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BOOKS 1. Internal Combustion Engines: Applied Thermosciences by C. R. Ferguson 2. Internal Combustion Engine Fundamentals by Heywood 3. Engineering Fundamentals of the Internal Combustion Engines by Willard W. Pulkrabek 4. Internal Combustion Engines by Maleeve 5. Internal Combustion Engines & Air Pollution by E. F. Obert 6. C. Engine Theory & Practice by C. F. Taylor 7. Introduction to Internal Combustion Engines by Richard Stone 8. Internal Combustion Engines by Lichty 9. Combustion Engine Processes by Lichty

Heat engines are devices used to produce net work from a supply of heat by operating in a cyclic manner. Work can be converted to heat directly and completely, but converting heat to work requires the use of heat engines. Heat engines usually involve a fluid to and from which heat is transferred while undergoing a cycle. This fluid is called the working fluid. In thermodynamic systems the working fluid can be in liquid, vapour, or gaseous phase. Heat engines differ considerably from one another, but all can be characterised by the following: 1. They receive heat from a high-temperature source (e.g., combustion chamber, solar energy, nuclear reactor). 2. They convert part of this heat to work (usually in the form of a rotating shaft). 3. They reject the remaining waste heat to a low-temperature sink (the atmosphere, rivers, etc.). 4. They operate on a cycle. C la s s if ic a tio n o f H e a t E n g in e s
H e a t E n g in e s

I n t e r n a l C o m b u s t io n E n g in e s

E x t e r n a l C o m b u s t io n E n g in e s

R e c i p r o c a t in g E n g i n e s F o r e x a m p le , P e t r o l E n g in e D ie s e l E n g in e

T u r b in e s F o r e x a m p le , G a s T u r b in e

R e c ip r o c a t in g E n g in e s F o r e x a m p le , S t e a m e n g in e s

T u r b in e s F o r e x a m p le , S t e a m T u r b in e s

Internal Combustion Engine: In the internal combustion engine, combustion takes place directly in the working fluid and the expanding force of combustion is converted into mechanical force by means of a suitable mechanism. That is, the products of combustion of air and fuel are, directly, the motive or working fluid. External Combustion Engine : In the external combustion engine fuel burns outside the working fluid and the products of combustion transfer heat to a second fluid, which then becomes the motive or working fluid. Reciprocating Engines : For reciprocating engines, cycle consists of a succession of non-flow processes. A given mass of working fluid can be taken through a series of processes in a cylinder fitted with a reciprocating piston. These are used for small power production. Turbines: For turbines, cycle is a series of steady flow processes. These are used to develop high power. An advantage of a reciprocating engine on a turbine is that in reciprocating engines maximum permissible temperature of working fluid is much higher than in a turbine plant. For Page 1 of 10

instance, 2800 K in reciprocating engine compared with 1000 K in a gas turbine. Thermal Efficiency Performance or efficiency, in general, can be expresses in terms of the desired output and the required input as Desired output Net work output
Performance = Required input Thermal efficiency = Total heat input

Qin The thermal efficiency of a heat engine is always less than unity. Thermal efficiency is a measure of how efficiently a heat engine converts the heat that it receives to work. Heat engines are built for the purpose of converting heat to work, and engineers are constantly trying to improve the efficiencies of these devices since increased efficiency means less fuel consumption and thus lower fuel bills and less pollution. The Thermal Efficiencies of Work-Producing Devices: Ordinary spark-ignition automobile engine 25 % Diesel engines and large gas-turbine plants 35 % Steam power plants 40 % Large combined gas-steam power plants 50 %

