Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 1

1. Introducon to Fluids
1.1 Background and Definion
• There are three states of matter: solids, liquids and gases.
• Both liquids and gases are classified as fluids.
• Fluids do not resist a change in shape. Therefore fluids
assume the shape of the
container they occupy.
• Liquids may be considered to have a fixed volume and
therefore can have a
free surface. Liquids are almost incompressible.
• Conversely, gases are easily compressed and will expand to
fill a container they occupy.
• We will usually be interested in liquids, either at rest or in
motion.
A fluid is a substance which conforms continuously under the
action of shearing forces.
According to this definition, if we apply a shear force to a fluid
it will deform and take up a state in which no shear force exists.








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To understand this, remind ourselves of what a shear force is:












Application and effect of shear force on a book


The deformation is caused by shearing forces which act
tangentially to a surface. Referring to the figure below, we see
the force F acting tangentially on a rectangular (solid lined)
element ABDC. This is a shearing force and produces the
(dashed lined) rhombus element A’B’DC.

Shearing force, F, acting on a fluid element.


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We can then say:
A Fluid is a substance which deforms continuously, or
flows, when subjected to shearing forces.
and conversely this definition implies the very important
point that:
- If a fluid is at rest there are no shearing forces acting.
- All forces must be perpendicular to the planes which
are acting.

1.2 Units
Fluid mechanics deals with the measurement of many
variables of many different types of units. Hence we need to be
very careful to be consistent.

Dimensions and Base Units
The dimension of a measure is independent of any
particular system of units. For example, velocity may be in
metres per second or miles per hour, but dimensionally, it is
always length per time, or L /T = LT−1 . The dimensions of the
relevant base units of the System International (SI) system are:






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Unit-Free SI Units
Dimension Symbol Unit Symbol
Mass M kilogram Kg
Length L meter m
Time s T second second
Temperature
θ
kelvin K


Derived Units
From these we have some relevant derived units (shown on the next
table).

Quantity Dimension SI Unit
Derived Base
Velocity LT
-1
m/s ms
-1

Acceleration LT
-2

m/s
2

ms
-2
Force MLT
-2

Newton, N kg ms
-2

Pressure
Stress
ML
-1
T
-1
Pascal, Pa
N/m2
kg m
-1
s
-2

Density ML
-3

kg/m
3

kg m
-3

Specific weight ML
-2
T
-2
N/m
3
kg m
-2
s
-2

Relative density Ratio Ratio Ratio
Viscosity ML
-1
T
-1
Ns/m
2
kg m
-1
s
-1


















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1.3 Properties

Here we consider only the relevant properties of fluids for
our purposes. Find out about surface tension and capillary action
elsewhere. Note that capillary action only features in pipes of ≤
10 mm diameter.

 Mass Density : (ρ)
Specific mass = ρ = The mass, the amount of matter,
contained in a volume. This will be expressed in mass-
length-time dimensions, and will have the dimensions of
mass [M] per unit volume [L
3
]. Thus,

Specific Mass = Mass/ Volume

• Water: 1000 kg/m3;
• Mercury: 13546 kg/m3;
• Air: 1.23 kg/m3;

 Specific Weight : (γ)
The weight of a unit volume a substance, usually denoted as γ .
Essentially density times the acceleration due to gravity:
γ = ρ g


 Relative Density (Specific Gravity) : (S)
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A dimensionless measure of the density of a substance with
reference to the density of some standard substance, usually
water at 4°C:
relative density = density of substance/ density of water
= specific weight of substance/ specific weight of water

 Pressure : (P)
Convenient to work in terms of pressure, p, which is the force
per unit area.
Pressure = Force / Area over which the force is applied
P = F/A
Units: Newtons per square metre, N/m
2
, kg/m s
2
(kg m
-1
s
-2
).
Also known as a Pascal, Pa, i.e. 1 Pa = 1 N/m
2
Also frequently used is the alternative SI unit the bar, where
1bar = 10
5
N/m
2
Standard atmosphere = 101325 Pa = 101.325 kPa
1 bar = 100 kPa (kilopascals)
1 mbar = 0.001 bar = 0.1 kPa = 100 Pa
Uniform Pressure:
If the pressure is the same at all points on a surface : uniform
pressure





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 Bulk Modulus : (K)
In analogy with solids, the bulk modulus is the modulus of
elasticity for a fluid. It is the ratio of the change in unit pressure
to the corresponding volume change per unit volume, expressed
as:
CHANuL IN v0L0ML
0RIuINAL v0L0ML
=
CHANuL IN PRLSS0RL
B0LK M0Ð0L0S


-dv
v
=
dP
K

Hence:
K = −I
dP
dv

In which the negative sign indicates that the volume reduces as
the pressure increases. The bulk modulus changes with the
pressure and density of the fluid, but for liquids can be
considered constant for normal usage. Typical values are:
• Water: 2.05 GN/m
2
;
• Oil: 1.62 GN/m
2
.
The units are the same as those of stress or pressure.
 Surface Tension () and Capillary Effects
Two non-mixing fluids (e.g., a liquid and a gas) will form an
interface. The molecules below the interface act on each other
with forces equal in all directions, whereas the molecules near
the surface act on each other with increased forces due to the
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absence of neighbors. That is, the interface acts like a stretched
membrane.
 air/water = 0.073 N/m
Fx L line force with direction normal to the cut
L =length of cut through the interface

