analog low-pass filter of the first kind is a type of analog filter that has the least oscillation in frequency response in the entire passband. it is easy to find its poles using expression: Butterworth poles are equally allocated (equidistantly) on the unit circle within the left half of the s plane.. i. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial. N is the filter order. Figure 3-3-5.e. σi is the pole.. Even though these two types of transformations are similar to some extent. Figure 3-3-4. Z-transform is used for digital filters.3. Figure 3-3-5 illustrates frequency response for a 4th order band-stop Chebyshev reference analog filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 22/45 . All poles of the resulting filter must be located in the left half of the S plane. ε is a parameter used to define maximum oscillations in the passband frequency response. and Ωi is the imaginary pole. The value of parameter ε is obtained via expression: Transfer function is expressed as: www. filter is stab le if all poles are located within the unit circle. it is necessary to know the filter order. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order Chebyshev reference analog filter. The location of poles for N=5 and N=6 is shown in Figure 3-3-4. the transfer function is: 3. where: N is the filter order. to the left of the imaginary axis. Position of Butterw orth filter poles for N=5 and N=6 The transfer function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter is expressed as follows: where: Sk is the k-th pole of the Butterworth filter transfer function For N=5. they should not b e mixed up concerning the filter stab ility analyse. . IIR filter specification Figure 3-3-3 illustrates IIR filter specification with parameters of most interest for Butterworth filter. N.mikroe. and i=1.Digital Filter Design . it is necessary to know the filter order. To design Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. whereas Laplase transform (s plane) is used for analog filters. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained via recursive relations: If the filter order is known in advance. When the filter order is known. The values of poles are expressed as: where: si is the i-th transfer function pole of analog prototype filter (complex value). Therefore it is characterized by equal ripple in the passband and the stopband frequency response is monotoniously descending function.. filter is stab le if all poles are located in the left half of the s plane. 2. In the s plane.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. neither recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary. Frequency response of Chebyshev analog filter To design Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.

The poles of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter are expressed as: where: si is the i-th pole of the transfer function of analog prototype filter (complex value). it is necessary to know the filter order.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 23/45 .Digital Filter Design . N. 7 Table 3-3-1. . 5.. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are found via expression: where: si is the pole of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter. Similar to Butterworth filter. and TN is the Chebyshev polynomial. Figure 3-3-7 illustrates the frequency response for an inverse Chebyshev reference analog band-stop filter of the 4th order. 2. Location of the poles of Chebyshev filter for N=5 3.3. the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-6. coefficient k in the transfer function num erator The values Ωk are found via expression: www.3 Inverse Chebyshev Analog Filter Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is also known as Chebyshev analog filter of the second kind. ε is the parameter of maximum oscillation in the passband frequency response. Inverse Chebyshev analog filter is defined via expression: where: Ω is the frequency. Frequency characteristic of inverse Chebyshev analog filter To design inverse Chebyshev reference analog pototype filter. inverse Chebyshev filter has the least oscillation in the frequency response. 3. 5 1. The Chebyshev polynomial TN(Ω) can be obtained from recursive relation: If the filter order is familiar in advance. Figure 3-3-7. 7 1. The design process starts from the values of poles of a 1st order inverse Chebyshev reference analog filter. Table 3-3-1 provides a few examples of values of k. 5 1.. where: N is the filter order. 5.1 derivatives of the transfer function for Ω = 0 are equal to zero. the frequency response is extremely flat function at the frequency of Ω = 0. The poles of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter are considered reciprocal poles of the transfer function of a 1st order Chebyshev analog filter.. 3. and s2i is the pole of the transfer function of inverse Chebyshev analog filter. and i=1. The frequency response of this filter monotoniously falls in the passband and transition region. N 5 6 7 8 M IN 1 1 1 1 M AX 5 5 7 7 V A L UES 1. as the first 2N . and Ωi is the imaginary pole. σi is the real pole. In the stopband. neither these recursive relations nor expression for the square of frequency response are necessary.mikroe. Transfer function is expressed as: The coefficient k in numerator can be only an odd number. 3. 3.9/22/13 The value of A0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters .mikroElektronika For N=5. N is the filter order.

