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FEATI UNIVERSITY

Helios St., Sta. Cruz, Manila

WATER RESOURCES ENGINEERING


TERM PAPER: FLOOD-DAMAGE MITIGATION

Submitted by: Ma. Kris M. Malinambo 09-00470

Submitted to: Engr. Roldan Q. Pineda

Date of Initial Submission: September 7, 2013

Date of Final Submission: September 14, 2013 Permit No.:

FLOOD-DAMAGE MITIGATION I. INTRODUCTION

A flood is commonly considered to be an unusually high stage of a river. For a river in its natural state, occurrence of a flood usually fills up the stream up to its banks and often spills over to the adjoining flood plains. In the Philippines, flooding became a natural problem for years and that some people already adopted it but for some; it has somehow became a way of living. Its in the waters nature to flow or travel to a place with the lowest elevation. Here in our country, for example, rainwater from highlands go to Metro Manila and stays there for awhile as flood and is considered a catch basin. The geographical location of the Philippines makes it one of the most disaster-prone countries in the world. On the average, the country is affected by about twenty two (22) tropical cyclones a year, seven or eight of which cross land and inflict considerable damages to lives and properties. Other rainfall producing phenomena include the monsoons, and other wind system that wreak havoc and disrupt life. These weather disturbances are accompanied by wind forces that cause storm surges and heavy rainfall resulting in inundation of river basins and low-lying areas including erosion and slope failures.

Every year, floods cause significant damage to homes, businesses, and lives across the Philippines. In 2010, catastrophic floods damaged communities that cost millions of pesos just like what happened last August 19, 2013. The importance of protecting communities from floods has been demonstrated by nature in the past several years. Improved and more practical ways of reducing flood damage are crucial to prevent future flooding disasters.

Traditionally, flood protection was accomplished either by constructing a large dam and reservoir or by building a flood barrier. A flood barrier can be an earthen levee or a concrete floodwall, both of which reduce flood damage by preventing the water from flowing into areas where floods will cause significant damage. Levees and flood walls accomplish this by channeling the flow, preventing it from spreading out of the river and into sensitive areas in times of high water. A reservoir, on the other hand, is created by building a structure on a river or stream to reduce the flow on the river downstream. The water from the river or stream pools behind the structure, and the

amount of water released is often controlled to prevent damage downstream. Any flow beyond the desired release collects in the reservoir to be released later, when the inflow to the reservoir has decreased to a safer level.

The government had undertaken several flood control and disaster prevention measures to reduce the impact of the natural disasters. Both structural and nonstructural measures are of utmost importance in improving the level of the quality of alleviating human suffering and advancing development.

II.

FLOOD MITIGATION RESERVOIR

Dams and Reservoirs A dam is any barrier that holds back water; dams are primarily used to save, manage, and/or prevent the flow of excess water into specific regions. In addition, some dams are used to generate hydropower. This article examines man-made dams but dams can also be created by natural causes like mass wasting events or even animals like the beaver. Another term often used when discussing dams is reservoir. A reservoir is a manmade lake that is primarily used for storing water. They can also be defined as the specific bodies of water formed by the construction of a dam. Main Uses of Dams and Reservoirs Despite their controversy, dams and reservoirs serve a number of different functions but one of the largest is to maintain an areas water supply. Many of the worlds largest urban areas are supplied with water from rivers that are blocked via dams. Another major use of dams is power generation as hydroelectric power is one of the worlds major sources of electricity. Hydropower is generated when the potential energy of the water on the dam drives a water turbine which in then turns a generator and creates electricity. To best make use of the waters power, a common type of hydroelectric dam uses reservoirs with different levels to adjust the amount of energy generated as it is needed. When demand is low for instance, water is held in

an upper reservoir and as demand increases, the water is released into a lower reservoir where it spins a turbine. Some other important uses of dams and reservoirs include a stabilization of water flow and irrigation, flood prevention, water diversion and recreation. According to DENR (Department of Environmental and Natural ResourcesPhilippines): There are four major groundwater reservoirs (cagayan, 10,000 km2; central luzon, 9,000 km2; agusan, 8,500 km2; cotabato, 6,000 km2) which, when combined with smaller reservoirs already identified, would aggregate to an area of about 50,000 km2 438 major dams and 423 smaller dams (total of 861 impounding dams and reservoir sites) identified sites of water surface water storage potential

Flood Mitigation Reservoirs

There are two basic types of flood-mitigation reservoirs - storage reservoirs and retarding basins - differing only in the type of outlet works provided. The discharge from a storage reservoir is regulated by gates and valves operated on the basis of the judgement of the project engineer. Storage reservoirs differ from conservation reservoirs as they need large sluiceway capacity in order to allow rapid drawdown before or after a flood. Retarding basins, on the other hand, are provided with fixed, ungated outlets that automatically regulate the outflow in accordance with the volume of water in storage. Storage reservoirs are much more common than retarding basins.

