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PRESENT SIMPLE TENSE

We use present simple: 1. For permanent states, repeated actions and daily routines. He works in a bank. (permanent state) He takes the train to work every morning. (daily routine/repeated actions) 2. For general truths and laws of nature. The sun sets in the west. 3. For timetables (planes, trains, etc) and programmes. The train leaves at 9 oclock tomorrow. The Prime Minister arrives next Saturday. 4. For sports commentaries, reviews and narration. a) Peterson overtakes Williams and wins the race. (sports commentary) b) Mike Dalton plays the part of Macbeth. (review) c) Then the prince gets on his horse and quickly rides away. (narration)

The present simple is used with the following time expressions: usually, often, always, etc., every day/week/month/year, in the morning/afternoon/ evening, at night, at the weekend, on Mondays, etc. It is formed from the short infinitive of the verb (no to) for the 1st person singular and plural, 2nd person singular and plural and 3rd person plural (they); it adds the ending -s or es to the short infinitive of the verb at the 3rd person singular (he, she, it): He sleeps till 9 oclock every morning. She likes tea very much. It eats raw fish.(about an animal). The following categories of verbs add the ending ES at the 3rd person singular: 1) Verbs ending in o: go- he/ she goes; do- he/she does; 2) Verbs ending in -sh: wash-he/she washes; brush-he/she brushes; 3) Verbs ending in ch or tch: teach-he/she teaches; watch-he/she watches;

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4) Verbs ending in ss: miss-he/she misses; dress-he/she dresses; 5) Verbs ending in x: fix-he/she fixes; 6) Verbs ending in y and the y is preceded by a consonant, first transform the y into i and then adds es : cry- he/she cries (el/ea plange) ; try- he/she tries (el/ea incearca) If the y is preceded by a vowel, then the y stays the same and the verb only adds the ending s for the 3rd person singular. Eg. He plays the violin every Music class. She prays to God. John buys fresh bread every morning from the French bakery. INTERROGATIVE FORM: Do/does + subject +verb (infinitive form) ? Do you ask good questions? Does he speak English? (pay attention to the fact that the ending s or es disappears in the 3rd person singular, interrogative form, it is taken over by the auxiliary does). NEGATIVE FORM: I/ you/ we/ they do not/dont ask questions. He/ she does not/ doesnt ask questions.

PRESENT CONTINUOUS TENSE

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We use the present continuous: 1. For actions taking place now, at the moment of speaking. He is giving the baby a bath at the moment. 2. For temporary actions; that is actions that are going on around now, but not at the actual moment of speaking. He usually teaches English, but this year she is teaching Japanese. 3. With adverbs such as: always, constantly, continually, etc. for actions which happen very often, usually to express annoyance, irritation or anger. a) Im always meeting Sara when I go shopping. (action which happens very often) b) Youre constantly interrupting me when Im talking. (expressing annoyance/irritation) 4. For personal plans, things that will happen in the near future: I am leaving tomorrow to the seaside. The present continuous is used with the following time expressions: now, at the moment, at present, these days, still, nowadays, today, tonight, etc. It is formed by: TO BE (present simple) + verb+ -ing Spelling: 1) verbs ending in e lose the final e and then add ing Eg. Come-coming; Exception: be-being; see-seeing 2) verbs ending in consonant- vowel- consonant double the final consonant and then add ing: put- putting; travel- traveling; swim- swimming Eg. The verb to go Affirmative I am going You are going He/she/ it is going We are going You are going Interrogative Am I going? Are you going? Is he/she/it going? Are we going? Are you going? Negative I am not/ Im not going You are/ youre not going He/ she/it is not going We are not going You are not going

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They are going

Are they going?

They are/ theyre not going

PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE TENSE

We use the present perfect: 1. For an action which started in the past and continues up to the present, especially with state verbs such as: be, have, like, know, etc. In this case, we often use for and since. Rachel has had the dog for three years. (She got the dog three years ago and she still has it.) 2. For an action which has recently finished and whose result is visible in the present. She has just washed her hair. (She has now wrapped her hair in a towel, so the action has finished.) 3. For an action which happened at an unstated time in the past. The exact time is not mentioned because it is either unknown or unimportant. The emphasis is placed on the action. The Taylors have bought a sailing boat. (The exact time is unknown or unimportant. What is important is the fact that they now own a sailing boat.) 4. For an action taken place once, never or several times before the moment of speaking. I have never been to an exotic island. He has eaten octopus once. We use the present perfect to announce a piece of news and the past simple or past continuous to give more details about it. The present perfect is used with the following time expressions: for, since, already, yet (in negative sentences), always, just, ever, never, so far, today, this week/month, etc., how long, lately, recently, still (in negations), etc.

