1.0 INTRODUCTION The right to work in a safe and healthy environment is the fundamental right of every worker.

Regardless, the International Labour Organization has reported that over 160 million workers fall ill due to workplace hazards and exposures, while more than 1 million workers have died as a result of occupational diseases and accidents.1 The incidence of workplace accidents and diseases varies enormously among countries, with significant differences among developed and developing countries. The occupational safety and health (OSH) performance of industries also varies significantly among economic sectors and organizations within countries. The agricultural, forestry, mining and construction industries have been shown to have the highest incidents of occupational accidents and deaths among other industries worldwide. In Malaysia, the traditional approach to providing safety and health at the workplace was based on the popular view that the government can avoid occupational hazards through enforcement of detailed regulations. However, this heavy reliance on government has now given way to a new strategy of promoting a tripartite approach to occupational safety and health in all sectors of the economy. The responsibility for safety and health is placed at the enterprise level, where an effective and accountable internal system is developed in which management and workers and their organizations play a leading role, and self-regulation is encouraged, consistent with standards promulgated through laws and regulations by the government. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) came into force in February 1994. It covers all economic sectors, including the public services and statutory authorities, except those subjected to the Merchant Shipping Ordinance and the armed forces. The Act and the accompanying regulations oblige employers to provide and maintain safe plant, work systems, workplaces and working environments. Employers are also required to provide information, instruction, training and supervision to enable employees to perform the work in a safe manner and without risks to health. The systems and procedures focus on the following areas of concern: safety and health training; safe systems of work; environmental control and safe workplaces. A competent safety and health


Alli BO. Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety. Geneva: International Labour Office, 2001. Alli BO. Fundamental principles of occupational health and safety. Geneva: International Labour Office, 2001.

The government has encouraged a tripartite approach to promoting occupational safety and health at work. The aims of this Act are:   to secure the safety. non-governmental organizations such as the Society for Occupational Safety and Health also play an important role in increasing workers’ awareness. to protect person at a place of work other than persons at work against risks to safety or health arising out of the activities of persons at work. research and development in this field. Trade unions and employer organizations play a key role in promoting safety and health education programmed for employers and workers.0. This Act was gazette on 24th February 1994 and may be cited as the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994. The Occupational Safety and Health Act and regulations are supported by other legislation specific to areas of concern e. The government has also established a National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health to promote education. In addition. standards of Occupational Safety and Health in Malaysia have improved over time. the Factories and Machineries Act and the Pesticides Act.officer has to be appointed in industries. 2. The safety and health officer's job is to ensure compliance with the Act and promote safe conduct of work. OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT (OSHA) The Occupational Safety and Health Act is an Act which provides the legislative framework to secure the safety. health and welfare of persons at work against risks to safety or health arising out of the activities of persons at work. This Act is a practical tool superimposed on existing safety and health legislation. Moreover. . health and welfare among all Malaysian workforces and to protect others against risks to safety or health in connection with the activities of persons at work. thus supporting the work of the Department of Occupational Safety and Health in the Ministry of Human Resources. which have been gazette by the Minister. Medical surveillance is also mandatory in industries where work may pose risks to health of workers.g.

The Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 is enforced by the Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH). a council established under section 8 of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994. suppliers and employees always practise safe and health work culture. this Act also aims to establish effective safety and health organization and performance. and always comply with existing legislation. The concept of selfregulation encourages cooperation. guidelines and codes of practice pertaining to occupational safety. importers. Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) will ensure through enforcement and promotional works that employers. . health and welfare as a basis in ensuring safety and health at work. guidelines and codes of practice.  to promote an occupational environment for persons at work which is adapted to their physiological and psychological needs. manufacturers. self-employed persons. policies. Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) is also the secretariat to National Council for Occupational Safety and Health. The provision of the Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 are based on the selfregulation scheme. Its primary responsibility is to ensure safety and health of work lies with those who create the risks and those who work with the risks. Through self-regulating scheme that is designed to suit the particular industry or organization. consultation and participation of employees and management in efforts to upgrade the standards of safety and health at the workplace. The National Council for Occupational Safety and Health shall have power to do all things expedient or reasonably necessary for or incidental to the carrying out of the objects of this Act. designers. a government department under the Ministry of Human Resources Malaysia. to provide the means whereby the associated occupational safety and health legislation may be progressively replaced by a system of regulations and approved industry codes of practice operating in combination with the provisions of this Act designed to maintain or improve the standards of safety and health. Department of Occupational Safety and Health (DOSH) will also formulate and review legislation.