Purpose of Flood-Mitigation Reservoirs

The function of a flood-mitigation reservoir is to store a portion of the flood flow so as to minimize the flood peak at the point to be protected. In an ideal case, the reservoir is situated immediately upstream from the protected area and is

operated to cut off the flood peak. This is accomplished by d ischarging all reservoir inflow until the outflow reaches the safe capacity of the channel downstream. All flow above this rate is stored until inflow drops below the safe channel capacity, and the stored water is released to recover storage capacity for the next flood. Since the reservoir is situated immediately upstream from the point to be protected, the hydrograph at that point is the same as that released at the dam, and the peak has been reduced.

The reservoir must be operated so as to produce a minimum water level at the protected area, rather than a minimum at the dam. If, as is the usual case, the local inflow crests sooner than the inflow from upstream, the operation usually requires low releases early in the flood, with relatively higher releases timed to arrive after the peak of the local inflow.

Cross-section

of

typical

storage

reservoir

Location of Reservoirs

The most effective flood mitigation is obtained from an adequate reservoir located immediately upstream from the point (or reach) to be protected. Sites farther upstream require smaller dams and less valuable land but are less effective in reducing flood peaks. The loss in effectiveness results from the influence of channel storage and from the lack of control over the local inflow between the reservoir and the protected city. A single reservoir maynot be able to protect a number cities at

different distances downstream. A significant criterion for evaluating a floodmitigation reservoir or a system of reservoirs is the percentage of the total drainage area controlled by the reservoirs.

Economic analysis and other factors often favor the upstream site despite its lesser effectiveness. Often several small reservoirs are indicted in preference to a single large reservoir. No general rules can be set forth because each problem is unique, and several alternatives must be evaluated. The use of several small reservoirs offers the possibility of developing initially only those units of the system that yield the highest economic return and constructing the additional units as the development of the area increases the potential benefits.

Size of Reservoir

The potential reduction in peak flow by reservoir operation increases as reservoir capacity increases, since a greater portion of the floodwater can be stored. For this reason a second criterion for evaluation of a flood-mitigation reservoir is its storage capacity, usually expressed in inches (or millimeters) of runoff from its tributary drainage area. If this value is compared with the possible storm rainfall over the area, one obtains a rough idea of the potential effectiveness.

Retarding Basins

These are areas of the river/water stream where the water is allowed to spread over a large are and thus dampening its velocity.

A typical retarding basin.

The discharge capacity of the outlet works for a retarding basin with full reservoir should equal the maximum flow the channel downstream can pass without causing serious flood damage. The reservoir capacity must equal the flow volume of the design flood less the volume of water released during the flood. As a flood occurs, the reservoir fills and the discharge increases until the flood has passed and the inflow has become equal to outflow. After this time, water is automatically withdrawn from the reservoir until the stored water is completely discharged.

III.

OPERATION

The idealized reservoir operation can be determined by limiting downstream channel capacity. Stream flow forecasts are necessary in planning reservoir operations for flood mitigation. A flood-mitigation reservoir has its maximum potential for flood reduction when it is empty. After a flood has occurred, a portion of the floodmitigation storage is occupied by the collected floodwaters and is not available for use until this water can be released. A second storm may occur before the drawdown is complete. Consequently, it is often necessary to reserve a portion of the storage capacity as protection against a second flood, i.e., the full capacity of the reservoir cannot be assumed to be available for the control of any single flood. If a second flood should occur while the reservoir is full, the effect of the reservoir might be to make this flood worse. These two effects uncertainty as to future inflows during the flood and the need to reserve storage against a possible second flood mean that a flood-mitigation reservoir cannot be fully effective.

A third operational problem develops when flows in excess of natural flows are released from a reservoir and synchronize at some point downstream with flood flows from a tributary. The resulting flows below this tributary may be greater than the natural flood flows would have been. This situation has occurred many times and is one of the hazards of flood-mitigation operation, especially on large rivers. It can be minimized only by weather forecasts several days or even weeks in advance.