It is formed by : The present simple of TO HAVE + verb+ -ed (regular verbs)

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The present simple of TO HAVE + verb (3rd form or past participle in the case of irregular verb) Eg. I have worked/you have worked/ he has worked/ they have worked I have eaten (eat-ate-eaten) Affirmative I have spoken He has spoken Interrogative Have I spoken? Has he spoken? Negative I have not spoken. He has not spoken.

PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS TENSE

We use the present perfect continuous: 1. To put emphasis on the duration of an action which started in the past and continues up to the present, especially with time expressions such as for, since, all morning/day/year, etc. Sam has been talking on the phone for half an hour. (He began talking on the phone half an hour ago and he is still talking.) 2. For an action which started in the past and lasted for some time. The action may have finished or may still be going on. The result of the action is visible in the present. Her feet hurt. She has been walking all morning. (The result of the action is visible in the present her feet hurt.) 3. To express anger, irritation or annoyance. They have been letting the dishes in the basin for days, without washing them!

With the verbs live, work, teach and feel (= have a particular emotion) we can use the present perfect or present perfect continuous with no difference in meaning.

The present perfect continuous is used with the following time expressions: for, since, how long, lately (in ultima vreme), recently.

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It is formed by: the present simple of TO HAVE+ BEEN+ V+ -ing

COMPARATIVE PRESENTATION OF

Past simple The past simple is used for actions which happened in the past and are not related to the present. 1. For an action which happened at a definite time in the past. The time is stated, already known or implied. Simon Cook painted his first picture in 1980. (When? In 1980. The time is stated.) 2. For an action which began and finished in the past. 3. For an action with happened in the past and cannot be repeated. a) Mike won more than twenty medals when he was an athlete. (He is no longer an athlete. He cannot win another medal.) b) I once spoke to Frank Sinatra. (He is no longer alive. I wont speak to him again.) 4. For an action which happened within a specific time period which is over at the moment of speaking. I wrote three letters this morning. (The time period is over. It is evening or night now.)

Present perfect The present perfect is used for actions with happen in the past and are related to the present. 1. For an action which happened at an unstated time in the past. The exact time is either unknown or unimportant, and therefore it is not mentioned or implied. Simon Cook has painted a lot of pictures. (When? We do not know. The exact time is not mentioned or implied.) 2. For an action which started in the past and continues up to the present. 3. For an action which happened in the past and may be repeated. a) Ben is an athlete. He has won more than ten medals. (He is still an athlete. He may win some more medals.) b) Ive spoken to Celine Dion. (She is still alive. I may speak to her again.) 4. For an action which happened within a specific time period which is not over at the moment of speaking.

We use the past simple to talk about actions which were performed by people who are no longer alive, even if the time is not started. Charles Dickens wrote Oliver Twist.

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Past Simple We use the past simple: 1. For an action witch happened at a definite time in the past. The time is stated, already known or implied. The went camping by the lake last month. (When did they go camping? Last month. The time is stated.) 2. For actions witch happened immediately one after the other in the past. First she paid the driver, then she got out of the taxi. The past simple is used with the following time expressions: yesterday, then, when, How long ago ?, last night/week/month/year/Tuesday, etc., three days/ weeks, etc. ago, in 1997, etc.

Past Continuous We use past continuous: 1. For an action which was in progress at a stated time in the past. We do not mention when the action started or finished. At seven oclock yesterday evening they were having dinner. (We do not know when they started or finished their dinner.) 2. For an action which was in progress when another action interrupted it. We use the past continuous for the action in progress (longer action) and the action simple for the action which interrupted it (shorter action). He was walking down the street when he ran into an old friend. 3. For two or more simultaneous past actions. She was talking on her mobile phone while she was driving to work. 4. To describe the atmosphere, setting, etc. in the introduction we describe the main events. One beautiful autumn afternoon, Ben was strolling down a quiet country lane. The birds were singing and the leaves were rustling in the breeze. The past continuous is used with the following time expressions: while, when, as, all morning/evening/day etc.

