14 History

Three orders .Temples Parthenon and Acropolis ,Theatres and other building types , Town Planning organically developed . and planned towns

Students to prepare map of present day Europe with their capital and important cities and discuss with NET downloads Comparative chart of three orders Detailed plan Parthenon and

A very brief history of Roman Empire Etruscan and Greek influences on Roman Architecture ,Roman Concrete , Sewers and Aqueducts and bridges Triumphal Arches

Prepare map of Roman Empire . And after split of western & eastern empires comparison with present nations . Prepare one sheets each for every building type with short note about building

Rectangular and round temples . Forums, Basilicas, amphitheatres, Theatres. Thermae, circus .Tombs Town-houses , Palaces Villas and insula

Sem. 5 6 7 8 Sem. 9 10 11 12

Students present Seminars on Greek and Roman Architecture EARLY CHRISTIAN
Development Church from Roman Basilica . Longitudinal and centralised church plan . Cross domed and and cross in square plans Pendentive study of Hagia Sophia other Churches in Constantinople

Prepare sheets for early Churches as above . Prepare comparative block model for Roman Basilica and E.C. Church . Prepare sheets for Byzantine Churches as above . Prepare model for Pendentive

Centralised Byzantine Church plans .



Ancient Greek architecture

The Parthenon under restoration in 2008 The architecture of Ancient Greece is the architecture produced by the Greek-speaking people (Hellenic people) whose culture flourished on the Greek mainland and Peloponnesus, the Aegean Islands, and in colonies in Asia Minor and Italy for a period from about 900 BC until the 1st century AD, with the earliest remaining architectural works dating from around 600 BC.[1] Ancient Greek architecture is best known from its temples, many of which are found throughout the region, mostly as ruins but many substantially intact. The second important type of building that survives all over the Hellenic world is the open-air theatre, with the earliest dating from around 350 BC. Other architectural forms that are still in evidence are the processional gateway (propylon), the public square (agora) surrounded by storied colonnade (stoa), the town council building (bouleuterion), the public monument, the monumental tomb (mausoleum) and the stadium. Ancient Greek architecture is distinguished by its highly formalised characteristics, both of structure and decoration. This is particularly so in the case of temples where each building appears to have been conceived as a sculptural entity within the landscape, most often raised on high ground so that the elegance of its proportions and the effects of light on its surfaces might be viewed from all angles.[2] Nikolaus Pevsner refers to "the plastic shape of the [Greek] temple.....placed before us with a physical presence more intense, more alive than that of any later building".[3] The formal vocabulary of Ancient Greek architecture, in particular the division of architectural style into three defined orders: the Doric Order, the Ionic Order and the Corinthian Order, was to have profound effect on Western architecture of later periods. The architecture of Ancient Rome grew out of that of Greece and maintained its influence in Italy unbroken until the present day. From the Renaissance, revivals of Classicism have kept alive not only the precise forms and ordered details of Greek architecture, but also its concept of architectural beauty based on balance and proportion. The successive styles of Neoclassical architecture and Greek Revival architecture followed and adapted Ancient Greek styles closely.

or surrounding courtyards provided shelter from the sun and from sudden winter storms. curved. both architectural and sculptural. The Mycenaean culture occurred on the Peloponnesus (c. the Minoan and the Mycenaean. Hence temples were placed on hilltops. pale rocky outcrops and seashore. the Hellenic and the Hellenistic. Colonnades encircling buildings.1500–1100 BC) and was quite different in character. Minoan is the name given by modern historians to the people of ancient Crete (c. but also roof tiles and architectural decoration.[7] The Hellenic period commenced circa 900 BC (with substantial works of architecture appearing from about 600 BC). building citadels. 323 BC . History The history of the Ancient Greek civilization is divided into two eras. particularly Paros and Naxos. This led to a lifestyle where many activities took place outdoors.[4] There is an abundance of high quality white marble both on the mainland and islands. and then by the Roman Empire which absorbed much of Greek culture. cast graded shadows and change in colour with the ever-changing light of day. and ended with the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BC. and for their pottery painted with floral and marine motifs. their exteriors designed as a visual focus of gatherings and processions. while theatres were often an enhancement of a naturally occurring sloping site where people could sit.[5] The light of Greece may be another important factor in the development of the particular character of Ancient Greek architecture. The light is often extremely bright. In this characteristic environment. or ornately sculpted to reflect the sun. rather than a containing structure. that adorned Ancient Greek architecture. It was used not only for pottery vessels.AD 30. two civilizations had existed within the region. Influences Geography The mainland and islands of Greece are rocky. During the Hellenistic period. Hellenic culture was spread widely. firstly throughout lands conquered by Alexander. This finely grained material was a major contributing factor to precision of detail. with both the sky and the sea vividly blue. with deeply indented coastline. fortifications and tombs rather than palaces.[5] The gleaming marble surfaces were smooth. The clear light and sharp shadows give a precision to the details of landscape. with major deposits near Athens.[1][8] Prior to the Hellenic era. Limestone was readily available and easily worked. and decorating their pottery with bands of marching soldiers rather 3 . fluted. the Ancient Greek architects constructed buildings that were marked by precision of detail. and rugged mountain ranges with few substantial forests. with both the coldness of winter and the heat of summer tempered by sea breezes. The most freely available building material is stone.[6] The climate of Greece is maritime.[5] Deposits of high quality potter's clay were found throughout Greece and the Islands. This clarity is alternated with periods of haze that varies in colour to the light on it. 2800–1100 BC). known for their elaborate and richly decorated palaces.