IV.

STRUCTURAL FACILITIES

Some of the common techniques used for flood control are installation of rock berms, rock rip-raps, sandbags, maintaining normal slopes with vegetation or application of soil cements on steeper slopes and construction or expansion of drainage channels. Other methods include levees, dikes, dams, retention or detention basins.

Storage Reservoirs and Retarding Basins

Dams Dams are generally constructed to store water for domestic and industrial use, for irrigation, to generate hydro electricity or prevent flooding. The type of Dam constructed is based on factors such as local geology, shape of the valley, climate, and availability of materials, manpower and plant. There are three main types of dam: Gravity Arch Buttress

Gravity dams Gravity dams are of relatively simple design. They are usually slightly curved

in plan and rely on self weight to resist the hydrostatic forces that act upon it. 83 % of dams over 15m high are earth or rock embankments and 11% are Typical heights of large gravity dams are between 50 150m. Concrete gravity dams must be built on a strong rock foundation when over

concrete gravity dams.

20m in height and are expensive as large amounts of concrete are used. Rock or earth fill embankment dams can be built on relatively week

foundations as the dam is wide at its base, making them ideal for constructing in wide shallow valleys. They are made water tight by an impermeable core or membrane on the upstream face. The spillway to an earth and rock dam is a separate structure as erosion can

occur if water spills over the embankment.

Arch dams Arch dams are nearly always constructed from reinforced concrete but only

use about 20% of the concrete that would be required for a gravity dam. The strength of the arch is used to pass on the hydrostatic force to the

foundations which must consist of very strong rock. Arch dams require narrow, steep sided valleys where the length of the dams Typical arch dams are 70 250m in height and make up only 4% of the worlds

crest is limited to about 10 times its height.

large dams. In design arch dams are complex structures with curved surfaces in both plan

and section. Most of the hydrostatic force is resisted by the arching action between the abutments and the rest by cantilever action at the base. Buttress Dams Buttress dams are a combination of arch and concrete gravity dams. Flat slab

type dams have a continuous upstream slab face with downstream buttresses to provide strength and stability. Multiple arch type dams are used when the valley is too wide for a single arch dam. Typical heights of buttress dams are 30 90m for a flat slab and 40 220m

for a multiple arch, with 2% of the worlds largest dams being buttress type. Buttress dams require 60% of the concrete required for a gravity dam but are

not cheaper because of reinforcement and complex formwork.

Dam spillways Spillways allow floods to pass safely over, through or around dams into the downstream channel without causing damage. Different types of spillway include overflow, chute, side flow, shaft crest gates and siphons. The type of spillway used depends upon the type of dam in place, its size, the topography of the area and the operation of the spillway.

An overflow spillway is part of the dam designed to allow water to flow over its crest. They are common in concrete dams but erode earth or rock dams.

A chute spillway is a steep concrete channel that takes water from reservoir level down to river level.

Crest gates can be used to raise water levels in a reservoir above the height of the dam and to control the level. These gates are often radial gates because flat sluice gates would be difficult to lift because of large forces acting upon them. As radial gates are part circular in shape and pivoted at the centre, the hydrostatic forces act on the gate in a way that they pass through the pivot meaning that there is no turning moment apart from the weight of the gate, meaning easier operation than a normal straight flat gate. Drum gates are used with long dams and when not in use the gate fits into a recess in the crest. By allowing water into the recess the gate is forced into the raised position. Roller gates are steel cylinders with gear teeth at the ends. The gears engage in an inclined rack attached to piers at the dam crest. When in the closed position the cylinder sits in the crest and when raised the water flows underneath. Roller gates are used for spans around greater than 45m. Sluice Gates Sluice gates are used to control the flow in river and man made open channels. They are sometimes referred to as underflow gates as the flow passes beneath the bottom edge of the gate. When they have been calibrated they can be used to measure the discharge of the channel.

Flood Barriers Flood barriers are built all over the world to keep tidal floods from land which is low relative to surrounding rivers or seas.

Levee A levee, leve, dike, embankment, floodbank or stopbank is an elongated naturally occurring ridge or artificially constructed fill or wall, which regulates water levels. It is usually earthen and often parallel to the course of a river in its floodplain or along low-lying coastlines.