Past Perfect We use the past perfect: 1. For an action which happened before another past action or

Past Perfect Continuous 1. To put emphasis on the duration of an action which started an finished in the past before another past action or a stated time

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before a state time in the past. She had finished work when she met her friends for coffee. (She finished work first and then she met her friends.) 2. For an action which finished in the past and whose result was visible in the past. He was happy. He had signed an important contact. (The action finished in the past and its result was visible in the past, too.) The past perfect is the past equivalent of the present perfect. The past perfect is used with the following time expressions: before, after, already, just, for, since, till/until, when, by, by the time, never, etc.

in the past, usually with since or for. They had been looking for a house for months before they found one they liked. 2. For an action which lasted for some time in the past and whose result was visible in the past. Last Friday Ron had to fly to New York. His flight was delayed. He was annoyed. He had been waiting at the airport for three hours. (He waited at the airport for three hours and the result of the action was visible in the past, too.) The past perfect continuous is the past equivalent of the present perfect continuous.

The past perfect continuous is used with the following time expressions: for, since, how long, before, until, etc.

WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE

Future Simple We use the future simple:

Future Continuous We use the future continuous:

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1. In predictions about the future usually with the verbs think, believe, expect, etc., the expressions be sure, be afraid, etc., and the adverbs probably, perhaps, certainly, etc. 2. For on-the-sport decisions. 3. For promises (usually with the verbs promise, swear, guarantee, etc.), threats, warnings, requests, hopes (usually with the verb hope) and offers. 4. For actions/events/situations which will definitely happen in the future and which we cannot control. The temperature will reach 400C tomorrow.

1. For an action which will be in progress at a stated future time. 2. For an action which will definitely in the future as the result of a routine or arrangement. 3. When we ask politely about someones plans for the near future (what we want to know is if our wishes fit in with their plans.)

The future simple and be going to are used with the following time expressions: tomorrow, the day after tomorrow, tonight, soon, next week/month/year, in a week/month/year, in two/three days/weeks, etc.

Future Perfect We use the future perfect: For an action which will be finished before a stated future time. She will have delivered all the newspapers by 8 oclock. The future perfect is used with the following time expressions: before, by, by then, by the time, until/till. Until/till are only used in negative sentences.

Future Perfect Continuous We use the future perfect continuous: To emphasis the duration of an action up to a certain time in the future. By the end of next month, she will have been teaching for twenty years. The future perfect continuous is used with: by for.

After the time expressions by the time, until, before, we use the present simple because they introduce time clauses. The future perfect and the future perfect continuous
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may come either before or after the time clauses.

We can use the future simple, future continuous or future perfect to make a prediction about the present or past, that is to say what we believe may be happening or have happened.

Present Continuous We use the present simple or present perfect, and not future forms, after words and expressions such as while, before, after, until/till, as, unless, when, whenever, if, suppose/supposing, once, as soon as, as long as, by the time, in case, on condition that, etc.

We use future forms: a) With when, if it is used as a question word. When it is used as a time word we use the present simple. b) With if (= whether) when it is used after expressions which show ignorance, uncertainty, etc. such as I dont know, I wonder, I doubt, etc.

COUNTABLE / UNCOUNTABLE NOUNS

Nouns can be countable or uncountable. Countable nouns are nouns which we can count. They have singular and plural forms.

The plural is formed as follows: Regular Plurals Irregular Plurals

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jacket watch

jackets watches But But But radio radios toy toys cliff cliffs

child man

children men

mouse mice sheep ox deer fish louse sheep oxen deer fish lice

tomato tomatoes baby leaf babies leaves

woman women foot tooth goose feet teeth geese

Uncountable nouns are nouns which we cannot count. They do not have different plural forms. Uncountable nouns include: spaghetti, yoghurt, cheese, flour, butter, meat, etc. water, coffee, soda, lemonade, oil, petrol, tea, etc. silver, wood, crystal, plastic, porcelain, etc. freedom, love, justice, beauty, help, education, knowledge, etc. news, advice, information, weather, furniture, luggage, baggage, hair, accommodation, behaviour, equipment, fun, research, rubbish, litter, etc

many types of food: liquids: materials: abstract nouns: others:

Countable nouns: can take singular or plural verbs. always go with a/an/the/my, etc. in the singular can be used alone or with some/any/many/few in the plural.

Uncountable nouns: always take singular verbs. do not go with a/an/one, two, etc. can be used alone or with some/any/much/little/the/my, etc.

