Chapter 1 THE PROBLEM Introduction Mathematics is one of the subject areas that play a vital role in the progress

of the nation. Having a strong foundation in Mathematics helps the students reach to peak of their success in preparing all the activities conducted in the subject areas. It composes of algebra, geometry and calculus. This action research is all about Difficulties encounter by the students in differential calculus. Everyday we encounter problem situations dealing with mathematics, particularly in this era of tremendous technological change. More challenges were inevitable and they will surely affect our ways of living. In order to function well amidst the changes happening around us, we need only the basic computational skills, but also the ability to analyze and use the skills to analyze and use the skills to solve problems. In other words we must possess mathematics power to find solutions to the problem we encounter in day to day living we need a basic solid mathematics foundation to succeed in the future thereby contributing to the economic progress for developing our nation. The applications of calculus in many fields show calculus still playing its central role from the discovery it over three centuries ago until the recent decade .Nowadays, calculus is one of the most important courses for undergraduate students in many fields that is offered as pre-requisite course to other advanced mathematics courses .However, for most undergraduate students calculus has always been one of the most difficult courses to study in

their field of study. Some difficulties that students encounter in the calculus are :the particular events in past experiences of students, poring ability in algebraic manipulation – or lack of it, having difficulties in specific concepts, selecting and using appropriate, representations, translating real-world problems into calculus formulations, absorbing complex new ideas in a limited time, students’ beliefs and learning styles. (Tall, 1997) Undoubtedly, the Basic Calculus plays an important role as the scaffold of undergraduate students’ mathematical instruction. In fact, if the students have any problems for understanding of a concept in Basic Calculus, it will be caused they cannot understand next concepts or even subjects. In this sense, Basic Calculus like analysis is a “pop up “subject, in that if a difficulty is smoothed over in one place it will pop up somewhere else.

Calculus is a major part of modern mathematics education. It has two major branches differential calculus which concern in rates of change and slopes of curves. And the other one is inferential calculus which concern in the accumulation of quantities and the areas under curves. These two branches are related to each other by the fundamental theorem of calculus. Calculus has a widespread uses in science, economics, engineering and can solve many problems that algebra alone cannot. This course is a gateway to more advanced courses in mathematics denoted to the study of functions and limits broadly called mathematical analysis. This course is usually taken by the

students whose courses are engineering and those students taking mathematics as their major subject. When the students are ask about the subject they usually says "it is difficult and complicated”, That’s why most of the students find it difficult to understand and having a bad time or frustration with this subject. In this research, the researcher will conduct a survey which would answer why students find difficulties and how they were overcome those factors. The researcher also will conduct related research and interview with the respondents as well as to the selected teachers.

Statement of the Problem

This study aims to determine and analyse the factor why students having difficulties in calculus. Specifically it seeks to answer the following questions.

1. What is the academic performance of 4th year students toward the subject? 2. What are the student’s attitudes toward calculus? 3. What are the factors that affect the performance of 4th year mathematics major students? 4. What measures maybe propose to improve the performances and help them to overcome the difficulties toward the subject?

. The first 20 students are the respondents of this research.Scope and Delimitation This study focused on the reasons that affect students learning and attitudes toward calculus of 4th year math major students of Bicol University. This study would help them a lot to pass this subject. only those students who are taking differential calculus subject. This study did not include lower year levels. Significance of the study This study was conducted considering a number of important contributions that could be shared in the advancement of Education. Thus. This also aimed to develop good attitude towards calculus as for subject of the students. this will encourage them to take positive changes about their attitudes towards the subject. This study is deemed to provide beneficial results to the following: Students: The result of this research would help them to conquer their difficulties in calculus.

