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Day I Prepositions and Discourse Markers

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Preliminary task 1

Preliminary task 2

Karl Marx and Alexis de Tocqueville agreed both with one point: extreme poverty does not lead to uprising nor to apathy.

Karl Marx and Alexis de Tocqueville both agreed on one point: extreme poverty does not lead to uprising but rather to apathy.

RaIf Dahrendorf brought the issue to the fore once more in a recent article. The most critical segment of the population by far says he is the one which had begun to make progress to new and better conditions, but, at a certain point, found the path blocked. These are the groups which rally to violent protests and end up bringing about great changes. RaIf Dahrendorf brought up the issue once again in a recent article. The most critical segment of the population by far says he is the one which had begun to make progress towards new and better conditions, but, at a certain point, found the path blocked. These are the groups that rally to violent protests and end up bringing about great changes.

Dahrendorf predicted, obviously, the unfolding of the rising of the Parisian outskirts, that has inspired additional turmoil in several corners of Western Europe. I thought about Brazil, second in the world in poor distribution of income, in which 70% of the families live, at most, on two minimum wages and 30% of the population vegetates underneath the poverty line. Not to mention the heritage of slavery which has left on the native backs the deep scar of the whip. Dahrendorf predicted, of course, the unfolding of the rising of the Parisian outskirts, which has inspired additional turmoil in several corners of Western Europe. I thought about Brazil, second in the world in poor distribution of income, where 70% of the families live, at most, on two minimum wages and where 30% of the population vegetates below the poverty line. Not to mention the heritage of slavery, the searing scars on the backs of the local population.

CONCEPTUALIZING

The man is about to

Whos right? Two native speakers, two different views

V: would you say "step in dog poop" or "step on dog poop"? S: would say both, depending on the quantity of the poop. S: if it were a huge pile, then step in S: if it were a few turds, then step on V: if u used a pic of a guy about to step in shit.....what would u tell sts?

V: hahahaha S: i would say step on V: I would never use on V: I would say i stepped in shit S: hahaha

S: but as the expression goes put your foot IN it V: coz it`s soft and your foot goes in S: exactly V: so, which is correct? V: step on a stone

V: step on a box V: step in gum V: in a puddle V: in mud S: as i told you it depends on the quantity IMHO, but the natural tendency is to step in poop

Container, Flat surface or Point?


a room - C the beach FS/P a plate - FS a bowl - C a platter or a tray - FS a roof - FS a river C/FS/P a shelf- FS a cabinet FS/C a bank C/P a company C/P a tree C/P

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Container, Flat Surface or Point?


Christmas - P Weekend FS/P Easter - P The winter, spring, summer, fall - C Sunday - FS Carnival - P A fortnight - C January - C
Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Whats the preposition?


You can buy batteries at/in the corner shop. David is studying at university What's on at the cinema tonight? Is Sam on/in the basketball team? The library is not on this side of the street We sat in the living room and watched a great classic movie.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Whats the preposition?


Mike worked at/in the airport for six years Go back to bed! You should be asleep. David is out. He is not at home The burglar climbed over the fence and into the garden. It's not far. We're getting close to the station

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Whats the preposition?


Jack was leaning on/against the wall I was under the impression that you liked it. You are liable for your son's debts as he is under age My mum went to hospital last week. Traveling in your own car is better than going on foot.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

What's the preposition?


Under the circumstances On average road under repair On/at page 4 (but: open your books to page 4) By heart/At heart On leave Without fail To/For my surprise (For seems more colloquial)
Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Definition

Classification

Complexity

NOUN OR NOUN PHRASE

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Adverbial

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Prepositions

Simple

Complex

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

There are several prepositions that are commonly confused vis--vis usage

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Usage

Rules

Collocations

Temperatures are sure to rise above 35 Celsius today. They live 1.000 meters above sea level. We are now flying over the famous mountain region. Wll I have to always be over what they are doing?

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Much of the area ravaged by the rains is known to be below sea-level. The neighbors below are a noisy bunch..

We are under orders of the Presidents office..


What is the subject currently under discussion?