Athens. and with it the notion of democracy. The most important deities were: Zeus. goddess of the moon.[1] The first signs of the particular artistic character that defines Ancient Greek architecture are to be seen in the pottery of the Dorian Greeks from the 10th century BC. god of commerce and medicine. as many of the greatest extant works of Ancient Greek sculpture once adorned temples. The decoration is precisely geometric. the supreme god and ruler of the sky.[11] The major development that occurred was in the growing use of the human figure as the major decorative motif. the highest mountain in Greece. Poseidon. god of the sea. the Protogeometric (1100-900 BC). god of fire and metalwork. God of war. and thus often referred to as a Dark Age. the Archaic (700 . its mythology. such as the lost chryselephantine statues of Zeus at the Temple of Zeus at Olympia and Athena at the Parthenon. goddess of wisdom. music and poetry. activities and passions were depicted.[5] 4 . In this cultural diversity. but as its sublime product. and very human behaviour. leaders who rose from the merchant or warrior classes. The towns established by the Dorian people were ruled initially by aristocracy.[14] Religion and philosophy The religion of Ancient Greece was a form of nature worship that grew out of the beliefs of earlier cultures. was influenced by the influx of Ionian people from Asia Minor. maintained a strongly ordered and conservative character. and that of Mycenae because of invasion from Dorian people of the Greek mainland. and Hephaestus. such as Sparta. High Classical and Late Classical. symmetry and balance not apparent in similar pottery from Crete and Mycenae. Some cities. the Geometric (900-700 BC).[9] This led to a period with few remaining signs of culture.[13] and many of the largest recorded statues of the age.[5] The home of the gods was thought to be Olympus. but also in the architecture that was to emerge in the 6th century. The Classical period was marked by a rapid development towards idealised but increasingly lifelike depictions of gods in human form. Already at this period it is created with a sense of proportion. god of the sun. Art The art history of the Hellenic era is generally subdivided into four periods. unlike earlier cultures.[1] The development in the depiction of the human form in pottery was accompanied by a similar development in sculpture. goddess of the earth. and ordered neatly into zones on defined areas of each vessel. Hera. Athena. Athens. Ares. However.[8] The natural elements were personified as gods of completely human form.323 BC)[10] with sculpture being further divided into Severe Classical. The tiny stylised bronzes of the Geometric period gave way to lifesized highly formalised monolithic representation in the Archaic period.500 BC) and the Classical (500 . Aphrodite. Hermes. like that of the Mycenae. goddess of love. These qualities were to manifest themselves not only through a millennium of Greek pottery making. man was no longer perceived as being threatened by nature. reason. his wife and goddess of marriage. and later by “tyrants”.[12] This development had a direct effect on the sculptural decoration of temples. Artemis. the hunt and the wilderness. on the other hand. law. Apollo.than octopus and seaweed. and the increasing surety with which humanity. that of Crete possibly because of volcanic devastation. Both these civilizations came to an end around 1100 BC. Demeter. the art of logic developed. were once housed in them. both over 40 feet high.

[7] The evolution that occurred in architecture was towards public building.[4] Mycenaean art is marked by its circular structures and tapered domes with flat-bedded. was of trabeated form like that of Ancient Greece. challenge. and promoted well-ordered societies and the development of democracy.[8] At the same time. and in turn.[9] The earliest forms of columns in Greece seem to have developed independently. Architectural character Early development There is a clear division between the architecture of the preceding Mycenaean culture and Minoan cultures and that of the Ancient Greeks. and for order and symmetry which is the product of a continual search for perfection. by 600 BC. Their humanist philosophy put mankind at the centre of things. but the columns were of very different form to Doric columns. Ancient Greek domestic architecture centred on open spaces or courtyards surrounded by colonnades. temple architecture. Ancient Greek theatre. applied order and reason to their creations. The Minoan architecture of Crete. was done in community. However.[9] This architectural form did not carry over into the architecture of Ancient Greece. As with Minoan architecture. responds to these challenges with a passion for beauty. logic. the respect for human intellect demanded reason. rather than a simple application of a set of working rules. cantilevered courses. Agora. and in particular. on a base of stone which protected the more vulnerable elements from damp. and promoted a passion for enquiry. the gods were often represented by large statues and it was necessary to provide a building in which each of these could be housed. first and foremost the temple. and problem solving. This form was adapted to the construction of hypostyle halls within the larger temples. 350 BC). It is probable that many early houses had an open porch or "pronaos" above which rose a low pitched gable or pediment. like many other activities. rather than towards grand domestic architecture such as had evolved in Crete.[2] Types of buildings Main articles: Ancient Greek temple. Acropolis. This led to the development of temples.[15] The Ancient Greeks perceived order in the universe. being narrow at the base and splaying upward. the techniques and an understanding of their style being lost when these civilizations fell. Little is known of Mycenaean wooden or domestic architecture and any continuing traditions that may have flowed into the early buildings of the Dorian people. The architecture of the Ancient Greeks.[4] Roofs were probably of thatch with eaves which overhung the permeable walls. The domestic architecture of ancient Greece employed walls of sun dried clay bricks or wooden framework filled with fibrous material such as straw or seaweed covered with clay or plaster.Worship. It employed wooden columns with capitals. and Stoa 5 . but reappeared about 400 BC in the interior of large monumental tombs such as the Lion Tomb at Cnidos (c. in the open.