NOTE: We can use a/an, one/two, etc. with uncountable nouns such as coffee, tea, lemonade, etc. when we are referring to a cup, glass, bottle, etc. of a certain liquid.

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SINGULAR / PLURAL VERB FORMS We use singular forms with: nouns which end in -ics such as athletics, economics, electronics, gymnastics, mathematics (Maths), physics, politics, etc. nouns which describe illnesses (flu, pneumonia, etc.), including those which end in s (measles, mumps, etc.). plural nouns when we talk about an amount of money, a time period, distance, weight, etc. group nouns such as family, team, group, crowd, class, company and government, when we mean the group as a unit. But we use plural verbs when we mean the individuals that make up the group.

We use plural forms with: the nouns people, police, clothes and stairs. nouns which refer to objects that consist of two parts, such as trousers, shorts, shoes, gloves, pyjamas, tights, glasses, earrings, socks, scissors, etc. We do not use a/an or a number with these words. We use the phrase pair of... instead.

ADJECTIVES Adjectives describe nouns. They have the same form in the singular and plural. Adjectives go: a) before nouns; b) after the verbs: be, look, smell, sound, feel, taste, seem, appear, become, get, stay, etc.

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There are opinion adjectives and fact adjectives. Opinion adjectives such as smart, bad, etc. show what a person thinks of somebody or something. Fact adjectives such as short, big, old, etc. give us factual information about age, size, colour, origin, material, etc.

ORDER OF ADJECTIVES Size a big Opinion adjectives go before fact adjectives. When there are two or more fact adjectives in a sentence, they usually go in the following order: Age one Shape round Color white Origin French Material china Noun plate

We do not usually use a long list of adjectives before a single noun. A noun is usually described by one, two or three adjectives at the most.

ADVERBS Adverbs describe verbs, adjectives or other adverbs. An adverb can be one word (slowly) or a phrase (in the street). Adverbs can describe manner (how), place (where), time (when), frequency (how often), degree (to what extent), etc. Adverbs usually go after verbs. They can also go before verbs (adverbs of frequency). Adverbs go before adjectives, other adverbs and past participles. Formation of Adverbs We usually form an adverb by adding -ly to the adjective. Adjectives ending in -le drop the -e and take -y. Adjectives ending in consonant + y drop the -y and take -ily. Adjectives ending in -I take -ly. Adjectives ending in -ic usually take -ally. Some adverbs have either a totally different form or the same form as the adjective.

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Adjective good Fast hard early late

Adverb well fast hard early late

Order of Adverbs Adverbs of frequency go after auxiliary verbs and the verb to be, but before main verbs. Adverbs of manner go before the main verb, after the auxiliary or at the end of the sentence. Adverbs of place and time usually go at the end of the sentence. Adverbs of time such as soon, now and then, go before the main verb, but after the auxiliary verb or the verb to be. We can put an adverb at the beginning of a sentence if we want to emphasise it. When there are two or more adverbs in the same sentence, they usually come in the following order: manner - pilot - time. If there is a verb of movement, such as go, come, leave in the sentence, then the adverbs come in the following order: place - manner time. Some adverbs have the same form as adjectives. These include: hard, fast, high, low, deep, early, late, long, near, straight, right, wrong. There is a difference in meaning between the following pairs of adverbs: She tried hard but she failed. (hard = with effort) He can hardly see without his glasses. (hardly = scarcely) Jessica lives quite near. (near = close) They nearly missed the bus. (nearly = almost) Tim arrived late. (late = not early) She's been going out a lot lately. (lately = recently)

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The kite rose high in the sky. (high = at a high level) He's highly respectable. (highly = very)

You can visit the museum free. (free = without charge) EU citizens can travel freely within Europe. (freely = without restraint)

COMPARISONS For comparison, adjectives have got two forms: the comparative and the superlative. We use the comparative form + than to compare two people or things. We use the + superlative form + of/in to compare one person or thing with more than one person or thing in the same group. We use in when we talk about places. Comparative and Superlative Forms of Adjectives The comparative of one-syllable and two-syllable adjectives is formed by adding -er, and the superlative by adding -est. The comparative of adjectives of three or more syllables is formed with more and the superlative with most. The comparative and the superlative of some two-syllable adjectives, such as clever, stupid, narrow, gentle, friendly, etc. are formed either with er/-est or with more/most.

