Individual Benchmark Specifications for Grades 6 – 8

This section of the FCAT Mathematics Test Item and Performance Task Specifications describes how the benchmarks are assessed on FCAT. The benchmarks are defined in the Sunshine State Standards at four developmental levels that correspond to the following grade ranges: PreK – 2, 3 – 5, 6 – 8, and 9 – 12. FCAT Mathematics is administered at grades 3 through 10. Two of these grades, 5 and 8, are at the upper end of the developmental range; therefore, all of the benchmarks that could be assessed by the item types for FCAT will be included in the assessment. All of the benchmarks for the 9 – 12 grade range are not included in the assessment because students are tested in grade 10. The criterion used to determine what should be assessed at grade 10 was that the content should be challenging to all tenth-grade students. As a result, a sampling of the Algebra II and Geometry content in the benchmarks is assessed. All of the content included in the benchmarks below the levels of Algebra II and Geometry is assessed.

40

Grades 6-8 BENCHMARK MA.A.1.3.2

MA.A.1.3.2

Strand

A

Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations

Standard

1

The student understands the different ways numbers are represented and used in the real-world.

Benchmark

MA.A.1.3.2

The student understands the relative size of integers, fractions, and decimals; numbers expressed as percents; numbers with exponents; numbers in scientific notation; radicals; absolute value; and ratios.

41

Grade 6 Item Types Benchmark Clarification Content Limits

MA.A.1.3.2 At grade 6, this benchmark will be assessed using MC items. Students will identify, order, and/or compare the relative size of numbers. Items may compare and order fractions, decimals, and common percents. Items may compare smaller or larger numbers, or compare the order of magnitude between numbers. An item may utilize one format or a variety of formats, such as fractions, decimals, and percents.

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Graphics should be used in at least 30% of these items.

Response Attributes

When multiple numbers are compared in the answer choices, only four numbers may be compared. Responses may use numbers, graphic models, number lines, or symbols.

Sample MC Item

Which of the following numbers represents a value greater than 1? A. B. C. ★ D. 1 5 0.75 0.10 3 2

Item Context: Mathematics 42

Grade 7 Item Type Benchmark Clarification

MA.A.1.3.2 At grade 7, this benchmark will be assessed using MC items. Students will identify, order, and/or compare the relative size of numbers. Items may compare and order fractions, decimals, numbers expressed as percents, integers, numbers with exponents, and numbers expressed in scientific notation, including ordering on a number line. Items may compare smaller or larger numbers, or compare the order of magnitude between numbers. An item may utilize one format or a variety of formats, such as fractions, decimals, percents, and scientific notation. Items involving scientific notation should be limited to whole numbers less than one billion.

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Graphics should be used in at least 30% of these items.

Response Attributes

When multiple numbers are compared in the answer choices, only four numbers may be compared. Responses may use numbers, graphic models, number lines, or symbols.

Sample MC Item

Which of the following shows the numbers in order from least to greatest? 20 A. 25%, 0.2, 2.5, 25 20 ★ B. 0.2, 25%, , 2.5 25 20 C. , 25%, 0.2, 2.5 25 20
D. 2.5, , 25%, 0.2
25
Item Context: Mathematics

43

Grade 8 Item Type Benchmark Clarification

MA.A.1.3.2 At grade 8, this benchmark will be assessed using MC items. Students will identify, order, and/or compare the relative size of numbers. Items may compare and order fractions, decimals, and integers; numbers with exponents; numbers expressed as percents, absolute values, and in scientific notation; and radicals and ratios using graphical displays. Items may compare smaller or larger numbers, or compare the order of magnitude between numbers. Square roots must have radicands less than or equal to 100. An item may utilize one format or a variety of formats, such as fractions, decimals, percents, and scientific notation. Items involving scientific notation of whole numbers and decimals should be limited to less than a billion and greater than a billionth. Negative exponents should be used in scientific notation only. The proportion of items for this benchmark that assess radicals and absolute values should be small.