Parents: The result of this study will provide them information that would help them in developing positive towards calculus among their children in studying calculus through their moral and financial support. attitudes and learning styles of students in calculus. School Administrators: Thus study will provide them vital information regarding the difficulties. they can plan together with the curriculum planners and mathematics teachers on how to teach the subject effectively. Getting to used to solve mathematical problems would develop their critical thinking and making them ready to the challenges that waits for them as useful member of the community. Future researches: The findings of this study would serve an encouragement to them to conduct further researches in order to help students encounter difficulties in mathematics. Community: Students who are well educated would undeniably become useful members of the community. . Thus. Likewise it will also provide them insights to create programs and design a curriculum which intends to maximize the learning of calculus with the students.

289-325. O. In A. Functions and Calculus. Bishop et al (Eds.academia.(1997).NOTES http://www.edu/2674690/Students_Difficulties_In_Multivariable_Calcul us_Through_MathematicaL Thinking Approach Tall. D. J.). International Handbook of Mathematics Education. Dordrecht: Kluwer .

while systematic errors spring from misconceptions. Understanding the different concepts and correct processes related to mathematics will help the learner further develop their skills and abilities in differential calculus. systematic errors and 3. Definition of terms is also included. The synthesis of the state-of-the-art ' gap bridge of the study. rather than simply to select an answer from a set of given alternatives. (Somerset. The following related literatures were reviewed to gather needed information for this study.Chapter 2 Review of Related Literature and related studies This chapter presents a review of related literature and studies which give light to the present study.basic errors 2. Basic errors occurs when students unable to detect any valid or invalid strategy in their approach in answering the questions. Pupils then are expected to work out a solution to each question. theoretical and conceptual framework are discussed. when he studied and surveyed students at Central Visayas failed in Mathematics. This technique was used by Somerset. They also provide mathematical opportunities for pupils to improved performance if appropriately utilized in mathematics instruction. He found out that the common errors could be classified into three group’s 1. so that errors can be identified. calculation errors. Errors can provide stimulus and means to develop worthwhile mathematics inquiries. 2002) .

related to the problem at hand. The findings of this project are in agreement with those of Smith et al (1994). or per clause. either perceived or actual. some students were asked to recall problems they had solved before. number of clauses. It is the basis of drill and practice. They accorded each problem a difficulty level by recording how many students successfully completed the problem.Smith (1994) measured the readability of problems on a university statistics examination paper according to number of words. (Threadgill-Sowder & Sowder 1982) In order to arrive at the correct answer. One of the principles of learning according to Thorndike was the Principle of exercise. either in total. tries to apply formula which they had memorize in order to get the answer. Lexical density is measured as the ratio of lexical words to grammatical words. The principle of exercise states that those things most often repeated are best remembered. They found no correlation between the readability and difficulty level of the problems. The difficulty level was measured by the number of students (in junior school) successfully carrying out the problem requirement. The results showed that students found the problems presented almost entirely in diagrammatic form significantly easier than those presented in verbal form only. The readability of a word problem does not appear to affect the difficulty level. ( Smith 1994) Threadgill-Sowder & Sowder (1982) compared the difficulty level of problems presented in verbal format versus those presented with detailed diagrams and minimal wording. It has been proven that . Others. and two measures of lexical density.

review and summary and manual drill and physical applications. imagining and expressing. and apply new concepts or practices after a single exposure. Furthermore. (ii) to recog . They learn by applying what they have been told and shown. The human memory is fallible. These include student recall. conj ecturing andconvincing. The instructor must repeat important items of subject matter at reasonable intervals. the mathematical thinking activities can be taught ofas powers were: specializing and generalizing. and selfdirected learning. communication. Roselainy and her colleagues focused on three major aspects of teaching and learning: the development of mathematical knowledge construction. Students do not learn complex tasks in a single session.students learn best and retain information longer when they have meaningful practice and repetition. hey had provided and promoted a learning environment where the mathematical powers are used specifically and explicitly. organizing and characterizing. towards supporting students (i) to become more aware of the mathematics structures being learned. particularly. and generic skills. mathematical thinking processes. team work. All of these serve to create learning habits. learning continues. The mind can rarely retain. and provide opportunities for students to practice while making sure that this process is directed toward a goal. Every time practice occurs. evaluate. They highlighted some strategies that can help students to empower themselves with their own mathematical thinking powers and help them in construction new mathematical knowledge and soft skills.

