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Lecture No: 2

2.1. Sources and types of solid wastes

Solid wastes .are generated at a variety of different sources such as industries, private
households, public institutions and small businesses such as restaurants. Some of the most
important sources of solid wastes are listed in Table 2.1.
Table 2.1. Some sources of solid wastes within an urban community
Source Facilities or locations where waste is Types of wastes
Residential Low-, medium-, and high-rise Food waste, paper,grass
apartments, single/multiple family clippings, bush and tree
houses etc. trimmings,diapers,wood,glass
bottles, canes,plastic
wrapping, etc.
Commercial Stores, restaurants, office buildings, Paper, wood, foodwaste,
hotels, motels, repair shops, public plastic, wrappings, glass and
kitchens, etc. metal continers etc .
Institutional Schools, hospitals, prisons, Paper, wood, food waste,
governmental centres plastic, canes and bottles.etc.

Municipal street cleaning, parks, other Street cleaning, grass

services recreational areas, etc. clippings, plant and wood
trimmings, general litter, etc.
Treatment plant Water and waste water treatment plants Sewage sludge, sludge from
sites drinking water treatment, etc
Industrial Industrial production Food waste, metal waste,
wood waste, plastics, etc.

The sources listed in Table 2.1 represent a broader suite of sources of wastes that may
occur in most areas. In a strict sense, however, generation of solid wastes is a result of the
activities taking place in the community, and, therefore, the level of industrialization, type of
society, culture, etc. have influence on the production rate and type of the wastes generated.
The number and types of sources can therefore vary significantly between communities,
regions, and countries.
In highly developed countries where consumption of preprocessed foods is more
common the foodstuff producing industry is likely more important as a source of wastes
compared to residential households, whereas the opposite may be the case in developing
countries where more foods are prepared at home. Another example is densely populated
areas without Opt spaces such as many of the cities in Southeast Asia and in the US. In such
cities the area occupied by parks and gardens are likely limited or nonexistent and
generation of related biodegradable wastes (garden and park wastes) is therefore likely
Solid wastes are usually divided into different types depending on their source. Major
types of wastes are residential waste, commercial waste, sewage treatment sludge, and
industrial process waste. Each type of waste can again be divided into different material
fractions depending on the actual material contained in the residual. Types and fractions or
components of solid wastes will be discussed in more detail in the following sections.
2.2. Wastewater Flows and Characteristics
Domestic or sanitary wastewater refers to liquid discharge from residences, business
buildings, and institutions. Industrial wastewater is discharge from manufacturing plants.
Municipal wastewater is the general term applied to the liquid collected in sanitary sewers
and treated in a municipal plant. In addition, interceptor sewers direct dry weather flow from
combined sewers to treatment, and unwanted infiltration and inflow enters the collector pipes.
A schematic of the system is given in Fig. 2.1.
Fig 2.1 Sources of Municipal wastewater in relation to collector sewers and treatment
Storm runoff water in most communities is collected in a separate storm sewer
system, with no known domestic or industrial connections, and is conveyed to the nearest
watercourse for discharge without treatment. Rain water washes contaminants from roofs,
streets, and other areas. Although the pollutional load of the first flush may be significant, the
total amount from separated storm-water systems is relatively minor compared with other
wastewater discharges. Several large cities have a combined sewer system where both storm
water and sanitary wastewaters are collected in the same piping. Dry weather flow in the
combined sewers is intercepted and conveyed to the treatment plant for processing, but
during storms, flow in excess of plant capacity is by-passed directly to the receiving
watercourse. This can constitute significant pollution and a health hazard in cases where the
receiving body is used for a drinking water supply. One solution is to replace the combined
sewers with separate pipes, but the cost in large cities would be prohibitive, although this
technique can be applied where only a few combined sewers exist in a municipal system.