th =

Wnet, out

= 1

Qout Qin

Internal Combustion Engines Most internal combustion engines use the reciprocating-piston principle, where in a piston slides back and forth in a cylinder and transmits power through, usually, a simple connecting rod and crank mechanism to the drive shaft. Internal Combustion Engine Classifications: There are many types and arrangements of internal combustion engines, and some classification is necessary to describe a particular engine adequately. They can be classified in a number of different ways: Application. Automobile, locomotive, marine, power generation, light aircraft, portable power system. Working Cycle. Four-stroke cycle, Two-stroke cycle. Air Intake Process. Naturally aspirated, supercharged, turbocharged, crankcase compressed. Fuel Used. Gasoline (Petrol), fuel oil (or diesel fuel), natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, alcohols, gasohol, hydrogen, dual fuel. Method of Mixture Preparation. Carburetion, fuel injection into the intake ports or intake manifold, fuel injection into the engine cylinder. Method of Ignition. Spark ignition (SI), compression ignition (CI) Method of Load Control. Throttling of fuel and air flow together so mixture composition is essentially unchanged, control of fuel flow alone, a combination of these. Basic Engine Design. Reciprocating engines (in turn subdivided by arrangement of cylinders: e.g., in-line, V, opposed cylinder, opposed piston, W, radial), rotary engines (Wankel and other geometries) Valve or Port Design and Location. Valves in head: Overhead (or I-head) valves, Valves in block: flat head (or underhead or L-head) valves, T-head valves (Historic engines), F-head valves (less common), rotary valves, cross-scavenged porting, loop scavenged porting, through- or uniflowscavenged Combustion Chamber Design. Open chamber (many designs: e.g., disc, wedge, hemisphere, bowlin-piston), divided chamber (small and large auxiliary chambers; many designs: e.g., swirl chamber, prechambers) Method of Cooling. Water cooled, air cooled, liquid cooled Several or all of these classifications can be used at the same time to identify a given engine. Thus, a modern engine might be called a turbocharged, reciprocating, spark ignition, four-stroke cycle, overhead valve, water-cooled, gasoline, multipoint fuel-injected, V8 automobile engine. Page 2 of 10

Any material that can be burned to release thermal energy is called a fuel. Fuels used in internalcombustion engines come from all three groupsgaseous, solid, and liquid. Gaseous fuels used are natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), producer gas etc. Solid fuels are coal, chiefly anthracite and coke, mostly used in gas producers. The main constituent of coal is carbon. Coal also contains varying amounts of oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulphur, moisture, and ash. Composition of coal varies considerably from one geographical area to the next and even within the same geographical location. Pulverised coal can be used in CI engines but with some problems mainly excessive wear of cylinder liner and piston rings. Liquid fuels are derived mostly from petroleum. The more important in this group are gasoline and fuel oil. Other liquid fuels are kerosene, alcohol, vegetable oils, etc. All liquid fuels can be divided into two main groups: liquids that are vaporised and handled similarly to gas fuels (gasoline and alcohol are the main ones in this group) and liquids that are injected into the combustion space (fuel oils of different characteristics). HYDROCARBON FUELS Composition: In all fuels the two basic combustible elements are carbon and hydrogen, encountered separately or in combinations called hydrocarbons. At atmospheric pressure and temperature some of the hydrocarbons are gases, while some are liquids. Crude oil is made up almost entirely of carbon and hydrogen with some traces of other species like sulphur, oxygen, nitrogen, water (humid). It varies from 83% to 87% carbon and 11% to 14% hydrogen by mass. There are four significant sources of crude oil: (1) petroleum; (2) coal liquefaction; (3) shale oil; and (4) tar sands.
Most of the crude oil used to date has been petroleum derived since what is found in the ground requires little processing before delivery to a refinery . Coal, on the other hand, must be treated to increase its

hydrogen content and remove undesirable elements such as nitrogen, sulphur, etc. Shale oil is difficult to get out of the ground since it is soaked up in rocks. Tar sands contain hydrocarbons mixed with sand and are more difficult to remove from the ground than petroleum. Like coal derivatives and shale oil, oils from tar sands require hydrogenation and removal of undesirable chemicals from the crude before it is delivered to the refinery. As petroleum supplies dwindle, more and more crude oil will be from alternative sources. Regardless of the source, crude oil contains a
large number of different hydrocarbons. For example, 25,000 different compounds have been found in one sample of petroleum derived crude oil. The compounds range from gases to viscous liquids and waxes.

