RUNNING HEAD: Abnormal Psychology and Therapy Paper
When speaking of psychology, it is important to realize there are two types: Normal and abnormal psychology. To compare and contrast these two what will be examined are different types of mental illnesses and mental disorders. What will also be discussed are the various therapies used to treat these conditions. Different mental conditions require different types of treatments. These treatments can vary based on factors, such as whether the condition is a mental illness or mental disorder and the school of psychological thought the psychiatrist treating the patient follows. When an individual thinks of the words normal and abnormal, the thoughts of mental as well as emotional states or behaviors of human beings come to mind. Society has put a tremendous input on what is normal and abnormal. Given the nature of life experiences such as feeling of guilt, anger, anxiety, disappointment, and many other similar states are normal. Those dealing with mental disorders would be classified as abnormal. Individuals with a high IQ level would be normal to society were as those with a low IQ level would be considered abnormal to society. Abnormal psychology involves dealing with psychopathology and those with abnormal behavior. Abnormal points toward dealing with something outside the norm. “The behavior occurs infrequently and thus deviates from statistical norms” (Strickland, B). Disorders include those dealing with things like depression and attention deficit. Before classifying ones trait or behavior as abnormal, it is important to clarify what disorder may be.
RUNNING HEAD: Abnormal Psychology and Therapy Paper Normal psychology deals with those trying to adapt to different emotions or demands in life. One can be average in every possible way but also have different disturbances in life. What might be a normal routine to one person might be an abnormal routine to another. Human behavior will always be hard to be understood because everyone will always be his or her own person. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Obsessive compulsive disorder is found in many people young and old. It is a disorder that will disrupt a day and can cause other disorders. OCD is intrusive thoughts or images, which increase anxiety, and by repetitive actions decrease anxiety (Obsessive, 2002). A person can wake up in the morning and have to blink ten times before getting out of bed; the thoughts that come to their mind have to be completed for them to have a regular day. The feelings or ideas that they have are called compulsions, once the idea is fulfilled there is a temporary relief. OCD affects about 2.2 million American adults; it usually begins in teenage years. This is now starting to show up at a younger age. Many people with OCD have developed disorders like eating and anxiety disorders as well as depression. Treatment for OCD is pharmaceutical or through behavioral treatments. Treatments effect people differently, some benefit from medicine whereas others benefit better from therapy. Research progresses this disorder with the hope of one day finding a better treatment (Obsessive-Compulsive 1991-2013). Dementia Dementia is a loss of intellectual capacity, to the extent where normal, social, and occupational functions can no longer be carried out. It is expected from normal aging.
RUNNING HEAD: Abnormal Psychology and Therapy Paper This term is reserved for multifunctional disorders that are characterized through the loss of memory, reasoning, judgment, and other higher mental processes. Alterations in personality and modes of social interaction accompany these cognitive deficits (Dementia. (2009). In the Penguin Dictionary of Psychology.) Dementia can be classified as either reversible or irreversible, depending on the etiology of the disease. Less than 10% of the given cases are because of causes that may be reversed with treatment. A few of the most common forms of dementia are Alzheimer’s disease, Vascular Dementia, Frontotemporal Dementia, Semantic Dementia, and last Dementia with Lewy Bodies. This disorder is only a problem of memory, it also reduces the ability to learn, to reason, to retain or recall past experiences, and there is a large amount of loss dealing with patterns of thought, one’s feelings, and their activities. Dementia worsens as individuals suffering from it may neglect themselves. Behavior may become disorganized, restless, and inappropriate. Some become restless or may wander through the day or at night. A common symptom of dementia is to deny that relatives are in fact, relatives of their own. Depression affects 20-30% of those who have the disorder and about 20% have anxiety. There is no cure. However, properly educating and providing emotional care to caregivers and those working in elderly care centers assists in dealing with this disorder. There are currently no medications that have been prove to prevent or cure dementia.
