1

MA.B.1.3.1

Strand

B

Measurement

Standard

1

The student measures quantities in the real-world and uses the measures to solve problems.

Benchmark

MA.B.1.3.1

The student uses concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding perimeter, area, surface area, circumference, and volume of two- and three-dimensional shapes, including rectangular solids and cylinders. This benchmark also assesses B.1.2.27 and B.2.3.1.8

7

The complete text of Benchmark B.1.2.2 is “[The student] solves real-world problems involving length, weight, perimeter, area, capacity, volume, time, temperature, and angles.” The complete text of Benchmark B.2.3.1 is “[The student] uses direct (measured) and indirect (not measured) measures to compare a given characteristic in either metric or customary units.”

8

83

MA.B.1.3.1 At grade 6, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will solve a problem involving linear measure, weight, capacity, time, temperature, perimeter, area, and volume. Benchmark B.1.2.2 has been included to assess solving problems using the measurement discussed in B.1.3.1. The number of two- or three-dimensional figures assessed in an item should not exceed two. Items involving volume should emphasize meaning, not computation. Items involving area should be limited to triangles, rectangles, and parallelograms. Items involving volume/capacity should be limited to rectangular prisms.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should use graphic models or verbal descriptions of figures. Items should be set in a real-world context. Graphics should be used in at least 70% of these items.

Response Attributes

Not applicable.

84

MA.B.1.3.1 Elena grows flowers that she sells at the farmers’ market on Saturday. Her flower garden is 4 feet wide by 20 feet long.

If Elena buys fencing to enclose her garden, how many feet of fencing will she buy? A. B. ★ C. D. 20 28 48 80

Item Context: Social Studies

85

MA.B.1.3.1

8 inches

5 inches

4 inches

5 inches

2 inches
6 inches

A company introducing a new cereal wants to use one of the two boxes shown. What is the volume in cubic inches of the box that will hold more cereal when full?

/ / /

. . . . .
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86

MA.B.1.3.1 At grade 7, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will solve a problem involving perimeter, area, surface area, circumference, or volume. Items may assess finding linear measure, weight, capacity, time, temperature, perimeter, area, circumference, and the surface area or volume of prisms and cylinders. Benchmark B.1.2.2 has been included to assess solving problems using the measurements described in B.1.3.1. The number of two- or three-dimensional figures assessed in an item should not exceed two. Where possible, items involving circumferences and areas of circles should use numbers compatible with
22 7

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

as a

representation of π even though students may use 3.14 in solving the problem. Items involving π should be multiple-choice. Stimulus Attributes Items should use graphic models or verbal descriptions of figures. Items should be set in a real-world context. Graphics should be used in at least 70% of these items. Items requiring three-dimensional graphics must be realistic and must include verbal descriptions. Response Attributes Not applicable.

87

MA.B.1.3.1 The inside diameter of a basketball hoop is 18 inches. 18 inches

What is the approximate circumference of this basketball hoop in inches? Use 3.14 as an approximation for π. A. ★ B. C. D. 28.26 inches 56.52 inches 113.04 inches 254.34 inches

Item Context: Health/Physical Education

88

MA.B.1.3.1 The Moreland Museum wants to hang a 3-foot by 4-foot rectangular portrait of George Washington in their presidential gallery. Museum rules state that each picture displayed must have at least 3 feet of wall space around each side of it.

3 feet

4 feet What is the minimum wall space, in square feet, required to display the portrait?

/ / /

. . . . .
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89

MA.B.1.3.1 At grade 8, this benchmark will be assessed using GR and SR items. Students will develop and/or apply a procedure or formula to solve and/or explain a problem involving perimeter, area, surface area, circumference, or volume. Items may assess finding linear measure, weight, capacity, time, temperature, perimeter, area, circumference, surface area, and volume. Benchmark B.1.2.2 has been included to assess solving problems using the measurements described in B.1.3.1. Short-response items should use graphic models to derive formulas for surface area and volume of three-dimensional regular shapes, including pyramids, prisms, and cones. The number of two- or three-dimensional figures assessed in an item should not exceed two. Where possible, items involving circumferences and areas of circles should use numbers compatible with
22 7

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

as a

representation of π even though students may use 3.14 in solving the problem. Items involving π should be short-response. Stimulus Attributes Items should use graphic models or verbal descriptions of figures. Items should be set in a real-world context. Graphics should be used in at least 70% of these items. Items requiring three-dimensional graphics must be realistic and must include verbal descriptions. Response Attributes Not applicable.

