Ibrāhīm al-Kūrānī (d.

1101/1690), an Apologist for "waḥdat al-wujūd" Author(s): Alexander Knysh Source: Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, Third Series, Vol. 5, No. 1 (Apr., 1995), pp. 39-47 Published by: Cambridge University Press on behalf of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/25183729 . Accessed: 25/08/2013 12:43
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theologians who It fell found critical of monistic al-Q?naw?'s followers philosophy synthesis to of seek but also by some of Ibn philosophy and mysticism and the the disparate works with to al-Q?naw?'s statements to reconcile Ibn 'Arab?'s metaphysical disciplined In the long scattered ontological that throughout discourse al-Q?naw?'s and run. only by Muslim 'Arab?'s somewhat ambiguous much more adherents. Chittick. 5. 1101/logo). Muhy? '1-D?n Ibn 'Arab? (d. al-wuj?d an Apologist for wahdat ALEXANDER can also if not KNYSH of Few "unity Islamic teachings boast known the fame. Series3. 1 "Ibn 'Arab?and his interpreters".27. pp. of Muslim thinkers whose commanding a fact to subsequent is too well known In what monistic devoid of follows. on master some placed other. starting Anatolian have which of his argued the thinker Sadr al-D?n al-Qunaw? that latter's al-Q?naw?'s legacy was interpretation to be emphasis equally repeatedly 'Arab?'s (d. thinkers that it forging a synthetic vision that was to become so popular with Muslim thenceforth dominated Muslim intellectual life. XVII JRAS. elements special admittedly It has of Ibn Simultaneously. largely perceived. Religious Studies (Cambridge). J. 539-64. by This the doctrine controversial of existence". CVI/4 (1986). (1986). CVII/i (1987). pp. as "unity the notoriety.214. the the philosophy generations of Ibn S?n? (d. of the and in commentaries issues.1 with. of being" philosophical doctrine became intimately associated with the towering figure of the Arab Ibn 'Arab?himself mystic of al-Andalus. 1 (1995). a number I will of try to demonstrate cosmology. 25 Aug 2013 12:43:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . controversial neglected important. (wahdat enjoyed al-wuj?d). 638/1240). versus philosophy in earlier Islamic history: the 733?56. JAOS. Many of Ibn 'Arab? Al-Q?naw?'s the ontological aspects students of Islamic thought determined on the way the works they legacy accent on in. 673/1274). 87?104. CVI/3 See. e. inconsistencies.178 on Sun. 428/1037). As that the marriage al-Q?naw? a result. 101?20. correspondence". "Mysticism al-T?s? al-Q?naw? (1981).g. pp. arbitrary. mystic. rationalist it appears characteristic later followers of Avicennan managed to philosophy. Morris.Ibrahim al-K?r?ni (d. been mysticism of that from the the Andalusian ontological suggested sprang al-Q?naw?'s his proficiency preoccupation influence detain on us here. pp. integrate the monistic Sufism of Ibn 'Arabian type into Avicennan Peripatetic philosophy. it was between tried sometimes Ibn 'Arab?'s was not not rebuffed outlook and Avicennan logical which to achieve. W.39~47 This content downloaded from 194. Although does not seem to have it gained applied wide this ambiguous among term his to his followers loosely structured from metaphysical the celebrated currency speculations.PP.