COMPARATIVE AND SUPERLATIVE FORMS OF ADVERBS The comparative and superlative forms of adverbs are formed in the same way as those of adjectives. Adverbs which have the same form as the adjective usually take er in the comparative and est in the superlative. Adverbs formed by adding ly to the adjective take more in the comparative and most in the superlative form.

adjective good/well bad/badly

comparative better worse

superlative best worst


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much/many/a lot of more most little less least far further/farther furthest/farthest

POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVES / PRONOUNS Both possessive adjectives (my, your, etc.) and possessive pronouns (mine, yours, etc.) can be used to talk about ownership or the relationship between people. Possessive adjectives are followed by nouns, whereas possessive pronouns are not. Possessive my your his her its Adjectives our your their Possessive mine yours his hers -Pronoun s ours yours theirs

POSSESSIVE CASE The possessive case can be used to talk about ownership or the relationship between people. It is formed in two ways: 1. with 's/' for people or animals singular nouns + 's e.g. Jim's pen plural nouns ending in -s + ' plural nouns not ending in -s + 's compound nouns + 's We use's after the last of two or more names to show common possession. We use s after each name to show individual possession.

2. with of for inanimate things of + inanimate thing or abstract noun a/the/this/that + noun + of + possessive

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PART TWO VOCABULARY


ENGLISH -ROMANIAN LEGAL GLOSSARY

accept/ a brief for/on behalf of somebody, to: a accepta s apere, s reprezinte pe cineva n justitie; account for something a explica o cauz, a da socoteal de acknowledge the corn a recunoaste veridicitatea unei afirmatii, a admite un fapt, (prin extensie) a-si recunoaste vina;

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act for somebody a actiona n numele cuiva; administer justice a aplica legea, a face dreptate; appear for somebody a reprezenta pe cineva (n instanT); back up a sustine, a sprijini bail out a elibera pe cautiune be after a fi pe urmele (unui rufctor) be art and part in a fi prtas/ complice la be at the bottom of something a fi instigatorul, tartorul unei actiuni, a fi responsabil de un lucru bear witness (to) a fi martor(ul), a sta marturie be at the horn a fi (declarat) n afara legii be before a fi supus dezbaterii, a fi judecat (de un tribunal) be behind bars a fi n nchisoare, a fi dup gratii; be chiselled out of something a i se lua un drept/ avantaj be in force a fi n vigoare be on the register a fi pe lista suspectilor, a fi pus n urmrire, a fi tinut sub observatie be on trial a fi judecat, a fi actionat n justitie be out of jail a fi iesit din nchisoare be raised to the bench a fi fcut judector be within ones rights (to do something) a avea toate drepturile (sa faca ceva) bail down a case a prezenta un caz n linii mari bow the crumpet to a-si recunoaste vina/ invinuirea adus (ntr-un proces) bring a charge against somebody a aduce cuiva o acuzatie, a acuza (oficial) pe cineva bring a charge/crime home to somebody a dovedi vinovTia cuiva bring into open a da n vileag, a dezvlui, a face public bring more sacks to the mill a aduce argumente suplimentare bring to light a dezvlui

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bring to trial a da n judecat, a actiona n justitie call to record/witness a lua drept martor/mrturie, a invoca/face apel la mrturia (cuiva) catch somebody red-handed a prinde pe cineva n flagrant delict/ asupra faptului charge somebody with something a acuza pe cineva de ceva circumstances alter cases depinde de mprejurri, trebuie procedat de la caz la caz clap by the heels nv. a bga la nchisoare, a aresta clap somebody in/ into jail/ prison/ solitary confinement a arunca pe cineva n nchisoare, adeseori fr judecat come into effect a intra n vigoare come into force a intra n vigoare cover up ones tracks a acoperi/ sterge urmele cuiva; fig. a lucra acoperit cover up somebodys tracks a acoperi/ sterge urmele cuiva; fig. a acoperi pe cineva cut across ones own inerests a contraveni propriilor sale interese deal out justice a mprti dreptatea, a face dreptate denaunce to the horn scot. a scoate/ pune n afara legii earn the wages of sin a fi spnzurat/ condamnat la moarte explain something away a gsi o explicatie plauzibil/valabil pentru ceva (nlturand astfel orice dubiu) ex post facto (d. o lege) cu efect retroactiv fasten on/ upon somebody a-i aduce cuiva o acuzatie find for the plaintiff/ defendant a pronunta sentinta n favoarea reclamantului/prtului fling something at somebody a-i arunca cuiva n obraz o acuzatie flag the eat a se justifica neconvingtor get a fair hearing a fi ascultat cu impartialitate/obiectivitate get on the scent/trial a da de urma, a gsi/dibui urma get round the law a ocoli legea get the chair a fi condamnat la (moarte pe) scaunul electric