allow them to relax. Cooperative grouping helps students to understand that others have the same problems with math as they do. Therefore. a teacher may use a real object if needed in showing the pupils the concept in Mathematics. and that the problems can be worked out with some assistance and perseverance.nize and usetheir mathematical thinking powers. This would help them to get an insights or idea on how they will solve the problem. By the use of visual aid.( Roselainy. 2004) Simbulan stressed that mathematics is best learn by doing. lets them know that teachers care and want them to succeed. . This has bearing to the present study because it also dealt with applying formulas. Teachers must concretize his teaching for the learner to visualize concepts. it is very helpful in the process of concretization which leads to visual imaginary of the concepts. But the concern of the researchers is that the students must not only memorize those formulas but to understand how to apply them in solving problems in calculus. These techniques are as follows: creating an atmosphere in which students does not feel threatened by being called on to give oral answers or by being embarrassed in front of others. Giving a student a second chance at test-taking gives them confidence that all is not lost. (Simbulan. A teacher must used a concrete objects to able to show the pupils the real concepts of the topics. and helps them to continue trying.1997) Woodward (2004) found out a variety of techniques that can help with math anxiety. and (iii) to modify their mathematical learning behavior. Being available to tutor students.

A key issue is the selection of methods that will most effectively enhance the learning of the students.and showing instruction so that students can better comprehend the material is beneficial. In teaching mathematics the teacher should always remember that mathematics is not simply the collection of facts. taking the subject becomes a difficult task. Garcia defines teaching method as organize and systematic procedure employed by the teacher in making students learn. The mathematics teachers must be ready to do more in order to help the students overcome these difficulties. (Ellis. The perennial impressions possess hard work in exploring possibilities and alternatives on how to teach Mathematics effectively and profitably. Considering the difficulties. The teacher may master the facts or the subject matter. It consists of steps which are logically arranged. fear and anxiety toward learning algebra. but the problem is how the learner will learn the . The more types of problems students are able to solve in the classroom. Other findings of researchers expressed the importance of attitude towards learning mathematics. taking into account the entry characteristics of the student concerned. 1993) Slavin (2000) came up with the finding stating that students who possess a positive attitude towards mathematics will succeed at higher educational and professional levels. the more knowledge and skills will assist them in solving real problems that may come across in the future.

The valid causes of the teacher's difficulties in teaching mathematics included the difficult nature of the subject matter.( Balinas and Basilan.subject matter.( Garcia. Therefore a teacher must used varied methods of teaching and this method may be used in the patterns of learning the learner has. With the use of activity sheet.2004) In the study in interpreting the word problems Planton she found out that the children were weak in interpreting word problem because of language problem. Cajilig believes that using activity sheet is an important strategy. Under this strategy the learner takes an active part in performing new knowledge. In her study of diagnostic test was made in determining the solving difficulties. pupils made to do Mathematics by manipulating objectives. create his role based on the activity he has involved. for him to discover the new knowledge. ( Planton. She also explains that under this technique. and failure to do reflective thinking.( Cajilig. insufficient reading skills. Related Studies The following are the studies conducted by other researches which have been relevant to this study: Difficulties encountered by teachers in teaching geometry is conducted by Balinas and Basilan this study revealed that the third year students had difficult in learning geometry due to limited or short period of time allotted in this subject. the learner takes the biggest part of his own learning.1977) .

inadequate knowledge in determining the process to be used and inadequate knowledge to simplify the missing facts. With respect to the commonalities and differences along courses. The respondents were from commerce education and liberal arts students.(Casipit . In analysis the proficiency level was low average. estimating answer.1964) Rica forts study on the proficiency in college algebra of the Divine World College of Legazpi revealed that the student’s proficiency revealed that the student’s proficiency level in terms of knowledge. it came out that no one from each course was classified as an excellent proficiency level performance and nobody also was classified as a borderline defective performer. The present study is related to the previous study because both dealt with the difficulties encountered by the pupils and also the proposed probable activities. . the Grade VI pupils showed that the difficulties encountered by the pupils were as follows: computations.Marques (2001) in her study said that "pupils would be able to show competencies in the contents of mathematics underlying a strong personal desire to master it "Marques study is related to the present study focused more on the difficulties of the pupils with fractions in performing operation and solving word problems. According to Casipit. computation and technique and interpretation and application were below average. comprehension. However the present study differs because the focus was to determine the pupil’s difficulties in fraction.