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Who knows what lies beneath/underneath? I can't find anything underneath/under/beneath all that mess. I come from the land down under.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

There is no difference between one and the other Mastering a language can be the difference between landing a well-paid job, achieving job stability, working in a dead-end job and furthering a career. You can choose between six different toppings. It would seem we have a traitor among us.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

The minister resigned amid/amidst accusations of bribery and corruption The general opinion among/amongst teachers is that small class sizes are important.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Come sit near /close to me (anywhere in the vicinity of) Come sit next to me = Come sit beside me The closer I get to you, the more you make me feel. The new mall is near the old train station

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

That's a big box. I wonder what's inside (it). That's a big box. I wonder what's in it. Are you coming with us to the market? Hop in (the car)! Get inside the house now! You could get shot!

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Is there a post office near here? After the play, we can do some shopping nearby. I'm trying to find a nearby service station.

Could you send this invite out to everyone for me? Thanks so much Could you send this invite out to everyone by the end of the day?

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

The notions of cartoon are important to Elena Sisto, in that images from popular illustration and comics come up in her paintings Dr. Benton claims that breakfast is extremely important for the elderly.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Don't raise your voice at me young man! Throw the voice to me, so that I can hear you sing.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Simple prepositions
Grammaticalized forms e.g. in, by Participles e.g. given, considering Compounds e.g. upon, into, onto, within, notwithstanding Affixation e.g. between, among, afore Loan words e.g. circa, re Adjectives e.g. nearby, nigh Conjunctions e.g. but
Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Please find the aforementioned list in the attached file Not wanting to side with either her father or her mother, she was betwixt and between

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

He climbed upon his horse and rode off into the horizon Upon seeing her (When he saw her) after all these years, he burst into tears Once upon a time = There once was a time (on the occasion of)

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Given the time it will take to thaw we can run off to the store and get the wine. Barring the Supply Manager, everyone seems to be in agreement about the campaign .

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

The trip went smoothly, save the airport delays (but for) Repent for the end is nigh. Vis-- vis the current economic storm, cutbacks will have to be made

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Complex prepositions
Adverb/Preposition + Preposition: along with, as for, away from, out of, up to Verb/Adjective/Conjunction + Preposition: owing to, due to, because of Preposition + Noun + Preposition: by means of, in comparison with, in front of

Translate or Rephrase the sentences below while paying close attention to the words in bold.
Some people are just anti everything. Some people are always the contrary. Is there a doctor aboard (the plane)? Is there a doctor on/in the plane? Who came above you in the test results? Who got better test results than you? The church is situated atop a hill The church is located on the top of a hill He is the best bar none No one comes close to him

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Translate or Rephrase the sentences below while paying close attention to the words in bold.
That's $70, not counting tax Thats $70 without tax She is a kind of student-cum-receptionist. She is a student/receptionist. She doubles as a student and a receptionist. He's gone 50, probably in his early sixties already Hes way past his fifties, probably in his sixties They went on the carefully planned picnic, notwithstanding the rain They went on the carefully planned picnic, rain and all. Looks like the police are finally onto something regarding the murder case. Looks like the police are finally making progress regarding the murder case.
Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Translate or Rephrase the sentences below while paying close attention to the words in bold.
This is way past my comprehension. This is beyond me There were many arguments pending the negotiations There were many issues that depended on the negotiations for a solution. This is hopefully the first step towards a lasting peace This is hopefully the first push for a lasting peace. The problem is unlike any we have encountered before The problem is an unprecedented one. He broke his leg upon getting out of the car He broke his leg as he got out of the car.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Translate or Rephrase the sentences below while paying close attention to the words in bold.

It's a show la CNN: same style, similar content


The show has a CNN type of format (same style, similar content)

Nobody objected apart from the CFO.


Only the CFO objected to it.

