Greek Lyric Metre Author(s): W. Headlam Reviewed work(s): Source: The Journal of Hellenic Studies, Vol. 22 (1902), pp.

209-227 Published by: The Society for the Promotion of Hellenic Studies Stable URL: . Accessed: 03/12/2012 19:54
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7r0'ev 7rtcro-VTo 9Geoopov eEL

pOlos' aeor6eL; o6poU W6r0V O'pOVeetXev 7" teo'e7rec'alav KaKopp?7pova ;




These wild and passionate throes, Whencerush they on thee thronging ? Such terrors whereforeshape in harsh and awful song And shrill withal ? What is it guides thy boding lips On their ill-uttering path? That, after all that has been written on the subject, I imagine to be still the question in the bosom of most readers when they are confronted with a piece of Lyric metre at all complicated. Those who are fortunate enough to have an ear for rhythm, and thus the capability of understanding, are still left, it seems to me, to hear a piece of metre as an uninstructed person hdars a piece of music: though he may experience to a considerable degree a sense of vague and general satisfaction, he will lack the understanding of a musical adept. But a musician, hearing a sonata, follows what is being done; observes the themes of which the composition is constructed; notes the treatment of them, how they are developed, varied, and combined; perceives their ethical significance, and feels intelligent artistic pleasure. For all that I can see, the books on lyric metre do not put a student in the position to do this. My knowledge of them is imperfect, and if I am doing an injustice I shall be very ready to repair it; but from all that I am able to infer, they do not yet advance the student much beyond the condition of a person who has learnt his notes and keys and bars: they do not show him how a piece of metre is constructed; do not teach him, in the language of musicians, Form. Put away all a priori theories, and scan the metres with your ear: scan every piece of metre that you come across; observe what rhythmical phrases are commonly combined together; on what occasions they are used, and by what characters. With one preliminary warning:lyrics, as they are printed in editions,


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2 p.' I can honestly say that I find it quite intelligible: it contains dactylic phrases.168. as in Ar.paeonic.227 on Mon. and before the end of this paper we shall see that their significance is often most important. A possible answer is suggested by a note of Wernsdorf's on ilimerius Eel. 213: 'Videtur Sophista hoc loco. o6 tLo: Xvo-ev alvo~v c'. unless you have reason to suppose it not so. been divided rightly.Xo' ir' opaTCwv "A. xiii.. sed est maxima numerorum obscuritas. 6 and 7. as printers tend to do: for example. Beeching. and asks how that could be in honour of Apollo.72.' Treat each stanza as though it were continuous. have illuminated so much darkness that it would surprise me now to find a piece of choric metre which remained obscure. For me these principles. Vesp. 275 elT' 1 Just. as for instance in these lines. but it is printed All her free favours and smooth words. 10. ut in Orat. Prof. Bullen and Mr. not maintaining the same principles in its divisions.' This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. In Pindar and Bacchylides they have now. Aj. Different manuscripts divide the same metres in quite different ways. for the most part. of course. but it belongs to a much-neglected class I shall not speak of in this paper but mean to deal with in my next. they always indicate the phrasing.210 W. when you come to an hiatus. Wing my hopes in vain. but if you find hiatus is avoided both in strophe and antistrophe. And observe also where any break after a syllable coincides in corresponding stanzas. Disregard the manuscripts entirely. cuius discessu similiter lugeant Elienses. even the same manuscript is often inconsistent. but our texts of the Tragedians are still full of wrong divisions. 693= 706: E'4p4: epWrt 7reptXap' 8' ave7rTatvn1 a. But her performance keeps no day. Blass gives up the metre of Bacchylides xv on Deianira : 'Ka'a8 dicTrvXov ut videtur.-for example. p. HEADLAM are divided as their various editors divide them. 2 In his Preface (ed. owing to respect for the divisions in the manuscripts. tum luctum eorum ob dei abitum : porro autem tetigisse fluvium Alpheum. From their own music when they stray' should continue All her free favours And smooth words win g my hopes in vain. Blass describes this poem truly as a lamentatio lugubris. Christ the plan of placing dots beneath accented syllables and hyphens after syllables of extra length. certe magna ex parte. 161 toojVmV V az I venture to think that there is no one who will not be astonished to discover with what care such corresponding breaks-are studied. when once discovered. abitum Flaviani sui comparasse cum reditu Apollinis ad Hyperboreosac descripsisse cum laetitiam Delphorum ob dei sui praesentiam. and the main results I now proceed to give as principles of structure. Breaks time as dancers. Soph. lxviii) Prof. One tendency which misleads the scribes habitually into error is to place in the same line words which belong grammatically together. This is the method I have followed through the whole material of Greek lyric. and has escaped correction both by Mr. the first verse of Campion's song 'Kind are her answers. and these divisions themselves are often meant to indicate no more than what in Music you would call the phrasing and in Metre the caesura. I shall adopt from Dr. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .xiv. you may generally suppose the metre is continuous.

periods. The elements in rhythmical construction are not feet. the units are the figures. or of nations. Our first business therefore. and distinct impression.3 or for those blessed words 'choreic..72.Anacreontic. It might be called a figure or Motiv. shall borrow a few simple terms from Music. 3 If only they had had our system of musical notation they would never have been bewilderin g to us-or to themselves. in anticipation of imposing hieratic language. and in subdividing musical works into sections. which is thus defined in Reissmann's continuation of Mendel's Lexicon :-" Motiv. either as melody or a group of chords. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .. phrases. we shall have no use for the terminology of the grammarians." It is in fact the shortest complete idea in music.168. aus dem dieser sich organisch entwickelt.' Of such rhythmical elements. and they would be recognised in a moment by an educated hearer. certain subjects. if we mean to appreciate what is being done in choric metre. the shortest coherent element in music. You may. if it pleases you.' 'logaoedic. as unmeaning as the separate letters of a word. 211 where for 4Xeryin music there would be a dotted •6 •y-pq•ve and IaTroi.GREEK LYRIC METRE. all you will have achieved however will amount to just as little as if you had cut up a phrase of music into bars: it is only as a whole that such a phrase becomes an organism and conveys an intelligible idea. but-to adopt the terminology of music-phrases.. phrases. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.227 on Mon. No one who knows anything of Greek feeling for appropriate form will find it difficult to believe that their rhythms too were used appropriately. which Sir Hubert Parry in the Dictionary of Music describes thus: 'A Figure is any short succession of notes.' which proceed so comfortable from the lips of Dr. figures-or whatever you may choose to call them-there existed a variety in Greek. and he would not be incredulous if this artistic feeling should appear to have guided sensitive metricians into the most delicate subtleties of touch. divide such phrases into feet. What is important is that each brought with it an association. is to have learnt the various elements or phrases which lay to a composer's hand to use. complete. or heroes. and when they are introduced. Let no one be afraid. The term is the exact counterpart of the German Motiv.-of gods. for example: . Gedanke. for it appears to me that the principles of Form in modern music are the very principles then followed in Greek lyric metre. which produces a single. giving explanacrotchet: tions of them. it suggested certain characters. the second is to know the associations which these various phrases carried with them. No one with an ear need be afraid at all: though if he knows the rudiments of music he will apprehend perhaps more vividly. das kleinere Glied eines solchen. motives. certain shades or regions of emotion. and any subdivision below them will leave only expressionless single notes.-. These are phrases. and I would ask him constantly to keep analogies of Music in his mind. in der Musik.Glyconic . Schmidt. to recognise them. as the old grammarians were so fond of doing.