3. the zeros of the transfer function are always complex-conjugated values. the transfer function is: Figure 3-3-8. In the transform function. high-pass. 3. Generally.1 Low-pass filter The transformation from a reference analog prototype filter to a low-pass analog filter is the simplest type of transformation. By performing the transformation: each expression within brackets in the transfer function numerator is transformed into: and the whole numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: By replacing numerator and denominator by their transformed expressions. regardless of their type.4. Transformation from an analog prototype filter to appropriate analog filter is performed before transforming it in digital filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 24/45 . pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. predetermined values.mikroElektronika For N=5. Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency of Ωp =1. For this reason. if needed. high-pass. band-pass or band-stop filter.4 Analog prototype filter to analog filter transformation All analog prototype filters. i. Frequency scaling depends on the type of analog filter being designed. band-pass and band-stop filters. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.9/22/13 The value H0 is found via expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . All the results obtained in this chapter are tested in the Filter designer tool program. the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transform function of the Butterworth reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. the transformation comes to a simple frequency scaling. Scaling is explained for low-pass.e. Location of poles and zeros of inverse Chebyshev filter for N=5 As seen from Figure 3-3-8 and expression for Ωk. which is not the case with the poles of the transfer function. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where H0 is a costant. where Ω c is a desirable cut-off frequency in the passband.2929 in the passband is obtained via expression: Example: The transform function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: www. so that passband and stopband cut-off frequencies have the appropriate. it is necessary to scale filter during the design process. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. s\\Ω c is used instead of s.mikroe. have scaled frequency range so that the passband cut-off frequency amounts to Ω = 1. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. Reference analog prototype filter is also a low-pass filter so it requires to be transformed into the appropriate type of filter. In this case.Digital Filter Design .

1434 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transform function of analog filter: 3. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.mikroe. www. Its transformation to a high-pass analog filter can be split into two steps. This is why it is not possible to design an odd order band-pass filter.3 Band-pass filter The transformation in a band-pass analog filter is more complex than the transformation in a low-pass and high-pass analog filters.mikroElektronika The transformation to a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0.3719 in the passband is obtained via expression: 3. The transformation to a high-pass analog filter: Scaling of frequency axis is performed by transformation: These two transformations can be represented by one transformation: Generally.4. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. By performing the following transformation: each bracket in the numerator of the transfer function is transformed into and the entire numerator is transformed into: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: Substituting these transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. whereas the second one refers to frequency scaling. the transform function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant.Digital Filter Design .3721 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. The filter order is doubled by this transformation. the transform function of the analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 3rd order is expressed as follows: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0.2 High-pass filter Analog prototype filter is a low-pass filter with the cut-off frequency Ωp = 1.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 25/45 . The first step refers to the transformation to a high-pass analog filter.4. The final objective is that passband cut-off frequency of the resulting high-pass analog filter amounts to Ωc. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.

Generally. and normalized after that with Ωc. By performing the transformation: each bracket in numerator of the transfer function is transformed into: and the entire numerator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed into: The scaling of frequency axis is performed after transformation: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator.mikroe. The resulting filter order is used to design a low-pass reference analog prototype filter. Band-pass filter specification The value of Ωc.mikroElektronika When designing. which is necessary for normalization. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design .1626 in the passband is expressed as: www. The required filter order is obtained this way. The order of the resulting filter is 8. Figure 3-4-1. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. The transformation into a band-pass analog filter is expressed as: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωp1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1). Reference analog filter is further transformed in a bandpass analog filter. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: The transformation in a band-pass analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc = 0. Example: Assume that it is necessary to design an 8th order band-pass digital filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 26/45 . the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant. and Ωp2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the passband (refer to figure 3-4-1). By transforming it into a band-pass analog filter the filter order is doubled. This transformation doubles the filter order. the required filter order is divided by two. A low-pass reference analog filter of the 4th order is designed first. is found via expression: The transfer function of an analog prototype filter is transformed first in a band-pass analog filter.