2.3. Domestic wastewater

The volume of wastewater from a community varies from 50 to 250 gal per capita per
day (gpcd) depending on sewer uses. A common value for domestic wastewater flow is 120
gpcd (450/person .d), which assumes that the residential dwellings have modern water-using
appliances, such as automatic washing machines. The organic matter contributed per person
per day in domestic wastewater is approximately 0.24 1b (110 g) of suspended solids and
0.20 1b (90 g) of BOD in communities where a substantial portion of the household kitchen
wastes is discharged to the sewer system through garbage grinders. In selection of data for
design, the quantity and organic strength of wastewater should be based on actual
measurements taken throughout the year to account for variations resulting from seasonal
climatic changes and other factors. The average values during the peak month may be used
for design. Excluding unusual infiltration and inflow, the average daily sanitary wastewater
flow during the maximum month of the year is commonly 20 to 30 percent greater than the
average annual daily flow. Excluding seasonal industrial wastes, the average daily BOD load
from sanitary wastewater during the maximum month is greater than the annual average by
30 percent or more in small plants (less than 0.5 mgd) and less than 20 percent in large plants
(greater than 50 mgd).
Estimated wastewater flows for residential dwelling and other establishments are
listed in Table 2.2.
Mobile homes and hotels generate less wastewater than residences, since they have
fewer appliances. The quantity and strength of wastewater from schools, offices, factories,
and other commercial establishments depend on hours of operation and available eating
facilities. Although cafeterias do not provide a great deal of flow, the wastewater strength is
increased materially by food preparation and cleanup.
Table 2.2 Approximate Wastewater Flows for Various Kinds of Establishments
Type Gallons Per Pounds Of Bod
Person Per Per Person Per Day
Per Day
Domestic wastewater from residential
Large single-family houses 120 0.20
Typical single-family houses 80 0.17
Multiple-family dwellings 60 to 75 0.17
Small dwellings or cottages 50 0.17

Domestic wastewater from camps and

Luxury resorts 100 to 150 0.20
Mobile home parks 50 0.17
Tourist camps or trailer parks 35 35
Hotels and motels 50 0.10

Boarding schools 75 0.17
Day schools with cafeterias 20 0.06
Day schools without cafeterias 15 0.04

Each employee 30 0.10
Each patron 7 to 10 0.04
Each meal served 4 0.03

Transportation terminals
Each employee 15 0.05
Each passenger 5 0.02

Hospitals 150 to 300 0.30

Offices 15 0.05
Drive-in theaters, per stall 5 0.02
Movie theaters, per seat 3 to 5 0.02
Factories, exclusive of industrial
and Cafeteria wastes 15 to 30 0.05

The common value for sanitary wastewater of 120 gpcd includes residential and
commercial wastewaters plus reasonable infiltration, but excludes industrial discharges.
Characteristics of this wastewater prior to treatment, after settling, and following
conventional biological processing are given in Table 2.3.
Total solids, residue on evaporation, include both dissolved salts and organic matter;
the latter is represented by the volatile fraction. BOD is a measure of the wastewater strength.
Sedimentation of a typical domestic wastewater diminishes BOD approximately 35 percent
and suspended solids 50 percent. Processing, including secondary biological treatment,
reduces the suspended solids and BOD content more than 85 percent, volatile solids 50
percent, total nitrogen about 25 percent, and phosphorus only 20 percent.
Table 2.3. Approximate Composition of Average Sanitary Wastewater (mg/1) Based on
120 gpcd (450 1/person .d)
Parameter Raw After Settling Biologically Treated
Total solids 800 680 530
Total volatile solids 400 340 220
Suspended solids 240 120 30
Volatile suspended solids 180 100 20
Biochemical oxygen demand 200 130 30
Inorganic nitrogen as N 22 22 24
Total nitrogen as N 35 30 26
Soluble phosphorus as P 4 4 4
Total phosphorus as P 7 6 5

