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Name: Year and Section: General Instructions: No erasures or Superimpositions.

Fill in the blanks and answer the following questions.

Principles of Serologic Reactions


Types of Immunologic Reactions
A. Primary Reactions:

Examples:
a) b) c)

B. Secondary reactions:

Examples:
a) b) c) d)

C. Tertiary Reactions:

Examples:
a) b) c) d) e)

D. Quaternary Reactions

Examples:

AGGLUTINATION REACTIONS
Agglutination

Has a LATTICE FORMATION -

_______________________________________________________________

Strength of agglutination is reported as a number from +1 - +4:


+1 +2 +3 +4 = = = = ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________

Agglutinins - ___________________________________________________ Agglutinogens - ___________________________________________________


Examples of particles: * Bacteria * Yeasts * White blood cells * Erythrocytes Latex particles large enough for direct observations Factors that affects quality of tests results in agglutination reactions: (Explain how these factors affect the quality of the reaction) Time of incubation Amount and avidity of an antigen conjugated to the carrier Relative concentration of antigen and antibody Buffer pH Temperature Motion (shaking, stirring, centrifugation) Antibody class

Agglutination Techniques
- commonly used in the lab - Simple, inexpensive, reliable -Useful as screening test to determine if a patient has developed an antibody to a specific antigen or if the patient has the antigen for a specific antibody. Agglutination tests can be performed using slide, test cards and test tubes, microtiter plates

Types of Agglutination Reaction


A. Direct Agglutination Reaction

- _______________________________________________________________________________________

Examples of particles being used: a)

b)

Hemagglutination

____________________________________________________
DIRECT HEMAGGLUTINATION Direct agglutination of RBC Detect ABO and Rh antigens Detect antibodies to infectious agents (i.e cold agglutinin test for detection of antibodies to M. pneumoniae which react with I antigen on red cells)

Direct Bacterial Agglutination:

_______________________________________________________________ Test to detect febrile antibodies to Salmonella _____________________________ Test that detects febrile typhus _____________________________ B. Viral Hemagglutination Reaction _________________________________________________________________________________________
VIRAL HEMAGGLUTINATION INHIBITION TEST - A test which inhibits viruses from agglutinating the erythrocytes and in that way reveals its presence. - Competitive binding assay

C. PASSIVE AND REVERSE AGGLUTINATION REACTION PASSIVE:

REVERSE:

Examples of carriers: * * * * *

Latex Particle Agglutination Inhibition Reaction


- Competitive binding assay 2 stages: 1ST: Incubation of patient samples with reagent antibodies 2ND: Addition of antigen coated latex particles Results: Agglutination Negative No agglutination - Positive

D. Antiglobulin techniques

Generally used in Blood Banking section - Used to detect warm reacting antibody (IgG)

Direct Coombs test


-

Indirect Coombs test

E. AGGLUTINATION INHIBITION REACTION

F. COAGGLUTINATION REACTION

S.aureus most frequently used Protein A which naturally adsorbs the Fc portion of Ig.

APPLICATIONS OF AGGLUTINATION REACTIONS


DETERMINATION OF ABO BLOOD GROUPS: * FORWARD TYPING -__________________________________ * REVERSE TYPING - ___________________________________ DETECTION OF COLD AUTOAGGLUTININS Cold Agglutinins are ____________________________________________________________________ Reversed when serum is heated at 37oC

Examples of Cold autoagglutinins:


-

DETECTION OF FEBRILE AGGLUTININS

- ____________________________________________________________________
Brucella melitensis Franciscella tularensis Rickettsia species Salmonella typhi DETECTION OF HETEROPHILE ANTIBODIES

- ____________________________________________________________________
DETECTION OF AUTOIMUNE DISORDERS EXAMPLE: RF test for Rheumatoid arthritis

NEUTRALIZATION TECHNIQUE
Neutralization of toxins and viruses

- ____________________________________________________________________
VIRAL NEUTRALIZATION TEST (Can be done using test animal)

- ____________________________________________________________________
Results: If animal dies: - _____________________________ If animal lives: - _____________________________ TOXIN NEUTRALIZATION TEST

SCHICK TEST - _____________________________

Principle:

Results:

DICKS test
- _____________________________

Principle: Results:

COMPLEMENT FIXATION TEST


Principle:

Procedure: (Illustrate the procedure)


Reagents/materials needed:

Interpretation of Results: