Erethizontidae North American Porcupine Porc-épic d'Amérique du nord Puerco espín

Porcupines are rodents with a coat of sharp spines, or quills, that defend them from predators. They are endemic in both the Old World and the New World. After the capybara and the beaver, Porcupines are the third largest of the rodents. Most porcupines are about 25–36 in (630–910 mm) long, with an 8–10 in (200–250 mm) long tail. Weighing between 12–35 lb (5.4–16 kg), they are rounded, large and slow. Porcupines come in various shades of brown, grey, and the unusual white. A porcupine is any of 27 species of rodent belonging to the families Erethizontidae or Hystricidae. All defend themselves with hair modified into sharp spines. Porcupines vary in size considerably: Rothschild's Porcupine of South America weighs less than a kilogram (2.2 lb (1.00 kg)); the African Porcupine can grow to well over 20 kg (44 lb). The two families of porcupines are quite different and although both belong to the Hystricognathi branch of the vast order Rodentia, they are not closely related. The eleven Old World porcupines are almost exclusively terrestrial, tend to be fairly large, and have quills that are grouped in clusters. They are believed to have separated from the other hystricognaths about 30 million years ago, much earlier than the New World porcupines. The twelve New World porcupines are mostly smaller (although the North American Porcupine reaches about 85 cm/33 in in length and 18 kg/40 lb), have their quills attached singly rather than grouped in clusters, and are excellent climbers, spending much of their time in trees. The New World porcupines evolved their spines independently (through convergent evolution) and are more closely related to several other families of rodent than they are to the Old World porcupines. Porcupines' quills or spines take on various forms, depending on the species, but all are modified hairs coated with thick plates of keratin, and they are embedded in the skin musculature. Old World porcupines (Hystricidae) have quills embedded in clusters, whereas in New World porcupines (Erethizontidae) single quills are interspersed with bristles, underfur, and hair. Porcupine quills are as sharp as needles, detach very easily, and will remain embedded in an attacker. Unlike needles, however, the quills of New World porcupines have microscopic, backwards-facing barbs on the tip that catch on the skin making them difficult and painful to extract, though they must be removed. Quills are about 75 millimetres (3.0 in) long and 2 millimetres (0.079 in) wide. If a quill becomes lodged in the tissues of a would-be attacker, the barbs act to pull the quill further into the tissues with the normal muscle movements of the attacker, moving up to several millimeters in a day. Predators have been known to die as a result of quill penetration and infection. Quills are still capable of penetrating animals and humans even after death. Quills are released by contact with them or they may drop out when the porcupine shakes them, they are not sprayed out.

Beaver

Castor

Beavers are two primarily nocturnal, semi-aquatic species of rodent, one native to North America and one to Europe. They are known for building dams, canals, and lodges (homes). They are the second-largest rodent in the world (after the capybara). Their colonies create one or more dams to provide still, deep water to protect against predators, and to float food and building material. The North American population was 60-400 million, but as of 1988, 6-12 million, due to being hunted for fur, for their glands used as medicine and perfume, and because their harvesting of trees and flooding of waterways may interfere with other land uses. Beavers are known for their natural trait of building dams in rivers and streams, and building their homes (known as beaver lodges) in the resulting pond. Beavers also build canals to float build materials that are difficult to haul over land. They use powerful front teeth to cut trees and plants that they use for building and for food. They are known for their "danger signal": when startled or frightened, a swimming beaver will rapidly dive while forcefully slapping the water with its broad tail. This creates a loud "slap", audible over large distances above and below water. This noise serves as a warning to beavers in the area. Once a beaver has made this danger signal, nearby beavers dive and may not reemerge for some time. Beavers are slow on land, but good swimmers that can stay under water for as long as 15 minutes. (Wilson, 1971) Rarely, a frightened beaver attacks a human.