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Graphics should be used in at least 30% of these items.

Response Attributes

When multiple numbers are compared in the answer choices, only four numbers may be compared. Responses may use numbers, graphic models, number lines, or symbols.

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Grade 8 Sample MC Item

MA.A.1.3.2 The coldest temperatures on record for four southern states are -2ºF, -27ºF, -34ºF, and -17º F. Which of the following shows these temperatures in order from least to greatest? A. B. C. D. -2º, -17º, -2º, -27º, -34º, -27º, -34º, -17º, -34º, -34º, -17º, -27º, -27º
-17º
-2º
-2º

Item Context: Science

45

Grades 6-8 BENCHMARK MA.A.1.3.4

MA.A.1.3.4

Strand

A

Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations

Standard

1

The student understands the different ways numbers are represented and used in the real-world.

Benchmark

MA.A.1.3.4

The student understands that numbers can be represented in a variety of equivalent forms, including integers, fractions, decimals, percents, scientific notation, exponents, radicals, and absolute value. This benchmark also assesses A.1.3.11 and A.1.3.3.2

1

The complete text of Benchmark A.1.3.1 is “[The student] associates verbal names, written word names, and standard numerals with integers, fractions, decimals; numbers expressed as percents; numbers with exponents; numbers in scientific notation; radicals; absolute value; and ratios.” The complete text of Benchmark A.1.3.3 is “[The student] understands concrete and symbolic representations of rational numbers and irrational numbers in real-world situations.”

2

46

Grade 6 Item Types

MA.A.1.3.4 At grade 6, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will express numbers in equivalent forms. Items may include the relationships among fractions, decimals, or numbers expressed as percents. The place values of the fractional part of decimal numbers should range from tenths through ten-thousandths. In items that assess the relationships among fractions, decimals, or numbers expressed as percents, a real-world context should be used. Items may contain multiple forms of a given value. Items will not include repeating decimals. Some items should include word names as well as numerals.

Benchmark Clarification Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in a real-world or mathematical context.

Response Attributes

Responses should provide alternate representations of numbers, not factors or expanded forms of numbers. Mrs. Henderson cut her pan of lasagna into 12 equal pieces. 1 Her son ate 3 of the 12 pieces, or of the lasagna. What 4 percent of the lasagna did he eat? ★ A. B. C. D. 25% 30% 40% 70%

Sample MC Item

Item Context: Mathematics

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Grade 6 Sample GR Item

MA.A.1.3.4 Pete kept a weather chart for a science class project. He recorded that it rained on 20% of the 30 days in April. What is another way to express 20%?

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Sample Response:

2
1 , , 0.2, or .2
10 5

Item Context: Science

48

Grade 7 Item Types

MA.A.1.3.4 At grade 7, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will express numbers in equivalent forms. Items may include the relationships among fractions, decimals, or numbers expressed as percents, given a real-world context. The place values of the fractional part of decimal numbers should range from tenths through ten-thousandths. Items may include quantities expressed as fractions, decimals, percent, integers, ratios, and numbers expressed in scientific notation. Items involving scientific notation should be limited to whole numbers less than one billion. Items may contain multiple forms of a given value. Items will not include repeating decimals. Some items should include word names as well as numerals.

Benchmark Clarification Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Items should be set in a real-world context. Not applicable. When Coach Travis held tryouts for the track team, 48 students 3 tried out. Only of the students made the team. What 4 percentage of the students did NOT make the team? ★ A. B. C. D. 25% 34% 75% 76%

Item Context: Health/Physical Education

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Grade 7 Sample GR Item

MA.A.1.3.4 Kim plays forward on her high school basketball team. She is very good at shooting free throws. In the last season she made 80% of her 70 free throw attempts. What fraction represents the percent of free throws Kim made?