You are expected to work strictly as per the law


You should do things by the book

But for you, I'd have been on time


If it hadnt been for you, Id have been on time
Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Grammatical Lexical

Why treat them as semantic units? Incorporation of verb meaning e.g. Up from down Under Idiomatic nature e.g. I'm into you, I'm on the case Lexicalizing nature e.g. The firefighters had some trouble outing the fire.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Why treat them as semantic units? Direct equivalence, e.g. I'm in! Transferred meanings e.g. Are we on for tonight? Possibility of compounding e.g. He was up and about soon after the surgery.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

The underlined prepositions indicate either ending, reducing, improving or solving

I'm taking evening classes to brush up on my Spanish. Turn down the music, will you? It's way too loud. When I figured out how much I owed my best friend, it really hit me. It's taking much longer to do up the house than I expected.
Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

The underlined prepositions indicate either ending, reducing, improving or solving

I was just about to finish the deal with the delegates on the phone when the call was cut off. My dad's got a job now, so now things are probably going to pick up again. The USA has broken off relations with Cuba since the Bay of Pigs incident. We need to sort out this problem soon
Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

You have to get to school by 8:00 a.m. You have until 8:00 a.m. to get to school. (until = no later than)
I am to finish a task by sundown. I can finish a task until sundown.

Preposition or Adverb? The preposition occupies only a pre-object position, as opposed to the adverb:
Pick up my box OR Pick my box up (adverb) Walk up the hill (preposition)

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Preposition or Adverb? Prepositions separate pronoun objects from the verb:


I'm peeling it off (adverb) I stepped over it (preposition)

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Preposition or Adverb?
Adverbials can come between verb and PP (prepositional phrase):
She took off her bandaid quickly (adverb) She jumped quickly off the chair. (preposition)

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Preposition or Adverb?
Only prepositions can be fronted : I picked up my things. (adverb) Up the hill they climbed. (preposition)

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Adverbs can be one word or a phrase that works adverbially. This phrase is usually formed by Preposition + noun phrase (article/adjective + noun)

In English, the same word can function as preposition and adverb, depending on its position in the sentence
Delegates were asked to kindly wait outside the hall before being called. Question: where did they have to wait? Outside the hall

Its 5 p.m. and there are still more than 40 candidates waiting outside. Question: where did they have to wait? Outside

Adverb or preposition?
Have you ever seen a live college basketball game before? ADVERB A sign outside the arena said my two favorite teams were playing inside. PREPOSITION, ADVERB Come along; let's get to our seats before the game. ADVERB, PREPOSITION The teams came out to warm up before the game. ADVERB, PREPOSITION Two aggressive players fouled each other throughout. ADVERB
Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Adverb or preposition?
At half time, one team was ahead by eight points. PREPOSITION A player threw the ball in from the sideline. ADVERB, PREPOSITION We talked around during halftime. ADVERB, PREPOSITION After the game, the winners were given the championship trophy inside the locker room. PREPOSITION, PREPOSITION Despite losing in the playoffs, that team had a winning record for the season. PREPOSITION, PREPOSITION

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Position of prepositions with phrasal verbs Correct or incorrect?


Thieves broke in and got away with over 10 million in jewelry. CORRECT Burglars broke into the house while they were at the opera. CORRECT The bus drew UP at the traffic lights. The committee will draw up a list of demands. CORRECT I've got so much work I'm really falling behind (WITH IT).
Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Dependent prepositions
Like in many languages, the use of a given preposition is determined by other word classes, namely verbs, adjectives and nouns The choice of a given preposition is generally semantically driven, although the relationship between the word and its corresponding preposition may not be clear, e.g. worried about

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Dependent prepositions
Verb

Adverb*

Preposition

Noun

Adjective

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Adjective + preposition
My granddad is very dependent ON my parents. The film is based ON a novel by Virginia Woolf. I know it's rusty and everything, but I'm so attached TO it. Bill is emotionally detached FROM his parents. He hardly chats with them. MacDonald's has become synonymous WITH an unhealthy diet.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Adjective + preposition
The employees kept quiet ABOUT the case of creative accounting that was unearthed last week. You can't say anything to her. She's impervious TO any sort of criticism. The working hours are incompatible WITH family life. His unruly behavior at school is indicative OF a deeper psychological problem. It is the teacher's duty to be concerned WITH/ABOUT the weak students.
Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Forming three-word phrasals


I think we've just run out OF coffee. We will have to get some in the morning. Does anybody feel up TO Mick's party tonight? My boss asked me to stand in FOR him during his week off from the office. Being a father has helped him learn to face up TO his responsibilities.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Forming three-word phrasals


