Lecture No: 5

Urban Waste-to-Energy by Incineration Process And Energy from Incineration of Wood

5.1. Introduction. One of the most important biomass conversation technologies is incineration (combustion). The following two similar technologies are described in this chapter.

 Waste-to-energy by incineration process.  Wood fired steam thermal power plants and energy technology.

5.2. Application of Incineration Process are: Table 5. 1. Application of Incineration process

Biomass Resource Wood Wood waste Forest matter Dry solid biomass Urban solid waste (Municipal refuse)

Conversion Technology Incineration (Burning)

Products Heat * Steam * Electricity

Applications Co-generation plants, heat steam, electricity for industry and utility  Disposal of urban waste  Energy to urban consumers


Heat * Steam * Electricity

*In cold countries heat is supplied by the utilities for heating the houses. Steam is required for process industries. The other processes of waste to energy and wood to energy are  Production of biogas from waste, by methane fermentation process  Production of wood gas from wood,

 Production of biogas from landfills, etc. These are described in a separate chapters.

5.3.Urban Solid Waste (Municipal Waste, Municipal Refuse)

The number of mega-cities is rapidly increasing in various artsof the world. The domestic waste (Refuse) in these cities is usually sent to landfill sites located far away (50 to 200 km) from the centre of the city. Large cities like Delhi, Bombay have large amount of waste and increasing waste disposal problems. The emerging solution is to produce useful thermal and electrical energy by waste-to-energy plants (WTE) located in

Fig 5.1. Energy routes of urban waste to energy theheart to the city. Such energy plants are rated in MW range (50 to 200 MWe) and serve the following functions Safe and economical disposal of urban waste.  Supply of electrical and thermal energy to the consumers in the city.  Environmental protection from urban waste

WTE plants have been successfully built and or being operated in several mega-cities in the world since 1985 and several such plants are being built during recent years. Composition of Urban Waste. The composition of urban waste depends on the standard of living and style of living of the people. Typical composition of urban waste in Europe is given in Table.5.2. Table 5.2. Typical Composition if Urban Waste in Europe Waste Material Paper Food-rubbish Metal-scrap Glass % 51 20 10 9 Waste Material Plastic, rubber Wood Textile Miscellaneous % 4 2 2 2

The heat content of refuse varies verywidely, sometimes by 125%. The average heat value of the urban waste is only about 50% of that of coal on mass basis. The heat of combustion of urban waste is 5 to 8 MJ/kg and is likely to increase to 1012 MJ/kg. 5.4. Waste-to-Energy Incineration Process The energy route of the waste-to-electrical energy by incineration process is as follows: Biomass energy from nature → Thermal energy from incinerators → Mechanical energy from steam → Electrical energy from generator → Electrical energy to user or grid

5.5. Choice of In-feed, Range and Location of Plants The incineration Process accepts a wide variety of biomass inputs including:  Semi dried wood, trees, tree residues, wood-chips, saw-dust  Semi dried garbage (urban waste)  Semi dried farm waste (dried cow-dung, straw, sugar, bagasse, etc.)  Mixtures of fossil fuels and biomass for higher heat content of the infeed.  Steam is supplied to steam-turbine power plant (50 to 150MW)  Heat (hot water) is supplied for district heating in cold countries.  Steam is supplied to process industry.

Waste Incineration Power Plant is usually located near the source of waste thereby minimizing the cost of fuel transport.

Table 5.3. Locations of Waste-to-Power Plants In Feed Forest Produce  Trees, Tree residue  Wood  Wood waste Sugar bagasse Location of Plant  Forest  Near furniture industry  Near sugar Producing plants Urban waste  In a large city Output  Electric power  Heat/steam for furniture industries  Electric power  Heat, steam for sugar plant  Electric power  Heat and steam for urban consumer

Lecture No: 6 Schematic of a Waste Incineration Energy plant - Furnace and boiler in waste incineration plant 6.1. Waste Incineration Process The waste incineration plant has following process-sequence. (Fig.6.1)

Fig 6.1. Waste to energy by Incineration Process 1. Receiving and storing of dry biomass and preparation of Refuse Derived fuel (RDF) 2. Shredding ( Making pieces of about 2.5 cm dia) 3. Air Classification: Passing air stream for segregation of Refuse Derived fuel ( lighter pieces and non-combustible heavier matter (metal, glass pieces). These are reclaimed and recycled. 4. Combustion of Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) is the furnace to produce steam in boiler from feed water. 5. Steam turbine drives rotor of synchronous generator to produce electrical energy. 6. Electrical power is supplied to the network. 7. Flue gases are passed through Electrostatic Precipitators for removal of particulate.