Remnants of bouleuterion survive at Athens. such as statues. a dressing-room. The bouleuterion was a large public building with a hypostyle hall that served as a court house and as a meeting place for the town council (boule). town planning became an important consideration of Greek builders. The development of regular town plans is associated with Hippodamus of Miletus.The rectangular temple is the most common and best-known form of Greek public architecture. a pupil of Pythagoras. which gives good elevation to virtue and towers over the neighbourhood". and had rows of tiered seating set in a semicircle around the central performance area. The theatre was usually set in a hillside outside the town. The temple did not serve the same function as a modern church. of which examples exist at Olympia. Epidarus and Ephesus. Delphi.[19] The propylon or porch.[17] The reconstructed Stoa of Attalos. toilets and club rooms. '"the site should be a spot seen far and wide. while the Panathinaiko Stadium in 6 . Athens During the late 5th and 4th centuries BC. the Agora.[16] The temple was generally part of a religious precinct known as the acropolis. which served as a store-room. the orchestra. Olympia and Miletus. Towns were also equipped with a public fountain where water could be collected for household use. formed the entrance to temple sanctuaries and other significant sites with the best-surviving example being the Propylaea on the Acropolis of Athens. Behind the orchestra was a low building called the skênê. A number of Greek theatres survive almost intact. These were used for both public meetings as well as dramatic performances. According to Aristotle. Some Greek temples appear to have been oriented astronomically. as well as small temple-like buildings that served as treasuries for specific groups of donors. tholos were also constructed. and as a place for devotees of the god to leave their votive offerings.[2] Small circular temples. helmets and weapons. the best known being at Epidaurus. of which only remnants have survived.[21] Other buildings associated with sports include the hippodrome for horse racing. and the stadium for foot racing.[21] Every Greek town had an open-air theatre. with towns such as Paestum and Priene being laid out with a regular grid of paved streets and an agora or central market place surrounded by a colonnade or stoa. since the altar stood under the open sky in the temenos or sacred precinct. Temples served as the location of a cult image and as a storage place or strong room for the treasury associated with the cult of the god in question. baths. 600 feet in length. by the architect Polykleitos the Younger. and were sited so that they related to each other architecturally. often directly before the temple. the latter having held up to 1200 people.[18][19][20] Public buildings became "dignified and gracious structures". and also as a backdrop to the action taking place in the orchestra.[18] Greek towns of substantial size also had a palaestra or a gymnasium. the social centre for male citizens which included spectator areas. The completely restored Stoa of Attalos can be seen in Athens.

2. lathes or straw and covered with clay daub or plaster. Although the existent buildings of the era are constructed in stone.e. Taenia 13.[21][22] Structure Column and lintel Parts of an Ancient Greek temple of the Doric Order: 1. Gutta 12. Alternately. Regula 11. with vertical posts supporting beams which carried a ridged roof. Tympanum. it is composed of upright beams (posts) supporting horizontal beams (lintels). It is likely that many early houses and temples were constructed with an open porch or "pronaos" above which rose a low pitched gable or pediment. Acroterium. it is clear that the origin of the style lies in simple wooden structures. Triglyph 9. Sima 4. Echinus 17. Metope 10. Cornice 5. or filled with sun dried bricks. the spaces might be filled with rubble. 3. which seats 45. was restored in the 19th century and was used in the 1896.000 people. i. 1906 and 2004 Olympic Games. Stylobate The architecture of Ancient Greece is of a trabeated or "post and lintel" form. Architrave 14. Freize 8. Column 18. Abacus 16. The posts and beams divided the walls into regular compartments which could be left as openings. Mutules 7. Fluting 19. Capital 15.Athens.[7] 7 .