mikroe. The transformation in a band-stop analog filter: The value of the constant Ω0 can be found via expression: where: Ωs1 is a lower cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2).Digital Filter Design . The transformation into a bandstop analog filter causes the filter order to double. The result is a 10th order filter. This transformation causes the filter order to double. When designing.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 27/45 . which is necessary for normalization.mikroElektronika 3. Figure 3-4-2. the transform function of analog filter is obtained: Example: The transfer function of inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter of the 2nd order is expressed as: www. Generally. A low-pass reference analog filter of the 5th order is designed first. zk is the k-th zero of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. and Ωs2 is a higher cut-off frequency in the stopband (refer to figure 3-4-2).9/22/13 The result is the transfer function of analog filter: Chapter 3: IIR filters . and N is a number of poles of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter and the filter order as well. the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter can be expressed as follows: where: H0 is a constant. The resulting filter order is used for designing a low-pass reference analog prototype filter. Example: It is necessary to design a band-stop digital filter of the 10th order.4 Band-stop filter The transformation in a band-stop analog filter is similar to the transformation in a bandpass analog filter. The first step refers to normalization with the frequency Ωc: The transformation is performed in the second step: and each bracket in the transfer function numerator is transformed in: and the entire numerator is transformed in: Each bracket in denominator is transformed similarly: and the entire denominator is transformed in: Substituting the transformed expressions for numerator and denominator. is found via expression: The transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter is transformed first into a band-stop analog filter. M is a number of zeros of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter. pk is the k-th pole of the transfer function of the reference analog prototype filter.4. This is how the required filter order is obtained. the required filter order is divided by two. and normalized after that with Ωc. Band-stop filter specification The value of Ωc. Similarly. the filter order is doubled and the order of a band-stop digital filter cannot be an odd number. The reference analog filter is transformed in a band-stop analog filter.

It is done by transforming the analog filter transfer function into a digital one. The transformation is supposed to: 1. For this reason. Transform ation of s plane into z plane One of most commonly used method of transforming analog filters into appropriate IIR filters is known as bilinear transformation. as shown in Figure 3-5-1. After transformation.267-j2. The analog filter transfer function can be expressed as: where: H0 is a constant. Using expression for linear transformation: we obtain: where: N=2 M=2 z1=j0.5 Bilinear transformation Digital IIR filters are designed using analog filters.Digital Filter Design .2692 p2=-2. it is necessary to transform the resulting analog filter into a digital one. Analog filter is stable if the poles of the transfer function are located in the left half of s plane. and pk is the pole of the analog filter transfer function.mikroElektronika The transformation into a band-stop analog filter with the cut-off frequency Ωc=0. the analog filter transfer function is further transformed into: where: Hoz is a constant of the digital IIR filter transfer function Example: The transfer function of a second-order high-pass analog filter (inverse Chebyshev.1014 z2=-j0.1014 p1=-2.267+j2.252. faithfully approximate the frequency response of analog filter. the transformation must provide that the left half of s plane coincides with the area within the unit circle of z plane.mikroe. It is defined via expression: Using the previous expression. 60dB) is expressed as: It is necessary to transform the given analog filter into the appropriate digital filter by bilinear transformation. fs=44100Hz. the transformation is performed by a simple change of variable s in the expression for the transfer function of the resulting analog filter. zk is the zero of the analog filter transfer function. After the frequency scaling and transformation into a desirable type of filter have been performed. If s=0 then H(s)=H0 . Figure 3-5-1. fc=2KHz. the transformation of the analog filter transform function into a digital one can be expressed as: As seen. whereas digital filter is stable if the poles are located within the unit circle.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 28/45 .5727 in the passband is expressed as: The result is the transfer function of analog filter: 3.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .2692 www. and 2. This transformation also transforms s plane into z plane. provide that the resulting digital filter is guaranteed to be stable.