Refining: The crude oil mixture which is taken from the ground is separated into component products by cracking and/or distillation using thermal or catalytic methods at oil refinery. The purpose of refinery is to physically separate crude oil into various fractions and then chemically process the fractions into fuels and other products. The physical properties of any fraction are controlled by the distillation temperatures. Generally, the larger the molecular mass of
a component, the higher is its boiling temperature. The refinery produces fuels for engines (gasoline, diesel, jet), fuels for heating (coke, kerosene, residual), chemical feed stock (aromatics, propylene), and asphalt.

The hydrogen and carbon can combine in many ways and form many different molecular compounds. Carbon atoms form four bonds in molecular structure, while hydrogen has one bond. A saturated hydrocarbon molecule will have no double or triple carbon-to-carbon bonds and will have a maximum number of hydrogen atoms. An unsaturated molecule will have double or triple carbonto-carbon bonds. The general chemical formula for all hydrocarbons is CH. A number of different families of hydrocarbon molecules have been identified. The main type of hydrocarbons are paraffins, CH2+2, olefins, & naphthenes, CH2, diolefins, CH2-2, asphaltics, CH2-4, and aromatics, CH2-6. In different combinations of interest, as internal-combustion-engine fuel, varies from 1 to about 26 and from 2 to 54. Paraffin Family: The paraffin family (alkane) in turn can be subdivided into normal parrafin hydrocarbons,
which have a straight or open-chain structure with one bond between each atom such as heptane and isomers, which have the same number of C and H atoms and the same molecular mass but a different structure, such as the three isomers of normal heptane. More complicated paraffin hydrocarbons may have a

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greater number of isomers. The difference in the structure of the molecules results in different physical properties and reaction characteristics.


C7H16 H H H H H H H | | | | | | | HCCCCCCCH | | | | | | | H H H H H H H

Isomers of normal heptane 2-Methyl Hexane,

H H H | H C H H H H | | | | | | HCCCCCCH | | | | | | H H H H H H

2,2 Dimethyl Pentane,

H H H | H C H H H | | | | | HCCCCCH | | | | | H C H H H | H H H

2-Ethyl Pentane,

H H H | H C H | H C H H H | | | | | HCCCCCH | | | | | H H H H H The number indicates the position of the carbon atom to which the methyl group is attached. Olefins: The olefins (alkenes), CH2, are also straight or open-chain hydrocarbons but have two atoms of hydrogen fewer per molecule with one carbon-carbon double bond. 4-Octane, C8H16 H H H H H H H H | | | | | | | | HCCCC=CCCCH | | | | | | H H H H H H

The open-chain hydrocarbons, paraffins and olefins, are classed jointly as aliphatics. Naphthenes: The naphthenes (cycloalkanes), have the same chemical formula, CH2, but are closed-chain hydrocarbons and there are no double bonds. Cyclo-Octane, C8H16 HHHHHH | | HCCCCH | | HCCCCH Page 4 of 10

| | HHHHHH Diolefins: The diolefins, CH2-2, are unsaturated hydrocarbons with two double-bonded molecules. 1,5-Hexadien, C6H10 H H H H | | | | C=CCCC=C | | | | | | H H H H H H The paraffins and naphthenes are saturated compounds, meaning that all the carbon atoms are fully engaged and each is attached to four other atoms. Such compounds are chemically stable. The olefins and diolefins are unsaturated compounds and therefore unstable; the carbon atoms with a double bond can attach themselves to and absorb additional atoms of hydrogen, oxygen, or sulphur if such are present. Alkynes: The alkynes, CH2-2, are unsaturated hydrocarbons with a triple carbon-carbon bond. The best known member of the family is acetylene (C2H2). HC CH Aromatics: The aromatics, CH2-6, are hydrocarbons with carbon-carbon double-bonds internal to a ring structure. The most common aromatic is benzene. The double bonds alternate in position between the carbon atoms. This makes the molecule hard to break and, as a result, aromatics are desirable in gasoline since they increase the octane number. Aromatics are undesirable components of diesel fuels. Benzene H | H C H C || C H C | C