Castor. and the Eastern and Western Grey Kangaroo of the Macropus genus. Kangaroos have few natural predators. agreeing in certain structural peculiarities of the lower jaw and skull. They have poor eyesight. Trogontherium cuvieri. The mere barking of a dog can set a full grown male boomer into a wild frenzy. In the beavers or Castoridae these bones are in close contact at their lower ends. while the smaller macropods are found in Australia and New Guinea. an officer on Captain Cook's Endeavour in 1770. The animal was shot and its skin and skull transported back to England whereupon it was stuffed. and to protect grazing land for sheep and cattle. large feet adapted for leaping. representing a genus by itself.Beavers do not hybernate. However. Kangaroo Kangourou Canguro A kangaroo is a marsupial from the family Macropodidae. Other extinct predators included the Marsupial Lion. Beavers have webbed hind-feet. including Qantas. and the habitats are arboreal and terrestrial. Kangaroos are endemic to the continent of Australia. which is uncommon among mammals. Europeans have long regarded kangaroos as strange animals. Early explorers described them as creatures that had heads like deer (without antlers). Megalania and the Wonambi. The kangaroo is an Australian icon: it is featured on the Australian coat of arms. and subsist chiefly on bark and twigs or the roots of water plants. larger kangaroos have adapted much better to changes wrought to the Australian landscape by humans and though many of their smaller cousins are endangered. kangaroos have had to adapt. this led many back home to dismiss them as travellers' tales for quite some time. and touch. and hopped like frogs. which contains a single genus. while in the Pleistocene formations of England and Siberia occur remains of a giant extinct beaver. They have been known to eat grasses on the banks of rivers and streams. the tail is round and hairy. female kangaroos have a pouch called a marsupium in which joeys complete postnatal development. and is used by many Australian organisations. Beavers are closely related to squirrels (Sciuridae). Females are as large as or larger than males of the same age. expanded and scaly. sport. smell. In the Sciuridae the two main bones (tibia and fibula) of the lower half of the leg are quite separate. They are not farmed to any extent. the tail is depressed. The Thylacine. They are crepuscular rather than nocturnal. In general. is now extinct.61 m) long (plus 10 in (250 mm) of tail). Adult specimens weighing over 25 kg (55 lb) are not uncommon. but wild kangaroos are shot for meat. which means they are active at dawn and dusk. never traveling by land unless driven by necessity. scaly tail. but store sticks and logs underwater to feed on during the winter.000 years ago and the introduction of the dingo about 5. Combined with the two-headed appearance of a mother kangaroo. Beavers continue to grow throughout life. the Antilopine Kangaroo. but keen senses of hearing. They are essentially aquatic in their habits. and a broad. Wedge tailed Eagles and other raptors usually eat . by taxidermists who had never seen the animal before and displayed to the general public as a curiosity. wallaroos. The first kangaroo to be exhibited in the western world was an example shot by John Gore. tree-kangaroos. Although there is some controversy. stood upright like men. some 63 living species in all. Kangaroos have large. harvesting kangaroos for meat has many environmental and health benefits over sheep or cows grazed for meat. the Red Kangaroo. Like all marsupials. Genetic research has shown the European and North American beaver populations to be distinct species and that hybridization is unlikely. and their habitats are aquatic. In common use the term is used to describe the largest species from this family. powerful hind legs.000 years ago. a long muscular tail for balance. Fossil remains of beavers are found in the peat and other superficial deposits of England and the continent of Europe. The family also includes many smaller species which include the wallabies. They are the only extant members of the family Castoridae. with the arrival of humans in Australia at least 50. pademelons and the Quokka. considered by palaeontologists to have once been a major natural predator of the kangaroo. they are plentiful. and a small head. European and American beavers grow to about 2 ft (0. on some of its currency.