1301). literature the judgement in general seventeenth-century Arabia in particular. Journal of Asian and African Studies. N. M. 69-92. Islamic This is all the more that attracted important students Arabian major learning coming to Medina from far and wide. i. 25 Aug 2013 12:43:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . a.27. ii. Geschichte der Arabischen Litteratur (Leiden.2 An analysis of his life and accusers helps in of Medina insofar from as this far and wide. idem. prior to the seventeenth at least two centuries earlier is evident from my "Ibn Mizj?j?s played an active role in the religious life of Yemen ' Ibn Arab? Society. had to who upheld case. pp. and in question of generally achievements it have often regarded in poetry. scholars. Furthermore. 1992).h. I will the Western try to rectify seem to have written older this omission. of Islamicists. al-Shawk?n?. 520?1. This content downloaded from 194. "Linking groups in the networks Renewal and Reform in Islam. as one prose. Voll.4 up this study. generated to inspire the movements eighteenth In taking The period century. Born in Iranian Kurdistan. 3 Renewal and Reform in Islam. Prozorov (Moscow. 7-8. Knysh. J.40 Alexander Knysh Among the most successful advocates of this synthesis we find the noted Kurdish scholar Ibr?h?m al-Kur?n?. 32-9. Voll (Syracuse. al-Mur?d?. their lands moot a Orientalists attitude analysis as well towards of younger of generation later Islamic sceptical course of corpus literature. 6 the author of this article was apparently unaware See e. i. Hayyl in eighteenth intellectual idem. Supplement. ed. group (1975). Journal of the 'Arab?in the Yemen: Muhyiddin pp. at least ties their The similar In the that a highly any visible References which equally traditional linkage to (and "epigonic") between this interest literature. period. Linking groups ".3 it was It was there of Islam. where he vigorously pursued the study of hadtth and other Islamic sciences. "Introduction".178 on Sun. "Had?th BSOAS. pp. were parts started Aside places of from being where world the symbolic heartland intellectual took and place. pp. 264-73 . century Medina". XV (1980). Eighteenth-Century and J. literature on the part and of in had?th ofthat Anxious they have failed to the nascent reformist conventional a renewed inWestern seventeenth-century stand a network up. XXXVIH/i and their impact in the Muslim scholars and tanqahs: an ulama group in the eighteenth century Haramayn of world". of religio-social I am has earlier renewal which a shook the Islamic world in the entering into been regrettably hazy of and little known stagnation Those epoch world. Levtzion N. 156 and 176-8. Voll. 5?6. pp. for it was often strong appear studies centuries. in Eighteenth-Century eighteenth-century 5 ?d. idem. 11-12. pp.g. which he examines. XI (Oxford. That the scholarly family. 38-63. Levtzion and J. e.5 hardly in the previous pre-reformist In this article as the Ibr?h?m to discover Islamicists6 of personal neglected connected legacy. Islam: Istoriograficheskiye Ocherki (Islam: Essays on Historiography). 121. 514-15 . 4 an analysis of an al-Sind? and Muhammad Ibn 'Abd al-Wahh?b: "Muhammad See. surrounded by numerous students ' apologetic works inwhich he defended Ibn Arab? against his anti-monistic to highlight the world of ideas and curriculum of the scholarly community the second city half was of a the seventeenth centre of century. and creative theology.g. I have produced failed a strong disprove of my the al-K?r?n?'s theological Whereas writings. pp. of that fruitless scholars rehashing who have Western tended to studied stressed that the 'ulama produce discern ideology. Al-Badr al t?l?. Medina among in Medina that they - along with Mecca scholars Muslim the ideas from reformers that were all significant interchange Muslim that many the Muslim their scholarly careers. Characteristically. S. pp. Voll." 1991). 1938-9). Silk al-durar (Baghdad. Brockelmann. in the Muslim and and obscure terminology problematics of the theological discourses dating back to this age present serious difficulties 2 On his life and work see C.214. "Sufizm". See A. of the history of the Mizj?j? century. 1987). his admirers and detractors". ii. passim. he spent most of his life inMedina. revivalist scholars". scholars. pp.