Generally. Caldwell & Goldin carried out a similar study at junior school level (1979) and secondary school level (1987). revealed that the students encountered difficulties in comprehending geometric representations that cause them more difficulties in applying these concepts in mathematical problems. 1979) . Caldwell & Goldin (ibid. the difficulty level of a problem was measured by the number of students who successfully solved the problem.) found that abstract problems were significantly more difficult than concrete problems. the difficulties met by the students were due to their weaknesses in comprehension (Brizuela. a finding which is reflected in this study. The problems that they presented to schoolchildren were all word problems categorized as concrete or abstract. that is concrete problems are set in a realistic context and abstract problems have no immediate real world analogy. In the Caldwell & Goldin (1979 & 1987) studies.Results of the study of Brizuela on the analysis of the difficulties in Mathematics of the second year students in cluster II. the students is interviewed explain that they acquired limited knowledge since there was too fast to be understood and did not and did not give more and varied examples for more understanding. Concrete and abstract problems are defined in terms of the realism of their context. In this study. Hypothetical and factual problems differ in that factual problems simply describe a situation. Albay Division. while hypothetical problems suggest a possible change in the situation.( Caldwell & Goldin 1987. and hypothetical or factual.

and lack of mastery. inaccuracy in computation. the students invoked “workaround” strategies including only considering rates of change on increments of equal size (usually 1).( Gresola 2010) Garsow’s (2010) and Carlson’s et al. In problems that would prompt multiplicative thinking. and thought of speed and slope as indices instead of as ratios. Since understanding division as relative size is an essential mathematical component in many problems identified as obstacles for students. A questionnaire was used to identify the teacher’s perception on the causes of such difficulties among students as well as their attitude towards mathematics. Finding revealed the ranking of the skills according to difficulty as encountered by the first year students. Ranked cause of such difficulties were analyzing verbal problems. (Garsow’s 2010) Coe conducted an in-depth study of three secondary math teachers’ understandings of rates of change and revealed experienced teachers were not . application skills ranked one followed by analysis skills. application and analysis. poor logical thinking. poor comprehension and poor retention respectively. A teacher made test was employed to determine the difficulty of the students along the cognitive skills such as knowledge.’s (2002)studies suggests that the students thought about rates of change additively. comprehension.Gresola 2010 conducted descriptive studies to identify the learning difficulties encountered by first year students of Gallanosa National High School. we investigated our students’ meaning for division and rate to see if the yad meanings for these topics that would allow them to understand derivatives. knowledge skills and finally by comprehension skills.

Most of the studies conducted were researches on the performance of students in different areas of mathematics and the difficulties they encountered to which different grade levels and year levels were considered as respondents. the students invoked “workaround” strategies including only considering rates of . "the slope of a tangent gives a steepness that connects to speed in some contexts” Coe reported that in more than one instance Peggy “did not use her thinking of a ratio as a comparison of values” to understand slope (p. The procedures and findings. Garsow’s and Carlson’s studies suggested that the students thought about rates of change additively. rate.2007) Coe concluded that none of the teachers “could clearly explain the use of division to calculate slope” and “there was no evidence of quantitative understanding of the ratio”( Coe. Peggy. For one teacher. and slope. 195). 2007) Synthesis of the arts The reviewed literature and studies showed that several studies have been conducted in the field of mathematics . conclusions and recommendations of the reviewed studies were to help the present study.Considering slope as an index of slantiness allowed this teacher to correctly answer many questions without thinking about division. In problems that would prompt multiplicative thinking.always able to articulate coherent connections between ideas of division. (coe.