Floodway A floodway is either: a) that part of the floodplain specifically designed to carry flood flows and ideally capable of containing the Defined Flood Event. b) a section of road designed to be overtopped by floodwater during relatively low average recurrence interval (ARI) floods.

Pumping Stations Storm water stations are used to protect areas from flooding by pumping large volumes of water and thereby preventing the occurrence of flooding. Many cities and municipalities are located on or near bodies of water, creating a need for large, reliable pumping systems capable of handling large volumes of water. Reliability should be the main parameter when designing a storm water installation. Pumps that are completely reliable should be utilized together with a sound station design.

Storm Drain A storm drain, storm sewer (US), stormwater drain (Australia and New Zealand) or drainage well system (UK) or simply a drain or drain system is designed to drain excess rain and ground water from paved streets, parking lots, sidewalks, and roofs. Storm drains vary in design from small residential dry wells to large municipal systems. They are fed by street gutters on most motorways, freeways and other busy roads, as well as towns in areas which experience heavy rainfall, flooding and coastal towns which experience regular storms. Many storm drainage systems are designed to drain the storm water, untreated, into rivers or streams.

Flood Control Measures No Category 1 Facility/Measure

Increase of river flow capacity - - Dike/Levee - - Widening of waterway/river - - Dredging/Excavation - - Combination of above - - Cut-off channel

Reduction/control of the peak discharge of flood

- Dam - Retarding basin - Floodway

Prevention of bank collapse

- Revetment - Spur dike - Change of waterway/cut-off channel - Pilot channel (small channel)

Prevention of riverbed degradation

- Groundsill - Regulated quarrying - Sabo works (for sediment control) - Regular maintenance (channel excavation/dredging) - Vegetation/Reforestation - Jetties / estuary training dikes

Prevention of riverbed aggradation and, obstruction/interruption against river flow

V.

BENEFIT-COST ANALYSIS OF FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT

Other Cost/Benefit Methodologies JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) method of cost/benefit analysis The cost/benefit model applied by JICA is also a probability based approach. The benefit to be accrued for the implementation of the project was defined in this study as the reduction of direct and indirect damages to be caused by the flood/mudflow.

The probable direct and indirect damages were estimated under the without-project conditions as of the end of 1994. The damage to be occurred under the with - project conditions were assumed to be zero under the design flood of less than 20-year return period.

Methodology of Flood Damage Estimate In estimating the damageable value of properties in the probable inundation area, a Barangay Data Base was established in the GIS (Geophysical Information System). All the data required for the estimate of damage including area, farm land by crops, population, number of households, number of buildings and

establishments, infrastructures like roads and bridges, and irrigation canals of each barangay were input and arranged in this Data Base. (An abstract of the said data base is compiled in appendix). The probable inundation areas were delineated on the basis of a hydrological simulation study. Damage curves were generated for major items of properties such as (non)- residential buildings, upland crops, and infrastructures. Damage curves were generated for each hazard of flooding, sediment and lahar toward the depth of each hazard. The method of identifying and estimating damageable values is similar of the USACE method and stated by each item hereunder: Direct damages - Buildings: A regression formula showing the relationship between the number of house, establishments and household were generated through a mullet-variable regression analysis for each barrage. The number of the buildings to be affected was obtained by this regression formula through inputting the percentage share of the affected area toward the barrage area of each barrage.

- Agriculture: The land use map of each agricultural crop was input into GIS Barangay Data Base for each barangay. The damage of agricultural crops was computed according to the area affected by the flood/mudflow of each return period. The damage of the livestock was estimated by a ratio of the agricultural crops. - Infrastructures: The length of roads and bridges were stored in Barangay Data Base for each barangay. The damage of these infrastructures was computed according to the area to be affected in each barangay. Direct damage calculation Direct damage is calculated in the concept of Direct damage = (unit value) * (quantity) * (damage rate) in each studied area - The unit value: The economic value of all properties which will be vulnerable to damages is estimated as damageable value. - Quantity: A GIS overlay analysis is conducted to determine the number of each item by each block in the study area. - Damage rate: The damage rates for each item vulnerable to flood or sediment damage is determined in accordance with the inundation or sedimentation depth, on the basis of interview at the site, damage records in the past, and the technical standards for river and sabo works of the Ministry of construction of Japan. Estimate of indirect damage - Additional Transportation Cost: The probable additional cost of transportation is the cost due to the forced detour distance, duration and the vehicle operation cost. - Loss of production by interruption of Economic Activities: The loss of production by interruption of economic activities caused by flood/mudflows were estimated based on the per capita GRDP of non-agricultural sector multiplied by the duration and the number of affected people in urban areas.