Japan had an industrial injury and illness rate 5 times that of the US. from the CEO to the production workers. the situation had reversed and the US had an injury and illness rate almost 6 times as high as that of Japan. Employees and managers working together can do far more than a few safety and health specialists to promote Occupational Safety & Health (OSH). Awareness activities can be used to reinforce positive attitudes and fortify safe working behaviours. education. and there have been only a few published research studies and information on OSH awareness among the workers. . A2004. Yet despite the best intentions. Individuals. There have been many positive developments since the enactment of the Act.1 AWARENESS OF THE OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ACT (OSHA) In Malaysia. Although the OSHA 1994 has now been in existence for more than ten years. Japanese safety and health management systems are integrated into the overall production and planning system. in areas such as OSH services. there has been little reduction in the rate at which 2 Laws of Malaysia: Occupational Safety and Health Act 1994 (Act 514).2 The creation of awareness and implementation of OSH has been a slow and gradual process. In 1952. have their safety and health responsibilities spelled out in precise detail. By 1999. current knowledge and awareness of OSH among workers in Malaysia is very limited. Kuala Lumpur: International Law Book Series. they take their responsibility very seriously. promotion and research. industries have embraced many systems to minimize workplace accidents and incidents. For decades. In plants. In Malaysia the awareness of Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) was very low practically the measurement of success and failure of occupational health and safety has traditionally been demonstrated by the use of “after the loss” type measurements such as injury frequency and severity. More importantly.2. management takes safety and health concerns into account during the initial stages of planning and engineering processes. even the Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) was enacted in 1994 with the primary aim of promoting safety and health awareness and instilling a safety and health culture among the Malaysian workforce. These measurements alone have proven to be insufficient in evaluating the true state of Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) within the organization.

people are killed or injured at work. In addition the safety and health problems are exacerbated when looked at in relation to the companies that are involved in the manufacturing sector which is complex in its structure. sickness or death that may arise by reason of his or her occupation. In 2005 alone.g. with the intention of promoting welfare and well-being of workers. Socso had paid out RM 890 million in compensation to workers who were involved in industrial accidents compared to RM 840 million in 2004 (Abdul Rahman. e. Further. assembly of components at home. some of these small-scale industries are family-owned businesses with family labour. It is impossible to expect the enforcement or compliance of standards of occupational safety and health at these kinds of work establishment. 2006). 3. The provision of Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) standards by the state is an exercise of the police power. set and enforced to eliminate or reduce Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) hazards in the workplace. and weak enforcement of Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) standards. Among some of the real problems raised by Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) experts surrounding the effective implementation of work safety and health in this region according to a study in 2003 are such as lack of concern by management. The majority of the firms involved are in the small and medium-scale industries where the unionization of workers is low or absent. Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) standards aim to provide at least the minimum acceptable degree of protection that must be afforded to every worker in relation to the working conditions and dangers of injury.0 THE LACKS IMPLEMENTATION OF OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY & HEALTH (OSH) STANDARDS IN THE FACTORY . Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) standards are mandatory rules and standards. lack of awareness and trained Occupational Safety & Health (OSH) personnel. the main reason still owes to the attention of daily signals and warnings that people choose not to adhere to. Of all the major factors or accidents. Additionally there are home-based industrial activities which provide services to the larger manufacturing industries.

It requires the factory to improve all aspects of environmental and industrial hygiene. exposure to dust.3 Standing for long Period of Time . including sanitation and access to safe water. primary prevention is considered the most effective means of reducing the burden of disease. 3.Occupational safety and health is the discipline concerned with preserving and protecting human and facility resources in the workplace. we are always hearing that the accident cases are happened in manufacturing industries. It is because. It is shown that the employers were lack of the implementation as stated in the OSHA and not observe the workers. the workers has the right to a healthy workplace environment is an integral component of the right to health. fumes and particulates places workers at increased risk of being affected by a number of diseases. Many of the workers are exposed to hygiene hazards when the septic tank of this factory was located besides the factory water sources. 3. OSH standards are mandatory rules and standards. Now day. but in this workplace.2 Hygienic Quality Meanwhile the condition of the factory not in good condition. OSH standards aim to provide at least the minimum acceptable degree of protection that must be afforded to every worker in relation to the working conditions and dangers of injury. in the manufactories industries. sickness or death that may arise by reason of his or her occupation thus many employers lacks of the implementation of the OSHA.1 No Protection for Safety and Health In the manufactories industries the OSA was simply important and the employer should to take steps to prevent. the workers not be protected with any mask and protection glasses while conducting with the processor machine. treat and control diseases related to work. The percentages of an accident in the manufacturing industries sector are always high compare to the other sector. The accident is always happened because the employer seems taking for granted on Occupational Safety and Health (OSH) performances in the Factory. this satiation will leads to the other health problem to the factory workers. 3. This situation was includes an obligation of the employers to monitor and evaluate occupational health risks and diseases affecting vulnerable groups. set and enforced to eliminate or reduce OSH hazards in the workplace.