Simbulan explained that mathematics is best learn by doing. and two measures of lexical density. communication. and generic skills. That’s why it’ is important that teaching method are conducive and motivating learners to learn. Caldwell & Goldin carried out a similar study at junior school level (1979) and secondary school level (1987). mathematical thinking processes. Roselainy and her colleagues focused on three major aspects of teaching and learning: the development of mathematical knowledge construction. Garcia said that teaching method as organize and systematic procedure employed by the teacher in making students learn. Smith measured the readability of problems on a university statistics examination paper according to number of words. They highlighted some strategies that can help students to empower themselves with their own mathematical thinking powers and help them in construction new mathematical knowledge and soft skills. It consists of steps which are logically arranged.change on increments of equal size and thought of speed and slope as indices instead of as ratios. particularly. and hypothetical or factual . team work. Teachers must concretize his teaching for the learner to visualize concepts. number of clauses. and selfdirected learning. The problems that they presented to schoolchildren were all word problems categorized as concrete or abstract.

There are several studies conducted in the field of mathematics.Abrigo investigated on the effects of an intervention program in Mathematics for college students .The effect was measured through a teacher made test in college Algebra. minimize or even eradicate it. Some of these factors are present in this study.Many researches on the difficulty in solving mathematical problem but several who . Several researchers theorize why such difficulty persuades in most classes in mathematics. It was found out that the intervention program was successful in improving the students performances in the experimental compared to the control group. The reviewed studies are focused commonly in the attitude and performance and skills of students in mathematics and the difficulties they encountered . Threadgill-Sowder & Sowder compared the difficulty level of problems presented in verbal format versus those presented with detailed diagrams and minimal wording. This have posed challenge to researches that would like to find solution to aveliate. Gap Bridge of the study Solving problems in calculus is among the learning difficulties of students. They found out that several factors influence difficulties along calculus.

Theoretical Framework Bruner main concept is that learning is an active process in which learners construct new idea is an active processes in which learners construct a new ideas or concept based upon their current or past knowledge will form new ideas or concepts. Readiness implies a degree of concentration and eagerness. There are many researches who conduct a study on the different subject in Mathematics. Giving some extra coaching and corrective instruction to slow learners enable them to achieve more. The present study is different from other studies. as cited by Reddy. Individuals learn best when they are physically. and emotionally ready to learn. since it is focussed on identifying the difficulties encountered by 4rt year Math major students in Calculus.conducted on the study in the difficulties encountered by the students in Calculus. The basic idea behind master of learning is to make sure that almost of the students have learned particular skill to a pre-established level of mastery before moving on to the next skill. This study was a great help to those taking calculus subject. Anderson. Block. but only few conducted a research in Calculus. one widely used means of adapting instruction to the needs of diverse students is called mastery learning. . mentally. Bruno and Bloom.

The student will strive to continue doing what provides a pleasant effect to continue learning. The principle of effect is based on the emotional reaction of the student. instructors should be cautious about using punishment in the classroom. as well as their behaviour and attitude toward the subject. Conceptual Framework The major purpose of this study is to find out the difficulties encountered by IV th year math major student. The principle of effect is that learning is strengthened when accompanied by a pleasant or satisfying feeling. Positive reinforcement is more apt to lead to success and motivate the learner. and a definite reason for learning something. creating interest by showing the value of the subject matter. Whatever the learning situation. If students have a strong purpose.and do not learn well if they see no reason for learning. is usually the instructor’s responsibility. and that learning is weakened when associated with an unpleasant feeling. . It has a direct relationship to motivation. so the instructor should recognize and commend improvement. a clear objective. and providing continuous mental or physical challenge. Therefore. Getting students ready to learn. it should contain elements that affect the students positively and give them a feeling of satisfaction. they make more progress than if they lack motivation.