C H | H At atmospheric conditions, hydrocarbon molecules with a low number of carbon atoms, 1 to 4, are gases. Hydrocarbons with 5 to 15 carbon atoms are more or less volatile light oils, and those with 16 to 26 carbon atoms are referred to as heavy oils. Commercial fuels and lubricating oils are mixtures of many kinds of hydrocarbons in various proportions. Alcohols: Another group of hydrocarbons consists of methyl, CH 4O, ethyl, C2H6O, and butyl, C4H9OH, alcohols. These are not true hydrocarbons, since each contains oxygen in the molecule. Ethyl alcohol also called ethanol is obtained from corn, grains, and organic waste. Methyl
alcohol also called methanol is produced mostly from natural gas, but it can also be obtained from coal and biomass.

GASEOUS FUELS Hydrogen Gas: There is a considerable interest in hydrogen as a fuel. Not only it will help to eliminate the present-day problem of dependence on petroleum fuels, but it also has a potential to reduce vehicular pollution as it is a clean burning fuel. Essentially no CO or HC in the exhaust as there is no carbon in the fuel. Most exhaust would be H2O, N2 or NOx. Fuel leakage to environment is not a pollutant. It has high energy content per unit mass. When an internal combustion engine uses pure hydrogen, the equivalence ratio can be extended to very low values, where exhaust emissions are reduced by several orders of magnitude from those achievable by lean operation with conventional hydrocarbons. Hydrogen offers the unique advantage of being a fuel, the basic resource of which (water) is recyclable. Basically it can be
commercially produced either by coal gasification or by electrolysis of water using electricity generated from coal, nuclear fission, or solar energy.

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Disadvantages of Hydrogen are: it has heavy, bulky fuel storage; poor engine volumetric efficiency; high fuel cost at present-day technology and availability; high NO x emissions because of high flame temperature. Hydrogen is a unique potential automotive fuel with significant drawbacks in its storage properties. Generally it may be stored in a vehicle in three ways: as a gas dissolved in the form of metal hydrides, cryogenic store of liquid hydrogen, and as a compressed gas. If stored as a liquid, it would have to be kept under pressure at a very low temperature. This would require a thermally super-insulated fuel tank. Storing in a gas phase would require a heavy pressure vessel with limited capacity. Natural Gas is a mixture of components, consisting mainly of methane (60 to 98%) with small amounts of other hydrocarbon fuel components. In addition it contains various amounts of N 2, CO2, He, and traces of other gases. It is found in many parts of the world. By extensive pipe lines it is made available many hundreds and in some cases even thousands of miles away from the wells from which it is obtained. Natural gas obtained from oil wells is called casing-head gas and is usually treated for the recovery of gasoline, after which, called dry gas, it is delivered into the pipe-line systems to be used as fuel. The analysis of natural gas varies considerably with the location. Natural Gas is stored as compressed natural gas (CNG) at pressures of 16 to 25 MPa, or as a liquid natural gas (LNG) at pressures of 70 to 210 kPa and a temperature around -160C. As a fuel, natural gas works best in an engine system with low emissions. Engines can operate with a high compression ratio as its octane number is high because of its fast flame speed. Its disadvantages are: low energy density resulting in low engine performance; low volumetric efficiency; requires large pressurised fuel storage tank. Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) is mixture of hydrocarbon consisting chiefly of butane and propane, its composition vary widely in the different countries. Depending upon the source and the nature of the treatment to which the products have been subjected. LPG products are composed of those readily liquefiable hydrocarbon compounds which are produced in the course of processing natural gas and also in the course of the conventional refinery of crude oil. LPG is obtained from three main sources:- (i) Crude oil associated with light hydrocarbons: The oil is stabilized for distribution by pipeline or tanker. The amounts of light gases and light liquids which are removed depend upon the pressure and temperature at the well head. (ii) Methane rich gas associated with light hydrocarbon liquids (wet natural gas): The light liquids are removed to prevent undue condensation problems during piping of the gas. (iii) Crude oil refinery fractionation and conversion processes, which yields LP gases: The main conversion processes used are catalytic reforming and catalytic cracking. Coke-oven gas is obtained as a by-product when making coke, and its analysis depends upon the coal used and also upon the method of operating the oven. Its heating value per unit volume is only about one-half that of natural gas, but it requires about half the air for combustion, and the heating value of the actual air-gas mixture (mixture heating value) is practically the same as when natural gas is used. Blast-furnace gas is a by-product of melting iron ore. Its analysis varies considerably with the fuel used and the method of operating the blast furnace. Its mixture heating value is only slightly less than that of the first two fuels. Part of the gas is used for preheating the air necessary to operate the blast furnace itself and the blowing engines. The rest, about one-fourth of the total amount, can be used as engine fuel for power production. Producer gas is obtained by gasification (burning with small amount of oxygen) of solid fuels. Its analysis varies with the fuel used, anthracite, coke, charcoal, bituminous coal, or wood, and dampness of air, which influences the hydrogen content. A relatively low heating value of the gas and a relatively high temperature of the gas coming from the producer, which results in a low charge efficiency of the engine, reduce the power developed to only about 60 to 65 per cent of that obtained with gasoline. However, because of absence of detonation, high compression ratios can be used, which results in the thermal efficiency about the same as with gasoline. Page 6 of 10

