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Kingdom of Bahrain

Ministry of Education

Gulf University



Marwa Adel Alhasan



Civil Engineering


Looking at engineering in general, we find that engineering is the body that

brings together the technical tools available, activities and knowledge,

professional activity, which is used imagination, wisdom and intelligence in the

application of science and technology, mathematics and practical experience so

that we can design and produce and manage the operations to suit the needs of

humanity; which I would like to introduce the civil engineering in the simplest form

to the people, explaining for them the importance of civil engineering in their lives

and how its importance linked to the human life.

The definition of civil engineering, it means that make it the world's fittest and

most appropriate place to live.

To clarify the essential role of civil engineering to life in civilized societies,

we must ask:

- Do I reflected how we can enjoy the day to live in a house and a large


- Do I reflect days how we can move from place to place in the deserts and

across the sea and through the mountains?

- Do I reflect how the day to clean drinking water for drinking, which is a

prerequisite for life?

- Do I reflect for days how to transform the barren desert land into green life

back to us?

- Do I reflect that day how to live safe from the risk of torrential rains and


All these reflections are some of the examples that can be provided by the Civil

Engineering of humanity today.

Date and the emergence of civil engineering:

We might be difficult to determine the date of birth and the beginning of civil

engineering, can say that the history of civil engineering is the mirror of the

history of human beings on this earth.

Throughout the ages and years of civil engineering landmarks stand witness to

the peoples and civilizations to achieve civil engineering sites important in the

history and the lives of those civilizations, peoples ......... pyramids of Giza.

In Egypt and the Hanging Gardens of Babylon, the Great Wall is only evidence of

civilian civilizations based on the development of those peoples and excellence.

Everyone knows that what are said about the Seven Wonders of the World are

only features the achievements of the architects of those peoples and


Before more than 5000 years, the civil engineers to leave their fingerprints clear

in the history of their people, and fingerprint evidence that the Temple of Warka in

Iraq, and the Pyramids of Giza in Egypt, Roman aqueducts, and the network of

roads in the Persian empire.

The first mention of the word civil engineering came in the history of the Roman

Empire was classified engineering of the military branches of engineering, which

means Balqlaa, forts and weapons development, civil engineering and man of

means and needs such as housing construction and paving roads, building

bridges and dams construction of channels for cultivation, bringing safe drinking

water and wastewater disposal.

The definition of civil engineering:

Civil Engineering is a subsidiary of engineering and the study design and

analysis and constructions Human, roads, bridges, tunnels, airports, ports and

sewage systems, dams and irrigation projects of canals and channels, so do not

be limited to this science that science alone on the design and only?

It is like any science is constantly developing and without interruption in recent

times linked with the development of industrial production significantly to

construction of new materials and advanced meets the growing requirements.

For example, plastic and fiber-subsidized called GRC, which is of light weight

and high strength of nearly solid rock and create formats required by the design

and color required, gone to building arches and barrages, and stone facades can

not be distinguished only with difficulty and at the same time does not equal

weight of 20% The weight of the same volume of natural stone.

Is not to say that the amounts of civil engineering is the oldest and the oldest and

most branches of engineering closer to the establishment of rights and its

evolution over the years and centuries.

History of civil engineering:

Civil engineering is the application of physical and scientific principles, and its

history is intricately linked to advances in understanding of physics and

mathematics throughout history. Because civil engineering is a wide ranging

profession, including several separate specialized sub-disciplines, its history is

linked to knowledge of structures, materials science, geography, geology, soils,

hydrology, environment, mechanics and other fields.

Throughout ancient and medieval history most architectural design and

construction was carried out by artisans, such as stone masons and carpenters,

rising to the role of master builder. Knowledge was retained in guilds and seldom

supplanted by advances. Structures, roads and infrastructure that existed were

repetitive, and increases in scale were incremental.

One of the earliest examples of a scientific approach to physical and

mathematical problems applicable to civil engineering is the work of Archimedes

in the 3rd century BC, including Archimedes Principle, which underpins our

understanding of buoyancy, and practical solutions such as Archimedes' screw.

Brahmagupta, an Indian mathematician, used arithmetic in the 7th century AD,

based on Hindu-Arabic numerals, for excavation (volume) computations.

Sections of civil engineering:

Civil engineering is divided to:

• Construction Engineering: the design and implementation of specific metal

and concrete installations which, involves planning and execution of the

designs from transportation, site development, hydraulic, environmental,

structural and geotechnical engineers. As construction firms tend to have

higher business risk than other types of civil engineering firms, many

construction engineers tend to take on a role that is more business-like in

nature: drafting and reviewing contracts, evaluating logistical operations,

and closely-monitoring prices of necessary supplies.

• Earthquake engineering: it covers ability of various structures to withstand

hazardous earthquake exposures at the sites of their particular location

which, it is treating its subject structures like defensive fortifications in

military engineering but for the warfare on earthquakes. Both earthquake

and military general design principles are similar: be ready to slow down

or mitigate the advance of a possible attacker. Environmental engineering:

deals with the treatment of chemical, biological, and/or thermal waste, the

purification of water and air, and the remediation of contaminated sites,

due to prior waste disposal or accidental contamination.

• Material engineering: deals with ceramics such as concrete, mix asphalt

concrete, metals Focus around increased strength, metals such as

aluminum and steel, and polymers such as carbon fibers.

• Road Engineering: responsible for the design and construction of roads

and transportation, engineering and traffic engineering.