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give a false/wrong scent a pune pe o pist fals give harbour to somebody a tinui pe cineva (un criminal, un evadat) give somebody a fair hearing a asculta pe cineva cu impartialitate/obiectivitate give (somebody) chapter and verse for something a veni cu dovezi/argumente n sprijinul unui lucru give somebody evidence of something a depune mrturie cuiva/ n fata cuiva despre ceva give somebody the benefit of the doubt a socoti pe cineva nevinovat give somebody the lie (direct) a dovedi contrariul (spuselor cuiva) give something a good/thorough going-over a examina/cerceta ceva cu mare atentie give teeth to something a da putere de aplicare unui lucru (o lege) give the lie (direct) to something a dezminti ceva go behind a decision a reveni asupra unei hotrri go beyond the law a nclca legea go by default (d. un proces) a se judeca n contumacie go in somebodys favour a da cstig de cauz cuiva go to the bar a intra n barou, a deveni avocat go to the trial a fi judecat, a ajunge n instant go unpunished (d. o persoan) a rmne nepedepsit; (de o fapt) a scpa nepedepsit hand down heavy sentences a da condamnri grele hand somebody over to justice/police a da pe cineva pe mna justitiei/politiei hang the jury a scinda voturile juratilor, a opri pe jurati s ajung la o hotrre unic, mpiedicnd astfel pronuntarea sentintei have a good grouse a avea temei de plngere/reclamatii have not a leg to stand on a nu aduce nici o dovad concludent, a nu se sprijini pe realitti have nothing to say for oneself a nu avea ce spune n aprarea sa have plenty of brief a avea procese multe have the law on somebody a da pe cineva n judecat

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hold a brief for somebody (d. un avocat) a reprezenta pe cineva; fig. a se ridica n aprarea cuiva in abeyance (d. legi) neaplicat; n desuetudine in accordance with n conformitate cu in actual fact n realitate in compliance with: n conformitate/conform cu justify bail a-si declara sub jurmnt solvabilitatea (nainte de a depune cautiune) keep on the right/ windy side of the law a proceda n mod legal, a actiona pe ci legale, a nu intra n conflict cu legea lay a charge against somebody/(s door) a aduce o acuzatie cuiva, a nvinui pe cineva de ceva, a face o plngere mpotriva cuiva lay down the law a da verdicte lead a witness a pune ntrebri tendentioase unui martor let out on bail a pune n libertate pe cautiune make/put in a claim (for something) a face o petitie (pt. ceva), a-si revendica drepturile (asupra unui lucru) make a motion that a depune o motiune, a propune (ntr-un grup legislativ) s se ia o anumita msur, s se procedeze ntrun anumit fel make default a nu comprea n fata curtii/ instantei make good a charge a dovedi o nvinuire make good an injustice a repara o nedreptate make (out) ones case a-si dovedi nevinovtia more by token ca prob/dovad; si dovada este c nail a lie ( to the counter) a dovedi falsitatea unei afirmatii not guilty nevinovat not to have a leg to stand on (for something): a nu aduce nicio dovad concludent, (d. ceva) a nu avea nici un fundament offend against the law a nclca legea, a comite un delict

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off the record (n mod) neoficial of no effect neavenit on equal terms pe picior de egalitate on ones own responsibility pe propria rspundere on parole: pus n libertate/eliberat pe cuvnt de onoare/conditionat on the jury printre jurati; din/ n juriu/ componenta juriului on the legit cinstit, legitim, n cadru legal on the panel pe lista juratilor, n juriu out on bail eliberat pe cautiune own up a mistake/ fault a se declara vinovat, a face mea culpa pack the jury a-si asigura un juriu favorabil pass judgement/sentence upon somebody a judeca pe cineva, a da cuiva o sentint pass the seals a ratifica, a sanctiona pitch somebody over the bar a respinge pledoaria/ argumentatia unui avocat plead guilty a se declara vinovat prompt a witness a influenta depozitia unui martor, sugerndu-i anumite rspunsuri prove a will a omologa un testament, a certifica validitatea lui push ones claims a revendica (un drept); a urmri (prin justitie) satisfacerea unei revendicri put in a claim for a nainta o revendicare, a solicita un drept put in/into force a pune n vigoare (o lege) put out a court a exclude ca nentemeiat (un argument) put put the law on somebody a intenta cuiva un proces put the execution a de cuiva pedeapsa capital raise a claim a revendica un drept, a ridica o pretentie rest the case a conchide, a pune concluzii la pledoarie return somebody guilty a declara/ gsi pe cineva vinovat