Sewage-Sludge Gas: With the development of sewage-disposal plants, sewage-sludge gas is produced and used as fuel for internal-combustion engines. These engines furnish energy for driving the pumps in the sewage plants. The composition of the gas varies considerably.

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Composition (% by Volume) H2 CH4 Other HC CO CO2 O2 N2 H2S Specific Density (air =1) Lower Heating Value [MJ/m3] (A/F)s by Volume (A/F) by Volume Mixture Heating Value [MJ/m3]

Hydrogen 100 --------------0.07 9 2.38 4.76 1.56

Natural Gas --83 15 --1 --1 --0.62 36.5 10.5 13.5 2.52

LPG ----100 ----------1.87 110.4 28.8 23 4.6

CokeBlast-Furnace Oven Gas Gas 50 31 3 5 2 1 8 --0.40 17.7 4.7 6.0 2.53 3.5 0.5 --27 11 --58 --1.00 3.7 0.78 0.94 1.91

Producer Gas 15 2 --24 5 1 53 --0.84 5 1.12 1.4 2.08

Sewagesludge gas 2 67 ----25 0.5 5 0.5 0.81 23.3 7.06 8.9 2.35

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LIQUID FUELS Gasoline: The main fuel for SI engines is T e m p e r a tu r e -v a p o r iz a tio n c u r v e fo r gasoline, which is a mixture of many a ty p ic a l g a s o lin e m ix tu r e hydrocarbon components and is manufactured from crude petroleum. The various components 120 of different molecular masses of gasoline will 100 vaporize at different temperatures small 80 molecular masses at low temperature and larger 60 molecular masses at higher temperature as 40 shown in Fig. This makes a very desirable fuel. 20 A small percentage of components that vaporize 0 (boil) at low temperature is needed in the 0 20 40 60 80 100 gasoline to assure the starting of a cold engine; P e r c e n t E v a p o r a te d (% ) fuel must vaporize before it can burn. However, too much of this front-end volatility can cause problems when the fuel vaporizes too quickly. Volumetric efficiency of the engine will be reduced if fuel vapour replaces air too early in the intake system. Another serious problem this can cause is vapour lock, which occurs when fuel vaporizes in the fuel supply lines or in the carburettor in the hot engine compartment. When this happens, the supply of fuel is cut off and the engine stops. A large percentage of fuel should be vaporized at the normal intake system temperature during the short time of the intake process. To maximize volumetric efficiency, some of the fuel should not vaporize until late into the compression stroke and even into the start of combustion. This is why some high-molecular-mass components are included in gasoline mixtures. If too much of this high-end volatility is included in the gasoline, however, some of the fuel never get vaporized and ends up as exhaust pollution or condenses on the cylinder walls and dilutes the lubricating oil. The availability and cost of gasoline fuel is a result of a market competition with many other products. This becomes more critical with the depletion of the earths crude oil reserves.If gasoline is approximated as single-component hydrocarbon fuel, it would have a molecular structure of about C8H15 and a corresponding mass of 111. Diesel fuel (diesel oil, fuel oil) is obtainable over a large range of molecular masses and physical properties. For diesel fuel viscosity is an important characteristic, as it effects the atomization of fuel and operation of the high-pressure fuel pumps. The greater the number of carbon atoms, the greater the viscosity of the oil. Of two hydrocarbons having the same number of carbon atoms, the one with the lower hydrogen content