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Fruit to be included inbetween the meals or 2 hours after the meal.
½ pc . let us break down the Pyramid into its various components.0 4 You can pick the specified amount of serving from each of these groups to be within the caloric and carbohydrate range.5 gm Calories in dishes may be reduced by using less oil' 1 tsp oil = 45 calories.CEREAL EXCHANGE : Pick any… Servings per day from this grou p 1 cup /1 katori = 150 ml.In order to understand this food Pyramid and how this will help in your understanding of the types and amounts of foods which you would eat.tamarind rice 1. corn.0 ----Group B 100 gms 50 10 2.5 100 mL 60 4 3. jowar. ragi. 1 tsp. 3 ground rules for using exchanges: Substitute the food within the same meal.0 7 Chicken/Fish gms 100 ----20.Name of Preparation ¾ cup Stuffed veg. paratha (30 gm flour) Measure/ No. Protein 2.5 gms 50 4 2. Later when you see the Diet Charts which are based on the Exchange system.(teaspoon ) = 5 ml Each Cereal exchange provides: 100 Kcalories. you will see that depending on the calories you would eat in a day. bread) Whole grams Amount 30 gms Energy (kcals) 100 Carbo hydrates 21 Proteins (gms) 2.5 Group C 50 gms 50 10 1. Lime rice . barley Dhals & Pulses Milk & its products Vegetables wheat.0 0.0 1 Fruits 1 Portion 100 50 10 -----------gms Meat/Mutton 50 100 ----8. Measure/ No.0 0. oats. Name of Preparation Bisibelebath. fat 0.5 gms 50 --------5.5 30 gms 100 15 6.0 6 gms 50 gms Fats & oils 1 tsp 5. the meals and snacks are divided into servings or portions of these foods Exchange list teaches the learner about composition and portion size. Substitute correct amount of food exchanged Substitute from the same food group LIST 1 .0 5 Egg 100 75 ----6. Carbohydrate 21 gm. EXCHANGE LIST Each Serving of Cereals (rice. rava.5 gm.5 Sugars 1 tsp 5 gms 20 5 ---5 Fresh Coconut 25 gms 100 3 1.0 3 Group A 250 gms 50 10 2.5 9 Nuts & oilseeds 7.5 Fat (gms) 0.
) Roasted Chana Papad Medu Wada Moong Dal (fried) Measure 1 katori Cooked Wt 150 Chana whole/Chole(20 gm) ½tsp ½ katori oil. Puri (15 gm flour) 1 tsp. 0.PULSE EXCHANGE: Pick any_____ Servings/day from this group. Chapati (25 gm with oil) 6. no added fat Potato (boiled) 100 gms ½ katori 2 pc ½ pc 1 katori ¾ katori ¾ katori 1 katori 2 pc 1 pc 2 katori 1¼ katori 6-7 nos.Substitute one pulse portion with one portion of egg/meat/chicken/fish LIST 3 . Batura (1 tsp.Bread (medium size slice) 2. Corn Flakes. oil. Chapati (30 gm flour)5 – 6” diametre 5. 