The surplus of nutrients in the treated effluent indicates that sanitary wastewater has
nitrogen and phosphorus in excess of biological needs. The generally accepted BOD/N/P
weight ratio required for biological treatment is 100/5/1 (100 mg/1 BOD to 5 mg/1 nitrogen
to 1 mg/1 phosphorus). Raw sanitary wastewater has a ratio of 100/17/3 and after settling
100/23/5, and thus contains abundant nitrogen and phosphorus for microbial growth. (The
exact BOD/N/P ratio needed for biological treatment depends on the process method and
availability of the N and P for growth; 100/6/1.5 is often related to unsettled sanitary
wastewater, while 100/3/0.7 is used where the nitrogen and phosphorus are in soluble forms.)
Another important wastewater characteristic is that not all of the organic matter is
biodegradable. Although a substantial portion of the carbohydrates, fats, and proteins are
converted to carbon dioxide by microbial action, a waste sludge equivalent to 20 to 40
percent of the applied BOD is generated in biological treatment.
Loadings on treatment units are often expressed in terms of pounds of BOD per day or
pounds of solids per day, as well as quantity of flow per day. The relationship between the
parameters of concentration and flow is based on the following conversion factors: 1.0 mg/1,
which is the same as 1.0 part per million parts by weight, equals 8.34 1b/mil gal, since 1 gal
of water weighs 8.34 1b: and used less frequently, the value 62.4 1b/mil cu ft, since 1 cu ft. of
water weighs 62.4 1b. These relationships are defined by the following equations:
Pounds of C = concentration of C (mg/l)xQ(mil gal) x 8.34 (2.1)
Pounds of C = concentration of C (mg/l) x Q(mil cu ft) x 62.4 (2. 2)
Where C = BOD, SS, or other constituent, milligrams per liter
Q = volume of wastewater, million gallons or million cubic feet
8.34 = lb/mil gal
62.4 = lb/mil cu ft
Calculations in Example 2.1 show that 120 gal of the sanitary wastewater as described
in Table 2.3 contain 0.20 lb of BOD and 0.24 lb of suspended solids; Examples 9-2 and 9-3
illustrate applications of Eqs. 2.1 and 2.2.

Example 2.1
Sanitary wastewater from a residential community is 120 gpcd containing 200 mg/l BOD and
240 mg/l suspended solids. Compute the pounds of BOD per capita and pounds of SS per

Using Eq.2.1
BOD = 200mg/1 x 0.000,120 mil gal x 8.34 = 0.201b
mil gal x mg/1
SS = 240 mg/1 x 0.000,120 mil gal x 8.34 = 0.241b
Mil Gal X Mg/1

Example 2.2
Industrial wastewaters (Table 2.5) have a total flow of 2,930,000 gpd, BOD of 21,600 1b/day,
and suspended solids of 13,400 1b/day. Calculate the BOD and suspended solids
From the relationship in Eq. 2.1,
BOD concentration = 21.600 1b/day
2.93 mil gal/day x 8.34
= 880 mg/1

SS concentration = 13,400 1b/day = 550 mg/1

2.93 mgd x 8.34

Example 2.3
An aeration basin with a volume of 300m3 contains a mixed liquor (aerating activated sludge)
with a suspended solids concentration of 2000 mg/1 (g/m3). How many kilograms of mixed
liquor suspended solids are in the tank?

