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**Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 1
**

1. Introducon to Fluids

1.1 Background and Deﬁnion

• There are three states of matter: solids, liquids and gases.

• Both liquids and gases are classified as fluids.

• Fluids do not resist a change in shape. Therefore fluids

assume the shape of the

container they occupy.

• Liquids may be considered to have a fixed volume and

therefore can have a

free surface. Liquids are almost incompressible.

• Conversely, gases are easily compressed and will expand to

fill a container they occupy.

• We will usually be interested in liquids, either at rest or in

motion.

A fluid is a substance which conforms continuously under the

action of shearing forces.

According to this definition, if we apply a shear force to a fluid

it will deform and take up a state in which no shear force exists.

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 2

To understand this, remind ourselves of what a shear force is:

Application and effect of shear force on a book

The deformation is caused by shearing forces which act

tangentially to a surface. Referring to the figure below, we see

the force F acting tangentially on a rectangular (solid lined)

element ABDC. This is a shearing force and produces the

(dashed lined) rhombus element A’B’DC.

Shearing force, F, acting on a fluid element.

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 3

We can then say:

A Fluid is a substance which deforms continuously, or

flows, when subjected to shearing forces.

and conversely this definition implies the very important

point that:

- If a fluid is at rest there are no shearing forces acting.

- All forces must be perpendicular to the planes which

are acting.

1.2 Units

Fluid mechanics deals with the measurement of many

variables of many different types of units. Hence we need to be

very careful to be consistent.

Dimensions and Base Units

The dimension of a measure is independent of any

particular system of units. For example, velocity may be in

metres per second or miles per hour, but dimensionally, it is

always length per time, or L /T = LT−1 . The dimensions of the

relevant base units of the System International (SI) system are:

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 4

Unit-Free SI Units

Dimension Symbol Unit Symbol

Mass M kilogram Kg

Length L meter m

Time s T second second

Temperature

θ

kelvin K

Derived Units

From these we have some relevant derived units (shown on the next

table).

Quantity Dimension SI Unit

Derived Base

Velocity LT

-1

m/s ms

-1

Acceleration LT

-2

m/s

2

ms

-2

Force MLT

-2

Newton, N kg ms

-2

Pressure

Stress

ML

-1

T

-1

Pascal, Pa

N/m2

kg m

-1

s

-2

Density ML

-3

kg/m

3

kg m

-3

Specific weight ML

-2

T

-2

N/m

3

kg m

-2

s

-2

Relative density Ratio Ratio Ratio

Viscosity ML

-1

T

-1

Ns/m

2

kg m

-1

s

-1

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 5

1.3 Properties

Here we consider only the relevant properties of fluids for

our purposes. Find out about surface tension and capillary action

elsewhere. Note that capillary action only features in pipes of ≤

10 mm diameter.

Mass Density : (ρ)

Specific mass = ρ = The mass, the amount of matter,

contained in a volume. This will be expressed in mass-

length-time dimensions, and will have the dimensions of

mass [M] per unit volume [L

3

]. Thus,

Specific Mass = Mass/ Volume

• Water: 1000 kg/m3;

• Mercury: 13546 kg/m3;

• Air: 1.23 kg/m3;

Specific Weight : (γ)

The weight of a unit volume a substance, usually denoted as γ .

Essentially density times the acceleration due to gravity:

γ = ρ g

Relative Density (Specific Gravity) : (S)

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 6

A dimensionless measure of the density of a substance with

reference to the density of some standard substance, usually

water at 4°C:

relative density = density of substance/ density of water

= specific weight of substance/ specific weight of water

Pressure : (P)

Convenient to work in terms of pressure, p, which is the force

per unit area.

Pressure = Force / Area over which the force is applied

P = F/A

Units: Newtons per square metre, N/m

2

, kg/m s

2

(kg m

-1

s

-2

).

Also known as a Pascal, Pa, i.e. 1 Pa = 1 N/m

2

Also frequently used is the alternative SI unit the bar, where

1bar = 10

5

N/m

2

Standard atmosphere = 101325 Pa = 101.325 kPa

1 bar = 100 kPa (kilopascals)

1 mbar = 0.001 bar = 0.1 kPa = 100 Pa

Uniform Pressure:

If the pressure is the same at all points on a surface : uniform

pressure

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 7

Bulk Modulus : (K)

In analogy with solids, the bulk modulus is the modulus of

elasticity for a fluid. It is the ratio of the change in unit pressure

to the corresponding volume change per unit volume, expressed

as:

CHANuL IN v0L0ML

0RIuINAL v0L0ML

=

CHANuL IN PRLSS0RL

B0LK M0Ð0L0S

-dv

v

=

dP

K

Hence:

K = −I

dP

dv

In which the negative sign indicates that the volume reduces as

the pressure increases. The bulk modulus changes with the

pressure and density of the fluid, but for liquids can be

considered constant for normal usage. Typical values are:

• Water: 2.05 GN/m

2

;

• Oil: 1.62 GN/m

2

.

The units are the same as those of stress or pressure.