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Answer:

4 8
, 5 10

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Grade 8 Item Types

MA.A.1.3.4 At grade 8, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will express numbers in equivalent forms. Items may include the relationships among fractions, decimals, or numbers expressed as percents, given a real-world context. The place values of the fractional part of decimal numbers should range from tenths through ten-thousandths. Items may include simplified expressions using integers, exponents, radicals, and ratios; large and small numbers in scientific and standard notation; or absolute values. Scientific notation of whole numbers and decimals is limited to hundred millions through hundred-millionths. Negative exponents should be used in scientific notation only. Items may contain multiple forms of a given value. Items will not include repeating decimals. The proportion of items for this benchmark that assesses radicals and absolute value should be small. Some items should include word names as well as numerals.

Benchmark Clarification Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in a real-world context. Items may include graphic or numeric representations.

Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Not applicable. In 1992, the Orlando International Airport served approximately 21,000,000 passengers. Which of the following is NOT another way of expressing the number 21,000,000? A. B. C. ★ D. 2.1 × 107 21 × 106 21 million 2.1 million

Item Context: Social Studies 51

Grade 8 Sample GR Item

MA.A.1.3.4 Mr. Link has harvested 27 acres of his 36-acre orange grove, or 27 of the grove. What is another way to express this number? 36

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Sample Responses:

3 9 , , 0.75 4 12

Item Context: Workplace

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Grades 6-8 BENCHMARK MA.A.2.3.1

MA.A.2.3.1

Strand

A

Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations

Standard

2

The student understands the number systems.

Benchmark

MA.A.2.3.1

The student understands and uses exponential and scientific notation.

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Grade 6 Item Types

MA.A.2.3.1 At grade 6, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. A larger proportion of MC items than GR items should be used to assess this benchmark. Students will represent or solve a simple problem using numbers in exponential notation. Items will assess exponents no greater than 3. Some items should include word names as well as numerals.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Items may include graphic or numeric representations. Items may provide expressions of whole numbers in exponential notation or in factored form. Graphics should be used in at least 30% of these items.

Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Not applicable. Which of the following represents 7 squared? A. ★ B. C. D. 7(2) 72 73 27

Item Context: Mathematics

54

Grade 6 Sample GR Item The volume of the cube shown would be 83 units.

MA.A.2.3.1

8 8 8

What is the value of 83?

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Answer: 512 Item Context: Mathematics

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Grade 7 Item Types

MA.A.2.3.1 At grade 7, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. A larger proportion of MC items than GR items should be used to assess this benchmark. Students will represent or solve a simple problem using numbers in exponential and/or scientific notation. Items may provide expressions of whole numbers in exponential and/or scientific notation. Items other than those using scientific notation will use exponents no greater than 5. Items involving scientific notation should be limited to whole numbers less than one billion.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Graphics should be used in at least 30% of these items.

Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Not applicable. Light waves travel at approximately 186,000 miles per second. Which of the following shows this speed in scientific notation? A. B. C. ★ D. 18.60 × 104 1.86 × 106 1860.00 × 102 1.86 × 105

Item Context: Science

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Grade 7 Sample GR Item What is the value of the following expression? 24 – 32

MA.A.2.3.1

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Answer: 7 Item Context: Mathematics

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Grade 8 Item Types

MA.A.2.3.1 At grade 8, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. A larger proportion of MC items than GR items should be used to assess this benchmark. Students will represent or solve a simple problem using numbers in exponential and/or scientific notation. Items may provide expressions of rational numbers in exponential notation, including negative exponents, and/or numerical or algebraic expressions that contain exponential notation. Negative exponents may be used in scientific notation only. Scientific notation of decimal fractions should be limited to hundred-millionths. There is no limit on whole numbers when they are expressed in scientific notation.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Graphics should be used in at least 30% of these items.

Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Not applicable. A space shuttle can travel at a speed of 3 × 107 meters per hour. At this speed, how far will it travel in 24 hours? A. B. C. ★ D. 3.0 × 107 meters 3.0 × 108 meters 7.2 × 107 meters 7.2 × 108 meters

Item Context: Science

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Grade 8 Sample GR Item What is the value of the following expression? 93 – 54

MA.A.2.3.1

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Sample Response: 104 Item Context: Mathematics

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Grades 6-8 BENCHMARK MA.A.3.3.1

MA.A.3.3.1

Strand

A

Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations

Standard

3

The student understands the effects of operations on numbers and the relationships among these operations, selects appropriate operations, and computes for problem solving.

BENCHMARK MA.A.3.3.1

The student understands and explains the effects of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division on whole numbers and fractions, including mixed numbers and decimals, including the inverse relationships of positive and negative numbers. This benchmark also assesses MA.A.3.2.1.3

3

The complete text of Benchmark A.3.2.1 is “[The student] understands and explains the effects of addition, subtraction, and multiplication on whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, and the effects of division on whole numbers, including the inverse relationship of multiplication and division.”

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Grade 6 Item Type Benchmark Clarification

MA.A.3.3.1 At grade 6, this benchmark will be assessed using MC items. Students will recognize the appropriate operation for a stated effect, the effects of operations, and/or the relationships between operations. Items will assess the effects of the four basic operations on whole numbers, fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals, and the use of properties of real numbers (commutative, associative, and distributive properties and inverse operations) to solve problems. Items should include one- and two-digit non-negative numbers, single-digit positive fractions, and/or decimals to the hundredths place. Items should not involve division by a fraction.

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or a mathematical context. Items should not assess abstract constructs. Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context.

Response Attributes

Responses may be represented using numerals, symbols, points on a number line, numerical models, or verbal descriptions. Responses need not be presented in order, especially if this would provide a clue to the correct answer.

Sample MC Item

A rectangular garden is split between two sisters—Pam and Peg. 3 yards 6 yards 4 yards

The long side of the garden is split with 6 yards for Pam and 4 yards for Peg. The garden is 3 yards wide. If (6 + 4) × 3 is one expression for the area of the whole garden, which of the following expressions is also correct? A. ★ B. C. D. 6 + (4 × 3) (3 × 6) + (3 × 4) (6 × 3) + 4 (6 × 3) × 4

Item Context: Mathematics 61

Grade 7 Item Type Benchmark Clarification

MA.A.3.3.1 At grade 7, this benchmark will be assessed using MC items. Students will recognize the appropriate operation for a stated effect, the effects of operations, and/or the relationships between operations. Items will include the effects of the four basic operations on whole numbers, fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals, and the use of properties of real numbers to solve problems (commutative, associative, distributive, identity, equality, inverse, and the inverse relationship of positive and negative numbers). Items should include single-digit positive fractions and/or decimals to the thousandths place only. Items assessing the inverse relationship should be limited to integers.

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Graphics should be used with at least 30% of these items.

Response Attributes

Responses may be represented using numerals, symbols, points on a number line, numerical models, or verbal descriptions. Responses need not be presented in order, especially if this would provide a clue to the correct answer.

Sample MC Item

Which of the following numbers, when multiplied by 3 3 , results in a number greater than ? 4 4 A. B. C. ★ D. 0 1 2 9 10 5 4

Item Context: Mathematics

62

Grade 8 Item Type Benchmark Clarification

MA.A.3.3.1 At grade 8, this benchmark will be assessed using MC items. Students will recognize the appropriate operation for a stated effect, the effects of operations, and/or the relationships between operations. Items will include the effects of the four basic operations on whole numbers, fractions, mixed numbers, and decimals, and the use of properties of real numbers to solve problems (commutative, associative, distributive, identity, equality, and the inverse relationship of rational numbers). Items with fractions are limited to positive, single-digit numerators and denominators and/or decimals not to exceed the thousandths place. Place value of decimals is not to exceed the thousandths place. Items assessing the inverse relationship should be limited to integers.

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in either a real-world or mathematical context. Graphics should be used with 30-60% of these items.

Response Attributes

Responses may be represented using numerals, symbols, points on a number line, numerical models, or verbal descriptions. Responses need not be presented in order, especially if this would provide a clue to the correct answer.