RUNNING HEAD: Abnormal Psychology and Therapy Paper Many countries consider the care of those living with dementia to be a national priority. They invest in resources and education which will better inform health and social service workers, relatives, members of the community. Schizophrenia Schizophrenia as defined by Merriam- Webster.com, is a psychotic disorder characterized by loss of contact with the environment, by noticeable deterioration in the level of functioning in everyday life, and by disintegration of personality expressed as disorder of feeling, thought (as delusions), perception (as hallucinations), and behavior. Although we could define Schizophrenia, and mostly diagnose it, we as a population and health professionals still have a hard time to determine the cause, course and treatment of this mental disorder (Bengston, Michael). As stated the cause of schizophrenia is poorly understood, yet we do know some of the warning signs that may indicate schizophrenia, they include Social isolation and withdrawal, Irrational, bizarre or odd statements or beliefs, Increased paranoia or questioning others' motivations, Becoming more emotionless, Hostility or suspiciousness, Increasing reliance on drugs or alcohol (in an attempt to self-medicate), Lack of motivation, Speaking in a strange manner, unlike themselves, Inappropriate laughter, Insomnia or oversleeping, Deterioration in their personal appearance and hygiene (Bengston, Michael). Also Schizophrenia may include hallucinations and/or delusions, which can make the person suffering from schizophrenia confused about reality and fantasy. They may become paranoid because of the hallucinations or delusions and may believe that someone is out to get them or harm them which can lead them to act differently and may act so different that they may even scare others around them. Those who suffer from schizophrenia include anyone of any gender
RUNNING HEAD: Abnormal Psychology and Therapy Paper or race and about one-third of those diagnosed with schizophrenia will attempt suicide. About 10 % of those with the diagnosis will commit suicide within 20 years of the beginning of the disorder (Bengston, Michael). Alzheimer’s Alzheimer Disease (AD) is a progressive degenerating process of neural tissue that affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain in the middle and late life. It is the most common form of dementia. There is no cure for this disease. Symptoms start of psychological, and would gradually increase the impairment of recent memory and disorientation in time and space. The most common symptom is difficulty in remembering recent events. It is increasingly associated with difficulties in judgment, comprehension, and abstract reasoning. The cause of this disease is not well understood. As AD advances, the symptoms may include confusion, irritability, aggression, mood swings, and trouble with language. There are no available treatments to stop or reverse the progression. After very few years, progressive neurological deterioration produces poor gait, immobility, and eventually death. The sufferer relies on others for assistance because AD cannot be cured. This disease is known for placing a great burden on caregivers. It is usually diagnosed clinically through patient history, collateral history from relatives, and clinical observations. There is currently no definite evidence to support that any particular measure is effective in preventing AD. The components of fruit, vegetables, bread, wheat, olive oil,
RUNNING HEAD: Abnormal Psychology and Therapy Paper fish, and red wine together reduce the risk and course of AD. Those who engage in intellectual activities such as reading, playing board games, or involve themselves in social interaction show a reduced risk for AD. Conclusion All in all, many topics were discussed that makes us realize just how important abnormal psychology really is. After conducting extensive research, we now know that normal psychology has to do with emotions and demands in life and abnormal psychology has to do with mental disorders and illnesses. Individuals with a high IQ level are considered normal whereas an individual with a low IQ level would be considered abnormal. Alzheimer’s, Obsessive Compulsive Disorder, Dementia, and Schizophrenia are all considered abnormal and all affect an individual’s life. Thankfully, there are many treatment options for these individual’s that suffer from these illnesses and disorders. This helps them attempt to lead a normal life as much as they can without constantly being depressed. There are examples that many do not know about. An individual does not need to have an illness or disorder to be abnormal. Abraham Lincoln was viewed as abnormal because of his high intelligence. It is very important that every individual gets educated on normal psychology and abnormal psychology because he/she will never know when he/she will be in a position to assist someone in need with a disorder.
RUNNING HEAD: Abnormal Psychology and Therapy Paper References Strickland, B. (2001). Abnormal Psychology. The Gale Encyclopedia of Psychology. (2nd ed.). pages 1-2. Detroit, MI: Gale. Kowalski, R., & Westen, D. (2011). Psychology (6th ed.). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.. Stein, D.J. (2002). Obsessive-compulsive disorder. The Lancet, 360(9330). 397-405. Retrieved August 31, 2013 from http://search.proquest.com/docview/199080467?accountid=458 Psychology Today (1991- 2013). Obsessive- compulsive disorder. Sussex Publishers. Retrieved August 31, 2013 from http://www.psychologytoday.com/conditions/obsessive-compulsive-disorder
Schizophrenia. (n.d.). Merriam-Webster.com. Retrieved August 30, 2013, from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/schizophrenia Schizophrenia and Psychosis Schizophrenia Information & Treatment Introduction Retrieved August 31, 2013 Retrieved from Michael Bengston, M.D. http://psychcentral.com/disorders/schizophrenia/ Dementia. (2009). In The Penguin Dictionary of Psychology. Retrieved August 31, 2013 Retrieved from http://www.credoreference.com.ezproxy.apollolibrary.com/entry/penguinpsyc/dementia