Kangaroos and wallabies are adept swimmers.They travel in groups of more than 100 individuals. because of refusing to be fed. Goannas and other carnivorous reptiles also pose a danger to smaller kangaroo species when other food sources are lacking. Transfer was stated to be made by User:PurpleHz. a large kangaroo may use its forepaws to hold the predator underwater so as to drown it. If pursued into the water. introduced species like foxes and feral cats also pose a threat to kangaroo populations. The total population is estimated to exceed two million individuals. school. preferring the temperate and tropical waters (preferring 18-22 degrees celius. The females are called 'cow' and males 'bull'. alliance (male) or party (female)'. (Original text : self-made) Author: Original uploader was FDrummondH at en. on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Namings for the striped dolphin A young / baby of a striped dolphin is called a 'calf or pup'. and often flee into waterways if presented with the option. these dolphins cannot be kept in captivity. Although numerous attempts.6 metres and can weigh around 160 kg and can reach 60 years of age. the cessation of which would result in the taxon qualifying for one of the threatened categories below within a period of five years. Another defensive tactic described by witnesses is catching the attacking dog with the forepaws and disembowelling it with the hind legs. pod.wikipedia (Original text : Frank Holden) Permission: GNU Free Documentation License Peale's dolphin Order : Cetacea Suborder : Odontoceti . It lives in all the world's oceans. herd. although they are spotted in waters ranging from 10 . feeding on small fish and squid. striped dolphin is listed as Conservation Dependent (LR/cd). The Euphrosyne dolphin. Along with dingos and other canids. Striped dolphin Striped dolphin Order : Cetacea Suborder : Odontoceti Family : Delphinidae Species : Stenella coeruleoalba The Striped Dolphin (Stenella coeruleoalba) is an extensively studied animal.wikipedia. Peale's dolphin Picture has been licensed under a GFDL Original source: Transferred from en. A striped dolphin group is called a 'team. They can reach lengths of up to 2. the focus of a continuing taxon-specific or habitat-specific conservation programme targeted towards the taxon in question.kangaroo carrion.26 degrees celsius).

Macroalgal / Kelp. The females are called 'cow' and males 'bull'. Marine Oceanic and Pelagic Facts about the Peale's dolphin Description & Fascinating FactsPeale's dolphin. (Full text) 4 Conservation 5 References Physical description Peale's Dolphin is of typical size in its family about 1m in length at birth and 2. A Peale group is called a 'team.The Peale's dolphin is dark grey or black. (Full text) Recognition at sea: Peale's Dolphins are most likely to be confused with the similar Dusky Dolphin. assessment of its risk of extinction.about 1m in length at birth and 2. (Full text) The Peale's Dolphin (Lagenorhynchus australis) is a robust and large dolphin. Blue whale Blue whale . pod. (Full text) Lifespan-. and so are easily observed. (Full text) Peale's Dolphin is of typical size in its family . school. Countries Argentina. is small cetacean with a stocky body and a very small beak.about 1m in length at birth and 2. (Full text) Peale’s Dolphins are subject to entanglement in gillnets set near shore. For example. Peale's dolphin is native to cold waters of the Atlantic and Pacific off the southern part of South America. or indirect. peale's dolphin is listed as Data Deficient (DD). but the scale of incidental mortality is not considered large in any area of their range. herd. (Full text) Blackchin Dolphin or Lagenorhynchus australis is listed on the IUCN Red list (1996) as Data Deficient .Family : Delphinidae Species : Lagenorhynchus australis The Blackchin dolphin. Lagenorhynchus australis. on the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species Namings for the Peale A young / baby of a Peale is called a 'calf or pup'. inadequate information to make a direct. alliance (male) or party (female)'. Chile and Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas) Habitats Epipelagic (0-200m). Recognition at Sea: Peale's dolphins are most likely to be confused with the similar Dusky dolphin. Biology and Behaviour Habitat: Peale's dolphins are often seen near the coast. Peale's dolphin (Lagenorhynchus australis) is native to cold waters of the Atlantic and Pacific off the southern part of South America. (Full text) The Peale's dolphin is known to ride the bow waves of large vessels and may swim alongside smaller ones. Marine Neritic. (Full text) Peale's dolphins are grayish black above and white below. (Full text) Peale's dolphins are greyish black above and white below. (Full text) Adult Peale's dolphins are dark gray to black in color with lighter shading on the flanks. Physical description Peale's Dolphin is of typical size in its family .