to take in Sufi philosophy. 1976). Hall (Ithaca. "Islam in Southeast Asia: "Al-K?r?n?". pp.10 the works here studied reflect only one. (1957). Essays presented toD. Generally speaking. 7 Al-K?r?n? was the author of more This content downloaded from 194. H. the bulk of literature produced that time largely consists of rather dull and repetitive treatises on had?th sciences aswell thematic collections of had?th. at the same for his time.Johns. problems and perspectives". is likely to be disappointingly unrewarding. find very in the writings if any. their words Despite predecessors. Yahuda Collection. H. controversial principal apology of the Library of Princeton University. epoch. see Alfred Guillaume. 316-19). Apart diligently century ethics strike enumerating scholar and us had from had?th. bi-tahq?q al-taklTf inMajm?'a.7 I have chosen legacy. albeit a very One in mind important. 291. the part of their both author in import. to " than ioo books and treatises.ntred the books and the literature. Even few. 9 this has not yet been accomplished. 2nd. 8 to A. 65a.g. His intimate him reformulate the monistic discourse of the extremely of in such their a way as involved to and scholastic allows knowledge recondite subject render it intelligible and accessible to the lay reader with Yet.27. E. rehearse slavishly variations Sufi classics.214. of many 'Arab?'s on scholar he subjected their statements challenging problems attending the monistic My the manuscripts al-K?r?n?'s minor works and epistles contained of by of al-K?r?n?'s Ibn in the Garrett Collection legacy. fi tahqxq al-ilq?' fi-l-umniya". Johns9 leaves little doubt Library only in size but the same not evince "supreme that it differs from the shorter From on all appearances. 25 Aug 2013 12:43:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p. faithfully the Ibn as wahdat these works al-wuj?d are defensive thoroughly arguments centuries. aspect of the work of a scholar whose interests ranged from fiqh to had?th. completion al-ta'r?f #3869. Southeast Asian History andHistoriography. v. ed. Ibid. short treatises after the p. once they have been overcome. G. he was with to the unflagging close scrutiny metaphysics study is based persistence of a critically-minded and laid of mostly bare Ibn and resolved school. Al-K?r?nfs Johns. authorities There earlier a set we one from are also is likely which rather Such to discover this or humdrum mystical that tracts works devoted arguments do the little seminal long on seventeenth Sufi acquired that his erudition. rehash on practices as monotonous subjects Generally. which been Ith?f address unable al-dhak?. his/her catch.. his profound on trust. effort" manuscripts of the should cause keep the Unity that of Being". 432?3 and idem. they are too apologetic going more figures well-known from 'Arab? as all talented school these writers previous are. 10 in "Islam were Southeast Asia".8 to consult a succinct Of a the bulk raised the questions 'Arab?'s manuscript description al-K?r?n?'s for wahdat of this work manuscripts the Ith?f "to plead and provided in Princeton our by A. of text the Australian National of its manuscript Though Johns University promised publish the and to translate it (see A. probably written see e. Al-Lum'at al-saniya VIII BSOAS. new and back to controversial insights.Ibrahim al-K?r?ni 41 for the contemporary researcher. 317. which may discourage even the most dedicated Western at as lists researcher. H.178 on Sun. EI. True more Ibr?h?m observations of Even that general such a to do profound written justice and to the work of author the as including glance at his versatile al-K?r?n?. al-K?r?n? was not an admiration celebrated little or no background inferior disinclined imitator. pp. a cursory treatises in defence of monistic philosophy obscure matter will reveal that scholar's deep understanding texts to at his disposal. Maslak of the Ithaf since he often refers his reader to the text of this longer work. usually to and such fresh than of theme. only Though the writings I have al-wuj?d.