The cornice retains the shape of the beams that would once have supported the wooden roof at each end of the building. Resting on the columns is the architrave made of a series of stone “lintels” that spanned the space between the columns. at least was the interpretation of the historian Pausanias looking at the Temple of Hera at Olympia in the 2nd century AD. but most were less than half this size.[23] Entablature and pediment The columns of a temple support a structure that rises in two main stages. tapering with an outward curve known as “entasis”. being square and called the “abacus”. it is divided into sections called “metopes” which fill the spaces between vertical rectangular blocks called “triglyphs”.[2] The stone columns are made of a series of solid stone cylinders or “drums” that rest on each other without mortar. The columns are wider at the base than at the top. being plain in the Doric Order. In the case of Ionic and Corinthian architecture. but in the Doric Order. generally of three steps. The signs of the original timber nature of the architecture were maintained in the stone buildings. fluted in the Ionic and foliate in the Corinthian. which is generally ornately decorated on its lower edge. of which the upper one which carried the columns was the stylobate. later replaced by the more durable stone temples many of which are still in evidence today. It appears that some of the large temples began as wooden constructions in which the columns were replaced piecemeal as stone became available. Doric and usually Ionic capitals are cut with vertical grooves known as “fluting”. It differs according to the order. on which rests the lintels. the upper. Each column has a capital of two parts. Above the architrave is a second horizontal stage called the “frieze”. but were sometimes centred with a bronze pin. Masonry Every temple rested on a masonry base called the crepidoma. the entablature supports a triangular structure called the “pediment”. such as the Temple of Zeus Olympus and the Olympieion at Athens being well over 300 feet in length. with several. The entablature is the major horizontal structural element supporting the roof and encircling the entire building. and meet each other at a joint directly above the centre of each column.The earliest temples. built to enshrine statues of deities. The frieze is one of the major decorative elements of the building and carries a sculptured relief. The triangular space framed by the cornices is the location of the most significant sculptural decoration on the exterior of the building. It is composed of three parts. Masonry walls were 8 . the entablature and the pediment. the relief decoration runs in a continuous band. This fluting or grooving of the columns is a retention of an element of the original wooden architecture. At the front and rear of each temple. The part of the capital that rises from the column itself is called the “echinus”. The triglyphs are vertically grooved like the Doric columns. and retain the form of the wooden beams that would once have supported the roof. This. The upper band of the entablature is called the “cornice”. were probably of wooden construction.[23] A few of these temples are very large.

openings and roof of Greek temples The Parthenon.employed for temples from about 600 BC onwards. which in a stone building limited the possible width of the opening. shows the common structural features of Ancient Greek architecture: crepidoma. (See Architectural Decoration. pediment. particularly those of columns and parts of the building bearing loads were sometimes fixed in place or reinforced with iron clamps.[7] The blocks were rough hewn and hauled from quarries to be cut and bedded very precisely. columns on the exterior of buildings and carrying stone lintels being closer together than those on the interior. this space contains columns to support the roof. It has been suggested that some temples were lit from openings in the roof.[4] Openings Door and window openings were spanned with a lintel. Masonry of all types was used for Ancient Greek buildings. columns. walls and 9 . which carried wooden lintels. including rubble. and an entablature supported on console brackets.[24] A door of the Ionic Order at the Erechtheion. Roof Further information: List of Greco-Roman roofs The widest span of a temple roof was across the cella. the early builders did not have the concept of the diagonal truss as a stabilising member. It appears that. dowels and rods of wood. although the architecture of Ancient Greece was initially of wooden construction. where the rows of columns supporting the roof the cella rise higher than the outer walls. entablature. In a large building. the architectural form being known as hypostyle.[25] Temples were constructed without windows. but the finest ashlar masonry was usually employed for temple walls. This is evidenced by the nature of temple construction in the 6th century BC. The indication is that initially all the rafters were supported directly by the entablature.5 feet wide at the top). the light to the naos entering through the door. The distance between columns was similarly affected by the nature of the lintel. or internal space.[24][25] Door and window openings narrowed towards the top. unnecessary if roof trusses are employed as an integral part of the wooden roof. (17 feet high and 7. with mortar hardly ever being used. masonry. Blocks. below)[25][26][27] Structure. including mouldings. retains many of its features intact. in regular courses and large sizes to minimise the joints. bronze or iron fixed in lead to minimise corrosion.