The learner is the center of educative process. the researches considered the importance of the students in this study. Calculus-the branch of mathematics that deals with the finding and properties of derivatives and integrals of functions. an achievement test was conducted. the researches proposed some activities intended to improve and help the students to encounter difficulties in Calculus. Definition of Terms For the purpose of this study and to facilitate the understanding of this work the following terms are defined conceptually and operationally. The researchers determined the difficulties encountered by the students in Calculus. After knowing the difficulties encountered by the students and from the result of the exam. 1987).In this study it refers to the number of incorrect answers obtained by the respondents along the process used and cognitive skills on the diagnostic test. With the observe performance of the students. Difficulty-It means perplexity or needing much effort or skills (Web Comprehensive Dictionary. In determining their difficulties. propose activities will be suggested to overcome their difficulties. by methods originally based .

1993).on the summation of infinitesimal differences. CHAPTER 3 RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODOLOGY This is the presentation of the research design and methodology. Research Method Descriptive method of research is the method that proposed on this study. process or manner of performing or functioning (webster universal dictionary. analyzing. research instruments and statistical treatment.in this study it refers to the scores obtained by respondents in diagnostic test. data gathering procedures. respondents. classifying and tabulating data and makes an adequate and accurate . The two main types are differential calculus and integral calculus. sources of data.survey method is defined as a method of gathering. Course Taken-Operationally defined as the courses to which the respondents of the study are enrolled in. Performance-it means act. Descriptive .

By that the researcher can offer or suggest ways on how to lessen or to address those problems students encountered.The test that will be given has the combination of differential and inferential calculus. . Sources of Data The primary source of data is the response or the results of the test of the students from the diagnostic test that will be given by the researcher to 20 students from the section 4S-1 mathematics major of BUCE school year 20132014 . The other sources also are books . Respondents of the Study A diagnostic test will be administer to the BSED fourth year students. websites from the Internet and thesis of former students here in BU. The diagnostic will be administered to the Fourth year college of BUCE section 4S1 mathematics major.interpretation about such data. taking the subject Calculus and enrolled in the school year 2013-2014. Through diagnostic test the researcher can identify the student’s difficulties in problems regarding with calculus. only the S1 are the respondents. The first 20 students are the respondents of the research. Since fourth year was composed of two sections S1 and S2. a mathematics major of Bicol University College of Education Daraga Albay.

The test is composed of 15 items. Before printing it will be validated of some professors or co classmates so that to minimize typo graphical errors as well as for the students to easy identify the question what is being asked. The coverage of the test is differential l calculus. The students were all attending the subject Calculus Fourth year college students of BUCE section 4 S1 mathematics major. Data Gathering Procedure The survey was carried out at the Bicol University. The questionnaires were distributed during their vacant time and allowed to take the . The reference book that will be used by the researcher is Calculus seventh edition by Louis Leithold. First 20 students are the respondents.Research Instruments The researcher will search topics that may be use in making a diagnostic test of the respondents. The test is in the form of multiple choice but they will show their solutions on how they come up with the answer.

Tables will be prepared by the researcher for the analysis and interpretation of the results. . The questionnaires are provided by the researchers.test in twenty minutes . recorded.They are allowed to used calculators as well as scratch papers. It will be carefully interpreted and analyze. The most number of incorrect responses on the test will be considered as difficulty. analyzed and interpreted those results. The use of percentage is enough to determine the difficulties of the students. After that the score will be tallied. After the results of the test the researcher will checked the paper then count the scores got by the students. correct and incorrect responses made by the students in the different items of the test will be making in preparation for the further data analysis. The frequency counts. Statistical Treatment After checking the test papers it will be tallied and tabulated.

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J. . (1990) An analysis of learners’ engagement in mathem Smith.K. Caldwell. & Goldin. Wood. A. G. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 10(5) pp 323-336. (1979) Variables affecting word problem difficulty in elementary school mathematics. Gillies. N. (1994) Analysis of Student Performance in Statistics. P. P. G. R.NOTES Caldwell.H.. G. (1987) Variables affecting word problem difficulty in secondary school mathematics.A. Craig.A. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 18(3) pp187-196.F. & Goldin. J. A. & Perrett. & Winter. in Bell.H. L.

