Science behind “Gays” What makes a man to become a gay? This question is a very interesting thing, isn’t it?
Many, especially those in the midst of sexual perplexity would ask the causes of being a gay…….etc
Few years ago, sexual orientation used to be called sexual preference. Obviously, the two terms denote significant differences in the manner by which sexuality develops. A preference is something that is chosen, whereas orientation is merely something that defines us. The differences are potentially important regarding how the law applies to those who are gay. The concept of “orientation” makes science to thumbs up! Orientation is somewhat biologically inclined explanation. Thus, human body and changes around is deeply involved in its justification.
Some of the strongest current evidence that some people are born gay is based on a phenomenon called the fraternal birth order effect. Several peer-reviewed studies have shown that men with older biological brothers are likelier to be gay than men with older sisters or no older siblings. The likelihood of being gay increases by about 33 percent with each additional older brother. From these statistics, researchers calculate that about 15 to 30 percent of gay men have the fraternal birth order effect to thank for their homosexuality. The fraternal birth order effect is a little perverse. It means that a disproportionate number of gay men are born into disproportionately homophobic households. Couples with large numbers of children tend to be religious and belong to denominations that are conservative and more homophobic. Consider the numbers: 1 percent of Unitarians have four or more children, while 3 percent of evangelical Protestants, 4 percent of Catholics, 6 percent of Muslims, and 9 percent of Mormons have families that large. At the same time, 64 percent of Evangelicals, 30 percent of Catholics, 61 percent of Muslims, and 68 percent of Mormons believe homosexuality should be “discouraged by society.” (Compare that with 15 percent of Jews.) Big families that disapprove of gay people are likely to have gay people in their own clan. Perhaps these families would be more accepting if the specific biological basis for the birth order effect were elucidated. We know the effect is biological rather than social—it’s entirely absent in men whose older brothers were adopted—but scientists haven’t been able to prove much else. One of the leading explanations is called the maternal immunization hypothesis. According to Ray Blanchard of the University of Toronto, when a woman is pregnant with a male fetus, her body is exposed to a malespecific antigen, some molecule that normally turns the fetus heterosexual. The woman’s immune system produces antibodies to fight this foreign antigen. With enough antibodies, the antigen will be neutralized and no longer capable of making the fetus straight. These antibodies linger in the mother’s body long after pregnancy, and so when a woman has a second son, or a third or fourth, an army of antibodies is lying in wait to zap the chemicals that would normally make him heterosexual.
in gay men differs from the hypothalamus in straight men. For instance. However.” says Jack Drescher. according to a number of different studies. Although the hypothesis sounds reasonable enough. Some researchers have suggested that this difference in handedness – preference for one hand over the other can be observed in fetuses – is related to differences in the corpus callosum. However. a study published in the journal Science seemed to show that the hypothalamus. does it control orientation only? Blanchard refers to its antibody attackers as “anti-male. and Bisexual Issues. But when I asked him about this. the hypothesis implies.
. two-way flow of antigens and antibodies between the fetus (whose antigens spread to the mother) and the mother (whose antibodies spread to the fetus). But this exchange has never been observed—and the antibodies and antigens in question are hypothetical. the hypothesis proposes a loose. but there are implicit judgments. other studies have found no difference.