with the pan and cover tile forming one piece. They were much larger than modern roof tiles. including Mainland Greece.56 in) wide.[7] Temple plans 10 . 70 cm (27.43 in) long.[30] The earliest finds of roof tiles of the Archaic period in Greece are documented from a very restricted area around Corinth. it has been assumed that the new stone and tile construction also ushered in the end of overhanging eaves in Greek architecture. were strong enough to support the weight of a tiled roof.[31] As a side-effect. With the rise of stone architecture came the appearance of fired ceramic roof tiles.[28][29] Only stone walls. roof tiles were within fifty years in evidence for a large number of sites around the Eastern Mediterranean.57 in) thick and weighing around 30 kg apiece. 3–4 cm (1. These early roof tiles showed an S-shape. as they made the need for an extended roof as rain protection for the mudbrick walls obsolete. but begin to appear in tombs (in a "beehive" or cantilevered form such as used in Mycenaea) and occasionally. Southern and Central Italy. which came into use in Greek architecture only in the 3rd century BC.[31] Spreading rapidly. their introduction has been explained by the fact that their fireproof quality would have given desired protection to the costly temples. being up to 90 cm (35. rather than on a trussed wooden frame.[7] Ancient Greek buildings of timber. Western Asia Minor.[31] Being more expensive and labour-intensive to produce than thatch. The dome and vault never became significant structural features. clay and plaster construction were probably roofed with thatch. where fired tiles began to replace thatched roofs at the temples of Apollo and Poseidon between 700 and 650 BC. as they were to become in Ancient Roman architecture.18–1.[30] Vaults and arches were not generally used.hypostyle. as an external feature. exedrae of voussoired construction from the 5th century BC. which were replacing the earlier mudbrick and wood walls.

[32] The core of the building is a masonry-built "naos" within which was a cella. distyle in antis. pseudodipteral octastyle Most Ancient Greek temples were rectangular. The cella generally had a porch or "pronaos" before it. A number of surviving temple-like structures are circular.Plans of Ancient Greek Temples Top: 1. 9.[32] The temple rises from a stepped base or "stylobate". 3. but the majority. tholos. with some notable exceptions such as the enormous Temple of Zeus Olympus in Athens with a length of nearly 2 1/2 times its width. being over 300 feet long and 150 feet wide. while a few were large. being 30–100 feet long. pseudoperipteral hexastyle. peripteral hexastyle. have three. such as the Temple of Zeus at Olympus. prostyle tetrastyle. 8. 5. have two steps. 2. amphiprostyle tetrastyle. The chambers were lit by 11 . and are referred to as tholos. Early examples. with the exceptional example of the Temple of Apollo at Didyma having six. and were approximately twice as long as they were wide. The iconic Parthenon on the Athenian Acropolis occupies a midpoint at 235 feet long by 109 feet wide. 4. and perhaps a second chamber or "antenaos" serving as a treasury or repository for trophies and gifts. like the Parthenon. a windowless room which housed the statue of the god. which elevated the structure above the ground on which it stood. Bottom: 6. 7. dipteral octastyle. amphidistyle in antis. The majority of Temples were small.

(figure 8. because its encircling colonnade has pseudo columns that are attached to the walls of the naos. Tetrastyle indicates that the columns are four in number. the architects adjusted the plans so that the major lines of any significant building are rarely straight.) [32]   Dipteral decastyle describes the huge temple of Apollo at Didyma.[32] The Temple of Zeus Olympius at Agrigentum.) with ten columns across the entrance front. figure 1. Each temple was defined as being of a particular type.) Heptastyle means that it has seven columns across the entrance front. stood rows of columns. is termed Pseudo-periteral heptastyle.[24] On the stylobate.a single large doorway. and vine tendrils and which were a source of decorative motifs employed by Ancient Greek architects as particularly in evidence in the volutes of capitals of the Ionic and Corinthian Orders.[32] Examples:    Distyle in antis describes a small temple with two columns at the front. 6 and 9.) with eight columns across the front. (figs. with six columns across the front. for the optical illusions that make edges of objects appear concave and for the fact that columns that are viewed against the sky look different to those adjacent that are viewed against a shadowed wall. Athens.) [32] Peripteral hexastyle describes a temple with a single row of peripheral columns around the naos. like the Parthenon. Because of these factors. nautilus shells. fern fronds. (figure 4. often completely surrounding the naos. (figure 7. (figure 7. with two terms: one describing the number of columns across the entrance front. Some rooms appear to have been illuminated by skylights. The architects calculated for perspective. which are set between the projecting walls of the pronaos or porch. (see left.) [32]  Peripteral octastyle describes a temple with a single row of columns around the naos. with the naos surrounded by a double row of columns. (figure 6. The ratio is similar to that of the growth patterns of many spiral forms that occur in nature such as rams' horns. like the Temple of Nemesis at Rhamnus. like the Theseion in Athens. which narrow from 12 .[33] The Ancient Greek architects took a philosophic approach to the rules and proportions. and the other defining their distribution.[32] Proportion and optical illusion The ideal of proportion that was used by Ancient Greek architects in designing temples was not a simple mathematical progression using a square module.[33] The most obvious adjustment is to the profile of columns. like those of the Temple on the Ilissus in Athens.) [32] Amphiprostyle tetrastyle describes a small temple that has columns at both ends which stand clear of the naos. fitted with a wrought iron grill. the so-called Golden mean. The math involved a more complex geometrical progression. The determining factor in the mathematics of any notable work of architecture was its ultimate appearance.