. Was made tQ ward off blows.1 the enhoplion a dactylic phrase in tempo . energetic. rigorous. Anacreon's belong of course to this division.5 It was the expression of the Dorian temper. Phrygian etc.Uoi pixov xopevaov T0oi e6W4 T're aav dva3peov KcXAeov'a Icat OaXiaq r. 869. Eur. Pax 775=796: dwu Moeo-a o-Vb \pv7 woX4ove` o'avtva .' or Tennyson's upon the Death of Wellington could not have been written by a or av8peia in Anacreontic Greek except in Dorian metre. the movement in which Latin 'trochaics' naturally went. Wordsworth's ode toDuty. in Med. as in the passage from the Andromache just quoted. the Dioscuri. Cycl. staccato.. Cycl. and Eur. ov'rot Xei4ava T6V . I should describe it as Handelian-in his square processionals and martial songs.. to write of perTa would have been absurd and ludicrous. /tardpwv.g. 873.e y7dov uo yap rd e'de Apox ?tdXet. 674 sqq. ' This helmet. Heracles..h avopcv J/.. 367 sqq. as Eur. dav8pela. Aesch.. To convey the nature of it in a single word. . Tfrach.per' . 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .' Stern Daughter of the voice of God. Andr.227 on Mon.atpeOraS xophvov cat Oavo^ct Xadpret. Ban. e. Ban. Then there are two figures used to end a period: .1. HEADLAM The broadest distinction of character in rhythms is between the Dorian and the non-Dorian. Soph. Dorian metre moves in strongly-marked 4 time.72.beginning with or without the anacrusis. Helen. . and in this fragment of Euripides (893) 4 The scholia are not correctly treated by on Stesichorus 35 and 36 p. Eastern. odaeppopev Xp1ue 7rap' vapt fIdc. Ran. e. Dorian is the proper metre. including Lydian. Ar. 624. most commonly in this arrangement -. e.g. 825 ryryPeveo 1vo-part. The non-Dorian may for the present purpose be classed together under the general names Ionic. Aesch. - •OVTOt. Pers.' This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. masculine. severe. All such are markedly different in spirit and associations from the rhythms which the Dorians made their own.212 W. Pers. would have just the same effect as the delightfnl IHandelian burlesques of Sullivan . 525 7rpopPdvov' 5 Ar. 814 sqq. Asiatic. 371. these are so few and simple and so easy to be learnt that they may as well be stated here: .ya0C0V a 8 apeO. the beginning of the 4th Pythian. 220.168. dpetd.-3 (formed by combining 2 and 1) the dactylo-epitrite. 4 --. Bergk S Dorian metre in burlesque.-. I suppose. abTdpIceta: appropriate of course also to the Dorian heroes.-. 761: aKolTav. The same figures are combined in the Stesichorean verses4 of Ar. in Princess Ida for example. 2 the epitrite.g. Ar. the appropriate vehicle for their ideals.

3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .1. Mvapoo-zva9 Ovyarpeq. 7 Wilamowitz. 950 the MSS. oia. o a' lcatpov vrap repp•XX- Oipapa dIcaXXtrov .GREEK LYRIC METRE. 513). 'At8a (86 ov lX~ov.72.peCloUW 0' 0'wrov. 360): 'Apera. o't vaiET oapcvtot The active &aovra is in O. 592. icaprbv7' &Odvarov): so in Aesch. The reading of v. a'p dot 8Otava'rov t EoE rotyap pyots.Kap7rov aXaavyroto a 'HpaKX '67 Aj8aT w6XX' av&TXao-av e'pyot uav aypeoovrevT Svapttv.168. ptov'ras XaTrpv ao-Trpwv vr deXk Itot. o'4Opovov TparE• '?. 7rat(e. 1 Tvv(apia8at enhoplion Te tXo?eivot and N. the moral verses attributed to the Sages are in Dorian. as by Pind. So in Eur. Ag. have 'At1aoVdIovs. 0O..227 on Mon. give Elo &pyupov in Ath. O.C.TotXaod ot/3pov XtwroiXTat Xet/eeptov vtrovitoTorat7rpeOvVra' Al/3ve9 <<ci> 6 K.13. has been restored for in Pers. iii. for ledp-upov.Xote / VO 8t' alipov E6 e Sta' epo9 deOeworavot /evot/eOa 9 otwvot.1. Ia' Oavelv aXowOrb dE'V 'EXXd8t 7r'or al Totov 7rovovw TXqvat paXepobv e rcpeva /3cXXetv alcapavTav" . oX7roXV'xOe yeVveO 8poT6e1. and was therefore used in speaking of them. 251. 12 (enhoplion repeated) is due to the same scholar. so a&ovrata s Crusius for v. Pind.. which divides the words according to their construction granmmatical ole&cVVl Oroxdaes b•/pov ALWroqIat XEME'pptorV xa The antistrophe is restored by transposition. ii. SThe reading of the MSS. Tvv(api(at. The editors follow the MS. 6 and Accordingly this continued to be the metre used in philosophic verse. aouo-a. the MSS. popfal. rapleve. 134. 51. as in the fragments of Cercidas on Diogenes and aoola (Bergk Poctae Lyrici Graeci II p. Schol. p. o1bK At4 arc c7avErv D8' Eei eveA' XpVroV re ro-aOdvarov7 . Atl ?evtov /yepa9 The enhoplion belonged especially to the Dioscuri (Ath. and in Aristotle's hymn to 'Aperd (ib.opcal ' (?•' V t Icat 'Arapve'o9 Evrpo)oq Xnpwoev aeXlovI ga r Tptv avrlonovo-t iaTovo'-ae`/ a oas tX(al Te Movioat 3e&alov. Miiller History of Greek Literature I p. 184 f. P. 689 b dE &pyupoivtob xEpa for leapyupdv T' elo Xestpa. Hel. x. 7rept.Moellendorff for cap6rbP es' &Odvarov (v. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 1479= 1496 = aXXtwrXo/Capz 9' 'EX'va d8ev KGv dactylo-epitrite 'ro0' tr7rtov "ola . apIcet erpTpa $torTd pot 213 or TE 7 7rpocelpav. re cKOpot 12 o-ot ^8 w6d\otv "'AxtXLebAraq 0a EVEKElc tXIov . and of the Aldilne too is oTroAd8es: I have corrected this and the metre at the same time.: p~owta. 127 Boeckh).