The Chief of Staff has been coming in FOR a shower of criticism for the way he has tried to make little of the accusations against him of fraud and embezzlement. I don't really go in FOR team sports; give me a tennis racket or a pair of trainers any day! The troops plan to pull out OF the occupied territories for economic reasons.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Verb + preposition
The state-funded health service accounts FOR 85% of public spending. In times of trouble, you can always turn TO a friend. His conviction for reckless driving counted AGAINST him when he tried to renew his car insurance. Sometimes it seems almost impossible to keep up WITH the latest news.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

For more on Dependent prepositions click on the signs below

Prepositions in compound adjectives


We had lunch at a DOWN-market restaurant the other day. Not surprisingly, the food was horrendous. Renowned linguist, Noam Chomsky is now a very OUTspoken critic of the government's foreign policies. The army has been accused of using OVERwhelming force to quell the protests. After the corruption scandal that rocked the market, the company now faces a (n) UPhill struggle to avoid further losses.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Prepositions in compound adjectives


I just received a BACKdated pay award, so this month's salary is a little larger than usual. Could you provide some BACKground information on the company? Stop behaving like a (n) OVERgrown boy, act your age! She had the nerve to accuse me of stealing her purse. The very thought is DOWNright outrageous!

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Prepositions in idioms
As mentioned before, several idiomatic expressions are catalogued based on the head preposition e.g. at, in , on It would be best to learn them as chunks, although the semantic content may/may not be evident to or felt by the user

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Use the words in brackets to make idioms for the underlined words
He claimed he hadn't done it ON purpose. We admire her ON account of her intelligence. I don't want you to feel sorry FOR me. If you're IN doubt about what to write, it's best to make notes beforehand.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Use the words in brackets to make idioms for the underlined words
Love letters will never be OUT OF fashion because people will always fall IN love. I know the person BY sight but not BY name. She's working much too hard AT the expense of her health. I wonder if you know what's on at the cinema, BY (any) chance?

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Form idioms with the parts underlined and the preposition "at"
The winners are selected AT random by a computer. It was a wonderful show AT least I enjoyed it. It was a difficult problem and I was AT a loss (as to what to do). I'm sure that our friends will arrive AT any minute/moment AT least I hope so. If you need to stay overnight, please book a hotel room AT our expense.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Form idioms with the parts underlined and the preposition "at"
The hero was rescued AT the last moment. The show closed because it was running AT a loss. We were talking AT cross purposes. It's impossible to get tickets for such a popular show AT the last minute - you need to book AT LEAST six months in advance.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Form idioms with "on to complete the blanks


(At a restaurant) There are so many desserts ON the menu, but I won't have anything because I'm ON a diet. I would like to thank you ON behalf of the entire sector and the board. He promised to help me ON the condition that I returned the favor some other time. It was a long drive so we stopped ON the way to have a meal.
Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Form idioms with the preposition "on to complete the blanks.


How much does a bus driver earn ON average in your country? Did you see the news ON TV last night? Trains leave every hour ON the hour. It takes much longer to get there ON FOOT (BY FOOT) than by bus. No, I don't dislike Chaplin at all; ON the contrary, I admire him greatly.

Traduo de Ingls/Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias Gramtica II

Go to the icon below to read more about idioms that begin with prepositions

Coordinating conjunctions Discourse Markers Subordinating conjunctions

Connectors

Phrase linkers

What they do
Combine clauses or connect sentence elements Indicate a particular meaning relationship between two or more clauses

There are two types of sentences


Compound sentences:
Using conjunctions Using connectors

Complex sentences:
Using subordinators

Coordinating conjunctions For (Reason) And (Addition) Nor (Negative Addition) But (Contrast, concession) Or (Choice) Yet (Contrast with unexpected result) So (Result or consequence)
Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramtica II

C.C. join two independent clauses, separated by comma


Independent clause , I have been to Thailand, Coordinating conjunction BUT independent clause I havent been to the Philippines

A look at Correlative Conjunctions


Both . . . and . . . Either . . . or . . . Neither . . . nor . . . Hardly . . . when . . . If . . . then . . . No sooner . . . than . . . Not only . . . but also Rather than why Scarcely . . . when What with . . . and Whether . . . or

Hardly had the men started training than they were sent out to fight. Hardly had she opened her mailbox when she got a notification of the message

No sooner had I walked the door had than phone rang.