if it happens. Such a non-linear transformation of analog filter frequencies causes the phase characteristic distorsion. the resulting IIR filter is not stable and is useless therefore. In every given example. It is very important to prevent the poles from being located outside the unite circle. When designing. Any error made during the quantization of coefficients affects more or less the frequency response.mikroElektronika The result is the transfer function of a digital high-pass IIR filter. Special care is required when quantizing feedback coefficients as it causes the location of the digital IIR filter transfer function poles to change their location. the accurate values of coefficients are obtained immediately after the implementation of bilinear transformation. A disadvantage of the bilinear transformation is a non-linear transformation of the analog filter frequency axis into a digital one. it is impossible to represent coefficients without an error. Transformation into analog filter by range scaling. The output data is a reference analog prototype filter transfer function Ha (s). then it is necessary to do it.2. However. Computing the transfer function of reference analog prototype filter. Reference analog prototype filter is always a low-pass filter. The next step is the transformation into an analog filter of appropriate type.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 29/45 . The quantization effect on digital filter stability is much more dangerous.Digital Filter Design . Regardless of the type of reference analog prototype filter in use. Realization structure is illustrated in Figure 3-5-2 below. The IIR filter design process can be split into several steps described in Chapter 3. However. Some steps are skipped in some cases. M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Steps in designing digital IIR filter The first block refers to design of reference analog prototype filter of appropriate order. These are: 1. Defining filter specifications. 4. and band-stop filter. 3. these frequencies have appropriate locations. The design method used here is known as bilinear transformation. high-pass filter. which may further cause the stopband attenuation to decrease. which is not the case with the rest of the frequency axis.mikroe. 5 and 6 are repeated after that as many times as needed. Specifying the type of analog prototype filter.6 Examples This chapter discusses various IIR filter design methods. Figure 3-6-1. and steps 4. step 2 is skipped. 2. When transforming. pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. Computing the filter order according to the filter specifications and specified analog prototype filter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Figure 3-6-1 illustrates the design steps along with input and output data for each of them.5 Designing IIR filters b y b ilinear transformation. the transfer function is given by: where: H0 is a constant. If the type of reference analog prototype filter is predetermined. If the filter order is known. 5. 3. the resulting coefficients are quantized. On filter realization. The four standard types of filters are used here: low-pass filter. Figure 3-5-2. analog prototype filters and design of various types of filters as well. step 3 is skipped. The expression used to transform the reference analog prototype filter transfer function depends on the type of filter that needs to be obtained. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well. www. Transformation into digital filter by bilinear transformation. 6. IIR filter realization Digital filters designed via bilinear trasnformation are guaranteed to be stable. so that it is not linear. band-pass filter. which also generates a certain error. the cut-off frequencies are defined on the basis of the given specifications and type of a filter. The specified filter order is increased or decreased according to needs. the IIR filter design process will be described through these steps in order to make it easier for you to observe similarities and differencies between various design methodes. and 7. The final result is the transfer function H(s) given by: where: H0 is a constant. If the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the given specifications or if it is possible to decrease the filter order. zk is the k-th zero of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. In software digital filter realization (implementation).

and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. 3. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.1 Filter design using Butterworth filter 3. As seen. The filter order is the same if the analog filter is a low-pass or high-pass filter. Step 2: Method. pk is the k-th pole of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. the transfer functions of reference analog prototype filter and analog filter are very similar.6. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Passband cut-off frequency – fc=2.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. The next step is the transformation into appropriate digital IIR filter using bilinear transformation given by expression: Filter Designer Tool is used for testing and analysing the resulting IIR filters in this chapter.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 30/45 .5KHz.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=2. All data are calculated with the accuracy of 4 decimal digits. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. They differ only in the value of constant H0 . Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. the values of the transfer function poles and zeros zk and pk as well as in the number of transfer function zeros M. These can be computed via expression: As N = 2. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: www. whereas it is different if the analog filter is a band-pass or band-stop filter. the analog filter order (N) is twice that of the reference analog prototype filter. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.6.Digital Filter Design . only poles. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros.mikroElektronika M is a number of zeros of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function. and N is a number of poles of the reference analog prototype filter transfer function and filter order as well.1. N=2.mikroe. In the later case. which is sufficient for most examples.

Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3.6. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-3. There is no need to additionally change it.Digital Filter Design . the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Step 7: The filter order is predetermined.mikroe. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: www. Step 2: Method. whereas Figure 3-6-3 illustrates the frequency response of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=3. and Minimum stopband attenuation – ap=40dB. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. N = 3.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 31/45 . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Passband cut-off frequency – fc=5KHz. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. only poles. Figure 3-6-2.mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function.1. the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-2 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.

1. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. N = 4.3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-5. only poles. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. In this example for N=4. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter.9/22/13 A more condensed form of the previous expression is: Chapter 3: IIR filters . and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.mikroe. so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros.6. www.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 32/45 .Digital Filter Design .mikroElektronika The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Figure 3-6-4. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. There is no need to additionally change it. fc2=6KHz. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=4KHz. Step 2: Method . the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-4 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the order of reference prototype filter is 2.

mikroe. In this example for N = 4.6. so the values of poles are: The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.1.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 33/45 . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-6 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. and Passband cut-off frequency – fc1=3000Hz. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. fc2=3300Hz. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-7. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.Digital Filter Design . These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter. Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . only poles. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Step 2: Method .mikroElektronika In this example. www. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N=4. There is no need to additionally change it. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order.filter design using Butterworth reference analog prototype filter. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. Figure 3-6-6. Step 4: The Butterworth reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. N = 4. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Butterworth reference prototype filter has no zeros. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.

Digital Filter Design .1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter – low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs=44100Hz.2 Filter design using Chebyshev filter 3. There is no need to additionally change it. the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.mikroe.6. Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2=18KHz.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 34/45 . The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros.6. only poles. Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4. Digital IIR filter direct realization in this exam ple Figure 3-6-9. The solution is redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied. Passband cut-off frequency– fc1=15KHz. Digital IIR filter frequency characteristic in this exam ple 3. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: www. Step 2: Method . and Minimum stopband attenuation – as=40dB. Figure 3-6-8.2. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-8 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. These can be computed via expression: As N = 4. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.mikroElektronika In this example. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts.2457 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined. Maximum passband attenuation – ap=1dB.

0. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Step3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = . All steps starting with step 3 are iterated. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 31.Digital Filter Design . A new filter order is 5.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 35/45 . Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. the values of poles are: The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case.mikroElektronika The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-10 below. www.1228 so the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc.2dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient. Figure 3-6-10. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. only poles. The filter order is incremented by 1 and is 5 therefore.mikroe.

mikroe. N = 3. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-11 below. only poles. Frequency characteristic of the resulting IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is appropriate.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros.Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-6-12.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters .2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.mikroElektronika This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = .4913 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz.6dB approximately at the frequency of 18KHZ is not sufficient. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter 3. The whole procedure is the same.0. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-12 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3.1. Digital IIR filter direct realization Figure 3-6-13.6. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. Step 2: Method . the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order. whereas Figure 3-6-13 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool. the expression for transfer function is simpler: www. Figure 3-6-11. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 41. Passband cut-off frequency – fc = 5KHz.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 36/45 . only it takes more time.

N = 4. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 37/45 . Filter realization: Figure 3-6-14 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: www.Digital Filter Design .3 Example 3 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4. only poles. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz.9/22/13 After substitution of poles and Ωc into expression: Chapter 3: IIR filters . fc2 = 6KHz. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Step 2: Method filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. In this example for N = 4. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. There is no need to additionally change it. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.1. the value of constant A0 is: A0 = 0.6. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. Figure 3-6-14. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example.mikroElektronika Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.mikroe. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-15.

the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.mikroe. fc2 = 3300Hz. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. In this expression. There is no need to additionally change it. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-16 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. Filter 3-6-16. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.mikroElektronika First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. only poles. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-17. and Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 38/45 . Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. Step 2: Method . Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. N = 4.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 4.9/22/13 Step 5: Chapter 3: IIR filters .1. In this example for N = 4. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: www. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined.Digital Filter Design . Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 3000Hz. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.filter design using Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.6.