All the purely Dorian odes of Pindar. 13 E. vyTqA Kpatno-VreiV. 497. 801 is about the sack of Troy by o10 Epodes belong properly to Dorian metre. The same thing is done by Nauck in a moral fragment (not necessarily Tragic) p. XdaO-Tpa as though it were a separate line. vi. but the MS. Xpowd. Xryet• lOoo'. ii. Trach. <ar> 7r'ra PT 12 ?-'ov 4'7rt' yap 'Opcoetatq /hev atq e1re'o &vpea /at O ?p(A)Vvo'a 1ryeJOl . 'rap' pa ~x' epitrite . Soph. are in Lydian or Ionic. as a rule. except P. The strophes of iii.pAtrAc-ot ? 1 Or <oz-b > 7avra. contained the same material. obVK 'Tr'6TVpo' A/o70 0VTOo ~S'a9 'v vavo-6vedoEXot ob' o'eo 7rpyapa Tpotal.72. allusions to the material of the strophe. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. and we are prepared for this by a Doric phrase (enhoplion) in the 2nd and 3rd lines of the strophes. ova&E or Aarpel5eL: the metre is incomplete without this ending. The reading of the 2nd line is uncertain.cX~axe27 e' wOrjy. it should be divided thus: 17v (S' q4p4)iwXexrO1 ~E?T('IAv& . vi and xvii. ix. I.214 W. P. Nauck prints XloP'. iv. all the rest that have none (0. i. Co 3X18 xpVO.. OV t /CEO16rP7%t POi. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . o-Tro r•T Pv 7rpoo. When Dorian metre is used by Orientals there is always a reason to be looked for. makes a complete line of the grammatical clause "v 8' aAhrXexrot A cXitigaiceq. epitrite An Epode o10 corresponded to a coda. ia • "Apr . but as I have written it. HEADLAM Stesichorus the opening is enhoplion for the Tyndarids in the antistrophe. but arranged in a different and subtler!ara ia"t o'OgO a otv 'wrev oXoeavIa 11 (A) a 8' eC' irtq rXavrye. viii) are in more or less varied Lydian or Ionic rhythms: so are the only three complete odes of Bacchylides that have not. Thus the Chorus in fro.4. which tells the story of the Persians and the Lydian Croesus. iv. It was constructed. 7ra/.q)9r0wp cat r'o7rOVo Besides other incorrect divisions. have epodes. xii and N. 867: aoilrav. used it in his palinode on Helen. xiv. o7roXEotq ' "Apewo Cpeucrov' svvaptv. we can often determine the metre of the epode from the strophe. n Or c. as a rule. iv. Since therefore it contains.168. N. it is metre.g.tevvo"'The first line is the normal dactylo-epitrite. but 8 Ica\xO\v rPra the epode is in Doric because it is addressed to Hiero of Sicily. ardVT(ov i olov e'ppra 3poroL-o0. it often contributes towards making certain what the rhythmical elements of the strophe really are: conversely.227 on Mon. and are usual with paeonic. Here is a very simple case from the epode of the Doric chorus which describes the fight between Heracles and Achelous. out of the same rhythmical elements or phrases as the strophe.

for . 586. Ran. 355. cf. 323 sqq.. Another piece of Stesichorean Doric is a fragment of Aeschylus from the 'HpaXedF8at: describing the expedition of Heracles against Geryoneus. P. fr. 153. Pind. fr.227 on Mon. 74 Pt`pvov•'t. 174. cf. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the Anacreontic A stanza might be constructed entirely in one rhythm. Eur.'('0' or P ?atee tEXXa'dwv re 'IXtaa UKO7TtaP o?oCa'o'ov rore ThV . and Ionic a minore as Bacchae 64 sqq. it is because that was the metre which had been used by Stesichorus for such recitals. To take one opposite example. 'ou VwporTelwP awaits correcoc tion. fr. Pind. metres appropriate to Dionysus were Glyconic. or the briefest phrase even of a different metre might be introduced in passing. as the 4th Pythian is in Dorian metre purely. or it might be made of two or more combined. ii.rporeVTol "Ape o'Tretxev f'O t-lav. ' '3Xa -0 q 3pO6xepwov " eo-r" xaraTtv 'pptevoq 8 ev yataq. Trach.GREEK LYRIC METRE.72. 925 epode TaV roWvAtooo/COpotv 'EXe/vav dotv 'Isatov re 83oraV . eIrxepe •8(av would be a glyconic 8. iv.. is partly in Doric for the Greeks: 891 TOrtov g akp/ 'EXXdvwvvPeor oe Kpv7rre& ' Pv icar' ao-rv Tpol911 Ke'Xevo-aPa ag 02. Pind.. I. fr. If the Chorus in the Persae of Aeschylus use Dorian metre for their long descriptive geographical account 855 sqq. when it was appropriate to the sense: as in Soph. the Chorus use the metre of Stesichorus in his Aesch. petT 76' 0ro0-6e6a0vXOo•ov d•a . 7roXXoura So much for Dorian..ttoivov0 raplaXe'a ap-q•.a MS. I give the correc- tion of Weil. that in Hec. that is the reason it was used by Philoxenus also in his portentous catalogue.. Ar. 16: faos Apet would be as good.T r' c181ov• IarT•E•ra ~Searo'r•v tre rpt7rTvxoV Trpla8p) Tptia ' eXpa'.14" . Soph.. but &rT' x' Ieos"Apei fatv line quite foreign to the in Cyclops491 sqq. as Aesch. line 8 eaTi SL& rpha TporelwVw. 889... 953 aO vElo&ororart? J apa 7EveLr' rTopoV a POT• TL'TgV ?TLT / a7rotlcto-eteve dEcTo7r)v t I Ve 0 o( ` etattova' ap In the previous Troy Zqvbv a1 I 1 4efTELXLtros ov yr6vov Odvotq . 215 Telamon and Heracles. oceavov 7repaaq 8ra XPvX(at'•" 8Torpa.. I cannot scan Wecklein's rpla 8e Aarais OrdaC This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.168. fr. a cpo6 .. a lament for the later fall of Troy.