6 inches above the outer corners.[7] These 13 .base to top.[34] Banister Fletcher calculated that the stylobate curves upward so that its centres at either end rise about 2.[3] Helen Gardner refers to its "unsurpassable excellence". Yet. the Temple to the Goddess Athena on the Acropolis in Athens. to be surveyed. The entasis is never sufficiently pronounced as to make the swelling wider than the base. A slightly greater adjustment has been made to the entablature. The growth of the nautilus corresponds to the Golden Mean The Parthenon.6 inches. but gently curved so that each columns appears to have a slight swelling. These shells may have provided inspiration for voluted Ionic capitals. is the epitome of what Nikolaus Pevsner called "the most perfect example ever achieved of architecture finding its fulfilment in bodily beauty". However. studied and emulated by architects of later ages. as Gardner points out. called entasis below the middle. it is controlled by a slight reduction in the rate of decrease of diameter. there is hardly a straight line in the building.3 inches on the longer sides. with those at the corners being out of plumb by about 2. Digram showing the optical corrections made by the architects of the Parthenon A sectioned nautilus shell. the narrowing is not regular.[7] The main lines of the Parthenon are all curved. and 4. The columns at the ends of the building are not vertical but are inclined towards the centre.

[35] Style Orders of Ancient Greek architecture above: Capital of the Ionic Order showing volutes and ornamented echinus left: Architectural elements of the Doric Order showing simple curved echinus of capital 14 .outer columns are both slightly wider than their neighbours and are slightly closer than any of the others.

At the top of the columns. known as "fluting". pediment and the stylobate. the Ionic Order and the Corinthian Order. It was firmly established and well-defined in its characteristics by the time of the building of the Temple of Hera at Olympia. which run the length of the column and are usually 20 in number. of which the echinus is like a circular cushion rising from the top of the column to the square abacus on which rest the lintels. It did not reach a clearly defined form until the mid 5th century BC. The flutes meet at sharp edges called arrises. more refined examples.[36] A refinement of the Doric Column is the entasis.[7] Doric Order The Doric order is recognised by its capital. deeper and with greater curve in later. While the three orders are most easily recognizable by their capitals. the names reflecting their origins. the orders also governed the form. slightly below the narrowest point. It was popularised by the Romans. entablature.[11] The Corinthian Order was a highly decorative variant not developed until the Hellenistic period and retaining many characteristics of the Ionic. Orders Stylistically.[36] Doric columns are almost always cut with grooves. details and relationships of the columns. which prevents an optical illusion of concavity. The echinus appears flat and splayed in early examples.above: Capital of the Corinthian Order showing foliate decoration and vertical volutes. in Asia Minor and the Aegean Islands. c. although sometimes fewer.[2] The different orders were applied to the whole range of buildings and monuments. being favoured by the Greek cites of Ionia. Ancient Greek architecture is divided into three “orders”: the Doric Order. 600 BC. a gentle convex swelling to the profile of the column. and 15 .[23] The early Ionic temples of Asia Minor were particularly ambitious in scale. such as the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus. The Ionic order co-existed with the Doric. The Doric Order developed on mainland Greece and spread to Italy. proportions. and smaller and straight-sided in Hellenistc examples.

The frieze is divided into triglyphs and metopes.[36] The Doric Order The Temple of Hephaestos. while the column height to entablature ratio at the Parthenon is about 3:1. similar to the columnar fluting. Doric conventions of solidity and masculinity dropped away.[36] The columns of an early Doric temple such as the Temple of Apollo at Syracuse. and below them. On this rests the frieze. the frieze and the cornice. as stated elsewhere in this article. further suggesting the wooden nature of the prototype. It is decorated on the underside with projecting blocks. Athens. are a reminder of the timber history of the architectural style. is a well-preserved temple of peripteral hexastyle plan. are small strips that appear to connect the triglyphs to the architrave below. . Doric columns have no bases.[37] By the Early Classical period. one of the major areas of sculptural decoration. At either end of the building the pediment rises from the cornice. Early architectural sculptors found difficulty in creating satisfactory sculptural compositions in the tapering triangular space. Each triglyph has three vertical grooves. The cornice is a narrow jutting band of complex moulding which overhangs and protects the ornamented frieze. with a joint occurring above the centre of each abacus. until a few examples in the Hellenistic period. at the corners of the building. are three horizontal grooves known as the hypotrachelion.[36] The pediment is decorated with figures that are in relief in the earlier examples. framed by moulding of similar form. the triglyphs. simply extending the width of the last two metopes at each end of the building. seemingly connected. and above the centre of each lintel. like the edge of an overhanging wooden-framed roof. mutules. The architrave is composed of the stone lintels which span the space between the columns. but almost freestanding by the time of the Parthenon. the triglyphs do not fall over the centre the column.crossing the terminating arrises. with the decoration of the temple of Zeus at Olympia. with relatively crude details. may have a height to base diameter ratio of only 4:1 and a column height to entablature ratio of 2:1. The Doric entablature is in three parts.[36] A triglyph is located above the centre of each capital. the architrave. (486-460 BC) the sculptors had solved the problem by having a standing central figure framed by rearing 16 .5:1. The ancient architects took a pragmatic approach to the apparent "rules". Sicily. However. with the slender and unfluted columns reaching a height to diameter ratio of 7. During the Hellenistic period. A column height to diameter of 6:1 became more usual.