Kluwer: Dordrecht.) Advanced Mathematical Thinking . Sabariah & Yudariah. J. Reflective Abstraction in Advanced Mathematical Thinking. Yudariah& Roselainy. Roselainy. (eds..1977) thesis .1970) Planton Euserfina'Difficulties Encounter by Grade VI children in interpreting woard problems in Elementary mathematics(unpublished master U.rutgers.. B. l_Thinking_Approach http://dimacs.rutgers. Wright.G. & Geake.htm http://dimacs.P.) Challenges in Mathematics Education: Constraints onHamidreza Kashefi . and Sabariah. In D. N. Zaleha Ismail &Yudariah Mohammad Yusof / Journal of Edupres84 Dubinsky.edu/~joer/2005-prep-for-college.edu/~joer/2005-prep-for-college.P. Nalugon Erlind L. Leeson.htm http://dimacs. 2008). (1991).htm (Yudariah & Roselainy. 2004. 2007.Tall (ed. 95 – 123.Relationship in Herbal Probem Solving Ability and among grade VI CHILDREN (unpublished master thesis U.O.edu/~joer/2005-prep-for-college.rutgers. E.

pdf Craig. Unpublished PhD Thesis.http://www. (1994) Analysis of Student Performance in Statistics. . Thomas. P. Wood.F. A.math. N.uoc. 2009. Anthony Somerset basic number skills. Alexandria.patthompson. Gillies.. OpenUniversity.K.(2009)Changing My Own and My Students Attitudes TowardsCalculus Through Working on Mathematical Thinking . L. VA: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development.Diliman Quezon City 2002) Armstrong. G.Roselainy Abd.gr/~ictm2/Proceedings/pap411.why students fail in mathematics(a diagnostic survey of High school phillippine normal institution for science and math Education development university of the Philippine in central visayas . A. Rahman. & Winter. Multiple Intelligences in the Classroom 3rd ed. R. & Perrett. Dec. P.net/PDFversions/2012DivRate.pdfo http://server. (1990) An analysis of learners’ engagement in mathematical Smith.

.no. Rahman.1977) thesis .Roselainy Abd. (2007).UK. In CD Proceedings of Fourth Regional Conf. on Engineering Educ.2004)) Planton Euserfina”Difficulties Encounter by Grade VI children in interpreting woard problems in Elementary mathematics(unpublished master U. EnhancingThinking through Active Learning in Engineering Mathematics.1997)pages 5-41) Balinas.. & Yudariah Mohd. Yusof.9.P.Florence and Basilan Socorro”Difficulties Encounter by the teachers in teaching Geometry Planton Euserfina'Difficulties Encounter by Grade VI children in interpreting woard problems in Elementary mathematics(unpublished undergraduate thesis. 3 – Sal Simbulan”Innovativa approaches in the teaching of mathematics”The Philippine Journal of Education Volume76. Sabariah Baharun. . Johor Bahru.

Elizabeth M.Casipit Veronica Q.A.J. M.E.A.Albay Division: An Analysis”(Unpublished master thesis. Caldwell. L. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 18(3) pp187-196. & Bishop.P. G. .H. ICMI.C. R. & Goldin. (1995) Communication Needs of Mathematicians. (1987) Variables affecting word problem difficulty in secondary school mathematics. & Goldin. G. Fitzsimons. & Baynham.1964) Brizuela..N. P. “Difficulties in mathematics of the 2 ND Year students of public high schools in Cluster II .1999) Caldwell. J.H. in Huntin.) Regional Collaborations in Mathematics Education 1995 . 'the study of the difficulties. Wood. A.their causes and remedial measures of Grade VI pupils in solving arithmetic problems in Bautista Central School Panggasinan (unpublished master thesis Phillippine Normal college. (1979) Variables affecting word problem difficulty in elementary school mathematics.. Clarkson. (eds. J. G.H. Smith.. G. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 10(5) pp 323-336.