25 Aug 2013 12:43:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .178 on Sun. notably for all his placableness. the widely disputed thesis stating that Pharaoh died a believer.13 Although been the first and distribution Ibn Taymiyya to accuse was the of Ibn 'Arab?'s works not the first an passed by the People's Assembly critic erroneous of Ibn 'Arab?. insisted the Hanbal? doctor. and should place in the broader who him sought context. of Western scholars Interestingly. a superb best-known to the attention through edition by Alfred Guillaume. the Muslim in the subsided publication Egypt. Ibn 'Arabt in the Later Islamic Tradition :History of a Polemic. For the debate it aroused in Muslim has been reiterated by his opponents scholarly circles see my book. press. author from the many attacks first Muslim which fierce of Ibn theological 'Arab?. Emil Homerin. 12 of its of the school of Ibn 'Arab?. century were on. he seems doctrine of certainly of to have that Sufi espousing metaphysical identified divine naturally flowed In attacking this doctrine. Since al-K?r?m allegedly interpolated in the original version of the Qur'?n advocated the historicity of this controversial ?ya. This in fact. Ibn Arabi in the People's Assembly The Middle East Journal. 249-50 and 265?6.Arab?: The Bezels ofWisdom 1980). From (d. (53:21). representatives Austin. Moreover. Ibn al. stated in Ibn 'Arab?'s Fus?s al-hikam. and The that of the creatures. The defence of monistic theories was one of the speculative only many his nonconforming treatise. and of god swine".214. the Hanbal? to accuse stripping that of the creatures. XL/3 (summer 1986). from the monistic vision of the world embraced by Ibn 'Arab? and his existence with 11 See note 7. Ibn heresiarch. J. Yet retained an unswerving loyalty to the teachings of Ibn 'Arab? and his school. constitutes deserves to do the most special justice salient characteristic of his religious Weltanschauung. devils. 728/1328). 462-77. for the first time. polemicist including went on "the jinn. in our dividing day. therefore In order his work scholars denounced consideration. Ibn Taymiyya followers. as Islam's criticisms summarised and formulated a great number by no less a person than Ibn Taymiyya of'ulam?' ever since. including the most conciliatory approach to thorny controversial the perennial ones. Ibn unbelievers. than The debates between Ibn ' Arab?'s champions community late 1970s and into they antagonists two were hostile rekindled have camps. and sympathizers. argued (wrongly. This content downloaded from 194. however. 'Arab? of sinners. refrained from ? behaviour taking issue with his Maghribi detractors theological problem of wahdat al-wuj?d. Ramsey and Toronto.42 and Alexander Knysh theology tasawwuf. ever since. to al-K?r?n?'s historical to exculpate great apology Our 'Arab? The for Ibn ' Arab?'s was the just teaching. and politics in Sadat's Egypt ". pp. and was shared by the majority This scandalous idea became emblematic It was. one of we that appears to be in line with questions. he was strongly condemned by some traditional theologians of Fez. see R. See Th. throughout his life al-K?r?n? his overall loyalty. along with the challenges to Islamic orthodoxy" presented by the ecstatic utterances attributed to al-Hall?j and the mystical poetry of Ibn al-F?nd. and (New York. W. theological which came positions upheld by the Kurdish writer. it seems to me) the difference between that his opponent eliminated the effectively all-important existence dogs.27. reiterated by the monistic the eighth/fourteenth teaching of Ibn 'Arab?was in the focus of theological debates and developed into one of " themajor intellectual problems of Islam. His Moroccan opponents also accused him of holding a host of other heretical views. pp. by raged They the for more have ban on not the six centuries.11 discusses the problem of the notorious "Satanic verses".12 Al-KOr?n?. for instance. This. forthcoming " 13 : religion.