MLSS = 2000 g/m3 x 300 m3 = 600 kg
1000 g/kg
2.4. Industrial Wastewaters
Industries within municipal limits ordinarily discharge their wastewater to the city’s
sewer system after pretreatment. In joint processing of wastewater, the municipality accepts
responsibility of final treatment and disposal. The majority of manufacturing wastes are more
amenable to biological treatment after dilution with domestic wastewater; however, large
volumes of high-strength wastes must be considered in sizing of a municipal treatment plant.
Uncontaminated cooling water is directed to the storm sewer.
A sewer code, user fees, and separate contracts between an industry and city can
provide adequate control and sound financial planning while they accommodate industry by
joint treatment. Pre-treatment at the industrial site must be considered for wastewaters having
strengths or characteristics significantly different from sanitary wastewater. Consideration
should be given to modifications in industrial processes, segregation of wastes, flow
equalization, and waste strength reduction. Process changes, equipment modifications, by-
product recovery, and in plant wastewater reuse can result in cost savings for both water
supply and wastewater treatment.
Modern industrial plant design dictates segregation of separate waste streams for
individual pretreatment, controlled mixing, or separate disposal. The latter applies to both
uncontaminated cooling water that can be discharged directly to surface watercourses and
toxic wastes that cannot be adequately processed by the municipal plant and must be
processed or disposed of by the industry. Manufacturing plants using a diversity of operations
may be required to equalize wastewaters by holding them in a basin for stabilization prior to
their discharge to the sewer. Unequalized flows may have dramatic fluctuations in quality that
could upset the efficiency of a biological treatment system.
Certain industrial discharges, such as dairy wastes, can be more easily reduced in
strength by treatment in their concentrated form at the industrial site. Others , like metal-
plating wastes, require pretreatment for the removal of toxic metal ions. If reuse of the
municipal wastewater is planned, rather stringent controls on industrial discharges are
needed, since many of the sunstances in manufacturing wastes are only partially removed by
conventional treatment and will interfere with water reuse.
The characteristics of four selected industrial wastewaters are listed in Table 2.4 for
Table 2.4 Average Characteristics of Selected Industrial Wastewaters
Milk Processing Meat Packing Synthetic Chlorophenolic
Textile Manufacture
BOD, mg/l 1,000 1,400 1,500 4,300
COD, mg/l 1,900 2,100 3,300 5,400
Total solids, mg/l 1,600 3,300 8,000 53,000
Suspended solids mg/l 300 1,000 2,000 1,200
Nitrogen, mg N/l 50 150 30 0
Phosphorus, mg P/l 12 16 0 0
pH 7 7 5 7
Temperature, 0C 29 28 ---- ----
Grease, mg/l ---- 500 ---- ----
Chloride, mg/l ---- ---- ---- 27,000
Phenols, mg/l ---- ---- ---- 140