Kansas.Order : Cetacea Suborder : Mysticeti Family : Balaenopteridae Species : Balaenoptera musculus The blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) was hunted almost to extinction until hunting was outlawed in 1966. s. Habitat Any freshwater location. Oklahoma. Texas. New York to c. . Voice Series of short throaty croaks. Wanders among moist vegetation in the summer. including the hippopotamus. west to Texas and e. Discussion The most ubiquitous frog of the eastern states. They are considered an endangered species.000 and 4. and today humans still disturb these beautiful underwater giants. a light spot in center of eardrum. New York to the Florida Keys. Some authorities do not recognize the Florida population as a separate subspecies.such as a raccoon or waterbird .000 (source). blue whales have a hard time communicating with each other.1-12. it hides in grass or sedges or sunny banks. north to c. Egg masses are laid in shallow water. Range From s. But a little search on google shows a lot of different views. makes a sharp turn while still submerged. sphenocephala). utricularia). about the evolution on whales. March to June in northern areas. green to brown. Yesterday i saw an episode of Genographic Project on National Geographic. During the day. The world population is estimated between 3. eastern seaboard from s. s. typically. they are threatened by illegal whaling. Illinois and Indiana. pollution and fishing nets. all cetaceans descended from a wolf-like creature. True Frogs view all from this family Description 2-5" (5. returns to freshwater ponds and streams and brackish marshes rest of year.this frog dives into the water. Slender and narrow-headed. Primarily nocturnal.ridges continuous to groin. Males call while afloat or from land. Furthermore.7 cm). meanwhile the predator continues to search in the direction of the original dive. north to ec. With the increase of the noise from ships and military sonar. northern Florida to Florida Keys. and surfaces amid vegetation at the water's edge. with large dark spots between light-colored dorsolateral ridges . Southern Leopard Frog (R. Breeding Year-round in southern areas. To elude a predator . According to the Genographic project. Subspecies Florida Leopard Frog (R. Did you know adult blue whales are about the same size as a boeing 737 ? AMPHIBIANS Southern Leopard Frog Rana sphenocephala (Rana utricularia) Family: Ranidae. This is the species most frequently hunted for frogs' legs by youngsters in the Southeast. Read about it on National Geographic. Light stripe along upper jaw.

Tadpoles are large. Belly cream to white. Breeding Northern areas. it is usually found on the bank at water's edge. olive-green. May to July. however. Large external eardrum. southern. This toad can easily be distinguished from other toads in the southeast by the shape of its cranial crests. also New Brunswick and parts of Nova Scotia. These form knobs in the area between the eyes (see diagram).3 cm). on young specimens. Southern Toad. hind feet fully webbed except for last joint of longest toe. and slow-moving streams large enough to avoid crowding and with sufficient vegetation to provide easy cover. Voice Deep-pitched jug o'rum call can be heard for more than a quarter mile on quiet mornings. Their coloration varies from brick red to brown or light gray. it will as soon flee into nearby vegetation as take to the water. February to October. Extensively introduced in the West. True Frogs view all from this family Description 3 1/2-8" (9-20. Attempts to commercially harvest frogs' legs have prompted many introductions of the American Bullfrog outside its natural range.2-17. Habitat Aquatic. The largest frog in North America. other frogs. Discussion Nocturnal. and can be heard caling on warm. 4-6 3/4" (10. Bufo terrestris The Southern Toad is a medium sized toad reaching lengths around 3 inches or more. Range Eastern and central United States. and minnows. Sometimes there is a light line down the middle of the back which usually becomes diffuse toward the back. Green to yellow above with random mottling of darker gray. humid nights. and when seen from the right direction they give the impression that the toad has horns. and may take almost 2 years to transform. may be mottled with gray. These knobs are not well developed. Large specimens have been known to catch and swallow small birds and young snakes. its usual diet includes insects. Less aquatic than the Pig Frog.American Bullfrog Rana catesbeiana Family: Ranidae. Eggs hatch in 1-3 days and the tadpoles take 1-2 months to develop into toadlets .2 cm). lakes. Prefers ponds. Southern Toads breed from March to October in temporary pools and flooded meadows. crayfish. Males have throats that are darker than the rest of the underside. No dorsolateral ridges. Egg masses are attached to submerged vegetation. When frightened.

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