fact. pa.227 on Mon. for explanaprecisely as modern music uses a Leit-nmotiv tion of which term I quote again Sir Hubert Parry: ' Leit-motive. Oho. But when the ear has thus been made to understand the phrases which the movement is constructed of. and abandons it again immediately. or the personages come forward in the course of the action. It is so designed that rhythmically it could belong to either line. and that will be a pledge!' (or 'and let that be a pledge'). there were three devices which enabled you to manage these transitions. you are to feel that it is intermediate between them. rt XP'pa e63 Kvapava SaVwa. situations. the figure which constitutes the leit-motif is heard. (1) by link: (2) by echo: (3) by overlapping.' It would be strange indeed if it were so. . it can be trusted to accept the liberty of an equivalent variation. 4 this has lapsed insensibly into Dorian epitrite for describing Heracles. but while it is common to them both. So far as I discover. afterwards.168. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .that his metre gets more strict as it proceeds : ' in prima stropha correptiominus offendit. and when the situations recur. or as it were label. solet enim poeta deinieps severiorelege uti. 7 p. when the metre is firmly established in the ear. certain personages. 16 I have no doubt that the readings given here are right so far as metre is concerned. on the first occurrence. This will seem a matter of course to those who know anything of music. it does not need that explanation any longer. or even when the personage or idea is implied or referred to. and succeeding strophes do not think it necessary to observe the separation of the link. HEADLAM At v. 7to-a / xY6VOtTO Zef Kd'drwev d?kaXV16 vtO-iepo7Trowtvov aTav only that Bergk on Nemn. but it is simply not the 15 ' Or of metre either' I might almost say .' he says 'consist of figures or short passages of melody of marked character which illustrate.1 -Examples of what I mean by links are marked off here by dotted lines: Aesch.-This is only one application of a general principle :-The first strophe states the metre plainly. Thus any phrase or figure carrying with it an association could be used or 'guiding theme'. so for the instruction of the ear it is made to consist usually. or abstract ideas which occur prominently in the course of a story or drama of which the music is the counterpart.216 W.379 "roro LKEO' airfp 16 cTta/1&7repf'c& TE ZeD f3)oq = 393 Kat Ze's 7r•r'av alxkotXao' /8aXotc. of a single separate word. A connecting link or copula is a syllable interposed between two lines to enable the movement to be carried on without a rest. In the antistrophe I take it there is an anacoluthon as in the strophe: 'smitr the heads.72. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 279 laid down exactly the opposite for Pindar.' Metricianly accomplishment was shown in passing from one rhythm to another while keeping the movement going all the

16 stored by Prof.. is EorOyv 18 This being mutilated. 7re WEXav rTepa.rroO. L 5Avhas been made pwtv The same correction is to be made from '4v. Thus in the following stanza there is a constant reiteration of the figure -. to 'V•fr Xevc o-avrTo 7rXeCTdas 'retoapdTaO ya.168. which serves to begin lines 4 and 8: Bacchylid.evovas a link: a a'I L8pOo'X ETaa-L tfVSitvl rapid triplet =142 8 0ovo e7 tEval?8 CXtv 3Ec7?OTw^V EV<W^l Vf00. but metre requires or 7Ipv. In the following passage we have Eur. . dic oK8opovtr 'AOdvas Toav .72. Soph. 273 Ta E/d438aa7 i) irpoo- = 282 diof' ( CC. iv VErt $uipaKoo-laV 4 da•CTOletv w76Xtv X "poxooiaq 'ArrOXXWov 0 Ipova yepalpetyTap 7rap' b.UVO•OV cdyav a'7raXXaoovt•va oovaa r' 6pevlov 'pwTra. Vesp... . In v. v7rvOwVXcovoav ?rtv 17 .227 on Mon. aXyd.. 136 ywwo 8elpa KcaOap/bouov'a 8altzova o-Tvyva' Kca l8(r tSe-vap a' 7VT' "~tava7 avlatpE. Hipp.yapa7' apo-EpoviUAJ EKlW OcO•E' 'Ovao't. obVK v~r v7oSjv0 a dpe'ra . dpc-rTvwvw is rightly re- This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Blass. dE OEo4 droLS elpolq Ar.98 18' au 70oX dr' Xaorpiavq k 'VO ob Ery loopa orviav rb 8 o-v ayio•v"E otr• f'povo-a rvyXaow Echo is the ending of a line repeated as the beginning of the next. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .ece E 7) or7K9 8arXov irov • TOrV pcOV (tdoX eLT E0Xeey--?7Pev •ararTw^v "Aey i V 0' 'W tXaOqvator KcatTavl aVTOV Trayl = 763 7rpcro cKPejFaUrTOV KaeTCWot Eur... Xa.GREEK LYRIC 1METRE. El. I have taken the first half from oce strophe and the second from the other. tuXet HlvOovt1coq de68erat <oJc& 'P a " P27 rpirpv bdo T' 'OXVh7rtovixa9 8 deI18ev T1c/1pTEpov 0 OEOtV T 06Xov dvrara waroaW'ov XayXaiverv ~lwropotpav 1r7 dv is the vulgate. Wra a pov rE yas dic-- apao-av. and in cod. Andr. in Trach. 610 6 KauhxA as rdX' Xbv abxbs avapcaaYl. 752 Kc ovoTaov - KXceVaS ETrraTo 8'' ^rae 8'1CrTaw-tv Mouvdrov MOIViaXOV y" s Kpr7o'ia.. I co Ka' o a#•y' ap(t -7rot o-vV8pC^o-rV" roTe robicLU ov6' faV•reFat porT•^oV betro.•i4aXbv '*tSeipov xOovbs rbv 7r"ov irrnrrw.. 480 au apriTW ovetpaTroV ou yap ro Tva 7' 6 cjcrat r1LLaO CEXXdver aiva a 7raXa'a XaXio'whaTco( V dA• dmxi 7EvVS 217 =495 .

