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VII.

DEVELOPMENTAL HISTORY These are just a few of the fascinating aspects of the field of “human development”: the science that studies how we learn and develop psychologically, from birth to the end of life. This very young science not only enables us to understand how each individual develops, it also gives us profound insights into who we are as adults. Each theory has its own perspective on the development of man. On our case study, we chose Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development. Erikson's Stages of Psychosocial Development The Psychosocial Stages of Development developed by Erikson enumerates eight stages though which healthily developing human should pass from infancy to late adulthood. Every stage describes a task to be accomplished. These development stages can be seen as a series of crisis and each stage forms on the successful accomplishment of the earlier stages. Successful resolution of these crises supports a healthy self-development. Failure to resolve the crisis damages the ego and maybe expected to reappear as problems in the future. Stage1. Infancy: Birth to 18 Months Ego Development Outcome: Trust vs. Mistrust Basic strength: Drive and Hope At this stage babies learn to trust that their parents will meet their basic needs. If a child's basic needs aren't properly met at this age, he or she might grow up with a general mistrust of the world. According to the parents of our patient, they were the one who took care for our patient since infancy until our patient was growing up. Our patient needs were provided by her parents.

however. whenever our patient cried they were immediately attended her needs. will someone comfort him? When these needs are consistently met. Because an infant is entirely dependent upon his or her caregivers. Caregivers who are inconsistent. During those times. the child will begin to mistrust the people around him. and when our patient frightened they were comforted her child. According to Erikson. . the quality of care that the child receives plays an important role in the shaping of the child’s personality. these needs are not consistently met. emotionally unavailable or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. If a child successfully develops trust. This stage occurs between birth and approximately 18 months of age. he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Therefore. If. the trust versus mistrust stage is the most important period in a person’s life. our patient achieved trust as he was able to exhibit behaviours during that age. the child will learn that he can trust the people that are caring for him. When a baby cries.Her mother stated that. does his caregiver attend to his needs? When he is frightened. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable. children learn whether or not they can trust the people around them. During this stage. the parents of our patient felt that they were really trusted by her child.

Stage2. we have seen that she could able to do some independent things during that stage. With that. he or she might develop shame and doubt about their abilities. . she said that her child gained a sense of personal control over the surroundings or the place where she was involved. in choosing simple clothes whenever our patient is in the house. and Will As toddlers. our patient that time was the one choosing her clothes. She insisted her wants rather than ours. Early Childhood: 18 Months to 3 Years Ego Development Outcome: Autonomy vs. Toilet training plays a major role. toy preferences and clothing selection. Also. If a child is not encouraged properly at this age. This stage occurs between the ages of 18 months to approximately age two to three years. For example in the house. as she observed our patient when she was on toddler stage. children at this stage are focused on developing a greater sense of selfcontrol. after taking a bath. Courage. learning to control one’s body functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence. Gaining a sense of personal control over the world is important at this stage of development. she noticed that our patient knows where she should go whenever she wants to eliminate. According to the mother of our patient. Therefore. children begin to develop independence and start to learn that they can do some things on their own such as going to the toilet. Other important events include gaining more control over food choices. According to Erikson. our patient began to developed independence and started to learn things. Shame Basic Strengths: Self-control.

our patient used to play with an imaginary friend in their house. Caregivers who are discouraging or dismissive may cause children to feel ashamed of them and to become overly dependent upon the help of others. If a child is not able to take initiative and succeed at appropriate tasks. This stage occurs during the preschool years. he or she might develop guilt over their needs and desires. because she thought that it is normal for a child like her. between the ages of three and five. By then. Her mother told that.Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident. During the initiative versus guilt stage. children continue to develop more independence and start to do things of their own initiative. accomplishing tasks and facing challenges. During this stage. children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interaction. she let our patient to play continually. the only thing that she still remember. There were times that she observed our patient playing her Barbie doll while talking to no one. Stage 3. . Guilt Basic Strength: Purpose As preschoolers. During this stage. Children need to begin asserting control and power over the environment by taking initiative by planning activities. it is important for caregivers to encourage exploration and to help children make appropriate choices. while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt. she first enrolled to class as a preschooler on their Barangay Day Care Center. Play Age: 3 to 5 Years Ego Development Outcome: Initiative vs.