With sanitary wastewater in Table 2.3, BOD concentrations range from 5 to 20 times
greater than for domestic wastewater. Total solids are also greater but vary in character from
colloidal and dissolved organics in food processing wastewaters to predominantly inorganic
salts, such as the chlorophenolic waste. Suspended solids concentration relative to BOD is
important when considering conventional primary sedimentation and secondary biological
treatment. Settling of the synthetic textile wastewater with a suspended solids to BOD ratio of
2000 mg/1 to 1500 mg/1 would be as effective as clarifying a sanitary wastewater with a ratio
of 240/200, but settling a milk-processing wastewater with a suspended solids to BOD ratio
of 300 mg/1 to 1000 mg/1 would remove very little organic matter. In addition to high
strength and settleability, particular consideration must be given to nutrient content, grease,
and toxicity. Food-processing wastes generally contain sufficient nitrogen and phosphorus for
biological treatment, but discharge from chemical and materials industries is deficient in
growth nutrients. Handling animal fats, plant oils, and petroleum products may result in a
wastewater too high in grease content for admission to a municipal system without
pretreatment. The chlorophenolic waste in Table 2.4 could not be discharged to sewer
without extensive reduction in phenol; the limit applied by sewer ordinances is in the range of
0.5 to 1.0 mg/1.
Metal finishing wastes are pretreated to remove oil, cyanide, chromium, and other heavy
metals such that the pretreated discharge has fewer contaminants than domestic wastewater.
Each municipality should have an inventory of industrial wastewaters discharged to the
sanitary sewer system as is illustrated in Table 2.5 in this city the major wastewater
contributors are food-processing industries. The manufacturing wastewaters from rubber
products, metal working, and carpet weaving have strengths comparable to, or less than,
domestic wastewater.
Table 2.5
Results from a Municipal Industrial Wastewater Survey Listing Discharges to the Sanitary
Sewer in a City with a Population of 145,000
Flow BOD Suspended Solids Cod Grease
(Gpd) (mg/l) (lb/day) (mg/l) (lb/day) (mg/l) (mg/l)
Meat Processing 1,200,00 1,300 13,000 960 9,600 2,500 460
Soybean oil Extraction 0 220 880 140 560 440 ----
Rubber Products 478,000 200 310 250 390 300 ----
Ice cream 189,000 910 1,050 260 300 1,830 ----
Cheese 138,000 3,160 2,900 970 890 5,600 ----
Metal plating 110,000 8 7 27 24 36 ----
Carpet mill 108,000 140 120 60 51 490 ----
Candy 103,000 1,560 1,270 260 210 2,960 200
Motor scooters 97,700 30 23 26 20 70 ----
Potato chips 93,500 600 450 680 510 1,260 ----
Flour 90,400 330 230 330 250 570 ----
Milk processing 83,100 1,400 760 310 170 3,290 ----
Industrial Laundry 65,100 700 290 450 190 2,400 520
Pharmaceuticals 50,000 270 91 150 50 390 160
Chicken Hatchery 40,700 200 59 310 90 450 ----
Luncheon meats 35,300 270 47 60 10 420 ----
Soft drinks 20,900 480 64 480 64 1,000 ----
Milk bottling 16,000 230 24 110 12 420 ----
Totals 12,700 21,600 13,400
Industrial wastewaters expressed in terms of quantity of flow and pounds of BOD are
relatively meaningless to the general public. Therefore, the quantity and strength can be
related to the number of persons that would be required to contribute an equivalent quantity
of wastewater. Hydraulic and BOD population equivalents, based on average sanitary
wastewater, are 120 gpcd and 0.201b BOD per person per day, respectively. In addition to
equivalent populations, it is desirable to express the quantity of wastewater produced per unit
of raw material processed or finished product manufactured. Examples 2.4 and 2.5 illustrate
wastewater production and equivalent population calculations.
Example 2.4
A dairy processing about 250,000 1b of milk daily produces an average of 65,100 gpd of
wastewater with a BOD of 1400 mg/1. the principal operations are bottling of milk and
making ice cream, with limited production of cottage cheese. Compute the flow and BOD per
1000 1b of milk received, and the equivalent populations of the daily wastewater discharge.
Flow per 1000 1b of milk

= 1000 1b______ x 65,100 gpd = 260 gal

250,000 1b/day
BOD per 1000 1b of milk
= 0.0651 mil gal/day x 1400 mg/1 x 8.34
250 thousands of 1b/day
= 3.0 1b
BOD equivalent population
= 0.0651 mil gal/day x 1400 mg/1 x 8.34
0.20 1b BOD/person/day
= 3800 persons
Hydraulic equivalent population
= 65,000 gal/day___ = 540 persons
120 gal/person/day
Example 2.5
A meat processing plant slaughters an average 500,000 kg of live beef per day. The majority
is shipped as dressed halves with some production of packaged meats. Blood is recovered for
a salable by-product, paunch manure (undigested stomach contents) is removed by screening
and hauled to land burial, and process, wastewater is settled and skimmed to recover heavy
solids and some grease for inedible rendering with other meat trimmings. After this
pretreatment, the waste discharged to the municipal sewer is 4500 m3/d containing 1300 mg/1
BOD. Calculate the BOD waste per 1000 kg LWK (live weight kill) and the equivalent
populations of the daily wastewater flow.
BOD per 1000 kg LWK
= __4500 m3/d x 1300 mg/1________ = 11.7 kg
500 thousands of kg/d x 1000 g/kg
BOD equivalent population
= 4500 m3/d x 1300 mg/1 = 65,000 persons
90 g BOD /person .d