7 echo the endings of the lines preOavedras in v. xapTWOV abv Oeo s •de6W TCXo4.which has been heard in the interior cSuveXe"is an echo of the of all the lines preceding. crrEiba'vv? e' 4 'cot 6 rat cKT car ov' AptOiptoi" 4a/re e (ov 0 'ro7rOXXwV1L d( o)OTepv dL" TOI 8 9 •by S' •42vAEXe& Aov TtpoSebCX vOoT(rO* itEgpX6TE60WVa^V.. 4. 3 and of The movement them. but some other portion of a previous line.. Eur. 3o•vi)paq This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.. 4 it is extended to twice echoed in v. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . . however. .is duly mentioned at the beginning of the and this little offspring epode. may be echoed.and used for short moments of violent excitement: here we see this bacchiac changing to glyconic. Tgxa ra Xa vqd'TreCt V7roob• 'p e6Vckelal Xdpev x. 6 and eXawvo• in v.E 6vOev pra•8 ' da7ro" EawcX p 'ao-&T 7reTpa9. 1. Supp. in this pretty little glyconic stanza from the 2nd Nemean for instance : w ruxat dEv oE0O IIdorovo EIJ4Xev 1 OKT&) . 221 will lead us a little further : 1 oIqav 2 i'rXa'rov 4S--Xwoaa o'4 eCVaThv av8pop a'Oovos cirryEXav 3 ToOve7ydWov xXicYopvav Aavaadv irro 4 rav 6 l@e6. Soph. HEADLAM In continuance by echo this particular figure does great service.72. ceding begie'iav time it occurs in v. Not only the ending. It is very common to echo a figure immediately before the conclusion of a stanza: thus in the Dorian of Pind.227 on Mon. The second izirov$tac. --' When existing by itself it is called bacchiac. fpelyaq 1ioq a P 5 06oot 0o/3o0-pa6 TOW rpO p7rOV \ S 7reptsbav'rov dv p 6 9averra6 vrapa7rXa4KT(O Xep6 oavyiyaTCTa4ra /OTA cal -4Ifeaorv 7 ceXacvotq 8 in v.218 W. I. 1 is repeated in v. 1015 bacchiac 8ii reXeUav opW 86 1o0 glyconic Wv" /Ta'a-a. Aj.168.

21 Lo4v07 7rrpatC 7rpoo-avatvotevov ppervaw 19 See the schol.7t 950 reptCeP8elotatv /pept.9 The chief subject is - 20 a well-known rhythm. 130.GREEK LYRIC METRE. 172 4'v8pa o-oob o Xpi ?rapOh rp•tyta -rd TIOeo-Oat.but $1coatv affords b1eao-. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .this is taken up in the next line and continues to v.g. opluXXa 2 0oai'qa ikXXaq E poo-e. the second (3).89710 -4 = 150 XeL~o-pHpopn e4 Xa 2 yi\p "8 T6c zrrepTryeoV 8-p bo/epo 1 ' dpo tOaot o-w. 949 vU V(0)TO' V8el4eoTQVo 7(T r'. I call it overlapping. e. XOyoo(rt xal Spovro-t xai y/wtoroT"ro. eK SvaptV Ar. Nub. while the middle part is commonto them both: V. KaXor) But here. aaq ad'yyeXav The way by which the return is made from one rhythm to another in v.ev an opportunity of continuing with anapaestic (or dactylic) movement. from -. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.ivat. The first section presently is numbered (1).72. 7 f is an example of the last and subtlest form of shift. by repeating the first section thus.168. You expect the rhythm to continue KeXacLvS a't.. where the Ocean Maidens are compassionating Prometheus in mournful Anacreontic measures. Iboatvo $ort a: so that what you get is a line of which the first part is in one aK rhythm and the last part in another.a return is made to the which rhythm of the opening lines: awv 8o0rT a't I = !rXaTrov OVE 4eVKTav. 7. Cratinus fr. The following fromthe Prometheus Vinctus is a very skilfully composed example.227 on Mon.a 7rpoo-1 17rXqp?74 Sa9pdo 3 TOVSE 7rwyov 1 &bv 8&paa edow$ovo-a 7rapetro oa 71-arpf&a4. forT paq 7r7rovc. 219 j . it is so contrived that another Anacreontic phrase (2) heard moving underneath against it: 1 1 - - is 130 nsv f0o0. on v. 20 21 Probably elo8oaaO or deatog-oar: then the metre is continuous throughout. Ioeatv ort ica KeXavoThis device of overlapping enabled a metrician sometimes to get even a continuous contrapuntal effect of rhythm.

based on the same subject the former half of this as P. It will be observed how carefully the common elements are marked off by separation of the words. as Agamn. and I think there would have been a caesura in the strophe too. In setting this to music we should now design one melody for (1) and a different. epoltrs 'AOal"A passages to be quoted presently are nw.v a. the latter •-immediately to move against this.168. wpaoootrVa This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. through the common element Ev 7ro)t. 19: apEtI Ti'ro' .~ .: / o a.220 4 W. In subtlety of artistic workmanship no one is the superior of Sophocles: here is an elaborate piece of contrapuntal writing. oVT 9UEOV' . 7-oXtV.' a p' 22 e A 7rEJav aivpat 6av'oSroto't -E tatv 1 1 KT7roU ryapaXO7X veot yap otatovopot 2 /3 . Here is another fragment of that fine metrician.7rt 7rapao-vra XcL.? 5. Anacreon fr. fr. p. a&0Licov pdvaq that Kpatroq5pot is one long word: Goa. 56) quoted by the schol.vpwv..: instead of which it shifts. So it is in the fragment (Anacr. HEADLAM Kpat7rvocop 7a t0. &$poRLw.. dimeters and iambic trimeters When anapaestic have not the usual caesura. :-i '-. wrpotrwra 7rppatLos d? jetat4v•eros. 130 O.227 on Mon. ryqots (epitrite movement). Ooal uavrpayoi.Ov ec vEoxot4o 2 8' pPov frXi 86 8s v opot tv E0ep. 2. but patrvoq vuyXalpovUOr 6zplotorperets 7f'Aar'Ta o5d'pot 784 300 in cases Other does not spoil the movement. ical would have been unrhythmical. numbered 2 and 3.8.72. V.o-ro. to choriambic. is glyconic.av' w' AEvKodS KcoXv/o •p~Oelwv v'pwCr'.' iot where the second part is Ionic a minore. r'rrpyl s6 . Soph. i'LiV/pa 7vrTptv' dE 7roktOX e. 2* At 4 we get a new figure which is repeated at the close: in the antistrophe it is indicated by caesura.'rt e•T'r. but of course harmonious.3' a7-reXOetV. melody for (2): whether the Greeks attained to counterpoint in metre and yet failed to think of counterpoint in melody I cannot Again.v.eprtv ai&i ZE'Iq aOETO9 cKpaTVvet 4 C XW7rTEepJT o-VOrlV 3' w'dS&Xo0 Ta7rptv S 7reXwpta vi. This begins with a glyconic. 707. xvii.O-EdXeV. and you expect it to continue so.. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . if it had not been in Bacchyl.. it will be found thabta long word is the condition of the license. KcpaTOi a-' 'OX•drov v .781 T r' Stlcawl. introduced I number 1. The second subject.

920. Antig. corrupted and should be lIo 8VrTavo4. 21. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a•/aaoq 7' vaOpco7rwOv8' 'c t7ap dpe7ral?et 4 5 Oe19 'A 6 /iIVEV po81ra Those who may care to pursue this method of analysis and wish for a good field to practise in will find it in the lyrics of Antigone which follow. ob'v Eur. in El. but "Epws is not with them.) . 26 and fr. oD Oavoo-tv. 193 in his clever answer to Agathias. Orpheus in ' Dem. Alex. viii. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192.ap e(VO8 opOKr80o e o7ro'T To7raV eTrTT(W0 <OVVIoV 2 (P7 rt' 3 lyX&ioo-av vewov. oit"r' ort. poroo'V oD V TIrotIK4o OD - CC KVpOw9 7ayov 8vo-rrrV. PiDd. Sjl.aUct rt7rTEt _ I &calov a&icovg 2 dl V ical Ka 5 'apacr77rv der a.686= 702: 1 T 1 'IXio 8e (AVo/. 1382.3 ovl TOV •rtv' 7rrerrpw0LVov v ovX pp4ev 7rpovotato-t 2 3 icat O' 4 Tpar )VVOaeV /. 'LOcacrtq Oavo 6r' 'V vecpotv.3a l~ 06 V 1 0oo ctaaxai? 6 1vo~e 4 we icov 7rapetat9 Atv~pgv veavtoq0dqVVX6etq (vvatstov AyetV •'apd~as 4 5P 8 ! OtTer VtaIC 7 VTr' 8' vE7roprVto 8 I3Xkedapav evapyr9 7 aypovolo. 52.C. No'los.168. and the contrary of parallel the sense.Xw.227 on Mon. Aesch. "Epws is like Nature. 18 in Proclus on Alcib. 221 . O. AlMc. 1267. 781= 791 1 aEp oVb Kat 1 LVLKaTcae Itaxav Epo pelvaq 2 oE dVK 3 - ' 2 /. 850= 869 are both.?v) iE-repW XpPvg o rpao-(roji'va TexeoO"'Opwcov qa9 "'Ao- vvvertov AZt vvtu6rtto. taken up with choriambic movement.P. which recurs on several occasions. rb 7rdpe&pos Dindorf: the MS. Sophocles is alluding to the proverb Oeoalb "Epws obic o e Jntd & xo s used by Paul. p6oT• Bo06XO'. Oefts. 192. while At 7 the ending at 8we begin to hear a sound of three consecutive long syllables. Plut. Do"o-aV "carapE /e.' 772. v.) rvxqa' aPOtvetc0I 4 raVcopStYap/pov ".72. is rTv a variation without Jv &paXes. 1058 and in Ajax 693: except that Ant. Agamn. A2&Usare ircpc8pot of Zeus (0. I think. Yrdperpos e-yd•.wv in choriambic ablXai9 L[Lepov eXEKTcpoV 8 rToV 5 odXo 8 Kat( ' oTr' MaOavd roV vv4a9 4 c vt/t9o C 9 0•86 oi of ' ape8pov23 2 io ov50'a/ieplAv 6eO-/C&v. A.-p .wv IAtE ib. There is a very beautiful example of transition in a passage of admirable metre which will serve at the same time to illustrate nearly all the principles I have advanced.GREEK LYRIC METRE. I. vv4.

227 on Mon.vovo-. of oars Beached upon Simois' leafy shores.a b'PVov 9 Hptdpov7rokv yepata\ d4~' 7roXtITav 15 pLEXeovate' dvaTrXo-a. hot in quest.6vav XE'vav9 Xav8poz •4wroXt9 7 6C' Trv &/3por'l4mo iovTal. This bride with iron mated. These corresponding stanzas are constructed with such artifice. Ionic a minore or Anacreontic.168. Will make this dear alliance Be all too dear for Troy: Of high Zeus Home-defender And friendly Table shared Repays that prime defiance On all that uttered joy.-that I give a rendering designed to bring them out. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. rTOT" 7rEppe6rev dei8ev. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . glyconic 6-7 and 13-15. though not of course by use of the same metres. that harrier-like pursued Fast on a sightless trail. Full cry.?e v a t o v. By glimpse of Order fated His happy lips who moved ?This Helena.--there are so many antithetic meanings woven in so close a texture. Fierce myriad hunters. Here we have three metres: trochaic with syncopation. 4-6 and 8-12. "e'Xevoe 9 w7rpocaXvaCr). 7 ya pf8po 0ota-tv .222 W.Sure Hell enow she proved! When lightly from the silken-tissued Veils before her bower emerging Forth to Eastward sail she issued. endeavouring also to suggest something of the metrical effect. so rudely Still warred about by men. 1-3. 7e' 17rpe7rOVT'j 5 6 'EA. in bloody feud! Revenge will surely render That pairing well-repaired. all addrest With shields. HEADLAM 5 o cr a eo 6 5EX0. which in English has rarely that result: Who named her all so shrewdly? -Was't One beyond our ken. 11 /Jdeya 7rOV 1tKCXcjKOV12 caa laptVoTTEVEt ToV av6XeKTpoV 13 14 Tcl7rpo-Of 7roXVOpvov atwv' 8' 8 Perapav .72. Breeze of earth-born Zephyrus urgingForth to Eastward sail Men swarming after.w Zeofpov yt'yavro1 aipa 10 7roXiav8po1 11 TEcepda'r8 EvS cvvayoi 12 taT' vo 7rXaTaV iaaVTov 13 aICTa 1tOVTO9 14 KEXa-aPTC0V e7r' e?tfvXovq 15 81 eptv a i TL aTOrdeooav 8 10 7rokXipPvov.