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Universitatea Ecologica Bucuresti Facultatea de Drept si Administratie publica

send up for trial a trimite n judecat/naintea unui tribunal; a gsi pe cineva vinovat serve a notice on somebody a aduce cuiva la cunostint o hotrre judectoreasc/ oficial serve notice a da/trimite o nstiintare oficial set at large/liberty/free a pune n libertate, a elibera settle a law suit (amiably) a rezolva un litigiu printr-o tranzactie, a ajunge la un acord ntr-un proces; settle out of court a stinge actiunea prin mpcarea prtilor, a se mpca nainte de a aduce cazul n fata instantei stake out a claim a nainta/exprima o cerere/revendicare stand mute of malice a refuza s vorbeasc n instant state a/onces case a supune un fapt/ faptele judectii tribunalului (de ctre un reclamant) stay judgement a ntrzia judecata/procedura strain the law a forta legea, a interpreta legea n mod prtinitor; a nclca legea surrender to ones bail a se prezenta n fata autorittilor (judectoresti) dup ce a fost eliberat pe cautiune sustain a claim/an objection a admite/solutiona favorabil o cerere/revendicare/obiectiune swear a charge/an accusation against somebody a acuza pe cineva sub jurmnt swear an affidavitt a face o declaratie sub jurmnt swear a witness a lua jurmntul unui martor, a cere unui martor s jure take a brief for/on behalf of somebody (d. avocati) a se ocupa de procesul cuiva, a prelua un caz juridic, a se constitui apratorul cuiva take action against somebody a intenta un proces cuiva take bail a accepta/lua/primi o cautiune take legal advice a consulta un avocat/jurisconsult take the stand a se afla n boxa martorilor take to court a da n judecat, a chema n fata instantei tamper with a witness a influenta depozitia unui martor, a mitui un martor

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Universitatea Ecologica Bucuresti Facultatea de Drept si Administratie publica

thrust somebody from his rights a scoate pe cineva din drepturile lui (legitime), a rpi cuiva un drept trench upon somebodys rights a ncalca/ uzurpa/ atinge/ legea, drepturile cuiva trip up a witness a prinde un martor cu declaratii false trump up a charge against somebody, to: a depune acuzatie fals mpotriva cuiva try somebody for/ on a charge of, to: a judeca pe cineva acuzat de under ban prohibit interzis under duress constrns, fortat under pain of death sub pedeapsa capital vest somebody with power, to: a mputernici pe cineva vow and declare a declara sub jurmnt wear the ermine/the gown a fi magistrat within the law n cadrul legii, legal

EXERCISES
The article
A. Fill in the blanks with the, a, an or no article: Do you see _____ man standing near ______ door? He works as _____ assistant in ____ same shop as I do. Well, I saw him the other day and he was driving ______ red Porsche. And do you see ______ expensive clothes hes wearing? Where does he get ____ money to pay for it all? ______ month ago he hadnt got _____ penny. I told you about ______ burglary that we had at ________ shop, didnt I? Do you think I should go to _____ police? B. Fill in the gaps with a or one: .day last year it wasvery hot afternoon in June I was hurrying to get home. I was about.. hour late - well, to be precise, exactly. hour and ten minutes: I had taken the train that arrived at the station at 6.15. Anyway, there was. woman standing under the trees, and there were several children with her. I saw child clearly she was .lovely dark-haired girl but I only heard the others. Suddenly strange thing happened. The girl took some stones and leaves out of her pocket, and threw. stone after another into the air. C. Insert a or an if necessary:
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Universitatea Ecologica Bucuresti Facultatea de Drept si Administratie publica