Brain The structure of the brain might influence sexual preference. a little insulting. it’s premised on a number of assumptions that haven’t been proven. he was noncommittal. There’s a problem with this explanation. Gay women and gay men are more likely to be left-handed or ambidextrous than straight women and straight men.Or so Blanchard speculates. Moreover. other studies have found no difference.has a different structure in gay men than in straight men. an aberration: Gay people are deviants from the normative mode of heterosexuality. no one has shown that there is a particular antigen that controls sexual orientation. unintentionally. correctly. that the hypothesis is fundamentally one of pathology. and all of the homosexual subjects in the study were believed to have died of AIDS. The third interstitial nucleus of the anterior hypothalamus (INAH3) was found to be more than twice as large in heterosexual men as in homosexual men This study was criticized because it used brain tissue obtained at autopsies. Lesbian. Some studies have shown that the corpus callosum – the main connection between the two halves of the brain. there’s no assurance that they perform this placental pirouette. We may have been born this way. then (at least some) gay people are indeed born gay. but that’s not how it was supposed to happen. let alone one designed to make men straight. Some studies have shown that the corpus callosum – the main connection between the two halves of the brain. If they do exist. Even though the gay rights movement theoretically wants proof that homosexuality is inborn. former chair of the American Psychiatric Association’s Committee on Gay. The hypothesis turns homosexuality into a birth defect. If Blanchard is right. which controls the release of sex hormones from the pituitary gland. “The scientists behind the [maternal immunization] hypothesis talk about it as if they’re not making judgments. anyway. Drescher points out. And if that antigen does exist.has a different structure in gay men than in straight men. In 1991. this particular hypothesis is. but there’s still something wrong with them.” implying that the antigen controls for various aspects of masculinity.
Some researchers have suggested that this difference in handedness – preference for one hand over the other can be observed in fetuses – is related to differences in the corpus callosum.
. we know that these connections usually link to different areas in the brains of men and women.Gay women and gay men are more likely to be left-handed or ambidextrous than straight women and straight men. according to a number of different studies. though.
With regards to brain structure. the amygdala’s connections feed into the anterior cingulate cortex and the subcallosum. In 1993. and the left in women. a part of the brain involved in processing emotions. This led to media headlines about the possibility of the existence of a “gay gene” and discussions about the ethics of aborting a “gay” fetus. There have also been headlines about an “alcoholism gene”. For example. The existence or absence of a protein can have an effect on things like alcohol tolerance or mood. These visuals revealed the connections that link the amygdala to other parts of the brain. lesbians are more likely than straight women to have gay sisters. These areas influence our moods and have been implicated in mood-related disorders such as anxiety and depression. and a “warrior gene”. the amygdalas of gay men had more in common with those of straight women – the two halves were well-connected. the amygdala (which influences our emotional reactions to stress) connects to the sensorimotor cortex and the striatum. In straight men and lesbians. A gay man is more likely than a straight man to have a (biological) gay brother. Genes can’t control behavior completely. Affecting something is not the same as having complete control over it. Genes regulate the production of amino acids. That was the pattern that Savic and Lindstrom saw the straight volunteers from their study. Genes We know. which combine to form proteins. But in straight women and gay men. they had more neurons projecting from the left half (as opposed to the right in straight men) and these neurons connected to the same parts of the brain that those of straight women do. from many twin and adoption studies. parts of the brain involved in the “fight or flight” response. but the homosexuals showed the reverse pattern. which makes people become alcoholics. which makes people unusually aggressive. and sprout from different hemispheres -the right in men. that sexual preference has a genetic component. From previous studies. a study published in the journal Science showed that families with two homosexual brothers were very likely to have certain genetic markers on a region of the X chromosome known as Xq28. These connections provide some tantalising hints about how gay and straight people differ in their behaviour. Savic and Lindstrom also used another brain-scanning technique called PET to measure the flow of blood into the amygdala.
If you grew up in a family or as part of a culture where aggression was not well accepted. If you come from a culture where alcohol consumption is forbidden. but also because children learn how to cope with stress by watching how their parents and their older siblings behave in stressful situations. Children learn to behave aggressively when they witness aggression being rewarded. Throughout history.Environment. how to control your aggressive tendencies. it will be difficult for you to become an alcoholic. People adhere to cultural constraints of monogamy despite being attracted to people other than their spouses. There are factors besides a “warrior gene” that contribute to aggression. Your environment affects your sexual and romantic relationships. from an early age. plays an important role in how our behavior develops. like genetics. no matter how your body metabolizes alcohol. You would learn.
. Alcoholism runs in families not only because there is a genetic component to alcoholism. marriages have been influenced by family relations and by economic needs. you would be less likely to be aggressive.