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Introduction

Introduction toto Maryland’s


Maryland’s
COASTAL HAZARDS
COASTAL HAZARDS
Introduction to Maryland’s
COASTAL HAZARDS
Presentation Overview
• What are coastal
hazards?

• How do coastal
hazards impact people
living or working in
Maryland’s Coastal
Zone?
Introduction to Maryland’s
COASTAL HAZARDS
PRESENTATION GOAL:
To assist you with understanding
Maryland’s coastal hazards and to be
aware of your risk and environmental
and management issues associated with
addressing these events.
WHAT ARE COASTAL HAZARDS

NATURAL and MAN-MADE events that threaten the


health of coastal ecosystems and communities. This
definition includes, but is not limited to, hurricanes,
tsunamis, erosion, oil spills, harmful algal blooms, and
pollution.

This presentation will focus on natural coastal hazards


that occur in Maryland such as:
– storms,
– erosion,
– sea level rise
– coastal flooding/storm surge.
WHERE DO COASTAL HAZARDS
OCCUR

• Ocean front
• In sheltered coastlines like Chesapeake Bay
• Along tributaries and in the Watershed
• All of these areas are part of the Coastal
Zone
THE COASTAL ZONE

Where is the Coastal Zone in Maryland?


THE COASTAL ZONE
In Maryland, the coastal zone includes the area in dark
grey, which has over 7,700 miles of tidal shoreline and
many diverse landscapes.

The Coastal Zone is 16 counties &


Home to 70% of Baltimore City
Maryland’s residents
THE COASTAL ZONE
These diverse landscapes include the…

Low-lying
coastal plain
on the
Eastern
Shore
THE COASTAL ZONE

These diverse landscapes include the…

The
barrier
islands
along the
Atlantic
Ocean and
the
Coastal
Bays
THE COASTAL ZONE
These diverse landscapes include the…

The unconsolidated
(sandy and loose)
consistency of the
sediments along
the Western Side of
the Chesapeake
Bay.
WHY IS MARYLAND VULNERABLE
TO COASTAL HAZARDS?

low-lying topography and soil types


WHY IS MARYLAND VULNERABLE
TO COASTAL HAZARDS?

Due to placing property and lives in


inappropriate areas
TYPES OF
COASTAL HAZARDS
Forces of Nature: Storms
Nature is constantly at
work shaping and
reshaping Earth’s
surface.

Meteorological events,
Hurricane Isabel as it
such as hurricanes and approached landfall at
nor’easters, are Cape Hatteras, NC,
seasonal. 2003
TYPES OF
COASTAL HAZARDS

Forces of Nature: Geological Processes

Geological forces like


waves, erosion and sea
level rise affect our
shorelines on a daily
basis.
TYPES OF
COASTAL HAZARDS
Forces of Nature: Sea Level Rise
The average rate of sea
level rise in Maryland is
between 3-4mm per
year (or 1 foot per
century) a rate nearly
twice the national
average.
Sharps Island Lighthouse – constructed in
1881, once situated on a 900 acre island, now
completely submerged.
COASTAL HAZARDS
TRENDS
Nationally and regionally, more and more
people are moving to our coastal communities:
COASTAL HAZARDS
TRENDS
When people move to
dynamic coastal areas,
the intensive
development we
establish along
coastlines actually
interferes with natural
Ocean City, Maryland
coastal processes.
COASTAL HAZARDS
TRENDS
Interfering with natural coastal processes can
have negative impacts such as:
Increasing
Erosion
Sediment staved shoreline
due to structure placement.
COASTAL HAZARDS
TRENDS
In order to prevent erosion, people build
hard defensive structures:
COASTAL HAZARDS
TRENDS
But they may be helping to accelerate the
erosion hazard or cause the loss of near
shore habitat and beach:

Scour of sediment from


the front of the bulkhead
leads to deepening of
water and loss of
intertidal habitat like
marshes and beaches
COASTAL HAZARDS
TRENDS
Seawalls and bulkheads deflects energy of waves as opposed to
native vegetation which absorbs and buffers the energy.

Baffling by plants & slope Un-baffled wave energy


reduces incoming reflects down & back.
wave energy.
COASTAL HAZARDS
TRENDS
Seawalls and bulkheads deflects energy of waves as opposed to
native vegetation which absorbs and buffers the energy.

Baffling by plants & slope


reduces incoming Bank scour
wave energy.
COASTAL HAZARDS
TRENDS
When people move to
dynamic coastal areas,
the intensive
development we
establish along
coastlines, they
become more
Ocean City, Maryland
vulnerable to storms
and flooding.
COASTAL HAZARDS
TRENDS
Coastal flood events are often devastating to local
community, and regional economy.

Damage to homes at
Chesapeake Beach,
Maryland, caused by
Tropical Storm Isabel
storm surge. Photo
courtesy of Zoe Johnson.
COASTAL HAZARDS
TRENDS
Our most recent coastal flood event occurred in 2003,
when Hurricane Isabel pushed water up the Bay
causing the sea to temporarily rise as much as 10
feet in some places.
COASTAL HAZARDS
TRENDS
The natural rise of the sea throughout time in
response to change in global climate and local
land changes, know as SEA LEVEL RISE, is also
increasing our vulnerability to flooding.