90

Grade 8 Sample GR Item 1

MA.B.1.3.1 Sachi is building a brick patio and needs to determine its total area. The dimensions of the patio are shown in the diagram below.

11 feet 13 feet

9 feet

16 feet

What is the total area, in square feet, of the patio?

/ / /

. . . . .
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Sample Response: 154 Item Context: Workplace

91

Grade 8 Sample GR Item 2

MA.B.1.3.1 A cylindrical column 12 centimeters in diameter is strengthened by wrapping one steel band around the base of the column, with no overlap. What should be the length of the steel band in centimeters (cm)?

12 cm

/ / /

. . . . .
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Sample Response: 37.68, 37.71, Item Context: Workplace

264 7

92

MA.B.1.3.1 Calvin is preparing a training schedule and needs to determine the distance around the school track. The track coach gave him the drawing below and told him that the track is composed of two straight segments with the ends of the track in the shape of semicircles with a radius of 35 meters.
90 meters

35 meters

35 meters

What is the distance around the track? In the Answer Book, show your work or explain in words how you determined the distance.

Show your work or explain in words how you determined the distance.

Distance __________________ Item Context: Health/Physical Education

93

Grade 8 Correct and Complete Response

MA.B.1.3.1 A correct and complete response includes the distance and valid work or explanation as shown below. • A distance ≈ 400 meters or 399.8 meters or 70π + 180 meters (using 3.14 for π)

AND • Valid work that leads to a correct response (using
22/7 for π):
90 m + 90 m = 180 m
22/7 × 70 = 220 m
220 m + 180 m = 400 m
• OR an explanation similar to the following:
The length of the two straight segments of the track
is 90 m + 90 m = 180 m.
The distance around one end of the track is half the
distance around a circle.
The distance around both ends of the track is the
circumference of a circle.
Scoring Rubric See Appendix D for the Short-Response Scoring Rubric.

94

MA.B.1.3.2

Strand

B

Measurement

Standard

1

The student measures quantities in the real-world and uses the measures to solve problems.

Benchmark

MA.B.1.3.2

The student uses concrete and graphic models to derive formulas for finding rates, distance, time, and angle measures. This benchmark also assesses B.1.2.29 and B.2.3.1.10

9

The complete text of Benchmark B.1.2.2 is “[The student] solves real-world problems involving length, weight, perimeter, area, capacity, volume, time, temperature, and angles.” The complete text of Benchmark B.2.3.1 is “[The student] uses direct (measured) and indirect (not measured) measures to compare a given characteristic in either metric or customary units.”

10

95

MA.B.1.3.2 At grade 6, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will solve a problem involving angle measures. Benchmark B.1.2.2 has been included to assess solving problems for the B.1.3.2 situations. Items may include providing the measures of acute, right, obtuse, and straight angles. Items may include classifications of triangles according to measures of angles. Items assessing the measure of a missing angle should use whole numbers of degrees.

Benchmark Clarification Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Graphics should be used in at least 30% of these items.

Response Attributes Sample GR Item

Not applicable.
What is the measure, in degrees, of angle x?

85o x

60o

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96

MA.B.1.3.2 At grade 7, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will solve a problem involving rate, distance, time, or angle measures. Benchmark B.1.2.2 has been included to assess solving problems for the B.1.3.2 situations. Items assessing the measure of an angle may require students to identify angles using vocabulary, and provide angle measures for corresponding, complementary, supplementary, interior, or exterior angles. Items assessing conversion of hours and minutes should involve only quarter hours.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Graphics should be used in at least 30% of these items.

Response Attributes

Not applicable.

97

Grade 7 Sample MC Item Angle ABD is which type of angle? D

MA.B.1.3.2

A A. B. ★ C. D. acute right obtuse straight

B

C

Item Context: Mathematics

98

MA.B.1.3.2 Henry drives from Ft. Myers to Naples and then takes Alligator Alley to Miami at an average rate of 60 miles per hour. How many hours does it take Henry to drive nonstop from Ft. Myers to Miami?