• Structural engineering: is concerned with the structural design and

structural analysis of buildings, bridges, towers, flyovers, tunnels, off shore

structures like oil and gas fields in the sea, and other structures. This

involves identifying the loads which act upon a structure and the forces

and stresses which arise within that structure due to those loads, and then

designing the structure to successfully support and resist those loads.

• Engineering area: the study of specific spatial dimensions and geo-

engineering designs.

• Water resources engineering: is concerned with the collection and

management of water (as a natural resource). As a discipline it therefore

combines hydrology, environmental science, meteorology, geology,

conservation, and resource management. This area of civil engineering

relates to the prediction and management of both the quality and the

quantity of water in both underground (aquifers) and above ground (lakes,

rivers, and streams) resources. Water resource engineers analyze and

model very small to very large areas of the earth to predict the amount

and content of water as it flows into, through, or out of a facility.

• Surveying: is the process by which a surveyor measures certain

dimensions that generally occur on the surface of the Earth. Surveying

equipment, such as Levels and Theodolites, are used for accurate

measurement of angular deviation, horizontal, vertical and slope

distances. With computerization, electronic distance measurement (EDM),

total stations, GPS surveying and laser scanning have supplemented (and

to a large extent supplanted) the traditional optical instruments. This

information is crucial to convert the data into a graphical representation of

the Earth's surface, in the form of a map. This information is then used by

civil engineers, contractors and even realtors to design from, build on, and

trade, respectively.

• Fluid Engineering: the specific characteristics of liquids and study its

impact on the facilities "such as the impact of wind on buildings Lao water

pressure on dams and so on."

• Engineering soil: study and specific characteristics of the soil and

structural foundations and are often called “soil Mechanics."

• Coastal engineering: concerned with managing coastal areas. In some

jurisdictions the terms sea defense and coastal protection are used to

mean, respectively, defense against flooding and erosion. The term

coastal defense is the more traditional term, but coastal management has

become more popular as the field has expanded to include techniques

that allow erosion to claim land

• Engineering health: the specific design and operation of sewage systems

and water stations.

• Irrigation Engineering: the study of specific methods to control different

types of irrigation facilities and agricultural water.

This shows us the importance of the diversity of the city engineering disciplines

to which it belongs and the multiplicity of areas in which civil engineer can work.

Civil engineering designs:

Design is the most important of the foundations of any project so that buildings

are safe introduction of the safety of many factors during the design of any origin,

such as the escalation of cargo applied to the way of design method called

marginal (the escalation of cargo), where values are beaten cargo safety many

factors, such as doubling One or two and then design established on this basis,

and the lowest possible cost suited to these factors.

The ratio varies depending on the importance of safety factors and place of its

origin, purpose and length of service required and other factors, for example:

The establishment of origin in the sea differs in terms of materials and design

originated from the mountain or on the surface of the ground surface or the core

of sand

Civil engineer:

The substance of the role of civil engineer not only that which is the design and

implementation and supervision of the execution of various projects, but most is

in conjunction with its closely linked the lives of human beings.

If we look at the functions of the civil engineer in all projects, we will see that it

can be divided into three categories:

1. Tasks that take place before the implementation phase, feasibility studies

and exploration site and design.

2. Tasks that take place during the execution, dealing with the client and the

consultant engineer tasks and functions of a contractor.

3. Tasks that take place after the implementation, maintenance and various

research and development.

In short, we can say that the civil engineer was the engineer responsible for the

design of construction plans, including architectural corresponds to international

standards established in that country and oversee the implementation of site

works as:

• Construction engineer designs

• Speculative calculations and the Wolf

• engineer implementation

• Director of the construction site

• water engineer

• engineer roads and bridges

• engineer infrastructure

• Project Management

Engineering Department of Civil Engineering:

The management of the project engineering of the most important elements

contributing to the success or failure is clearly one of the Departments in any

area of particular importance to the success of the work.

Especially in construction projects, which are more complex administrative and

practical than most other areas of administration, and simple to assess the

importance of that, the car factory for example, that a car had completed the

tests he could simply amend the award of the product is then required to copy

large numbers, with little loss, not the time nor the cost, while developers can not

build a fully modified, but then You must sign all the defects in advance and

avoid, and here must be good governance and leadership skill and ingenuity to

find solutions and alternatives.

The newly allocated project management is considering high (MA and PhD) in

many universities, but that there were multiple disciplines within the science

generated by the marriage of ancient flags management and civil engineering.

Advised many experts to be submitted to this specialization is encroachment

(personal) leadership and management, to succeed in his conduct.


The civil engineering is the art of adaptation and management of the vast

resources of the capacity of nature for the benefit and the benefit and

convenience of human.

In the end, to say that civil engineering is one of the most important branches of

engineering and the basis of all engineering work integrated with all branches of

engineering, where some can not architect or other to work without reference to

the civil engineer as a basis for the termination of any action which has the

engineering Other.

Therefore, the cooperation between the branches of engineering with the civil

engineering of the most important keys to the success of economic projects

those ultimately lead to economic development and a comprehensive economic

development in the country.

All branches of engineering complement each other, planned so the only

reference to the civil engineer to address planned so constitutive as well as

electricity and mechanical engineer.

Everyone is working as a team in an integrated architecture and engineering

really only one completed, but the presence of all, if we build the map given to

the house we found the cooperation of all departments to undertake engineering


1 - William James, the fundamentals of engineering the city, the library's George

Albert, the first edition, 2002.

2 - Safwat Ibrahim Aezzoni, engineering city, Dar knowledge of the publication

and distribution, 1998.

3 - Hussein Mahmoud Abdel Salam, the functions of the civil engineer, the city

library, the first edition, 2004.