A place that may be


safe to live in now may
become vulnerable to
flooding and erosion in
the future.
COASTAL HAZARDS
TRENDS
Together, storms,
ongoing daily coastal
processes, and sea level
rise result in…

Approximately 69% of
Maryland’s coast is
currently eroding.
Management Responses
So what are the options to address Coastal
Hazards in Maryland?
1)Do nothing/abandon
against a changing
climate and shoreline
environment.

Example: Succumb to nature by


abandon upon losing the
property, allowing the shore to
return to a natural state
Management Responses
So what are the options to address Coastal
Hazards in Maryland?
2) Adapt/Accommodate
to a changing climate
and shoreline
environment
Example: Adjust the design of a
home so it can survive a flood
event such as elevating a
structure
Management Responses
So what are the options to address Coastal
Hazards in Maryland?

3) Retreat from a
change climate and
shoreline environment

Example: Moving the house


farther back on the property
away from the shoreline CTDEP
Management Responses
So what are the options to address Coastal
Hazards in Maryland?

4) Defend against a
change climate and
shoreline environment

Example: build a defensive


structure to address land loss
Management Program
Coastal Zone Management Act (CZMA) works
to address shoreline erosion and coastal
hazards and development in America and some
Island territories.

The philosophy of the CZMA on Coastal Hazards is


simple: Promote Community Resiliency and
Sustainability
Management Program
“It is wise and less costly to be build smart and
with the natural system than to remedy the
problem after development has occurred”

CTDEP
Coastal Zone
Management Program
CZMA IS COASTAL LEGISLATION, but leaves
day-to-day regulating and management decisions
to the State under federally approved coastal
management programs.
Currently, 95,376 national shoreline miles (99.9%)
are managed by the Program. State and federal
coastal zone management efforts are guided
under three major themes:
– Sustainable Coastal Communities,
– Sustainable Coastal Ecosystems, and
– Improved Government Efficiency.
Coastal Zone
Management Program
The CZMP assists with several things to reduce the
impacts of coastal hazards on local communities such
as:
• Mapping & monitoring coastal erosion

• Create setback & permitting systems to limit development in


the most dangerous areas

• Establish plans for rebuilding after disasters

• Develop relocation policies & beach nourishment programs to


help restore the natural protective function of beaches &
dunes
Coastal Zone
Management Program
The CZMP assists with several things to reduce the
impacts of coastal hazards on local communities such
as:
• Establish and protect buffer areas (beaches & wetlands)

• Provide public education on vulnerability

• Coordinate with Agencies that conduct state emergency


preparedness agencies, and

• Work with FEMA assist with hurricane warning systems &


evacuation plans for coastal residents, so that fewer people get
injured.
Maryland Shorelines Online
Coastal
Coastal Hazard
Hazard Web
Web Portal
Portal
You can learn more about coastal hazards and how they
impact people, the land, and biological communities by
using the Maryland Shorelines Online (MSO) web portal

http://shorelines.dnr.state.md.us/
Maryland Shorelines Changes Online
Map Viewer
An interactive
mapping
application is also
available on MSO
allowing users to
access historical
shoreline and
physical data
layers and to
assess shore
erosion trends.

http://shorelines.dnr.state.md.us/launchmapper.asp
Maryland Shorelines Online
Coastal
Coastal Hazard
Hazard Lessons
Lessons
MSO Coastal Hazard Lessons utilizes the interactive
web map viewer to allow students to conduct in-depth
investigations
Maryland
Coastal Hazards Lessons

This conceptual model highlights the focus of the


different Maryland Coastal Hazards Lessons.
Maryland
Coastal Hazards Lessons
Each lesson is represented by its own icon:

Coastal Hazards

Coastal Processes

Human Activities

Weather

Sea Level Rise

Biological Communities
Maryland
Coastal Hazards Lessons
Yet, each lesson concept is interconnected to others:
Maryland
Coastal Hazards Lessons

Weather: seasonal storms, such as hurricanes


and nor’easters.
Maryland
Coastal Hazards Lessons
Coastal Processes: waves, longshore current,
tides, erosion and accretion.
Maryland
Coastal Hazards Lessons

Sea Level Rise: tectonic subsistence (land


sinking, usually due to extraction of ground
water and minerals), and sea level rise.
Maryland
Coastal Hazards Lessons
Human Activities: shoreline development
(buildings, houses, docks, sea walls, rip-rap &
roads), motor boat wakes/waves, filling or loss
of wetlands.
Maryland
Coastal Hazards Lessons

Biological Community: habitat, plants and


animals.
Maryland
Coastal Hazards Lessons
Try out this GIS application and the
Coastal Hazards Lessons

http://shorelines.dnr.state.md.us/launchmapper.asp