DRIVING DISTANCES BETWEEN FLORIDA CITIES (MILES) Ft. Myers
77

65

37

Naples
107

105

Ft. Lauderdale
Alliga tor Al ley

22

Miami

/ / /

. . . . .
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Answer: 2.4 Item Context: Social Studies

99

MA.B.1.3.2 At grade 8, this benchmark will be assessed using GR and SR items. Students will develop and/or apply a procedure or formula to solve and/or explain a problem involving rates, distance, time, or angle measures. Benchmark B.1.2.2 has been included to assess solving problems for the B.1.3.2 situations. Items involving rate should not be limited to time/distance problems, but should include other rated measures; e.g., rates of change for temperature as it changes throughout the day, or speed as the rate of change in distance over time, and other derived measures.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Graphics should be used in at least 30% of these items.

Response Attributes Sample GR Item

Not applicable. Under water, a sound wave travels 73,920 feet in 14 seconds. What is the speed of a sound wave in feet per second?

/ / /

. . . . .
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100

MA.B.1.3.2 Luis is designing the floor tile pattern shown in the diagram below.
B A

In the Answer Book, explain in words how you can find the measure of ∠B if the measure of ∠A is 65 degrees. Be sure to include the measure of ∠B in your explanation.

Explain in words.

Item Context: The Arts

Correct and Complete Response

A correct and complete response includes a valid explanation and the correct measure of ∠B as shown below. • An explanation similar to the following: Angles A and B combined form a straight angle, so I subtracted the measure of ∠A from 180º (180 – 65). • OR other valid explanation

AND • Scoring Rubric The measure of ∠B is 115º.

See Appendix D for the Short-Response Scoring Rubric.

101

MA.B.1.3.3

Strand

B

Measurement

Standard

1

The student measures quantities in the real-world and uses the measures to solve problems. The student understands and describes how the change of a figure in such dimensions as length, width, height, or radius affects its other measurements such as perimeter, area, surface area, and volume. This benchmark also assesses C.2.3.1.11

Benchmark

MA.B.1.3.3

11

The complete text of Benchmark C.2.3.1 is “[The student] understands the geometric concepts of symmetry, reflections, congruency, similarity, perpendicularity, parallelism, and transformations, including flips, slides, turns, and enlargements.”

102

MA.B.1.3.3 At grade 6, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will determine the effects of changing dimensions on other measures or solve problems involving the effects of changing dimensions. Items may assess the relationship between the area or perimeter of an original figure and that of a newly created figure, or how perimeter or area is affected by changes in the dimensions of the figure. The changes in dimensions of a figure that are increases should result in similar figures using scale factors that are whole numbers. The changes in dimensions of a figure that are decreases should result in similar figures using scale factors that are commonunit fractions with denominators of 2, 3, or 4.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Items should use only two-dimensional figures. Graphics should be used in at least 50% of these items.

Response Attributes

Not applicable.

103

MA.B.1.3.3 In the diagram below, Figure 1 is a square and Figure 2 is a rectangle. 14 7 Figure 1 7 Figure 2

Based on the diagram, how does the area of Figure 1 compare to the area of Figure 2? A. ★ B. C. D. The area of Figure 1 is twice the area of Figure 2. The area of Figure 1 is one-half the area of the Figure 2. The area of Figure 1 is one-third the area of Figure 2. The area of Figure 1 is one-fourth the area of Figure 2.

Item Context: Mathematics

104

MA.B.1.3.3 Jesse used one-foot square tiles to cover the floor of his 6-footby-6-foot bathroom and wants to use the same tiles in the kitchen. The floor of his kitchen is twice as long and twice as wide as the floor of the bathroom. How many tiles will he need for his kitchen floor?

/ / /

. . . . .
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105

MA.B.1.3.3 At grade 7, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will determine the effects of changing dimensions on other measures or solve problems involving the effects of changing dimensions. Items may assess how a change in a figure’s dimensions affects its perimeter (including circumference), area, surface area, or volume, or how changes in the volume, surface area, area, or perimeter of a figure affect the dimensions of the figure. The changes in dimensions of a figure that are increases should result in similar figures using scale factors that are whole numbers. The changes in dimensions of a figure that are decreases should result in similar figures using scale factors that are commonunit fractions with denominators of 2, 3, or 4. Changes in figures involving volume should be based primarily on rectangular solids.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Items may present two- or three-dimensional figures. Graphics should be used in at least 50% of these items. Items requiring three-dimensional graphics must be realistic and must include verbal descriptions.

Response Attributes

Not applicable.

106

MA.B.1.3.3 Toni has a rectangular vegetable garden that measures 8 feet by 12 feet. She wants to enlarge her garden. If Toni doubles the length and width of her present garden, how will the area of the garden change? A. B. C. ★ D. The area will remain the same. The area will be half as large. The area will be twice as large. The area will be four times as large.