not distinguish view. Sufism. the Hanbal? any raised reality by that denied 'Arab?'s the view according were later constructs. as an Ibn Taymiyya attempt to eliminate vigorously the attacks all-important the concept of immutable beings. manifestations the metaphysical is that it does fraught. argued Ibn Taymiyya. found 'Arab?. Another aspect of Ibn 'Arab?'s doctrine rejected by the Hanbal? author has to do with the Sufi's theory of the pre-existent immutable essences (oty?n th?bita)which. with between disastrous the Creator antinomian and His creature ? a theological in his position implications. being part divine foreknowledge. Ibn Taymiyya fitted In doing better so. as seen by Ibn Taymiyya. grammar. this as co-eternal with as real assumption with as their the existent Pushing joined create to its logical some having earlier a prior Taymiyya's that God argument. and refined Both their to the doctrine of wahdat al-Taftaz?n? creating all numerous corpus a vast these can anti-Ibn above 'Arab? assumptions of literature. should be viewed were. Briefly put. could not hands without asserted things knowledge regarded 'Arab?'s of creatio as of them. of the all-embracing divine Absolute. God's pre-eternal knowledge of the realities of the phenomenal world existence created. and reducing Him continued to pure divested positive Ibn Taymiyya. 14 The main stages and figures of anti-Ibn 'Arab? polemic in the Later Islamic Tradition :History of a Polemic. in a way. are discussed in my forthcoming book. form a matrix after which God fashions the phenomenal universe. fact of that. take a "Qur'?nic".214. A great takes enough. was viewed material by the monists which. 790/1389 assumptions had or 792/1390). can be regarded the things and creatures of the as a totality of individualised world. in his wake. heretics these in the world so who runs Ibn non-existent of sense entities perceptions. Basing himself on the concept of thub?t. Ibn concept had to mental the celebrated 'Arab?'s of to Anxious thesis with to rebuff countered with the can be Ibn extreme ex by nihilo. serve al-K?r?n?'s ontology as the best illustration remarkable of Ibn 'Arab?'s ideas and the failure of his influential opponents believer Taymiyya primary and spirit in the and task of as validity those showing shan who of the monistic followed that a. as objects of divine knowledge (mal?m?i). in (al-ittih?diyya) as permeating its turn.178 on Sun. exponent Similar objections kal?m metaphysics of Ash'ar? Sa'd al-D?h al-Taftaz?n? treatise against the erroneous and arguments. the principle God personal. Divine existence.27. Ibn this outlook. Ibn 'Arab? went on to (thub?t). up arms our against sees the Ibn his author with agreement that all Islamic the letter - disciplines and rationalist including Qur'?nic had?th. Mu'tazil? Ibn Consequently. the main problem with teaching introduced by the Andalusian mystic. counterparts limit. kal?m. In keeping with full-fledged "realism". strictly "nominalist" fostered position to Ibn Hanbalism. In Ibn identified with before assert it was that the aty?n th?bita. Creator. 25 Aug 2013 12:43:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions .14 still the remained at longevity the criticisms. such theory. To exegesis. which realities or. the objects of God's knowledge in other words. Ibn 'Arab? This content downloaded from 194. "things". he ideas were sets out al-K?r?n? Naturally in complete to prove Ash'ar? to eradicate them. despite Ibn Taymiyya polemical The heart (d. peculiar followers of the who who composed reproduced a lengthy polemical al-wuj?d. viewing (or actual) it difference between phenomenal (wuj?d) and what may be dubbed as noetic (or logical) existence the latter type of existence was 'Arab?'s teaching.Ibrah?m al-K?r?m 43 personal God existence of the Qur'?n of any of his attributes of Lordship substance. 'Arab?'s end.