Sample MC Item

When multiplying a whole number greater than 1 by a positive fraction less than 1, the product is which of the following? A. ★ B. C. D. greater than the whole number less than the whole number less than the fraction equal to 1

Item Context: Mathematics

63

Grades 6-8 BENCHMARK MA.A.3.3.2

MA.A.3.3.2

Strand Standard

A 3

Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations The student understands the effects of operations on numbers and the relationships among these operations, selects appropriate operations, and computes for problem solving. The student selects the appropriate operation to solve problems involving addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division of rational numbers, ratios, proportions, and percents, including the appropriate application of the algebraic order of operations.

Benchmark

MA.A.3.3.2

64

Grade 6 Item Types

MA.A.3.3.2 At grade 6, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will simplify mathematical expressions using the correct order of operations or identify the correct order of operations. Expressions may include parentheses, multiplication, division, addition, and/or subtraction. Items should include one- or two-digit whole numbers and exponents up to the third power. In order to focus assessment on the order of operations, items should use numbers that students can solve without a calculator. Items that include selecting the appropriate operation are not assessed with this benchmark, but are assessed by MA.A.3.3.3.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Items should be set in a mathematical context.

Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Not applicable. What is the value of the expression 2 + 5 × 22? ★ A. B. C. D. 22 28 144 196

Item Context: Mathematics

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Grade 6 Sample GR Item What is the value of the expression 6 + 22 × 3?

MA.A.3.3.2

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Answer: 18 Item Context: Mathematics

66

Grade 7 Item Types

MA.A.3.3.2 At grade 7, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will simplify mathematical expressions using the correct order of operations or identify the correct order of operations. Expressions may include parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, and subtraction. Items should include one- or two-digit whole numbers and exponents up to the fifth power. In order to focus the assessment on the order of operations, items should use numbers that students can solve without a calculator. Items that include selecting the appropriate operation are not assessed with this benchmark, but are assessed by MA.A.3.3.3.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Items should be set in a mathematical context. Not applicable. Given the expression 6 + 4 × operations? A. B. C. ★ D. 1 . 2 Add 6 and 4, then multiply by 2. Add 6 and 4, then multiply by Multiply 4 by 2, then add 6. 1 Multiply 4 by , then add 6. 2 1 , what is the correct order of 2

Item Context: Mathematics

67

Grade 7 Sample GR Item What is the value of the expression 2 + 5(10 – 6)?

MA.A.3.3.2

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Answer: 22 Item Context: Mathematics

68

Grade 8 Item Types

MA.A.3.3.2 At grade 8, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will simplify mathematical expressions using the correct order of operations or identify the correct order of operations. Expressions may include parentheses, exponents, multiplication, division, addition, and/or subtraction. Items should include one- or two-digit whole numbers and exponents up to the fifth power. In order to focus the assessment on the order of operations, items should use numbers that students can solve without a calculator. Items that include selecting the appropriate operation are not assessed with this benchmark, but are assessed by MA.A.3.3.3.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Items should be set in a mathematical context. Not applicable. In what order should the operations be performed in the expression below? 4+8÷2×3–1 A. ★ B. C. D. ÷, ÷, ×, +, +, ×, +, ÷, –, +, ÷, ×, × – – –

Item Context: Mathematics

69

Grade 8 Sample GR Item What is the value of the expression below? 3 −1
4 + 8 ÷ 2 × 3

MA.A.3.3.2

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Sample Responses: 0.125,

1 2
, 8 16

Item Context: Mathematics

70

Grades 6-8 BENCHMARK MA.A.3.3.3

MA.A.3.3.3

Strand

A

Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations

Standard

3

The student understands the effects of operations on numbers and the relationships among these operations, selects appropriate operations, and computes for problem solving. The student adds, subtracts, multiplies, and divides whole numbers, decimals, and fractions, including mixed numbers, to solve real-world problems, using appropriate methods of computing, such as mental mathematics, paper and pencil, and calculator.