Item Context: Mathematics

107

MA.B.1.3.3 The Gordons decided to enlarge their fish pond. The original pond had a diameter of 7 feet. If the new pond has a diameter of 28 feet, how many times greater than the original will be the circumference of the new pond?

7 feet

28 feet

/ / /

. . . . .
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108

MA.B.1.3.3 At grade 8, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will determine the effects of changing dimensions on other measures or solve problems involving the effects of changing dimensions. Items may assess how a change in a figure’s dimensions affects its perimeter (including circumference), area, surface area, or volume, or how changes in the volume, surface area, area, or perimeter of a figure affect the dimensions of the figure. The changes in dimensions of a figure that are increases should result in similar figures using scale factors that are whole numbers. The changes in dimensions of a figure that are decreases should result in similar figures using scale factors that are common-unit fractions with denominators of 2, 3, or 4. Changes in figures involving volume should be based primarily on rectangular solids.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in a real-world context. Items may present two- or three-dimensional figures. Graphics should be used in at least 50% of these items. Items requiring three-dimensional graphics must be realistic and must include verbal descriptions.

Response Attributes

Not applicable.

109

MA.B.1.3.3 A park sculpture has a base in the shape of a rectangular prism. The sculpture’s base has a volume of 960 cubic inches. An artist is making a model of the sculpture with dimensions half the size of the actual sculpture. What is the volume of the base on the artist’s model? ★ A. B. C. D. 120 cubic inches 240 cubic inches 480 cubic inches 960 cubic inches

Item Context: The Arts

110

MA.B.1.3.3 A rectangular lot on wildlife preserve land has dimensions of 5 miles by 8 miles. If the dimensions of the lot are doubled, by how many times will the area increase?

/ / /

. . . . .
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Sample Response: 4 Item Context: Social Studies

111

MA.B.1.3.4

BENCHMARK MA.B.1.3.4

Strand Standard

B 1

Measurement The student measures quantities in the real-world and uses the measures to solve problems. The student constructs, interprets, and uses scale drawings such as those based on number lines and maps, to solve real-world problems. This benchmark also assesses B.2.3.1.12

Benchmark

MA.B.1.3.4

12

The complete text of Benchmark B.2.3.1 is “[The student] uses direct (measured) and indirect (not measured) measures to compare a given characteristic in either metric or customary units.”

112

MA.B.1.3.4 At grade 6, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will interpret and solve a problem using scale drawings. Items may require students to solve real-world problems, including distance, using a scale drawing. Measurements may be in either metric or customary units. Items should involve interpreting and applying various scales, including those based on number lines, graphs, models, and maps.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in a real-world context. Graphics should be used with at least 70% of these items.

Response Attributes

Not applicable.

113

MA.B.1.3.4 Based on the scale provided, what is the approximate distance in miles from Greenville to Hillsboro?

Hillsboro Hanover

West Lake

Waverly

Greenville

Route 75

Bridgton
Scale in miles

0

15

30

45

A. ★ B. C. D.

15 miles 30 miles 45 miles 60 miles

Item Context: Social Studies

114

MA.B.1.3.4 Based on the scale provided, what is the approximate distance in miles from Greenville to Hillsboro?

Hillsboro Hanover

West Lake

Waverly

Greenville

Route 75

Bridgton
Scale in miles

0

15

30

45

/ / /

. . . . .
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Answer: 30 miles Item Context: Mathematics

115

MA.B.1.3.4 At grade 7, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will interpret and solve a problem using scale drawings. Items may require students to demonstrate knowledge of proportional relationships in scale drawings or solve real-world problems, including distance, using a scale drawing. Measurements may be in either metric or customary units. Items should involve interpreting and applying various scales, including those based on number lines, graphs, models, and maps.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in a real-world context. Graphics should be used with at least 70% of these items.

Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Not applicable. On a trip to France, Henry bought a model of the Eiffel Tower. 1 His model is 9 inches tall. If the scale of the model is inch = 2 55 feet, what is the approximate height of the Eiffel Tower? A. B. C. ★ D. 12 110 119 990 feet feet feet feet

Item Context: Architecture

116

MA.B.1.3.4 In the scale drawing below, the school library has a length of 1 2 inches. 2

SCALE 1 inch = 10 feet 4

2

1 inches 2

What is the actual length, in feet, of the library?