My neighbour is.photographer; lets ask him foradvice about colour films. We hadfish andchips for..lunch. That doesnt sound.very interesting lunch. I had a very bad night. I didnt sleep ....wink. Wed better go bytaxi if we can get ..taxi at such ..hour as 2 a.m

The noun
A. Use these collective nouns to complete the sentences that follow: audience, crew, enemy, family, gang, government, media, public, staff, team 1. Take cover. The .. are attacking. 2. Do you think Liverpool are the best . in Europe? 3. Dad is out but the rest of the ... are at home. 4. The has decided to increase taxes. 5. The ship sank but the .... are safe. 6. The office is closed. The are on strike. 7. The house was surrounded and the . were arrested. 8. The .. is much bigger than at last nights performance. 9. The railways should provide a better service for the traveling . 10. Some sports stars are very badly treated by the newspapers and other .

The verb
A. Fill in the blanks with the appropriate form of the verb in brackets at the present simple tense: He (live) in Belgravia in Londons West End. Hes very rich, and he (own). the company Office Blocks International. Every morning the young Lord (have).. breakfast in bed and (read). the newspapers. He (get). up at ten oclock and usually (go) for a walk in Hyde Park. He (have) lunch at his club. He sometimes (meet) . the directors of OBI, and they (talk).. about the companys plans. In the afternoon, Lord Stonebury and his friends (play) golf. Then they (have). a few drinks. Or sometimes, he and his girl friend (go).for a drive in his sports car. After dinner Lord Stonebury (go).. to a night club or a casino with one of his friends. They (get).. home at about two oclock. B. Find and correct the verbs in the present tense that are mistaken in the text below: Dear John, Thank you for your very interesting letter. I am very pleased to be your pen friend. Are you really have a swimming pool in the garden? It sound wonderful. As you know from my advertisement, I have 17 years old and came from Cartagena in Chile. Ive got two sisters and

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Universitatea Ecologica Bucuresti Facultatea de Drept si Administratie publica

they is both older than me. My father own a small factory paper but my mother dont work. We living in a house outside the city. I enjoying playing football and I am like science-fiction films. Look at this learners text. Match the teachers ticks and corrections 1-10 to rules a) f) below

C. Fill in each gap with a verb from the box in the past tense simple. (The text below describes an unsuccessful driving test.) be feel move pay push say run say stop try On my first test, I 1. out of petrol. Shortly after the restart from the emergency stop, the car 2.. again, although I 3 five times to restart. No, I 4.. to the examiner. It wont start. The examiner 5. into the driving seat, and I 6.. the car to the nearest service station, where I 7 for the petrol. This is not your fault and will not affect whether you pass the test, he 8.., but I 9.. terrified and 10 not surprised to fail for lack of observation. D. Put the verbs in brackets into the correct tense: 1. Ann sees Paul putting on his coat and says: Where you (go ) , Paul? 2. I (go ) to buy some cigarettes. You (want) an evening paper? 3. Mary ( see ) Peter standing at the bus stop. 4. What bus you (wait ) for? E. Insert the necessary capital letters in the following passage: professor arnold smith, who has spent a lifetime studying prehistoric remains, claims that the bones he unearthed in the californian desert area last may are those of a man-like creature existing millions of years ago, probably at a time when the pacific ocean covered much more of the surface of this part of the american continent . professor smith is to give a talk on the subject on bbc television on Monday, 4th april, in the series where did we come from? this is to be followed by a discussion with members of the lost atlantic society whose president, colonel arthur stone, contends that california is in fact a part of the legendary city, the remainder of which lies hidden under the sea. Note that personal names, names of countries, months of the year, geographical names of rivers, oceans, mountains etc. are written in capital letters in English. F. Translate the following sentences into English: 1. Ai incercat vreodata sa il ajuti ? 2. Nu am auzit nimic despre acest process in ultima vreme. 3. Intotdeauna mi-am dorit sa vizitez tarile asiatice. 4. Ai fost vreodata pus intr-o situatie jenanta la facultate? 5. Tocmai am patit facturile de telefonie mobila.
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Universitatea Ecologica Bucuresti Facultatea de Drept si Administratie publica

6. Cu cine ai mai vorbit in ultima vreme? 7. Vorbeste la telefon de dimineata si inca nu a stabilit nicio intalnire. 8. Se uita la televizor de cand s-a trezit. 9. Astept de doua ore, unde ai fost? 10. Nici unul dintre prietenii nostri nu a auzit vreodata de un lucru atat de ciudat!

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