will have a higher viscosity and its viscosity will change more rapidly with the change of temperature. Various methods are used to classify diesel fuels. For IC engines they can be divided into two extreme categories. Light diesel fuel will be less viscous and easier to pump, will generally inject into smaller droplets, and will be more costly. It has a molecular mass of about 170 and can be approximated by the chemical formula C12.3H22.2. Heavy diesel fuel can generally be used in larger engines with higher injection pressures and heated intake systems. It has a molecular mass of about 200 and can be approximated as C 14.6H24.8. Most Diesel fuel used in engines will fit in this range. Biodiesel Fuel: Biodiesel is a diesel replacement fuel that is produced from renewable sources such as vegetable oil, animal fat, greases and recycled cooking oil. Bio represents its renewable and biological source and diesel refers to its use in diesel engine. The biodiesel Manufacturing process convert oil and fats into chemical called long chain monoalkyl ester or biodiesel. These chemicals are also referred to as Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Transestrerification is the term used to describe the transformation of vegetable oil into the biodeisel. Biodiesel is environmentally friendly as it is renewable. Using vegetable oils or animal fats as fuel for motor vehicles is in effect running them on solar energy. All biofuels, including ethanol, are derived from the conversion of sunlight to energy (carbohydrates) that takes place in the green leaves of plants. Plants take up carbon dioxide (CO 2) from the
T e m p e r a tu r e ( C )

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atmosphere; burning plant (or animal) products in an engine releases the CO 2 uptake back into the atmosphere, to be taken up again by other plants. The CO 2 is recycled therefore atmospheric CO2 levels remain constant. Thus biofuels do not increase the Greenhouse Effect unlike fossil fuels, which release large amounts of CO2. Biodiesel is much cleaner than fossilfuel diesel. It can be used in any diesel engine without any modifications. Diesel engines run better and last longer with biodiesel. Biodiesel exhaust is not offensive and doesn't cause eye irritation (it smells like French fries!). Sulphur dioxide emissions are eliminated as biodiesel contains no sulphur. Biodiesel substantially reduces unburned hydrocarbons, CO and particulate matter in exhaust fumes. The ozone-forming potential of biodiesel emissions is less than conventional diesel fuel. Nitrogen oxide (NOx) emissions may increase or decrease but can be reduced to well below conventional diesel fuel levels by adjusting engine timing etc. Biodiesel substantially reduces cancer-causing compounds. According to a U.S. Department of Energy study, the use of pure biodiesel instead of petroleum-based diesel fuel could offer a 93.6% reduction in cancer risks from exhaust emissions exposure. Biodiesel is a much better lubricant than conventional diesel fuel and extends engine life. Biodiesel can be mixed with ordinary petroleum diesel fuel in any proportion, without any mixing additive. Even a small amount of biodiesel means cleaner emissions and better engine lubrication. Biodiesel has a high cetane rating, which improves engine performance: 20% biodiesel added to conventional diesel fuel improves the cetane rating 3 points, making it a Premium fuel.

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