16 this idea is uncritically writers who claim that "for Ibn al-'Arab? Interestingly. obligations accusation at some point he By imposed by in asserting on them by the Divine that the creatures them different distinction transferred are completely the and the crucial possible of Law. In demonstrating al-K?r?n? mankind preserve to the sum total of celestial bodies all of which intact their essential qualities. essence. selves. the letter compliance sharta. "Islam in Southeast Asia". Therefore opposed the : the respective former existence. innate fashioned mirror by nor its receiving surface. lies of the Al-K?r?n?'s way demonstrating adherents ethical and moral equating inevitably thesis precepts set down of the creatures on God and man manner. 317. with teaching His logically creatures. Receiving Therefore his exclaims al-K?r?n?. on. and that line essence derived existence. "Introduction". Johns. home though qualities or evil. creatures. in the following By virtue of their being one with God both essentially Ibn ' Arab?'s antagonists used to argue cannot be subject and existentially.15 Al-K?r?n? as perpetrators knew all too well of antinomianism that the followers who cared little of Ibn 'Arab?were for the requirements routinely denounced expressly stated in the sharVa. to divine the creatures and the ordinances religious standard (which.44 philosophy none of Islam's bear witness to the Alexander Knysh fact that the doctrine of the of existence violates unity fundamentals. one). to realise existence is contingent divine existence It is only their through qualities "borrowing" in real life. 9. their their existence eternal by the features holds they man of its individual fully responsible act can be entity. 317. Al-K?r?n? partake a potential the Deity of challenges divine state as to an regards this indeed from existence actual their pre-eternity. in question flowed in no from their mistaken chief relieved concern. its existence. between between shared and the necessary by the all divine existence. with nevertheless human of the acts in accordance classified with as either his Hence. In a similar receive and reflect sunlight. 17 It should be noted that this distinction constitutes one of the hallmarks of Avicennan philosophy. premises in that identified it was God the that claimed.17 the creatures whilst essences with divine are able is identical from. As in the case of K?r?n?. yet vein. acts. see Levtzion Islam and infidelity". p. and Voll. this critical humans dictated i. the potentialities innate If it had not been for this self-sufficient in concreto. man can be treated as an individually manner man's judgement. which al and his disciples. pertains drew of the a insists. owe by in full likens al-K?r?n? to God. yet refracting it in a peculiar the they "there "light" lend of existence to has changes a sharf neither a-based from his themselves that man determined nature. adopts as a starting point for his speculations. from individual which K?r?n? the case emphasising to God. "In sum". He vigorously and an that of their Creator Al-K?r?n? equal denied the claim that by Ibn 'Arab? undertakes and his partisans his to prove the existence placed footing. is nothing taken 15 Cf. adopted by some Western as was the distinction differences between the external forms of religion were of minor between significance. essences. of creatures al In exclusively sharp latter. following al-Q?naw? to the great Muslim Ibn 'Arab?.178 on Sun. p. in the sharta. they Nevertheless. existence. and His the creatures latter things are irreconcilably is necessary-in-itself is possible and limited distinction. "Islam in Southeast Asia". al-K?r?n? unequivocally thinker by quoting recognises his indebtedness of his writings. for his By acts driving : even the good point. existential they would modes of and never have become God absolute.214.16 This.27. Johns. its metaphysical therefore. namely al-Shif? and al-Ish?r?t. the titles This content downloaded from 194.e. the same divine light. 25 Aug 2013 12:43:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . p.

al-K?r?n? Ibn 'Arab?'s discourse The statements. 25 Aug 2013 12:43:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . As more and more Muslims from all walks to Ibn 'Arab?'smystical insights on the one hand. wal?. ran counter who were to that adopted known to cleave by his to the The rift between one this of al-K?r?n?'s the founder of the school and his foremost disciple was discovered inquisitive associates. former. predecessors. or are from not new . that Ibn 'Arab?'s daring themselves By had experienced time al-K?r?n?'s insights could be grasped only by those Muslim them.19 metaphysics outlined above appear the monistic gnostics who a to have gained firm foothold of life became rationalist there master. to explain He why hastened to present had the Medinan departed master from the him al-Q?naw? by anti with dilemma.Ibrah?m al-K?r?n? 45 Maker. "Ibn 'Arab?in the later Islamic tradition". set out to dispel such inconsistencies. took a strictly Avicennan usually distrustful of the " position which ungodly fal?sifa. same e. pp. which found a succinct expression in the famous Neoplatonic maxim de uno nihilfit nisi unum. on arguments from adduced of by Ibn al-K?r?n? 