4 nos.MILK EXCHANGE Pick any _______ servings per day . oil 13. Paratha (plain) 55 gm flour 1 tsp. 2 pc ¾ cup 1 pc 1 pc 1 pc 4 Large tsp 2 pc 1 katori ½ pc ½ pc ½ katori 2 pc ½ katori 1 ¾ tbsp Pulao (vegetable)1 tsp oil. rice14gm) Puri (15 gm flour)1 tsp oil Jowar roti Rice / Ragi (30 gm raw) Rawa Upma 1 tsp. vangi bath. oil Rice puffed (Kurmura) Macroni /Spaghetti /Noodles(4 tbsp) Marie Biscuits Digestive / Cream Cracker / Monaco Popcorn. oil Rice Flakes (Pohe) 1 tsp. air-popped. Khakra (25 gm flour with oil) 8. Tur Dal / Varan (30 gm) Greens kootu ¾ katori 50 1¾ katori 2 pc ¾ pc 230 ¾ katori 110 75 75 A handful 30 25 25 Moong Dal 20 gm dal with 1 tsp ½ katori oil Bengal gram-flour (Besan) (30 gms) Rajmah / Cow pea ¾ Katori ¼ katori 20 Peas dried /Horsegram (30 1 Katori gms) Note: For Non-Vegetarians . Khichadi 9. tomato rice 3. Noodles (raw)25 gms 15. Oats (uncooked) 7. oil) 4.5 gm fat Name of Preparation Whole Moong / Usal (20 gm pulse) ½ tsp. Vegetable biryani.oil Vermicelli (Savian) 1 tsp oil Idlis Dosa (Sada) 1 tsp. Stuffed veg. Measure ½ katori Cooked Name of Preparation Wt (gm) 80 Sambhar (25 gm dal) Onions Rasam (1 tsp. 3 cups 2 small LIST 2 . Dalia ( cooked) 14. paratha (30 gm flour) 11. Each Pulse exchange provide: 100 calories Carbohydrate 15 gm. Pulao (vegetable) 1 tspoil(rice 14 gm) 12. Protein 6gm. oil 10. oil.
VEGETABLE EXCHANGE Each Amount Calories CHO Protein Fat . EGG.450 ml 3 pc 60 gm 5 .55 gm 1 no. Sheep Cooked wt 1 thinslice 100 gm 1 breast 60 gm 1 slice 60 gm 2 cups 400 .4 meat pc ½ katori 30 gm fish 1 pc 50 gm 2 no. 5 gms protein Measure Name Measure 1 cup (100 ml) Cheese (whole milk) 20 gms 1 cup (100 ml) Paneer 25 gm 1 glass (200 ml) Soya milk (6. oil ) Egg boiled small (20 . 50 . 50 gm 125 gms 2 slice Amt LIST 5 .from this group Each Milk exchange gives 60 kcal and 4 gm carbohydrate . CHEESE EXCHANGE : group Each Amount Calories Fat Meat Exchange (gms) (Kcal) (gms) (gms) Meat /mutton 50 g 100 7 chicken/fish 100 g 100 -Egg 50 g 75 6 Food Item Ham Chicken Beef Chicken Soup Mutton muscle Prawn Liver.6 Protein) 150 ml 1½ glass Skimmed milk powder 20 gms 1 cup Tea + 100 ml milk 1 cup Pick any ___ Serving per day from this CHO (gms) --20 --5 8 6 Protein LIST 4 – MEAT. Proteins 3 gms & 3 gms fat Name Cow milk Curds Milk (skimmed)* Butter milk (curd 100 gm) Coff Nescafe(100 ml milk * Skimmed milk – 30 calories.7 pc 85 gms 85 gms Amt Food Item Meat Curry (1 tsp. oil ) 1 piece Omelett with 1 small Egg1tsp. oil ) Fish Curry ( 1 tsp.25gm ) Egg boiled ( English ) Crab Pork (85 gms) Cooked wt 1/3 katori 3 .