ligaments. Accordingly. The working posture and task should be designed to avoid strain and damage to any part of the body such as the tendons. specific varieties of working conditions. But in this factory there was some many places do not have the proper light. . muscles. employees subconsciously tend to accept and adapt to unsatisfactory standing working conditions. a broad understanding of the relationship between work and health must be adopted. and the social. 3. an examination of occupational health must include consideration of harmful exposures during work. then it can lead to fatigue. and especially the back. if the standing posture is the choice for a task and if there is insufficient rest to the legs. During work.4 Improper Lighting Condition In the manufactories industry the lighting most important aspect so an adequate lighting must be provided by the employers. environmental and political contexts in which work is situated.The workers also have to perform standing work in relatively stationary position without much leg movement and they have to stand throughout the length of the work shift. As the employers we should taking care the workers health and maintain an upright and forward facing posture. However. working environment. 4. So the work should be arranged so that it may be done either in the seated or standing position. when the lighting is used it should be sufficient so as to avoid visual fatigue and prevent glare or reflection into the workers eyes. or if they have to maintain in an awkward posture for long duration.0 THE RECOMMENDATION TO BE CONSIDER TO IMPROVE SAFETY & HEALTH (OSH) STANDARDS IN THE FACTORY In order to achieve the full realization of the right to occupational health as a fundamental component of the right to health. pain and discomfort. The workers may not realise that their body is under strain until they feel actual pain and even then they may not understand the causes. in this condition it might leads to the other misfortune accident and can cause the workers having fatigue eyes and also can cause some other problems. The basic requirement for adequate lighting to make sure that the work must be easy to see and the light comfortable to the eyes for the workers. working relationships.

the workplace should include standing workstation at work for the safety and health of the workers. Illumination is measure in units of LUX (Lumens per square metre). boring. For the purpose of this issue the employers shall build a standing workstation. strenuous. and a combination of dynamic and static actions. The type of work done in the standing workstation can be categorised as light. A standing workstation may involve tasks where the worker's upper limbs are used to move loads within the standing workstation and the lower leg and trunk movements are used to provide the momentum to move the loads. twisting and turning and with the arms reaching upwards and outwards within the workstation but the legs are in a relatively stationary position. productivity and safety and health of the workers. static activity (with less or no leg movements). In the standing position the body is held upright by the big muscles of the trunk and lower limbs. a standing workstation is defined as a workstation where a task is performed with the workers standing in a relatively stationary position and without much leg movement. But. fatiguing. 4. Standing work can be categorised based on leg movements such as dynamic activity (with leg movements).1 Standing Workstation For the worker who has to work while standing the employers shall take the initiative to make sure the workers safety and health been consider. The workers may also adopt a certain amount of postural movements on the whole body to perform his task such as trunk bending. The basic requirements for adequate lighting are that the work must be easy to see and the light comfortable to the eyes.4. medium to heavy work depending on whether the workers is required to exert downward forces and manipulate heavy objects. the improper design of a standing workstation would make the task more difficult. So.2 Proper Lighting The factory also must make sure that an adequate lighting be provided. The workers stands throughout the length of the work shift and he or she does not move from one workstation to another. which will have an effect on quality of work. unacceptable and uncomfortable for the operators. Suitable light levels based on Malaysia Standard for interior lighting (see COP for Interior Lighting) are: • General background 200 Lux .

And. Fluorescent light flicker indicates either the tube or starter needs replacing. In this issue the worker should ask the employers to supply the protection mask and glasses while conducting the machine if the employer not provides it. Under the right to health. Ideally the surrounding area should be slightly lower in luminous background. effective implementation of OSH will assist in the formation of good safety behavior because OSH implementation requires employers to cater the safety needs of the employees and the workers to have some responsibility towards their own safety. lack of well-being or discomfort among workers.12 months. The hygienic aspect at the workplace very important which are directly related to safety and hygiene at work. Health risks to workers could be reduced by proper protection being provided and used. Light deteriorate with age and accumulate dirt over the surface. at least every 6. Light should fall from the side rather than from the front to avoid reflections on the work surfaces. 4. Glare causes visual discomfort and is usually caused by light sources which are too bright or inadequately shielded. & Burke. “Industrial hygiene” (or occupational hygiene) encompasses all efforts to protect workers‟ health through control of the work environment. The employers shall take the action to provide the safety of the workers while working in the factory and should not be taken lightly. Christian. So. 4. Wallace.3 Protection been provided Accidents at workplace can be prevented if employers and workers are more sensitive or have good safety behavior3. the employers should supply only safe water that approve by health department and also provides the hygienic tool accordingly and change the sanitation area according the local authority approval.4 The hygienic aspect been increased . Bradley.• • Routine factory work 400 Lux Work with poor contrast (Proof reading) 600 Lux Sharp differences in illumination between adjacent areas should be avoided. including the recognition and evaluation of those factors that may cause illness. 2009 . It is advisable to ensure that lights are cleaned at regular intervals. 3 Makin & Sutherland. everyone is entitled to the enjoyment of the highest attainable standard of health conducive to living a life in dignity. 1994.

and thus inculcating a healthy and safe work culture. Training enables workers not only to perform their jobs.CONCLUSION In order to take care of their own health and safety. appropriate tools. but also to protect their lives and health. as well as that of their co-workers. workers must understand occupational risks and dangers. work organization and provision of information to the workers to enable them to minimise risks while performing their duties. OSH training at all levels should be emphasised as a means of improving working conditions and the work environment. Despite awareness campaigns conducted through promotion and public talks for many years. the knowledge of OSH is still not up to the desired level. Workers should therefore be well informed of hazards and adequately trained to carry out their tasks safely. A large proportion of occupational hazards in the workplace can be prevented or controlled through different measures. . such as safe work practices.

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