'Arab? and. al-Q?naw? spoke of the Absolute's complete transcendency and occultation prior to Its realisation in the phenomenal universe (i. whose and theological teaching was was grounds. ofHis Life and Work. 1993).214. outlook of al-Qash?n?.27. Muhyiddin 1165?1240) :Volume and M. 'Arab?'s undisputed leader of the Ibn 'Arab? school in his epoch. an 18 Al-K?r?n? Maslak al-ta'r?f 62b. in the world exposed what may learning. ed. although al-J?l?. was a matter of his " special concern. asking philosophical skilfully as well avails as the stance upheld by his venerated himself deliberate of the terminological of teacher. offered by his disciples.D. open-endedness metaphysical conflict between and his disciple. in Ibn 'Arab?(A. strategy Jal?l employed al-Suy?t? the Andalusian al-D?n (d. In dealing with it al Q?naw? teacher. Of these.178 on Sun.g.most of his A of principal strong be them are derived such either as al kal?m already In the works those exponents impact al-Fargh?n?. of Ash'ar? that it was al-K?r?n?'s it can argued his palpable his in the work the founder al-K?r?n? of monistic takes the teaching path trodden and immediate his learned successors.e. Rather man in regard to God is a specific locus of manifestation. al-K?r?n?. by S. can be explained by the fact that each of them referred to a different level of divine self-manifestation. the philosophical problem. and in no way can He dwell in man. Whereas the master Ibn 'Arab? had in mind the aspect of the divine Absolute which was oriented towards creation (and thus presupposed multiplicity). In dealing with inexactness the latter's peculiar to this issue. is also possibly. he then sets out to grossly by the misinterpreted numerous who by earlier argued ignorant people. undeniable. according to al-K?r?n?. schism within the Sufi the ranks contradicted most Ibn the interpretations authoritative followers. exonerative polemic by Having attest bigoted advocates defended Ibn and of 'Arab?'s Ibn 'Arab? on metaphysical status as a great The master. 307-27. 19 See A. 911/1505). and their more of Muslim fostered by his philosophically-minded be called of an "inner Ibn dissent" legacy among soon students 'Arab?'s interpretations exponents the admirers discovered on the other. Knysh. the 750th Anniversary of Translations and Studies Commemorating Tiernan (Brisbane."18 The directly Q?naw?. Hirtenstein This content downloaded from 194. of that the his Sufi own emerged Some percipient statements occasionally al-Q?naw?. In order who to was quell the including a possible master's of exponent.

the their and rejection profuse al-Maqbal?'s master 'Arab?'s in Medina. adversary of Ibn 'Arab?'s doctrine.21 Upon the teacher's death. resolving time. One of theWahh?b? 20 to al-Qaysan". 218-41. al-Mahd? al-Maqbal?. as the chief exponent of Ibn ' Arab?'s legacy inMedina. This centuries concern was a tendency shared by obviously the Wahh?b? originating scholars of thoroughly the late twelfth/eighteenth anti-Sufi attitude espoused in the by their intellectual paragon. d. pp. monistic eminent mention probably Shah Wal? al-K?r?n?'s followers influential b. 1206/1792). commentator should Interestingly. passim. Al-Alam can be found in my forthcoming on Ibn 'Arab?'s outlook book. twelfth/eighteenth and al-Shawk?n? against centuries. p. Some of these disciples spread Ibn 'Arab?'s teaching as far as Java ('Abd al-Ra'?f al-Sinkil?. each concept as a valid Ibn of basis concluded On the the al-K?r?n?. 183. 25 Aug 2013 12:43:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . The Muslim World.46 aspect inconsistent with multiplicity). diatribes admirers.27.g. persuasion. philosophical This situation against such the Andalusian that Ibn contemporary with infer Arabian resonated positions does not by many to have scholars in the and Yemen. "Baj?n Tadjall?". to the Medinan of Ibn 'Arab?'s thought for al-Sinkil?'s indebtedness proponents (1992).23 views may of was primarily among which on many tinged with known for his innovative of different anticipates the Sunn? legal theory aimed at madhhabs. The Muslim World.178 on Sun. See W. of reformist of strongly From uncompromising eloquent and doctrine Mecca. Al-Simt (1982). 1327). from al-Q?naw? Presences: "The Five Divine See. LXXH 22 87-117. At the of and same the his the as al discourses Ibn 'Arab? bitter the followers points his whole century. 