she used to answered it with confident. teachers. During this stage. her parents. academic and extracurricular activities were still on balance. School Age: 6 to 12 Years Ego Development Outcome: Industry vs. Success in this stage leads to a sense of purpose. When efforts to engage in physical and imaginative play are stifled by caregivers. She could handle things on their own. while failure results in a sense of guilt. if there were assignments given by her teachers. If they are not encouraged and praised properly at this age. children continue to develop self-confidence through learning new things. Children have their sense of initiative reinforced by being given the freedom and encouragement to play. This is also a very social stage of development and if we experience unresolved feelings of inadequacy and inferiority among our peers. they may develop an inferiority complex. Stage4. industry on this stage were properly achieved and developed. often called the Latency. we are capable of learning. According to our patient. With that. she was very active in their school activities. . during her elementary grade. Therefore. relatives and friends were very proud of her. By then. Inferiority Basic Strengths: Method and Competence Throughout their school years. thus developing a sense of industry.Play and imagination takes on an important role at this stage. children begin to feel that their self-initiated efforts are a source of embarrassment. we can have serious problems in terms of competence and selfesteem. creating and accomplishing numerous new skills and knowledge.

Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents. Stage5. They start forming their own identity by experimenting with who they are. children receive praise and attention for performing various tasks such as reading. . his or her role confusion will probably continue on into adulthood. or peers will doubt their ability to be successful. According to Erikson. “There was no confusion regarding with my identity. I know who I am. If a teenager is unable to properly develop an identity at this age. Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. the ego development outcome here is Identity. while failure results in feelings of inferiority. I am a pure girl. Children need to cope with new social and academic demands. drawing and solving problems. this stage is vital in the development of self-confidence. they strive to master new skills. As a result.” Therefore. Role Confusion Basic Strengths: Devotion and Fidelity When they reach the teenage years. children become capable of performing increasingly complex tasks.During the industry versus inferiority stage. children start to care about how they look to others. During school and other social activities. The patient verbalized that. teachers. Success leads to a sense of competence. writing. Adolescence: 12 to 18 Years Ego Development Outcome: Identity vs.

they will probably develop feelings of isolation. According to Erikson. Stage 6. Teens need to develop a sense of self and personal identity. Our patient was happily married with one son. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will insecure and confused about themselves and the future. During adolescence. Isolation Basic Strengths: Affiliation and Love During early adulthood most people fall in love. get married and start building their own family. teens may experiment with different roles. As they make the transition from childhood to adulthood. As her 3 .This stage occurs during adolescence between the ages of approximately 12 to 18. activities and behaviors. If a person is unable to develop intimacy with others at this age (whether through marriage or close friendships). Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Our patient achieved intimacy as he is able to exhibit behaviours that are well acceptable for his age. Young Adulthood: 18 to 35 Ego Development Outcome: Intimacy and Solidarity vs. teens may begin to feel confused or insecure about themselves and how they fit in to society. The patient stage in psychosocial development now is in the stage of young adulthood because he is 26 years of age. As they seek to establish a sense of self. children are exploring their independence and developing a sense of self. this is important to the process of forming a strong identity and developing a sense of direction in life.

they were both intimate while doing it. Still. Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close. sequential steps. committed relationships with other people. During this period of time. While psychosocial theory is often presented as a series of neatly defined.years being her wife to her husband and mother to her only one 3 year old son. For example. loneliness. the love and faithfulness to each other is still there. Also. and depression. but because there was surgery happened to her. loving relationships with other people. . Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation. They need to wait for another year to grant their wished. Therefore. the major conflict centers on forming intimate. she then developed close and committed relationship with them. our patient stated that she and her husband our planning to have another baby this year. Our patient is very close to her own family. Erikson believed that having a fully formed sense of self (established during the identity versus confusion stage) is essential to being able to form intimate relationships. This stage takes place during young adulthood between the ages of approximately 19 and 40. while failure results in loneliness and isolation. In regards with their sexual relationship. our patient on this stage developed and well achieved the intimacy and solidarity to her loved ones. it is important to remember that each stage contributes to the next. Success leads to strong relationships. Whenever there were problems arises and decision to be settled they were both agreeing and give final decision on it.