Yam (Suran).150 gm (½ katori cooked) day) Beetroot Ladies fingers Brinjal Capsicum (Simla Mirch) Broad Beans (Fafda Papdi) Cluster Beans (Gawar) Carrot Chawli Turnip (Shalgham) Onion (Pyaz)big Onion Small 2 Plantain (green) 1 VEGETABLE C GROUP 50 gm (¼ katori cooked) Those marked as High GI are those with give raise to blood sugars very quickly. Potato (Alu) Shingoda High GI Sweet Potato (Shakkarkand) High GI Green Peas (Matar) Double beans Pumpkin Colocasia Root High GI (Arvi) LIST 6 .FRUIT EXCHANGE : Each fruit exchange provide 50 Calories.5 1 VEGETABLE A GROUP. FRUIT Apple (Seb) Size / No Wt 1 medium 80 FRUIT Guava (Peru) Size / No Wt 1 medium 100 . Carbohydrate 10 gm Pick any ___ Serving per day from this group.200 .Vegetable Exchange (gms) Vegetable A (nonstarchy) 250 Vegetable B 100 Vegetable C (starchy) 50 (Kcal) 50 50 50 (gms) 10 10 10 (gms) 2 2 1 (gms) -0.250 gm (free vegetables) 1 katori cooked per day) Ash Gourd (Petha /Kohla) Bitter Gourd (Karela) Bottle Gourd (Dudhi) Ridge Gourd (Turie / Turia) Snake Gourd (Padwal) Mushrooms Cucumber (Kheera / Kakdi) (Choose _____ Cups of vegetables Parwar Tomato Lettuce (Salad Patta) Radish (Muli) Cauliflower (Phul Gobi) Tendli (Tinda) Spinach (Palak) Cabbage (Gobi) Drumsticks French Beans (Fansi) Fenugreek (Methi) Pumpkin (Kaddu) Amaranth (Chaulai Sag) Mint (Choose any _____ Cups of vegetables per VEGETABLE B GROUP 100 .
/ gm 5.5 12 Use blended oils in cooking rather than only one type of oil i. olive oil.5 gms of fat. sunflower oil. 10 .12 small 4 halves 1 tbsp.5 no. level Approximate Wt/gm 10 7. Oil or cooking fat.3 pc 175 High GI ½ medium 2 pc 1 medium 1 ½ slice 125 ml 50 High GI Lichies 15 High GI CustardApple SitaPhal) 50 Jackfruit (Phanas) 90 High GI Mango (Aam) 80 50 60 High GI 1 medium 90 LIST 7 . corn oil along with soyabean. mustard oil or canola oil to ensure optimal intake of various fatty acids of and include unroasted flaxseeds in the diet about 2-3 tsp/day this improves good cholesterol. 1 medium 10 big 4 small 20 ½ big 110 75 150 80 135 105 150 Musk melon (Kharbuj) Orange (Santra ) Papaya Pear (Nashpati ) Plum (Alubukhara) Pomegranate Water Melon ¼ medium 1 medium 1 medium 1 medium 200 100 150 High GI 100 3 .5 5.s ¼ medium 2 . Recommended oil combinations in Indian diets ( Oils in 1:1 Proportion) Groundnut/Seasame/Rice bran Sunflower / Safflower + Palmolein /Olive +Mustard Groundnut/Seasame/Rice bran Safflower/Sunflower + +Canola Groundnut/Seasame/Rice bran Groundnut/Seasame/Rice bran .e.Strawberries Cherries Sweet Lime Jamun (Jamu) Figs (Anjeer) Grapes Grape fruit Group II Banana (Kela) Dates (Khajur) Sapota (Chikoo) PineApple Tender coconut water 4 .5 g of Almond/Pistas/Walnuts Approxima Name te Wt.FAT EXCHAGE: Each fat exchange provides : 50 Calories.12 no. Mayonnaise Approximate House hold measures 1 tsp.. Ghee Butter or Margarine. sesame oil.s 10 . Pick any ___ Serving 1 teaspoon oil Ghee/Butter Name OR 6 whole peanuts /7.5 7.5 no. safflower oil. level 1 tsp.5 7 . 5.5 Groundnut Almonds Walnuts Coconut (fresh) Approximate House hold measures 25 no.4 small 100 ½ medium 75 1 big wedge 4 . level 1 ½ tsp. per day from this group. groundnut.