Not only can he make people laugh but can also do very dramatic roles.

Rather than criticizing your husband, why not find out if something is the matter.

What with one thing and another, I didnt go to bed till after two in the morning.

He was determined both to beat the record and to win over the crowd.

We had scarcely driven 5 kilometers when the car broke down.

Connectors (adverbs, conjunctive adverbs) join independent clauses with a semi-colon or a period.
Independent clause ; We were late for the meeting; Connector independent clause We had to wait in the adjoining room

THEREFORE,

Connectors (adverbs, conjunctive adverbs) join independent clauses with a semi-colon or a period.

Independent clause ; We were late for the meeting.

Connector

THEREFORE,

independent clause We had to wait in the adjoining room

Subordinating conjunctions join a dependent clause to an independent clause.

Independent clause ; i left early,

Subordinating conjunction BECAUSE

independent clause I had an interview the next day

Subordinating conjunctions join a dependent clause to an independent clause.

Independent clause ; i left early,

Subordinating conjunction BECAUSE

independent clause I had an interview the next day

Phrase linkers (prepositions or Adjective + prepositional phrases) are transtitions at the beginning of sentences.

Prepositional phrase

Indepdendent clause

In contrast to eastern Prepositional Independent western societies phrase clause societies, value community.

For more on discourse markers and their position in sentences, functions etc., see the links below

Correct the sentences below in accordance with punctuation rules for discourse markers

Although he had been an often decorated soldier during World War II and had fought many battles for the losing cause of liberalism in Congress, his memory is not celebrated today.

Coach Espinoza really wants this job with Notre Dame University. She is very excited about returning to the college she graduated from.

Professor Pepin spends a lot of time translating medieval texts on ancient medicine, but he also stays informed about the latest developments in modern asthma treatments.

Perplexed by the rising rates of inflation and alarmed by the decline in major construction projects, foreign investors are looking for more inviting markets.

This is going to be the most difficult exam of your college career, so you had better start studying for it immediately.

Using auxiliaries to avoid repetition


Short answers: Should I revise for the test? I think you should Comments: "I thought the film was wonderful." "I didn't." Subsequent responses: "I wish you'd lock the door when you come in." "But I did!" With more than one auxiliary: "He could have been lying." "Yes, he could/he could have/he could have been."

Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramtica II

Reduced infinitives
To give continuity to thoughts expressed, e.g. "Haven't you done the washing-up?" "No, I'm just about to." To respond politely, e.g. "Are you coming for a walk?" Sorry, but I wont be able to." To comment: She's less moody than she used to be.

Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramtica II

Participles/Relative pronouns/Reduced clauses


I don't believe a word they say, given they never tell the truth. The women hurt in the accident are said to still be in critical condition at the emergency ward.

Some useful resources


Cassell's Students' English Grammar Ways to Grammar Murphy's English Grammar Practical English Usage A Student's Grammar of the English Language The Good Grammar Book Advanced Language Practice

Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramtica II

Online dictionaries
www.macmillandictionary.com www.oup.com/elt/oald www.dictionary.cambridge.org www.answers.com www.dictionary.com www.onelook.com http://englishpage.com/dictionaries/english_dictionary.html http://englishpage.com/prepositions/verb_preposition.html http://englishpage.com/prepositions/phrasaldictionary.html

Ensino de Lngua Inglesa e Novas Tecnologias - Gramtica II

Bibliography 1. BORDET, Lucile & JAMET, Denis. Are English Prepositions grammatical or lexical morphemes? Cercles, Occasional Papers, p.1-26. 2010 2. FEIST, Michele I. The changing shape of prepositional meanings. In: CHAN, JACOB & KAPIA. Proceedings of the 32nd Annual Boston University Conference on Language Development. Boston, 2008 3. GRUBIC, Bob. Those Problematic English Prepositions. Presented at the CFI- Baci Conference, Long Beach, California. November 13, 2004. 4. LITTLEFIELD, Heather. Lexical and Functional Prepositions in Acquisition: Evidence for a hybrid category. Boston University. 2006 5. MARIN, A.M. A Semantic Description of the Preposition. 2010