Chemical treatment plant and scrubber for removal of CO, NOx, SOx. Heat is recovered from flue gas by heat Recovery Steam Generator (HRSG). The recovered heat is used for heating feed water. The ash derived from furnace is sent ot special landfills for disposal. 6.2. Schematic of a Waste Incineration Energy plant The schematic diagram of the entire process is shown in Fig. 6.2 (a)

Fig 6.2 a. Schematic of a Waste to Energy plant for urban waste incineration 1. 2. 3. 4. Furnace Cum Biler Heat Recovery Steam Generator Stack (Chimney). Flue gases flow through (3’) Steam turbine Electro Static Separator Bag Filter Scrubber, Chemical Treatment Plant 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Electrical Generator Steam condenser Cooling Tower Cooling water loop Feed Water pump Stack (Chimney)for exhaust gases

Urban Refuse may be treated in a waste treatment plant before dispatching it to the power plant. Solid, Treated Dry biomass (Wood, Urban Waste, Agricultural or Aquatic Waste) is received and stored (1) The Shredder (2) makes small pieces of the raw biomass. The air classifier (3) has flowing air which separates dry light fuel pieces from heavy metal/glass and other by strong air stream. (Horizontal or vertical). The lighter fuel pieces are sent to the furnace (5). The heavy metal pieces, glass pieces etc. are sent to material recovery chamber. The furnace (5) burns the dry shredded biomass and the boiler (6) produces steam. The superheated steam (B) is supplied to the steam generator (13). The synchronous generator (14) produces electrical energy from mechanical shaft energy. Flue glasses (C) from the furnace are passed through Heat Recovery Steam Generator (7). Electrostatic precipitator (8) and filters for removal of particulates (D). Scrubber & Chemical treatment plant (9) for removal of SOx and NOx, Induced Draft Fan (10) sends the cleared exhaust gases through the stack (11) to the external atmosphere (E). Steam from turbines (13) is condensed in condenser (12) and is re-cycled through the boiler (6). 6.3. Furnace and boiler in waste incineration plant Fig.6.2 (b) illustrates the furnace-cum-boiler. Municipal ( Domestic) waste is collected and fed into the hopper (1).

Fig.6.2.b. Furnace cum boiler and accessories in an Urban waste to energy plant


Feed Hopper for dry, selected, shredded waste

2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Ran feeder (feeds the fuel to 3) Incineration grate Slag prevention system Forced draft system for air Secondary air system Ignition and auxiliary firing system Boiler plant Ash Conveyor

It is burnt in grate (3). Forced air draft (5) from bottom of grate (3) helps in combustion. Firing is initiated and sustained of auxiliary oil fired burners (7). Particulars of combustion products are collected from the gases by electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters and dumped into ash-conveyors (9). Fuel gases are cleared by SOx, NOx, CO removal system and let into atmospheric via a stack. Waste incineration Plants provide solution to utilize domestic waste, municipal waste and produce useful energy. The plants are usually located within large cities so that transportation of waste is minimized. Another method is obtain biogas from Wasteland fills and use the gas as fuel.

Lecture No: 7

Electrical Scheme of Urban Waste-to-Energy Plant

The electrical power generated by the synchronous generators in the waste-to-energy electric power plant is supplied to the local distribution system or the local consumer (e.g. a sugar factory). The electrical system comprises of. ---- Main electric circuit equipment through which the electric power flows from the generator flows to the load. This circuit is at higher voltage (3.3 kV, 6.6 kV, 11 kV). ---- Auxiliary electric power circuits for feeding electric power in generator auxiliaries, boilers auxiliaries, station auxiliaries etc. These circuits are at high, medium and low voltages. ----- Auxiliary electric control and protection circuits. These are at low AC and DC voltages. Table 7.1 Main Technical Data of an Urban Waste-to-Energy Plant at Newstadf, Germany Furnace, Number of furnace Incineration capacity Grate width Grate area Grate drive Range of lower heating value of Refusal Fuel Combustion Air System, System Steam capacity Steam pressure+ Steam temperature at outlet Boiler feed inlet water temperature Boiler design pressure Boiler cleaning Fuel gas cleaning process Cleaning capacity Turbine Inlet steam Output (nominal) 1 8000kg/hour 3,6m 30m2 Hydraulic, stepless 6.6 to 15 MJ/kg Integrated two-bars corner tube boiler 26 t/h 42 bar 420°C 130°C 55 bar rapping Ciba-Geigy/Von roll 66000 Nm3/h 40 bar, 400°C 5.3 MW 25 t/h

Steam throughout Exhaust steam pressure Speed of rotor Generator, Nominal power rating Power factor Nominal voltage Frequency Shaft speed Main transformer, Nominal power Voltage ratio Cooling (Oil natural, Air natural) Emergency diesel generator set, Nominal output Nominal voltage Closed Circuit Cooling Water Plant, Flow rate Heat exchanged

0.12 bar 10400 rev/min 6300 KVA 0.8 11 KV 50 Hz 1500 rpm 5000 KVA 11 kv/30 kv ONAM 350 kVA 0.4 kV 150 m3/hour 3GJ/hour

Table 7.2 Comparison of various Renewable Resources for Producing Electrical Energy. (Considering favorable location only)

Renewable Energy Source Biomass * Solar thermal Solar PV Wind Geothermal

Cost per kWh of Electrical Energy Present Mid-range Long-Term (1991) 5¢** 10¢ 35¢ 8¢ 6¢ (1995-2000) 5¢ 8¢ 15¢ 5¢ 6¢ (Beyond 2000) 4¢ 7¢ 6¢ 3.5¢ 5¢

Note * Requires subsidy for tipping fee. The two main routes include 1. Burning of trees, 2. Burning of urban waste. ** ¢ Cents (American currency, 1 $= ¢)

Fig 7.1. Electrical scheme of a Urban Waste Incineration Power Plant