So fast eaters tend to miss out this signal and consume more calories. nuts & oil seeds Include plenty of fresh /raw / boiled colourful vegetables in your diet as they are rich is nutrients. practice meditation/ deep breathing/yoga to destress your self.5%)or curd prepared from such milk. oats. sugar and bakery products prepared in hydrogenated fat ie. unpolished rice. Minimize the use of processed foods. ready to eat fast foods rich in salt. Do not club tea or coffee with food. fenugreek seeds. For E.g. Moderate the use of animal foods containing high levels of Saturated fats and cholesterol such as whole milk. groundnuts. Height in cms – 100 = Ideal body weight. To ensure balanced meal include variety of foods from each food groups in specified amounts. pistachios and walnuts) instead of a high-calorie snacks. Over eating should be avoided to prevent overweight and obesity. baking. vanspathi. ½ kg barley. Repeated heating of oil should be avoided. Restrict use of papad. grilling. This amounts to about 4 tsp/day. whole fruits. preserved foods. pulses. Egg has several important nutrients but is high in cholesterol so limit to 3 whole eggs/week but egg white can be consumed in good amounts. salads. Exercise regularly for atleast 30 . parboiled rice. animal foods as these fats can block the arteries. soyabean. Eat about the same amount at about the same time each day. Skipping breakfast skipping leads to excessive/ imbalanced eating later in day. Use a smaller plate to serve. Balance the food you eat with physical activity. Practice right cooking methods such as boiling.45 minutes to maintain good health and ideal weight. Choose a diet moderate in salt. pickles & mixtures. Stir fry rather than deep fry. Leave a gap of 30 minutes before and after the meal. Choose good carbohydrates: whole grains (multigrain atta. the bigger the temptation to fill it. Eat slowly and chew well. trans fat such as dalda margarine. Safflower oil with groundnut oil or sunflower oil with gingelly oil. A nutritious breakfast will help you get going for the day. No feasting or no fasting. Include fish at least 100 – 200g/ twice a week (4–5 pieces) prefer it over meat and poultry. ½ kg soya bean or ½ Kabul channa . broiling. raw and green leafy vegetables. ( Mill 5 kg wheat. It is always better to use a combination of oils instead of single oil. Minimize oil intake about ½ a liter per person per month. premixed . sprouts. butter. Have salad / soup before 20 minutes of your meal as they are fillers and you are less likely to over eat. . Avoid prolonged stress. 100 gms methi) Choose low fat dairy foods such as double-toned milk (fat <1. barley. steaming & roasting.e. beans. Avoid smoking and alcohol as they are nutrient robbers. It takes 20 minutes for the stomach to get the signal from brain that it is full. whole pulses. Include low calorie in-between healthy snacks. The gap between 2 meals should be 3-4 hour.. Use non-stick pans. associated with obesity. methiseeds they have soluble fiber which helps to increase good cholestrol and reduces blood sugars raise quickly. So. Breakfast is an important meal.+Soyabean Palmolein + Soyabean Safflower/ Sunflower + Palmolein +Mustard Dietary guidelines for HEALTHY LIVING Maintain standard body weight i. Stick to portion size. Include fiber rich foods such as whole grains. Take a hand full of nuts (almonds. The bigger the plate. As stress increases blood sugars.. coconut oil. ghee. chips.