Benchmark

MA.A.3.3.3

71

Grade 6 Item Types

MA.A.3.3.3 At grade 6, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will solve a single- or multi-step problem using appropriate computations.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Items should involve only whole numbers and decimal numbers. Items may include problems dealing with percents used to find sales tax, discount, and simple interest.

Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Sample MC Item

All items should be set in a real-world context. Not applicable. Christie purchased a sweater at 25% off the original price. The original price was $36.00. What was the sale price of the sweater? A. B. ★ C. D. $ 9.00
$11.00
$27.00
$35.75

Item Context: Mathematics

72

Grade 6 Sample GR Item

MA.A.3.3.3 Marlo had $438.00 in her savings account. The bank paid her 4% simple interest at the end of one year. How much interest, in dollars, was Marlo paid?

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Answer: 17.52 Item Context: Social Studies

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Grade 7 Item Types

MA.A.3.3.3 At grade 7, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will solve a single- or multi-step problem using appropriate computations. Items may include problems dealing with percents used to find sales tax, discount, simple interest, and percent increase or decrease. Answers with percents should not be used with the GR format.

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Sample MC Item

All items should be set in a real-world context. Not applicable. Due to an increase in the cost of building materials, the cost of remodeling a building is now 28% more than its original cost. If the original cost was $5,438, what is the cost, to the nearest dollar, after the increase? A. ★ B. C. D. $19,421 $ 6,961 $ 5,466 $ 1,523

Item Context: Workplace

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Grade 7 Sample GR Item

MA.A.3.3.3 If each day a manatee consumes an amount of food equal to 15% of its body weight, how many kilograms of food would a 450-kilogram manatee eat in a day?

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Answer: 67.5 Item Context: Science

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Grade 8 Item Types

MA.A.3.3.3 At grade 8, this benchmark will be assessed using MC and GR items. Students will solve a single- or multi-step problem using appropriate computations. Items may include problems dealing with percents used to find sales tax, discount, simple interest, and percent increase or decrease. All items should be set in a real-world context. Not applicable. Todd bought a pair of sneakers, originally priced at $64.95 and marked down 15%. The sale price was then further reduced by 10%. How much did Todd pay for the sneakers, including 6% sales tax? A. B. C. ★ D. $48.71 $49.69 $51.64 $52.67

Benchmark Clarification

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Item Context: Mathematics

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Grade 8 Sample GR Item

MA.A.3.3.3 Kirk and his father are on a 200-mile bicycle trip across Florida. They plan to ride for five days. During the first four days, they traveled the following distances: 45.8 miles, 42 miles, 41.5 miles, and 38.4 miles. How many more miles do Kirk and his father have to travel to reach their 200-mile goal?

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Sample Response: 32.3 Item Context: Health/Physical Education

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Grades 6-8 BENCHMARK MA.A.4.3.1

MA.A.4.3.1

Strand

A

Number Sense, Concepts, and Operations

Standard

4

The student uses estimation in problem solving and computation. The student uses estimation strategies to predict results and to check the reasonableness of results. This benchmark also assesses A.4.2.1,4 B.2.3.1,5 and B.3.3.1.6

Benchmark

MA.A.4.3.1

4

The complete text of Benchmark A.4.2.1 is “[The student] uses and justifies different estimation strategies in a realworld problem situation and determines the reasonableness of results of calculations in a given problem situation.” The complete text of Benchmark B.2.3.1 is “[The student] uses direct (measured) and indirect (not measured) measures to compare a given characteristic in either metric or customary units.” The complete text of Benchmark B.3.3.1 is “[The student] solves real-world and mathematical problems involving estimates of measurements including length, time, weight/mass, temperature, money, perimeter, area, and volume, in either customary or metric units.”

5

6

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Grade 6 Item Type Benchmark Clarification Content Limits

MA.A.4.3.1 At grade 6, this benchmark will be assessed using MC items. Students will determine estimates and/or their appropriateness. The data presented to students may be either precise values, a range of values, or a combination of precise values and estimates of other values. Items should be limited to use of whole numbers only.