- Evacuation and building clean-up costs: The evacuation cost and the building clean-up cost to be occurred at the time of disasters were estimated based on the duration and the historical statistics. Intangible damages The purpose of damage calculation is not only to calculate damage potential in monetary terms, but also to discuss the potential hazard area by combining the results of numerical lahar simulation with socio-economic and demographic data. E.g. potential population growth are taken into account by estimating damages Cost Benefit Analysis The project benefit was estimated by the savings of probable direct and indirect damages caused by the probable flood and/or lahar with a scale return of 20-year period.

Important to notice here is that more stress is lead on the evaluation of intangible factors. In the JICA study, the consequent physical benefits are also calculated and extend to the following: population to be relieved from inundation; number of household to be relieved; land area to be saved from inundation and farm land to be saved. These are expressed as a percentage of the studied area. Further, socioeconomic and demographic aspects are included in the potential damage estimation.

Benefit Cost Ratio The B/C Ratio is defined by the following formula:

B/C

1 R
t 1 e

t T

Bt

1 R
t 1 e

t T

Ct

If the rate of the present value of the benefit divided by the present value of the cost is more than 1.00, then the project is feasible. Project life is assumed at 50 years after the completion of the project. Cash flow of the economic cost and economic benefit should be made from the first year of the construction works up to the end of each project life.

Also, annual operation and maintenance cost (O&M Cost) should be taken into account; and the replacement cost, if any, should be considered since the initial works of the facilities are temporary in the project life. 1) Basic Conditions In the process of determining the different economic indicators such as the Net Present Value (NPV), the Benefit-Cost Ration (B/C) and the Internal Rate of Return (IRR) of the proposed priority projects that would address the flooding problems, the following basic conditions and assumptions are applied: a) A project life of 50 years after completion b) A detailed design period is 2 years and a construction period is 5 years. In each period the budget is equally distributed every year. Classification of Flood Control Benefits Benefit of flood control project is generally classified as follows; 1) Direct Benefit 2) Indirect Benefit 3) Intangible Benefit 4) Development Benefit Direct Benefits Direct Benefits are those that accrued directly from the reduction or prevention of flood damages (deterrent effects). The benefit is the value for reducing flood damage risk of productive land and assets in the flooded area. It is monetary value based on the flood damage amount without the project condition. The direct benefits refer to the prevented or reduced direct damages that can be caused by floods. Direct damage is the damage directly inflicted on vulnerable

assets that consists of the following: Agricultural damages include damages to crops, livestock and aquaculture; and Non-agricultural damages include damages to houses and household goods, buildings and facilities in the buildings, and infrastructures. The calculation of damage value is based on the sociological investigation of the

flood prone area which includes productivity, quantity of public and private buildings and social infrastructures. The damage rates for them are provided based on the flood inundation depth and duration for all the properties in the study area. Other direct benefits arise from the interruption and/or suspension of economic activities, transport movement, and cost of rescue and relief activities. These

benefits are accrued from the reduction of the opportunity to generate income and can be technically translated as the Opportunity Cost. Estimation of Direct Benefit is the cost of flood damage under the without the project scenario called as Damage Assessment, estimated based on the following procedures: 1) Flood Inundation Depth-Area(-Duration) Analysis 2) Estimation of Annual Flood Damage Amount (Annual Direct Benefit) The annual flood damage (direct benefit) is estimated based on the flood inundation depth-area (duration) analysis that can be quantified. Flood inundation analysis should be carried out prior to the estimation of direct benefit of flood control project and can be done by adopting the following process: a) Preparation of probable flood hydro-graph or peak discharge by hydrological analysis: (2-year, 5-year, 10-year, 25-year, 50-year, 100-year and so on); b) Flood inundation analysis to be done by adequate hydraulic analysis, for example; Uniform flow, Non-uniform flow & Non-steady flow calculation under the existing condition of the river channel (condition of without flood control project); and Estimation of Flood Inundation Depth-Area(-Duration) by the different scale of flood based a) Delineation of the Land-use classification of flood inundation area based on the sociological survey and the results of the Flood Inundation Depth Area (Duration); b) Estimation of unit damage value of assets /productions of land/ buildings in the flood inundation area by sociological survey;