/ / /

. . . . .
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117

MA.B.1.3.4 At grade 8, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will interpret and solve a problem using scale drawings. Items may require students to demonstrate knowledge of proportional relationships in scale drawings or solve real-world problems, including distance, using a scale drawing. Measurements may be in either metric or customary units. Items should involve interpreting and applying various scales including those based on number lines, graphs, models, and maps. Scales should use only rational numbers.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in a real-world context. Graphics should be used in at least 70% of these items.

Response Attributes

Not applicable.

118

MA.B.1.3.4 Hector is going to visit relatives in Bellville this summer. He wants to know how far Bellville is from his home in Aimsworth. He found the map below.

Aimsworth

Bellville

SCALE 1 inch = 10 miles 2 On the map, Hector measured a total of 3 inches from Aimsworth to Bellville. Based on the map scale above, how many miles is it from Aimsworth to Bellville? A. B. C. ★ D. 15 miles 30 miles 50 miles 60 miles

Item Context: Social Studies

119

MA.B.1.3.4 Carmello is making a model of our solar system. He wants his model to look like the one shown below.

Mercury Sun

Venus

Earth

S C A L E 1 centimeter = 6 million miles

The average distance between the orbital paths of Mercury and Venus is approximately 31.2 million miles. According to the scale above, how far apart, in centimeters, should the orbital paths be on the model?

/ / /

. . . . .
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Sample Response: 5.2 Item Context: Science

120

MA.B.2.3.2

Strand

B

Measurement

Standard

2

The student compares, contrasts, and converts within systems of measurement (both standard/nonstandard and metric/customary).

Benchmark

MA.B.2.3.2

The student solves problems involving units of measure and converts answers to a larger or smaller unit within either the metric or customary system.

121

MA.B.2.3.2 At grade 6, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will solve a problem involving conversions to other units. All conversions of units must be within the same system of measurement (metric or customary). Items should involve only one-unit conversions (e.g., converting seconds to hours) and not mixed units (e.g., converting hours and minutes to seconds).

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Items should be set in a real-world context. Not applicable. Tina was making punch for a party. She mixed 7 cups of apple juice, 4 cups of pineapple juice, 8 cups of ginger ale, and 1 cup of lemon juice. How many gallons of punch did she make? ★ A. B. C. D. 1 1 gallons 4 1 gallons 2

2

5 gallons
10 gallons

Item Context: Health/Physical Education

122

MA.B.2.3.2 Carpenters often use a folding ruler to measure distances. A carpenter uses his ruler to measure one wall in the gymnasium to determine how much paint will be needed for a wall mural.

His ruler extends to 96 inches. How many feet long is the ruler?

/ / /

. . . . .
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123

MA.B.2.3.2 At grade 7, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will solve a problem involving conversions to other units. All conversions of units must be within the same system of measurement (metric or customary). Items should involve only one-unit conversions (e.g., converting seconds to hours) and not mixed units (e.g., converting hours and minutes to seconds).

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Items should be set in a real-world context. Not applicable. On a football field, the distance from one goal line to the other is 100 yards. Students must start at one goal line, run to the other goal line, and then run back. They must do this 20 times each day. About how many miles will each student run per day? A. B. ★ C. D. 0.75 miles
1.14 miles
2.27 miles
2.4 miles

Item Context: Health/Physical Education

124

MA.B.2.3.2 3 of 4

Sample GR Item

Kanesha ran in a 5-kilometer race. She only completed the course. How many meters did she run?

/ / /

. . . . .
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Answer: 3,750 Item Context: Health/Physical Education

125

MA.B.2.3.2 At grade 8, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will solve a problem involving conversions to other units. All conversions of units must be within the same system of measurement (metric or customary). Items may involve mixed units within each system, such as converting hours and minutes to seconds.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Items should be set in a real-world context. Not applicable. The round steel rod shown below is 5.75 feet long. If a steelworker cuts the steel rod into 10 equal pieces, approximately how many inches long will each piece be?

A. B. C. ★ D.

0.479 inches 0.575 inches 5.75 inches 6.9 inches

Item Context: Workplace

126

MA.B.2.3.2 The distance from Robert’s house to a boat dock is 425 meters. Robert walks to the dock and back to his house each day. After 5 days, how far, in kilometers, will Robert have walked?

/ / /

. . . . .
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Sample Response: 4.25 Item Context: Mathematics

127