Stimulus Attributes

Graphics should be used with at least 50% of these items. All items should be set in a real-world context. Item situations should require estimation to find the solution and should not lend themselves to the calculation of an exact amount.

Response Attributes Sample MC Item

Responses should represent estimates and not exact amounts. If ranges are used, they should not overlap. The heaviest morning traffic on Central Parkway lasts from 7:30 to 9:00 o’clock in the morning, Monday through Friday. On Tuesday of last week, the Department of Transportation counted 197 cars on the Central Parkway from 8:00 to 8:15 a.m. Based on Tuesday’s count, which is the best estimate of the number of cars that used Central Parkway from 7:30 to 9:00 a.m. Monday through Friday last week? A. B. C. ★ D. 800 1,000 1,200 6,000

Item Context: Social Studies

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Grade 7 Item Type Benchmark Clarification Content Limits

MA.A.4.3.1 At grade 7, this benchmark will be assessed using MC items. Students will determine estimates and/or their appropriateness. The data presented to students may be either precise values, a range of values, or a combination of precise values and estimates of other values. Graphics should be used with at least 50% of these items. All items should be set in a real-world context. Item situations should require estimation to find the solution and should not lend themselves to the calculation of an exact amount.

Stimulus Attributes

Response Attributes

Responses should represent estimates and not exact amounts. If ranges are used, they should not overlap.

Sample MC Item

A farmer is baling hay. He wants to estimate how many bales he will get from the whole field. He got 27 bales from the corner of the field, as shown below. 27 bales

Hay Field

ESTIMATE the number of bales of hay the farmer would get from the entire field, assuming the amount of hay to be baled is the same across the field. A. B. ★ C. D. 250 bales
600 bales
1,000 bales
1,300 bales

Item Context: Mathematics

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Grade 8 Item Type Benchmark Clarification

MA.A.4.3.1 At grade 8, this benchmark will be assessed using SR items. Students will determine estimates and/or explain estimation strategies or their appropriateness. The data presented to students may be either precise values, a range of values, or a combination of precise values and estimates of other values.

Content Limits

Stimulus Attributes

Graphics should be used with at least 50% of these items. All items should be set in a real-world context. Item situations should require estimation to find the solution and should not lend themselves to the calculation of an exact amount.

Response Attributes

Responses should represent estimates and not exact amounts. If ranges are used, they should not overlap.

Sample SR Item

For the following problem, you will be required to use ESTIMATION strategies. Margo wants to cover the top of her table with a mosaic pattern made of different-colored tiles. The tiles come in boxes that each contain 125 tiles. Margo has determined that Section I of the table top, shown in the drawing below, will require approximately 57 tiles to complete the pattern.

Section I

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Grade 8 Sample SR Item (continued)

MA.A.4.3.1 ESTIMATE the whole number of boxes of tiles Margo should purchase to complete the mosaic design for the entire table top. In the Answer Book, show your work or explain in words how you determined your estimate. Show your work or explain in words. Estimated number of boxes______________________ Item Context: The Arts

In the Answer Book

Correct and Complete Response

A correct and complete response includes an estimate and an explanation or work as shown below. • An estimate of 5 or 6 boxes of tiles AND • An explanation similar to the following: Round the number of tiles in Section I to 55 or 60 and multiply by the total number of sections in the table top (10 to 12 sections is reasonable) to find the estimated number of tiles in the entire table top. Round the number of tiles in one box to 130 (or use 125). Divide the estimated number of tiles in the entire table top by the number of tiles in one box. Round your answer up to the next whole number. • OR valid work that leads to a correct response 60 × 10 600 ÷ 130
4.6 ≈ 5

or

55 × 12 600 ÷125
5.28 ≈ 5

• Scoring Rubric

OR other valid explanation or work.

See Appendix D for the Short-Response Scoring Rubric.

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