= 1076 veeraav 7rpo)Tra" 6' v1 sev al Nqp. by overlapping.'vw llHXo ov•. when they shift by means of a link-a syllable kept studiously separate on the first occurrenceT Sr7/X-co-av 0oplyap. Casing 799." Pv Xopevo-av . Catull.vetK?)O' _ 2That is appropriate both for Tb to Anacreontic. 25 eTu l 'Ty@'T .Kinsmen.. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . -*24 ia in the and strophe it describes the sumptuous /3p6w7rXoVrTov T'b po7revOev E&-'Xa xv4caw delicate luxurious Helen flying Eastward with her Asiatic lover.s'T.V = ipetvatov E`XewrOXPs r r' o 'T"ErEppEE 7yappo'o-tv aeeSetv the break in each case being marked by the division of the words. Pax 1329 sqq. Plaut. 307 sqq.168. learned grown With age-long suffering of her own Sons' blood so lamentably shed. The opening trochaics in both cases are for the expression of their own stern moral and religious views. but it shifts. where the marriage of Peleus and Thetis is described. I.GREEK LYRIC METRE. I believe.T. 1731 sqq. O.Soph. 24 25 Eur. and is equally fitting in the antistrophe for the Asiatic banquetters and for their threne. therefore the corrupt versesu-•. with practice-perfect Threne. tAE'vat . Av. 1036 sqq. to glyconic: 6XSava eXav~po9 61c a/portipov 7^. But it will be observed that this rhythm is interrupted for a moment at v. and this metre they continue till they come to painting Helen. evil-wed!' 223 The rhythmical elements are three.A.. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. for this glyconic was the metre of the refrain in wedding-songs: cTl•INV C9eIA'Tdvat' 'T/w•V.. 6: you expect it to continue AX'dvavq Xavppov dra. The purpose of this transition becomes fully apparent in the antistrophe.. 4.72.3pov •/A. Laments. Thus in Eur. and to appreciate their dramatic significance we must consider strophe and antistrophe together. Ar. Though late the lesson.vT-covTra a . Tro. 61.. 1210= 1219 have yet to be restored correctly.1. Transition to this metre is always. prepared by preceding. when the time of spousal Bade them heap their praise upon herAh but at this time. this is the natural conclusion of the stanzas: 1055 pat NT'pewq wre. That ancient City loud. '0 Paris. So loudly once in gay carousal Bride with Hymen-song would honour.227 on Mon. I ween.

her perfection in it having 7roAtOprnvos been precededby long practical experience (rdOEL /AaOo-aa) of suffering fitted for lament indeed. for this metre more than any other meant 'Ionic'. 573. This is that famous ode which the Rhodians inscribed in golden letters in the temple of the Lindian Athena: is apparent. whereas Anacreon was avWoXav VTirraX1ov. Eur. Change 1oco is a theme found from the S/4EaLos to the Opg~ros vii 712. 600 It is as xvii.7rOCOOV 90q7K IEvva9.P. T47rpooO' 7roXt'Op7vov alvy' avarxaaa means that she has acquired at the different strain of last (yEpaid. scopqarTat veavia ydt/i3pp 7 rpodvcowv oLKov XrdyXXpcov. since the b 'vato. The meaning (DFiJav(04 : GT7l9 (tWagpvaaaro XEtpo9"ex( Mvop a/A47-EXov/KaXXa'2otcrav p a-poo.for Diagorasof Rhodes. The 7th Olympianof Pindar. iii. 924-31. 87 and Schneidewin P. V. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. and he is minore. The qacev. awl dv 8e folxv a TEdptv re G-V/. a were introduced from in Ath. Heliod. 1 =16 'tepav 3ao-tXcEirav o lXeV vEoV 2 q1oXacxv 2 'Apavav a/lIEa9 6/po/3iwov vap rTwv icapv 7roo-iv 'l9L 1 'Ia'Wov al KIcev9ov av At 2 it lapses into a modification of glyconic. as o4lAaO0s) iuvos. 29. Each time. and this movement continues to the break at lepav '. Then the ending dei&tv enables the Anacreontic to be resumed at once without further in Doric rhythm with a slight exception. 52. oc't'Kae. 10.227 on Mon. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . just though some familiar Wedding-march. and J. Tat. Ach. and it became a first in Erinna A. and the change of metre sharply points the contrast in the sense. it is separated from the remainder of the line. commonplace with later writers. 188.--wood-wind at this point.26 Surely this is very beautiful. ib. suggested by Hermann and confirmed by Paley. 186.224 W. The point is made in our passage with such care and so impressively that it is somewhat surprising to find it has hardly been perceived : Heusde compares Bion i. 183. av KTeavcowV. which is the normal dactylo26 vov 7roXto0prnovhyo a ErTa••avOcvo•a mencei discensflebile carmen Bothe.168. 182. was (Critias phrase e). r&AIrpooOE was restored by Heusde (who under- stood it somewhat differently).72. Alc. between the joyful bLucvato9 then and the melancholy Op?)ovnow. ii. in the opening strophe. HEADLAM Our transition to this metre here might well have been accentuated both by melody and orchestration. of Bacchylides opens with this prelude. but the prelude is Ionic a speaking of the 6I3potov'IdcJvWOv. L0/Upovo aXOwrov vtv 7rapeovPTCO Kca8 er oE KopV The only variation from pure Dorian here is the prelude-singular and remarkable-to the first line and the last. opv. seems to me better here than 4. 1 ftXo/3dp3tTro accompanied by flutes.