Hydraulic equivalent population

= 4500 m3/d x 1000 1/m3 = 10,000 persons
450 1/person .d

2.5. Infiltration and Inflow

Infiltration is groundwater entering sewers and building connections through defective joints
and broken or cracked pipe and manholes. Inflow is water discharged into sewer pipes or
service connections from such sources as foundation drains, roof leaders, cellar and yard area
drains, cooling water from air conditioners, and other clean-water discharges from
commercial and industrial establishments. In comparison to storm sewers, sanitary lines are
small, being sized to handle only domestic and industrial wastewaters plus reasonable
infiltration. Excessive infiltration and inflow can create several serious problems including
surcharging of sewer lines with back-up of sanitary wastewaters into house basements,
flooding of street and road areas, overloading of treatment facilities, and by passing of
pumping stations and treatment works.
The quantity of infiltration water entering a sewer depends on the condition of pipe and
pipe joints, groundwater levels, and the permeability of the soil. Seepage into new lines is
controlled by proper design, selection of sewer pipe, close supervision of construction, and
limiting infiltration allowances. Construction specifications usually permit a maximum
infiltration rate of 500 gpd per mile of sewer length and inch of pipe diameter (46 1/d per
kilometer of length and millimeter of pipe diameter). The quantity of this seepage flow is
equal to 3 to 5 percent of the peak hourly domestic flow rate, or approximately 10 percent of
the average flow. With development of better pipe jointing materials and tighter control of
construction methods, infiltration allowances as low as 200 gpd/mile/in. (191/ of
pipe diameter are being specified. Correction of infiltration conditions in existing sewer
systems involves evaluation and interpretation of wastewater flow conditions in determining
the source and rate of excessive infiltration, followed by consideration of corrective
measures. Present techniques to reduce infiltration are grouting or sealing of soils
surrounding the sewer pipe, pipe relining, and sewer replacement; all of them are costly.
Inflow is the result of deliberately planned, or expediently devised, connections of
extraneous water sources to sanitary sewer systems. Although unwanted storm water or
drainage should be disposed of in storm sewers, the sanitary system is often a more
convenient conduit because of greater depth of burial and more convenient location. Excess
inflow can be prevented by establishing and enforcing a sewer use regulation that excludes
storm and surface waters from separate sanitary collectors. The ordinance should be explicit
in directing surface runoff from roofs and other areas, foundation drainage, unpolluted water
from air conditioning systems, industrial cooling operations, swimming pools, and the like to
storm lines leading to natural drainage outlets. A few ordinances allow cellar drainage into
sanitary sewers; however, this is no longer considered proper under present day conditions.
This permit was probably derived from the days when basements were built with stone walls
and unpaved floors. Where inflow problems already exist, surveys can be conducted to locate
connections and to institute corrective measures.

Example 2.6
Calculate the infiltration and compare this quantity to the average daily and peak hourly
domestic wastewater flows for the following:
Seweredpopulation = 24,000 persons
Average domestic flow = 100 gpcd
Peak hourly domestic flow = 240 gpcd
Infiltration rate = 500 gpd/mile/in.of pipe diameter
Sanitary sewer system:
4-in. building sewers = 36 miles
8-in. street laterals = 24 miles
10-in. submains = 6 miles
12-in. trunk sewers = 6 miles
Infiltration (gpd)
= rate ( gal ) x dia (in.)
day x miles x in. x length (miles )
= 500(4 x 36 + 8 x 24 + 10 x 6 + 12 x 6)
= 234,000 gpd
Average domestic flow = 24,000 x 100
= 2,400 000 gpd

Infiltration = 234,000 x 100

Average domestic flow 2,400,000
= 9.8 percent
Peak hourly domestic flow
= 24,000 x 240 = 5,760,000 gpd
Infiltration = 234,000__ x 100
Peak hourly flow 5,760,000
= 4.1 percent