Stopband cut-off frequency – fc2 = 18KHz. The solution is www.3.6.1 Example 1 Step 1: Type of filter –low-pass filter Filter specifications: Sampling frequency – fs = 44100Hz. Maximum passband attenuation – ap = 1dB. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.mikroElektronika A0 = 0.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. Step 2: Method . substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. so it is necessary to choose an initial solution from which iterative method starts. and Minimum stopband attenuation – as = 40dB.Digital Filter Design . Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. In this expression.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 39/45 . Figure 3-6-18.6. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. the expression for transfer function is simpler: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-19. There is no need to additionally change it.3 Filter design using inverse Chebyshev filter 3. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.9826 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. Passband cut-off frequency – fc1 = 15KHz. Filter realization Figure 3-6-18 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Step 3: Filter order is not pre-determined. the value of constant A0 is: Chapter 3: IIR filters .9/22/13 In this example. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: As the Chebyshev reference prototype filter has no zeros.mikroe.

and becomes 5 therefore. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. All steps starting with step 3 are iterated. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. it is obvious that the attenuation amounting to 5. It is necessary to additionally redefine the filter order until the predefined requirements are satisfied. Frequency charactersitic of designed IIR filter The attenuation at 15KHz is higher than 1dB and the resulting filter doesn’t satisfy the specifications therefore. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-20 below.2dB approximately at the frequency of 15KHZ is not sufficient.01 so that the Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. These can be computed via expression: As N = 4. Figure 3-6-20. Let’s assume that the initial filter order is 4. Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. The filter order is incremented by 1. only poles. These can be computed via expression: As N = 5.mikroe. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function.mikroElektronika redefined progressively until some pre-determined requirements are satisfied. A new filter order is 5. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 40/45 .9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . only poles. Step 7: By analyzing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. Step 3: The filter order is incremented in the second iteration.Digital Filter Design . the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the values of poles are: www.

6.2 Example 2 Step 1: Type of filter – high-pass filter Filter specifications: Filter order – N = 3. only it takes more time. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. www. Sometimes more iterations are needed to determine the filter order.0.mikroElektronika In this case.8dB). the analog filter transfer function becomes: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.mikroe. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = . Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.9/22/13 The Chebyhsev filter transfer function is expressed as: Chapter 3: IIR filters . substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 41/45 . Step 7: By analysing the resulting filter using Filter Designer Tool. Figure 3-6-21.Digital Filter Design . The whole procedure is the same. Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. Figure 3-6-22. it is obvious that the attenuation at 18KHZ is less than 1dB (approximately 0. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function.1. Passband cut-off frequency– fc = 5KHz. The frequency characteristic of the resulting digital filter is illustrated in Figure 3-6-21 below. whereas Figure 3-6-23 illustrates the frequency characteristic of the filter obtained using Filter Designer Tool.05 so the inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-23. Frequency characteristic of IIR filter It is not necessary to further increase the filter order as this one is approriate. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-22 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter.

mikroElektronika Method . There is no need to additionally change it.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.6. only poles. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3.9/22/13 Step 2: Chapter 3: IIR filters .Digital Filter Design . Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. the transfer function is: After substituting the poles and Ωc into expression: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 42/45 .3 Example 3 www. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-25.mikroe. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-24 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Figure 3-6-24. N=3. by substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.1. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = -0.03 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this case. This general expression can be written in a simpler way in this example: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: As N = 3. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. Step 7: The filter order is predetermined.

the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: For this example. only poles. Step 7: Filter order is predetermined. the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-pass filter. Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. fc2 = 6KHz. www. There is no need to additionally change it. so the values of poles are: The Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function.9/22/13 Step 1: Type of filter – band-pass filter Filter specification: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Sampling frequency – fs = 20KHz. In this example for N=4. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. N = 4. Step 2: Method .mikroElektronika Filter order – N = 4. In this example.mikroe. Filter realization: Figure 3-6-26 illustrates direct realization of designed IIR filter.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 43/45 .filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter. the order of reference prototype filter is 2. Step 4: The Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros. Passband cut-off frequencies – fc1 = 4KHz.Digital Filter Design . and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB.