Surface Tension () and Capillary Effects

Two non-mixing fluids (e.g., a liquid and a gas) will form an

interface. The molecules below the interface act on each other

with forces equal in all directions, whereas the molecules near

the surface act on each other with increased forces due to the

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 8

absence of neighbors. That is, the interface acts like a stretched

membrane.

air/water = 0.073 N/m

Fx L line force with direction normal to the cut

L =length of cut through the interface

Effects of surface tension:

Contact angle:

< 90

0

, Wetting > 90

0

, Non-wetting

e.g., Water, 0 e.g., Mercury, 130

1. Capillary action in small tube ∆h 4γd

2. Pressure difference across curved interface

Δp = σ/R R = radius of curvature

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 9

Viscosity: (µ)

Fluid element under a shear force

Sheai stiess, ¡ =

P

A

The deformation which this shear stress causes is

measured by the size of the angle f and is known as shear strain.

- In a solid shear strain, f, is constant for a fixed shear

stress t.

- In a fluid f increases for as long as t is applied - the

fluid flows.

If the particle at point E (in the above figure) moves under

the shear stress to point E’ and it takes time t to get there, it

has moved the distance x. For small deformations we can

write:

Sheai stiain ∅ =

x

y

And,

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 10

rotc o¡ sℎcor stroin =

∅

t

=

x

ty

=

x

t

1

y

=

u

y

Where

x

t

= u is the velocity of the particle at E.

Using the experimental result that shear stress is proportional to

rate of shear strain then:

τ = constant ×

u

y

The term u/y is the change in velocity with y, or the velocity

gradient, and may be written in the differential form du/dy.

The constant of proportionality is known as the dynamic

viscosity, µ, of the fluid, giving:

¡ = p

Ju

Jy

This is known as Newton's law of viscosity

Newtonian / Non-Newtonian Fluids

Even among fluids which are accepted as fluids there can be

wide differences in behavior under stress.

Fluids obeying Newton’s law where the value of µ is constant

are known as Newtonian fluids. If µ is constant the shear stress

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 11

is linearly dependent on velocity gradient. This is true for most

common fluids.

Fluids in which the value of µ is not constant are known as non-

Newtonian fluids. There are several categories of these, and

they are outlined briefly below.

These categories are based on the relationship between shear

stress and the velocity gradient (rate of shear strain) in the fluid.

These relationships can be seen in the graph below for several

categories:

Below are brief description of the physical properties of the

several categories:

· Plastic: Shear stress must reach a certain minimum before

flow commences.

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 12

· Bingham plastic: As with the plastic above a minimum shear

stress must be achieved. With this classification n = 1. An

example is sewage sludge.

· Pseudo-plastic: No minimum shear stress necessary and the

viscosity decreases with rate of shear, e.g. colloidal substances

like clay, milk and cement.

· Dilatants substances; Viscosity increases with rate of shear

e.g. quicksand.

· Thixotropic substances: Viscosity decreases with length of

time shear force is applied e.g. thixotropic jelly paints.

· Rheopectic substances: Viscosity increases with length of

time shear force is applied

· Viscoelastic materials: Similar to Newtonian but if there is a

sudden large change in shear they behave like plastic.

There is also one more - which is not real, it does not exist -

known as the ideal fluid. This is a fluid which is assumed to

have no viscosity. This is a useful concept when theoretical

solutions are being considered - it does help achieve some

practically useful solutions.

Kinematic Viscosity

Kinematic Viscosity, ν , is defined as the ratio of dynamic

viscosity to mass density.

v =

p

p

Units: square meters per second, m

2

s

-1

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 13

(Although note that ν is often expressed in Stokes, St, where

( 10

4

St = 1 m

2

s

-1

)

Dimensions: L

2

T

-1

.

Typical values:

Water =1.14 ´ 10

-6

m

2

s

-1

, Air =1.46 ´ 10

-5

m

2

s

-1

, Mercury

=1.145 ´ 10

-4

m

2

s

-1

.

Gas and liquid P ↑ µ ↑ , but small ∆ µ

Gas: T↑ µ↑

Liquid: T↑ µ↓

Chapter One INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Dr. Mohammed Al-jibory 2012/2013 14

EXAMPLE 1.1: A body weighs 1000 kg when exposed to a

standard earth gravity (g = 9.81 m/sec2.)

a) What is its mass?

b) What will be the weight of the body be in Newton if it is

exposed to the Moon’s standard acceleration g moon = 1.62

m/sec2?

c) How fast will the body accelerate if a net force of 100 kg is

applied to it on the Moon or on the Earth?

SOLUTION:

a) Since,

W=mg= 1000 (kg)

M=W/g=(1000/9.81)=101.94(kg.sec

2

/m)

b) The mass of the body remains 101.94 kg.sec

2

/m regardless

of its location then,

W=mg=101.94 x 1.62= 165.14 (kg)

In Newtons,

165.14 x 9.81= 1620 (Newton)

c) If we apply Newton's second law of motion,

F=m a= 100(kg)

a = (100/101.94) = 0.98 (m/sec

2

)

This acceleration would be the same on the moon or earth or

anywhere.

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