107-28. the views expressed by contrary. who fiercely attacked " " the "excesses" of Sufi unificationists legists went (al-ittih?diyya). en volkenkunde. their 1250/1834). 21 Ahmad al-majtd (Haidarabad. infatuation reform-minded teachings they scholars observed of Zayd? among - inveighed learned monistic colleagues.22 where it acquired his father's another in Mecca a large following.214.h. pp. scholar S?lih al-Maqbal? (d. Ibn 'Abd al-Wahh?b (d. next school "heretical" Barzanj?. nd). 1071/1660). 23 al-sh?mikh (Cairo. the maverick Yemeni theologian of Kurdish The 1109/1699). they are in complete al-wuj?d. LXXXV/i Voorhoeve. 'Abd al-Ras?l al-Barzanj? (d. LXXXII "Notes on Ibn al-'Arab?'s influence in the subcontinent". In his the multi-layered can be adopted to the Alexander Knysh Hence. a. and (d. was by no means alone. the two thinkers with both ardent do not contradict agreement Therefore. background named Muhammad was for monistic latter's Sufism strongly condemned by a bitter empathy 1103/1691). after 1693) had reformer and India. universe further for school adherence 'Arab? al-K?r?n? Similar propensities were harboured by his master Safif al-D?n al-Qush?sh? (d. peculiar reasoning. Al-K?r?n? was not the last link in this chain of the transmitters of Ibn 'Arab?'s legacy: among his own disciples we find a number of those who adhered to the monistic outlook which their Medinan tutor was so eager vigorously to propagate. A detailed See S?lih b. W. al-Qush?sh?. treatment of his attack This content downloaded from 194. pp. was and be made a teacher critic of of an al-K?r?n?'s of Ibn the great 'Arab?. famous when al-Am?r 1182/1768) Yemen. (Batavia. thirteenth/nineteenth the with changed (d. al-K?r?n? succeeded him as shaykh of the Shatt?riyya Sufi order and. 1952). simultaneously. e. was thought. son. Chittick. Chittick.20 to wahdat other. Tijdschrifl voor Indische taal-. see P. an influential Medinan scholar who was described by his biographer as "the leader among those who taught wahdat al-wuj?d". land-. upheld seem Ibn one Al-Maqbal? controversy work. who Indian Among inherited Allah.

II (1992). Third Series. the founders of al-tij?niyya. This intriguing 'Arab?'s ideas (especially his theory of the "seal of universal sainthood") were readily adopted by some reformers in Africa and India (e. to between Perhaps. I believe. to see Ibn considered into eager to its elements anti-Sufi so many reformist triumphed platforms. why 'Arab? tendency ardent and eventually among consider the fact that Ibn supporters. of Islamic reform by thinkers in different parts of theMuslim of a comparative Sufism case-to-case and the study ideology we of shall Islamic be able renewal. al mahdiyya. This content downloaded from 194. "On the origins of Wahhabism". moreover. 191-202. us that prevents ' Arab?'s teaching. pp. the process relationship ambivalent This work one task.27. reassess .214.g.Ibr?h?m al-K?r?n? 47 as far as to assert that "jih?d ismandatory 'Arab? and Ibn al-F?rid". JRAS. To address at current these the in generalisations into was the world ? adopted mentioned of or. we epoch shall that at a more by many predecessors as "les 24 Quoted inMichael Cook. 25 Aug 2013 12:43:12 PM All use subject to JSTOR Terms and Conditions . It is also whose Sufi heresy.24 our from scant knowledge why of It is.178 on Sun. cannot be accomplished without a thorough analysis of the of the seminal figures of the eleventh/seventeenth century of whom al-K?r?n? is just Once we have gained a deeper ? sympathetic of our learned understanding of their world of ideas (and example. needs and more even than that we intellectual the the ahmadiyya bald of Qadian).as a foundation in the alternatively. not just a fleeting probably was arrive described impression obtained by skimming if also a more through ? complex si?cles their writings) vision of an obscurs". ideas influential is all the more if we beginning the epoch It is essential why penetrate Sufism in order to discover discarded world. and similar of al-darqawa?alquestions this paper. in Arabia. it quite their germane own against the followers of the infidel mystics Ibn eighteenth-century some Muslim of were difficult scholars Muslim reformists theological literature opposed Ibn explaining vehemently whereas incorporate the had others viewing to their it as a consummation goals and. I firmly believe. one alawiyya.

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