These can be computed via expression: When designing an IIR band-stop filter. N = 4.filter design using inverse Chebyshev reference analog prototype filter.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-26.4 Example 4 Step 1: Type of filter – band-stop filter Filter specification: Filter order – N=4. so the values of poles are: The inverse Chebyshev filter transfer function is expressed as: In this example. In this expression.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 44/45 . Sampling frequency – fs=20KHz. the value of constant H0 is: H0 = 0. the general expression can be written in a simpler way: A more condensed form of the previous expression is: The result is the IIR filter transfer function. the following is obtained: where: zk are the zeros of analog filter transfer function. the analog filter transfer function is: Step 6: The transformation into a digital filter through bilinear transformation: Generally. only poles.6. Step 2: Method . In this example for N = 4.1. Step 4: The inverse Chebyshev reference prototype filter transfer function has no zeros.Digital Filter Design . Step 3: Filter order is predetermined. The analog filter transfer function is obtained from the reference analog prototype filter transfer function using expression: In this example. Stopband cut-off frequencies – fc1=3000Hz. substituting the complex variable s into the expression for analog filter transfer function.mikroe. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-27. www. Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple 3. fc2=3300Hz.01 The reference analog prototype filter transfer function is: Step 5: First it is necessary to compute the analog prototype filter cut-off frequency Ωc. and Minimum stopband attenuation – 40dB. and pk are the poles of analog filter transfer function. the reference prototype filter order is half that of the required IIR filter order.9/22/13 Chapter 3: IIR filters . the order of reference prototype filter is 2.

www.com/chapters/view/73/chapter-3-iir-filters/ 45/45 . All rights reserved.2013. All trade and/or services marks mentioned are the property of their respective owners.mikroElektronika Figure 3-6-28 illustrates the direct realization of designed IIR filter. Filter realization: Chapter 3: IIR filters . Frequency characteristic of digital IIR filter in this exam ple ← previous chapter | table of contents MikroElektronika Embedded Solutions PIC Solution PIC De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC C om pile rs PIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC Kits PIC Book s Follow us on PIC32 Solution PIC 32 De ve lopm e nt Boards PIC 32 C om pile rs PIC 32 Program m e rs/De bugge rs PIC 32 Kits dsPIC Solution dsPIC De ve lopm e nt Boards dsPIC C om pile rs dsPIC Program m e rs/De bugge rs dsPIC Kits dsPIC Book s Add-on boards C lick Boards m ik rom e dia shie lds C om m unication boards Storage boards R e al Tim e C lock boards Display boards Me asure m e nt boards Audio & Voice boards Powe r Supply boards GPS boards GSM/GPR S boards Additional Software Visual TFT Visual GLC D Pack age Manage r GLC D Font C re ator 8051 Solution 8051 De ve lopm e nt Boards 8051 C om pile rs 8051 Program m e rs/De bugge rs 8051 Book s 8051 Kits AVR Solution AVR De ve lopm e nt Boards AVR C om pile rs AVR Program m e rs/De bugge rs AVR Kits ARM Solution AR M De ve lopm e nt Boards AR M C om pile rs AR M Program m e rs/De bugge rs AR M Kits Support Forum m ik roBUS Le ts m ak e Pre ss Le gal Inform ation Product Archive About Us C opyright © 1998 .mikroe.Digital Filter Design . Figure 3-6-28. MikroElektronika. Direct realization of digital IIR filter in this exam ple Figure 3-6-29. There is no need to additionally change it.9/22/13 Step 7: Filter order is predetermined.

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