[38] The columns are fluted with narrow.[38] The architrave of the Ionic Order is sometimes undecorated. along with the bands of dentils. is separated from the other members by rows of small projecting blocks.centaurs and fighting men who are falling. It's designed to be viewed frontally but the capitals at the corners of buildings are modified with an additional scroll so as to appear regular on two adjoining faces. like the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus.[38] The Ionic Order is altogether lighter in appearance than the Doric. a necessity in wooden architecture to spread the load and protect the base of a comparatively thin upright. but more often rises in three outwardly-stepped bands like overlapping timber planks. draped female figures used as supporting members to carry the entablature. giving a thin upright a wider area on which to bear the lintel. separated from the fluted section by a bold moulding.[39] 17 . Likewise. They are referred to as dentils. In the Hellenistic period. while the whole entablature was also much narrower and less heavy than the Doric entablature. about 410 BC. meaning "teeth". There was some variation in the distribution of decoration. the columns always have bases. while at the same time reinforcing the load-bearing strength of the lintel itself. were a feature of the Ionic order. is surmounted by a horizontal band that scrolls under to either side. shallow flutes that do not meet at a sharp edge but have a flat band or fillet between them. the Ionic Order retains signs of having its origins in wooden architecture. notably the Parthenon. with the columns. and from the late Hellenic period stood on a square plinth similar to the abacus. having a 9:1 ratio with the diameter. kneeling and lying in attitudes that fit the size and angle of each part of the space. Sometimes a decorative frieze occurred around the upper part of the naos rather than on the exterior of the building. including base and capital. but their origin is clearly in narrow wooden slats which supported the roof of a timber structure. The base has two convex mouldings called torus. but this was not always the case.[38] Like the Doric Order. The external frieze often contained a continuous band of figurative sculpture or ornament. The horizontal spread of a flat timber plate across the top of a column is a common device in wooden construction. Ionic Order The Ionic Order is recognised by its voluted capital. but decorated with stylised ornament. in which a curved echinus of similar shape to that of the Doric Order.[34] The renowned sculptor Phidias fills the space at the Parthenon (448-432 BC) with a complex array of draped and undraped figures of deities who appear in attitudes of sublime relaxation and elegance. which runs in a continuous band. the capital is rectangular. Some temples. Formalised bands of motifs such as alternating forms known as "egg and dart" were a feature of the Ionic entablatures. The usual number of flutes is twenty-four but there may be as many as forty-four. forming spirals or volutes similar to those of the nautilus shell or ram's horn. These Ionic-style friezes around the naos are sometimes found on Doric buildings.[38] Caryatids. In plan. had friezes of figures around the lower drum of each column. occurring at several buildings including the Siphnian Treasury at Delphi in 525 BC and at the Erechtheion. four-fronted Ionic capitals became common. The frieze.

as at the Temple of Apollo Epicurius at Basae (c. and then on a huge scale at the Temple of Zeus Olympia in Athens.AD 132). which. In 334 BC it appeared as an external feature on the Choragic Monument of Lysicrates in Athens. During the Hellenistic period.[40] The capital was very much deeper than either the Doric or the Ionic capital. who took his inspiration from a basket of offerings that had been placed on a grave.[24][42] From the Late Classical period. the sculptural decoration. (174 BC . were ornamented and in part protected by fired and painted clay revetments in the form of rectangular panels. and was initially of much the same style and proportion. The ratio of capital height to diameter is generally about 1. Many fragments of these have outlived the buildings that they decorated and demonstrate a wealth of formal border designs of geometric scrolls. being shaped like a large krater.[40] The ratio of the column height to diameter is generally 10:1. a frieze of stylised foliage or the ornate sculpture of the pediment. At the corners of pediments they were called acroteria and along the sides of the building. particularly temples. but later of roughly triangular shape with moulded ornament. often palmate.[40] Decoration Architectural ornament Architectural ornament of fired and painted clay Early wooden structures. antefixes.The tall capital combines both semi-naturalistic leaves and highly stylised tendrils forming volutes.[41][42] Ionic cornices were often set with a row of lion's masks.[40] It was popularised by the Romans. Early decorative elements were generally semicircular.[41] With the introduction of stone-built temples.[40] The Corinthian Order was initially used internally. overlapping patterns and foliate motifs. decorating the cornice. The basket had been placed on the root of an acanthus plant which had grown up around it. The clay ornaments were limited to the roof of buildings. Callimarchus of Corinth. It grew directly out of the Ionic in the mid 5th century BC. who added a number of refinements and decorative details. and being ornamented with a double row of acanthus leaves above which rose voluted tendrils. the capital was invented by a bronze founder. Corinthian Order The Corinthian Order does not have its origin in wooden architecture. and ornamental discs. with a flat tile on top to protect the goods. with open mouths that ejected rainwater. the corners and surmounting the pediment.See "Architectural sculpture"[43] In the three orders of Ancient Greek architecture. Corinthian columns were sometimes built without fluting. a bell-shaped mixing bowl.16:1. According to Vitruvius. be it a simple half round astragal. the revetments no longer served a protective purpose and sculptured decoration became more common. but distinguished by its more ornate capitals.450-425 BC). supporting the corners of the abacus. is all 18 . splayed above them. no longer perfectly square. acroteria were sometimes sculptured figures. with the capital taking up more than 1/10 of the height.