 Effects of surface tension:
Contact angle:



< 90
0
, Wetting > 90
0
, Non-wetting
e.g., Water,   0 e.g., Mercury,   130

1. Capillary action in small tube ∆h 4γd
2. Pressure difference across curved interface
Δp = σ/R R = radius of curvature




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 Viscosity: (µ)

Fluid element under a shear force

Sheai stiess, ¡ =
P
A

The deformation which this shear stress causes is
measured by the size of the angle f and is known as shear strain.
- In a solid shear strain, f, is constant for a fixed shear
stress t.
- In a fluid f increases for as long as t is applied - the
fluid flows.
If the particle at point E (in the above figure) moves under
the shear stress to point E’ and it takes time t to get there, it
has moved the distance x. For small deformations we can
write:

Sheai stiain ∅ =
x
y

And,
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rotc o¡ sℎcor stroin =

t

=
x
ty
=
x
t
1
y

=
u
y

Where
x
t
= u is the velocity of the particle at E.
Using the experimental result that shear stress is proportional to
rate of shear strain then:

τ = constant ×
u
y

The term u/y is the change in velocity with y, or the velocity
gradient, and may be written in the differential form du/dy.
The constant of proportionality is known as the dynamic
viscosity, µ, of the fluid, giving:

¡ = p
Ju
Jy


This is known as Newton's law of viscosity


 Newtonian / Non-Newtonian Fluids
Even among fluids which are accepted as fluids there can be
wide differences in behavior under stress.
Fluids obeying Newton’s law where the value of µ is constant
are known as Newtonian fluids. If µ is constant the shear stress
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is linearly dependent on velocity gradient. This is true for most
common fluids.
Fluids in which the value of µ is not constant are known as non-
Newtonian fluids. There are several categories of these, and
they are outlined briefly below.
These categories are based on the relationship between shear
stress and the velocity gradient (rate of shear strain) in the fluid.
These relationships can be seen in the graph below for several
categories:


Below are brief description of the physical properties of the
several categories:
· Plastic: Shear stress must reach a certain minimum before
flow commences.
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· Bingham plastic: As with the plastic above a minimum shear
stress must be achieved. With this classification n = 1. An
example is sewage sludge.
· Pseudo-plastic: No minimum shear stress necessary and the
viscosity decreases with rate of shear, e.g. colloidal substances
like clay, milk and cement.
· Dilatants substances; Viscosity increases with rate of shear
e.g. quicksand.
· Thixotropic substances: Viscosity decreases with length of
time shear force is applied e.g. thixotropic jelly paints.
· Rheopectic substances: Viscosity increases with length of
time shear force is applied
· Viscoelastic materials: Similar to Newtonian but if there is a
sudden large change in shear they behave like plastic.
There is also one more - which is not real, it does not exist -
known as the ideal fluid. This is a fluid which is assumed to
have no viscosity. This is a useful concept when theoretical
solutions are being considered - it does help achieve some
practically useful solutions.

 Kinematic Viscosity
Kinematic Viscosity, ν , is defined as the ratio of dynamic
viscosity to mass density.

v =
p
p

Units: square meters per second, m
2
s
-1
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(Although note that ν is often expressed in Stokes, St, where
( 10
4
St = 1 m
2
s
-1
)

Dimensions: L
2
T
-1
.
Typical values:
Water =1.14 ´ 10
-6
m
2
s
-1
, Air =1.46 ´ 10
-5
m
2
s
-1
, Mercury
=1.145 ´ 10
-4
m
2
s
-1
.
Gas and liquid P ↑ µ ↑ , but small ∆ µ
Gas: T↑ µ↑
Liquid: T↑ µ↓













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EXAMPLE 1.1: A body weighs 1000 kg when exposed to a
standard earth gravity (g = 9.81 m/sec2.)
a) What is its mass?
b) What will be the weight of the body be in Newton if it is
exposed to the Moon’s standard acceleration g moon = 1.62
m/sec2?
c) How fast will the body accelerate if a net force of 100 kg is
applied to it on the Moon or on the Earth?

SOLUTION:
a) Since,
W=mg= 1000 (kg)
M=W/g=(1000/9.81)=101.94(kg.sec
2
/m)

b) The mass of the body remains 101.94 kg.sec
2
/m regardless
of its location then,
W=mg=101.94 x 1.62= 165.14 (kg)
In Newtons,
165.14 x 9.81= 1620 (Newton)
c) If we apply Newton's second law of motion,

F=m a= 100(kg)
a = (100/101.94) = 0.98 (m/sec
2
)

This acceleration would be the same on the moon or earth or
anywhere.

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