2001) to a teaching learning schema((Unpublished master Castillo-Garsow. ARIZONA STATE UNIVERSITY.”Analysis of the learning Difficulties of the Freshmen Students in Mathematics:Input thesis. Modeling Teachers’ Ways of Thinking About Rate of Change.F. L.H. E. . (1982) Drawn versus verbal formats for mathematical story problems. Gresola R.. R. Teaching the Verhulst Model: A Teaching Experiment in Covariational Reasoning and Exponential Growth. Threadgill-Sowder. (1994) Analysis of Student Performance in Statistics. N. Coe. G. & Perrett. L. (2007). C. J. Wood. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education 13(5) pp324-331. & Sowder. in Bell.K. Gillies. (2010). Arizona State University. E.Smith.

37 π m./mi.126 π cm2/sec.128 π cm2/sec./mi. 34x+1y-51=0 . d. Without sketching find the equations of the tangent line to the curve y= at abscissa is 3. How fast is the water level rising when the water is 5m Deep? a. . A tank is the form of a n inverted cone having an altitude of 16m. c.__________ Date________________ _________1. 8x+5y-32=0 c. d.130 π cm2/sec. and a radius of 4m. Water is flowing into the tank of the rate of 2m. ________3. _________2.A stone is dropped into a small pound concentric pipe spread out and the radius of the disturbed region increases at the rate of 16 m/sec. b. & Sec.140 π cm2/sec.Albay Diagnostic Quiz on DifferentialCalculus Name__________________________________Yr. At what rate does the area of the disturbed region increases when its radius is 4cm./min. a. b. c.26 π m.Bicol University College of Education Daraga.

769358668 d. 3x+5y-46=0 ________4. c. 7x+25y-51=0 d. .5x+4y+67=3 ________7. Find the fifth root of 30.78563903 c. 76 863 ________8. -13 631 c. 56 725 . -13 632 d.x-5y-5=0 c. Find an equation of the line curve y=2x 2 +3 that is parallel to the line. Approximate the seventh root pf 72. ________6.215 Using the Newton method of approximation. 12 390 b. 8x-y-5=0 ________5Find the derivative of f(x)=(5-x2)1/2(x3+1)1/4. a.980888213 b. a.980045673 c..5 . .43 065 d. d. Find the equation of the normal line the curve y=2-1/3x 2 that is the line x-y=0. 4x+4y-11=0 d.2.1.6. 6x-4y-6=0 d. Find the derivative and evaluate If f(x)=(3x-1) 3(2x2+3)2 then find f((2)-f(-1) 43 065 . 7x+3y-12=0 c.4x+4y+16=0 .6x-y-5=0 b. 45 631 ________10.fll(-2) given that f(x)=x2(x3+2x)(x4-3x).87 456 ________9. b.1. .

having difficulties in specific concepts. As perceived by the students Difficulties in differential calculus. 3.76934568 b.98054374 c.2.Albay Name__________________________________Yr.a. 1.1.3. 2. . & Sec.__________ Date________________ Quistionare The particular events in past experiences of students. poring ability in algebraic manipulation or lack of it.selecting and using appropriate representations.56784903858 Bicol University College of Education Daraga.9508562416 d.

students’ beliefs and learning styles. 5. 9. 6. Lack of facilities or instructional materials Poor study habits of the students. Others________________________________________ . answering non-routine question Others______________________________________ Factors That contribute to the difficulties of the students Family Problem Strict and terror professor Poor study habit of the students Lack of the students interest in Calculus. perceived as boring and difficult subject Time management The school is not conducive for learning.coordinating multiple procedures. absorbing complex new ideas in a limited time. 10. 7. the quite entrenching of students in their learning behaviour and styles.translating real-world problems into calculus formulations.4. recalling of knowledge fact 8.

http://engineering.queensu.pdf .ca/Current-Students/First-YearStudies/documents/Quiz1.

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