Sicily. Late Classical and Hellenistic. and "egg and dart" moulding which alternates ovoid shapes with narrow pointy ones. and the legs in a running or kneeling position. Perseus slaying the Gorgon Medusa. and how it varies depending upon its position and the stresses that action and emotion place upon it. Wider mouldings include one with tongue-like or pointed leaf shapes. including Timotheos. shows.323 BC).[24][41][44] Architectural sculpture Architectural sculpture showed a development from early Archaic examples through Severe Classical. such as that at the Erechtheum. in strong contrast to that of the eastern pediment for its depiction of violent action. the figures of Zeus and the competitors being severe and idealised representations of the human form. in a better preserved state.[45] The Severe Classical style (500 .[1] Remnants of the Archaic architectural sculpture (700 . presiding over a battle of Lapiths and Centaurs. where voluted brackets sometimes occur supporting an ornamental cornice over a door. Strong as the "most powerful piece of illustration" for a hundred years.[46] The shallow reliefs and three-dimensional sculpture which adorned the frieze and pediments. while the frieze shows the Panathenaic procession and ceremonial events that took place every four years to honour the titular Goddess of Athens.[45] A metope from a temple known as "Temple C" at Selinus.450 BC) is represented by the pedimental sculptures of the Temple of Zeus at Olympia. stemming from turned wooden prototypes. 600 BC). In the Doric order. Fragments of the eastern pediment survive. The eastern pediment shows a moment of stillness and "impending drama" before the beginning of a chariot race.500 BC) exist from the early 6th century BC with the earliest surviving pedimental sculpture being remnants of a Gorgon flanked by heraldic panthers from the centre of the pediment of the Artemis Temple of Corfu..essential to the architecture of which it is a part.[48] The names of many famous sculptors are known from the Late Classical period (400 . respectively.[46] The western pediment has Apollo as the central figure.[47] The frieze and remaining figures of the eastern pediment show a profound understanding of the human body. combined with all the essential detail of actual life"..456 BC). with the face and shoulders turned frontally.the most heroic style of art.[24][26][41] A much applied narrow moulding is called "bead and reel" and is symmetrical. At this date images of terrifying monsters have predominance over the emphasis on the human figure that developed with Humanist philosophy. Leochares and Skopas. Benjamin Robert Haydon described the reclining figure of Dionysus as ". are the lifelike products of the High Classical style (450 -400 BC) and were created under the direction of the sculptor Phidias. the metopes and the pediment. of the Parthenon.[41] In later Ionic architecture. The sculpture is always located in several predetermined areas.[37] Both images parallel the stylised depiction of the Gorgons on the black figure name vase decorated by the Nessos painter (c. but their works are known mainly from Roman copies. The Temple of Asclepius at Epidauros had sculpture by Timotheos working with the architect Theodotos.[47] The pedimental sculpture represents the Gods of Olympus. "majestic" and "remote". showing the Sack of Troy.[1] Little architectural sculpture of the period remains intact. there is no variation in its placement. Reliefs never decorate walls in an arbitrary way. E. particularly around doorways. High Classical. Praxiteles. which are grooved and sometimes turned upward at the tip. (470 . The scene 19 .. and described by D. there is greater diversity in the types and numbers of mouldings and decorations.

poised against the wind.3 metres high) of figures in very high relief. 180-160 BC) has a frieze (120 metres long by 2.[43] The acroteria were sculptured by Timotheus. pathos and triumph. the Nike Samothrace which decorated a monument in the shape of a ship being a well known example. which is often emphasised by flowing draperies. The frieze represents the battle for supremacy of Gods and Titans. But the figures are more violent in action. cruelty and lust for conquest.[43] Hellenistic architectural sculpture (323 .31 BC) was to become more flamboyant. the eastern pediment being surmounted by a winged Nike. as with earlier east pediment of the Temple of Zeus at Olympus. and employs many dramatic devices: frenzy. not with a commanding God. the central space taken up.appears to have filled the space with figures carefully arranged to fit the slope and shape available. horror. but with the dynamic figure of Neoptolemos as he seizes the aged king Priam and stabs him. except for that at the centre of the east pediment which is the work of the architect. to convey the sense of conflict. The Pergamon Altar (c. The remaining fragments give the impression of a whole range of human emotions. fear.[49] 20 . The palmate acroteria have been replaced here with small figures. both in the rendering of expression and motion.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.