but can be used in restricted quantities in cooking. Most vegetables have little effect on weight and thus can be consumed freely in the form of boiled vegetables. paneer. etc. pistachios. buttermilk. Keep to minimum. Unsaturated vegetable oils like sunflower oil. cashewnuts. Skimmed milk may be used to prepare curds. wheat. sweets. paneer. sweet potato. mava. Avoid having late dinners and going to bed immediately. Groundnuts and coconut (dry and fresh need not be completely avoided. ragi. 100-percent fruit juices. Bengal gram dhal. Restrict AVOID Refined grain products like maida. desserts. butter.Sprouted pulses are beneficial as they are also rich in fibre and vitamins. Minimize eating out. Fruits also provide a lot of vitamins and minerals. yam. jowar. macaroni. as this aids digestion. safflower oil. icecream. brown bread. choose food wisely. vermicelli Fruits Roots and tubers such as potato. etc. Avoid sugary drinks. Vegetables cooked in a lot of oil and rich gravies. gingelly oil. puddings. Practice yoga or meditation to reduce stress. Coffee. khoa. Leave at least 2 hour after a meal and then go to sleep. bajra. colocasia should be restricted in overweight individuals as they are high in calories. Consume fruits as whole instead of fruit juices. red gram. and condensed milk. as they are a source of empty calories. Almonds. and limit intake of juices and milk. Use fresh fruits freely. white bread. soups. etc. tea. walnuts Saturated fats like vanaspati. Sleep for at least 6 – 8 hours a day. etc. butter. Sports drinks are recommended only for people who exercise more than an hour at a stretch to replace substances lost in sweat. noodles. coconut oil . Vegetables Prefer Whole grain cereals and their products like rice. Fried vegetables such as chips. and if need be. An Individual should have 1. Eat fruits with their edible skin and seeds as it contains more fibre. low-fat milk and alcohol can fit into a healthy diet but are best consumed in moderation. Avoid alcohol and cigarette smoking as these are nutrient robbers. and salads. etc. Whole milk and milk products like cream. ghee.) They are very rich in proteins. Buttermilk maybe used freely. artificially-sweetened drinks. They contain a lot of fibre and are a rich source of vitamins and minerals. green gram. FOOD GUIDE Cereals Pulses and dals Please follow the plate method to fill your plate and choose the specified portions from each group at each meal. groundnut oil.5 – 2 L (8 – 10) glasses) of water every day. Canned fruits Sugar Dairy products Nuts and oilseeds Fats and oils Chocolates. cheese. Whole pulses like dhal (Eg.
This amounts to ½ kg of oil per person per month. puri. etc. Eating at restaurant or party when overly hungry is not recommended. plain roti or iddli should be preferred to biryani. Eating out… Encourage smaller portion sizes at restaurants and choosing cooking methods That contain less fat. Refrain from eating very oily or rich foods. Egg white 100 grams of white meat (chicken without skin. Boiled rice. this is boiled. sausages Shell fish such as crabs. *ENERGY EXPENDITURE ON VARIOUS PHYSICAL ACTIVITIES Activity Kcal/30 Activity mts Cleaning/Moppin 105 Shuttle g Gardening 150 Table Tennis Watching TV 43 Tennis Cycling 180 Volley Ball (15(Km/hr) Running 6 176 8 (Km/hr) (Km/hr) 327 12 (Km/hr) (Kcal/30 minutes) Kcal/30 mts 174 122 196 90 261 375 . steamed. especially when eating out. lobsters Avoid carbonated or fizzy beverages and also alcoholic beverages Coffee / tea should be limited to 3 cups per day.000 steps per day. oysters. beef Organ meats such as liver. Prefer fresh fruit or plain coffee after the meal to a bowl of dessert or ice cream. mutton. Salads without rich dressings may be taken generously. And also I encourage my patients to purchase a pedometer and track their daily steps. shrimps. vada. brain Processed meat such as salami. mixtures. Filling up on lower calorie items at the beginning of a meal. Beverages Egg yolk Red meat such as pork. chakli. is a good idea. pulao.Eggs Meats Choose more than one type of vegetables oil for cooking Limit total fat intake to 3 – 4 teaspoons per day. heart. Keep it plain and simple when eating out. puri and paratha. broiling. I encourage 30 minutes of physical activity daily. provided they are cooked without fat. leaving the type of activity up to the patient. like grilling. pakoda. fish) can be consumed 2 – 3 times a week. Clear soups or thick soups are preferable to cream soups. baked or roasted Fried foods like samosa. Eat foods that are familiar rather than venture into unknown territory. such as tossed salad or broth-based soup. poaching and steaming. adding 500 steps each week until they’re walking 10. bhujiya. prawns.
10 (Km/hr) Walking 4 (Km/hr) Shopping Sleeping Sitting 80 102 28 43 Fishing Standing Typing Dancing 111 66 54 186 .