c) Establishment of the corresponding factor per inundation depth and Landuse class; and d) Estimation of Flood Damages corresponding to the given return-period of recurrence. Indirect Benefits Indirect Benefit is considered for the damage risk mitigation such as traffic disruptions, loss of retail and industrial output, interruptions in utility services, the cost of emergency operation and so on. The damage value is generally estimated based on the flood damage investigation through hearing and sociological sounding. This damage is quantifiable but difficult to convert to monetary value; hence, in such case the indirect benefit is seldom taken into account. Intangible Benefit Intangible benefits of flood control project are non-quantifiable monetary value; hence, estimation is difficult. These include losses of lives, productivity, quality of life, additional stress/anxiety/sickness and other traumatic experiences, which are major issues in project assessment. Most flood control projects do not consider the intangible benefits; even though, significant flood protection / mitigation can improve the welfare of the people in the flood prone area. Development Benefits Development benefits promote the acceleration or enhancement of economic growth and development of the area due to flood protection. The accompanying positive impact due to development may include the following: Land enhancement Increase agricultural production Improve agri-aquacultural activity Change in economic structure Employment opportunities Enhance investment potentials; and Improvement in quality of life. Development benefit of the flood control project can be estimated based on the

development of the project area after the completion of flood control project. The difference of land use condition with and without project can be considered based on the existing regional development plan and so on. Development benefit for flood control project is indispensable in economic evaluation because it not only protects the existing properties in the flood prone area but also triggers development in accordance with the national/ regional development plan. Project components that contribute development should be noted and taken into account, such as: heightening of lands using river excavation / dredging materials, road on dikes crest, river side park, residential and industrial area, and so on. Estimation of Total Benefits The total benefit is estimated based on the annual benefit covering the entire project life. In this estimate, the future benefits are converted with the discount rate to calculate the present values, which become the total benefit. The total benefit is estimated for river basin or project based on the implementation period, project life, and the discount rate. Economic Cost The Economic Cost is usually applied to EIRR calculation for the cost stream. Economic cost is estimated from the market price (Project cost), from which (a) Tax, duty and interest during the construction are to be deducted, and (b) Exchange rate, labor cost and land acquisition cost are to be adjusted.

VI.

STEPS/PROCEDURE IN PLANNING FLOOD DAMAGE MITIGATION PROJECT

NECESSITY OF FLOOD CONTROL PLAN

The formulation of a Flood Control Plan for a target river basin is necessary, and must be undertaken in a basin-wide approach, considering the influence/effect of flood and the future related plans such as: - Irrigation development plan, - Road network/bridge plan, - Sabo plan,

- Environmental management plan - Resettlement plan Some effects/influences of other development plans in the formulation of flood control plan may include examples, such as height of levee affecting the design height of bridge; the design riverbed profile affecting the design of irrigation intake/canal and other related facilities.

PROCEDURE FOR THE FORMULATION OF FLOOD CONTROL PLAN

Master Plan
Design Flood Frequency (Safety Level) Survey and Investigation Identification of Target River Basin Target (Catchment Area, Reference/Sub-reference Points) Design Discharge Flow Capacity (Existing Discharge Capacity) Flood Control Alternatives and Design Discharge Distribution General Socio-economic Analysis for Alternative Projects General Environmental Impact Study for Alternative Projects
Proposed Flood Control Projects and Main Works with Typical Design

Feasibility Study
Prioritize and Select Projects Proposed in MP Detailed Analysis and Planning of Selected Flood Control Projects Target Detailed Socio-economic Analysis for the Selected Projects Detailed Environmental Impact Study for the Selected Projects Resettlement Action Plan

Project Implementation Plan

FLOOD CONTROL MASTER PLAN

The Master Plan incorporates flood control policy, strategy, target flood magnitude and main works, etc. in the river system. Extensive survey, investigation and