2.6. Municipal Wastewater

As shown in Figure 2.1, the flow in sanitary sewers is a composite of domestic and industrial
wastewaters, infiltration and inflow, and intercepted flow from combined sewers. Collector
sewers must have hydraulic capacities to handle maximum hourly flow including domestic
and infiltration, plus any additional discharge from industrial plants. New sewer systems are
usually designed on the basis of an average daily per capita flow of 100 gal (400 litres),
which includes normal infiltration. However pipes must be sized to carry peak flows that are
often assumed to be 400 gpcd (1500 1/person.d) for laterals and submains when flowing full,
250 gpcd (950 1/person.d) for main trunk, and outfall sewers; and in the case of interceptors,
collecting from combined sewer systems, 350 percent of the average dry weather flow. Peak
hourly discharges in main and trunk sewers are less than the maximum flows in laterals and
submains, since hydraulic peaks tend to level out as the wastewater flows through a pipe
network picking up an increasing number of connections.
A typical discharge pattern from a separate sanitary sewer system is illustrated in Fig. 2.2
a. hourly flow rates range from a minimum to a maximum of 20 to 250 percent of the average
daily rate for small communities and from 50 to 200 percent for larger cities. The lowest
flows occur in early morning about 5 A.M., and peak discharge takes place near midday. The
BOD concentration in wastewater also varies with time of day in a path that follows the flow
variation (Fig. 2.2 b). Waste strength is greatest during the workday when household and
industrial activities are contributing a large amount of organic matter, and it is reduced during
the night when entering flow is less contaminated and slow velocities in pipes permit settling
of solids. If both flow and BOD concentration variations are known the time-BOD loading on
a treatment plant can be calculated and plotted as shown in Figure 2.2b. Knowledge of
influent hydraulic and BOD loadings is essential in evaluating the operation of a treatment
The quantity and characteristics of wastewater fluctuate with season of the year and
between weekdays and holidays. Summer discharges frequently exceed winter flows by 10 to
20 percent, and industrial contributions are reduced on Sundays. Hourly fluctuations in large
cities are modified in comparison with small towns because of the diversity of activities and
operations that take place throughout the 24-hr day. Large volumes of high strength industrial
waste contributions can distort typical flow and BOD patterns by accentuating the peak
hydraulic and BOD loadings during operational hours. Excessive infiltration and inflow,
while diluting wastewater strength, can have considerable impact on a treatment facility by
increasing both the average and peak flows during periods of high rainfall. All of these
factors must be considered in assessing the wastewater flow and strength variations for a
particular community.
Fig. 2.2. Wastewater flow and strength variations for a typical medium sized city
Example 2.7
The sanitary and industrial waste from a community consists of domestic wastewater from a
sewered population of 7500 persons; potato processing waste of 30,000gpd containing 550 1b
of BOD; and creamery wastewater flow of 120,000 gpd with a BOD concentration of 1000
mg/1. estimate the combined wastewater flow in gallons per day and BOD concentration in
milligrams per liter.

Domestic 7500 x 120 = 900,000 0.20 x 7500 =1500
Potato 30,000 = 500
Creamery = 120,000 0.120 x 1000
x 8.34= 1000
-------------- ------
Total 1,050,000 3050

BOD Concentration = 3050 1b/day________

1.05 mil gal/day x 8.34
= 348 mg/1

Example 2.8
A city with a sewered population of 145,000 has an average wastewater flow of 18.9 mgd
with an average BOD of 320 mg/1. an inventory of the industrial wastewaters entering the
sanitary sewer system is given in Table 2.5. (a) compute the equivalent populations for this
municipal wastewater flow that includes both sanitary and industrial wastewaters. (b)
Determine the per capita contribution of sanitary wastewater flow and BOD based on the
city’s population excluding the industrial wastewaters.
For the municipal wastewater,
Hydraulic equivalent population = 18,900,000 gpd
120 gpcd
= 158,000
BOD equivalent population = 18.9 mgd x 320 mg/1 x 8.34
0.20 1b/person/day
= 252,000

Per capita contributions excluding industrial wastewaters are

Sanitary flow = 18,900,000 – 2,930,000
= 110 gpcd
Sanitary BOD = 18.9 x 320 x 8.34 – 21600
=0.201b /person/day