320 sqq.-VOL.GREEK LYRIC METRE. the effect it suggested to my ear was an Asiatic phrase. such as begins.107 AF. We turn.. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . cdfXav bvet. to the epode. Thesm. each to serve as a Leit-motiv.72. 296 = 308. and is among the Asiatic rhythms of the Persae: 952 'I'owv .ae eX4 'vrO-Oev Top. you might say. Q This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. And in Ar.-if we have really an Ionic rhythm Ionic a minore: and not only that. XXU. then. Ar. it occurs often in Ar. describing Rhodes and her inhabitants: UI. by overlapping. merged presently. as (with in Aesch. and we find that it proceeds in Dorian metre till we come to the last line but one. 225 epitrite. 421= 430. e't •tV effect of used in Ionic a minore doh the - --. 101. where Agathon with his Chorus comes on singing. for instance.168. this shall be the Asiatic: = _ • _ -•z_-_ _-= = r and this the Dorian: Then you could combine the two. this is among his soft and delicate Asiatic phrases: Movca ye vPv 6'Xk3t?e 01 XpVo-wOspvropa ro 116 XO. Ran. but it continues further in rallentando) to conclude a period.into Dorian: ze 0 taXav et eXwo acpeta9 aro Xtpo( "rtV If you were to make two melodic figures. 1032= 1040. the 4th Pythian.S. in this way: Now if this is the true account. Vesp.JV. 6'-rop~at K'X•ovo'a Ueppbv 'yvov X/igovoa AaTOj3 C' Tvaocav 123 oe'/optat Aardo l vw ciOapiv 're /ar ep' When therefore I was first attending to the metre of the 7th Olympian. "Api &6'epaXK1c Ionic rhythm. be some allusion to that rhythm in the epode. the one blending into the other. according to the principle laid down before. That is often =965 oXoov4d?e'Xet'nov Tvpia9de'c vab9 ppov'ra di-r' aKTrat 981 =994 ? STXao•e do-7rapov. ..ytp anr-vpa 'Idvcov vappaKtro. -there should. Snpp. 3oi 3oi xepc.227 on Mon. P. But the prefix .

quam in numeris deprehendimus. but it was colonized by make so: ' What is it ? Those who like may 'AXKaiKOv o•8caao-XXafov. W.' The same argument weighs strongly in my mind. dXdaL KoX she replied at8&ows. Bergk thought 27 that this line of Alcaeus was in the same metre and belonged to the same poem as another fragment quoted by Hephaestion.. quae inter haec carmina intercedit. rt Fr1vr/fyX6-Vo-' E'KVKa KaKov. and the metre is remarkable. //t dXXd KWXuVeaa''wt the open syllables in K&XieC af'Iol. was written by Alcaeus.and .72. testificetur poetriam haec rescripsisse Alcaeo. A learned man Could give it a learned name: Let him name it who can.Fe6rrv. ftdkav . atque con- sentaneum est etiam Sapphonem in praegressa stropha Alcaeum nominatim compellasse. and the two metres are wedded in the closest way : 27 Opinions on the question are well summarized by Prof.cxtei eiusdem numeri quem servavit Hephaestio ilrXo)c' &'yva . there is no reason to doubt. The meaning is apparent when you think of Rhodes. in hoc uno carmine adhibuisse. Sappho Alcaeo rescribens praeter solitum Alcaicam stropham.LeXXLdet. OEXC. 239. Be that as it may. the connexion of it with the mainland was particularly close. Thus the first line symbolizes Dorian with a tinge of Asiatic.cc0)Vi Iq~X~9ECO?eXV Kat t aai& .168. ac videtur hoc metrum.' What we see is that it begins as an Alcaic but its ending is the Sapphic. consilium utriusque carminis egregie illustrat Aristotelisque testimonium planissime confirmat. rb' this Ionic comes in momentarily. HEADLAM Ka '7rapa KaG-TaXL't 7Tarfpa Atka EAa/et~rov d6oVTa eVPVXOpov rpiroXWt vacov 'n-Xav S4f 6Xo vaizoVTa' 'Ap y e i av atxl. . though the significance of the metres I interpret differently. aI tl/JtlEPOV 2'7/. while in the next line we return to Dorian epitrite for Argos. ut numeri lenitatem propria gravitate e?d&r~oo 't FE17TlV. H. adhibuit. apparet necessitudinem. for Asia. singularis ars.227 on Mon. e't And dv4. 99: 'Cum Aristoteles. an address to Sappho. Hephaestion calls it a 7~pErpov aEvX^af/ #caXovtevov 84 ov 7rpEtT7re)oJ acarvaXcrI7 TerYrdp7. manifestam fuisse : itaque non dubitavi Alcaei versui quem Aristoteles adscripsit Odex ttFefrEV alcws praemittere versum &axxd je . I quote a portion of Bergk's note Poetae Lyrici Graeci III p. e 2dvpot.226 a 'A a-ia W.. and the metre indicates this double character. so that it should run tO7TXoK' a&/va /AeXMXO'/. and no one doubts. -. Aristotle is a good authority. fide si quis alius dignus.OU KiXavev ozrJraT ad`XV 'gXeyel. coalescing. the ' second phrase repeating what we opened with. 7Teplt TWt)&Kalw9?. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . and he tells us that Sappho wrote an Vet answer to Alcaeus: Alcaeus having said 0'XWo r. quod novavit. This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. Smyth Greek Melic Poets (1900) p. The beauty would be the same. that the first line.KE o. cuius indoles a suae poesis Haec igitur natura abhorrebat. or Asiatic overwhelmedbeneathsubduing Dorian.. Animadversione digni etiam numeri utriusque carminis: Alcaeus ad Sapphonem scribens Sapphico utitur versu sed hendecasyllabon anacrusi auxit.jThere is our Ionic plainly.

this little Valentine would tell its story quite intelligibly by itself: ' The Form. would you write in your own proper metre or in his ? For Sappho writes in his. there is no evidence that she used this metre elsewhere.227 on Mon.72.168. q2 This content downloaded by the authorized user from 192. 227 o6WXoK' aryza ILeXXtX6LEo'ete?lan-oe Sapphic A poetess from whom the language of metre was not hid could easily dispense with any more. 3 Dec 2012 19:54:58 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . the Form alone is eloquent'! As for Sappho's answer in Alcaics. to acknowledge and return a compliment. W. If you were a woman and desired.GREEK Alcaic LYRIC METRE. while uttering a reproof in words. HEADLAM.

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