analysis to formulate the flood control master plan are necessary. Each identified project in the Master Plan shall be formulated for a long-term to have optimum benefits and in consideration of the effect in the implementation in other areas of the river basin. Master Plan shall include the following: 1) Project area: The project area shall describe, among others the natural condition, topography and/or historical background (flooding history). 2) Safety level described by return period. 3) Flood control main objective: This takes into consideration which appropriate improvement has to be undertaken (i.e., widening the river, excavating the river mouth, embankment, etc). The structures shall be decided based on the entire river basin flood management. 4) Basin-wide rainfall-runoff model: A simulation model for the estimation of the probable flood discharge at all the control points is necessary to be developed. 5) Diagram of design discharge: A diagram at the control points to determine the critical areas affected by high water stages is necessary for improvement plan. 6) Main works: What are the main works to be undertaken (i.e., dike, dredging, etc.). 7) Survey works a) Longitudinal Profile b) Typical cross section of the river. c) Etc. 8) Typical structure design (i.e., embankment/revetment, etc.). 9) Location map of main works. 10) General Socio-Economic Analysis 11) General Environmental Impact Study 12) Proposed Flood Control Projects and Main Works with Typical Design

FEASIBILITY STUDY

From the list of project proposed in the Master Plan, implementation for medium term are selected and prioritized based on the urgency to mitigate flood damages within the framework of socio-economic importance. The affected core areas should be given higher attention. Feasibility of each project is done in more detailed study. The study includes technical, economic, implementation schedule, operation and maintenance. Prioritized and Selected Projects Proposed in MP 1) Detailed Analysis and Planning of Selected Flood Control Projects 2) Detailed Socio-economic Analysis 3) Detailed Environmental Impact Study 4) General operation and maintenance plan

FLOOD CONTROL PROJECT IMPLEMENTATION PLAN The Flood Control Project Implementation Plan specifies the works selected from the Feasibility Study including the funds and benefits to be derived from the project. Implementation period is usually 5 to 10 years. Economic analysis shall be

conducted to determine the scope of the Project Implementation Plan (Calculation of Economic Internal Rate of Return (EIRR) is explained in Chapter 9) Flood Control Project Implementation Plan shall include the following: 1) Channel plan (1:500 1:10,000) 2) Validation of Survey and Investigation Works a) Cross section (Existing/Design) b) Longitudinal profile (Existing/Design) c) Etc. 3) Structural design 4) Cost estimates 5) Benefit estimation 6) Environment/Social Management Plan 7) Detailed Operation and Maintenance Plan 8) Project Evaluation

VII.

SAMPLE FLOOD CONTROL FACILITY IN THE PHILIPPINES

Manggahan Floodway

Country Region

Philippines Metro Manila, Rizal

Source - location - coordinates Mouth - location - coordinates Length

Marikina River Pasig City, Metro Manila 143556N 1210525E Laguna de Bay Taytay, Rizal 143130N 1210810E 10 km (6 mi)

Pasig-Marikina River basin with the Manggahan Floodway shown in cyan.

The Manggahan Floodway is an artificially constructed waterway in Metro Manila, the Philippines. The floodway was built in 1986, with the cost of 1.1 billion pesos, in order to reduce the flooding along the Pasig River during the rainy season, by diverting the peak water flows of the Marikina River to the Laguna de Bay which serves as a temporary reservoir. In case the water level on the lake is higher than the Marikina River, the floodway can also reverse the flow. By design, the Manggahan Floodway is capable of handling 2,400 cubic meters per second of water flow, although the actual flow is about 2,000 cubic meters per second. To complement the floodway, the Napindan Hydraulic Control System (NHCS) was built in 1983 at the confluence of the Marikina River and the Napindan Channel of the Pasig River to regulate the tidal flow of saline water between Manila Bay and the lake, and to prevent the intrusion of polluted water into the lake. It has a fully gated diversion dam at its head and was designed with a width of 260 meters (850 ft). Over 40,000 households are situated along the floodway's banks and these shoreline slums have reduced its effective width to 220 meters (720 ft). By carrying flood waters to Laguna de Bay, the Manggahan Floodway lessens flood conditions in Metro Manila but contributes to flooding of the coastal areas of Taguig, Taytay, and other towns in Laguna and Rizal along the lake. Incidents of severe

floods became more frequent and lasted longer in these areas since its construction. An unusual large flood occurred in October/November 1986, lasting for 2 months and resulting in high mortality and morbidity rates due

to gastroenteritis and other water-borne diseases. Furthermore, pollution and sediments carried by the floodway will jeopardize the existing and potential uses of the lake. The sedimentation rate of the lake is estimated at 1.5 million m/year with the Marikina River as a major contributor of silt to the lake through the Manggahan Floodway. Additional pollution comes from the shoreline settlers, living in slums up to 5 rows deep, whose waste goes directly into the floodway.

VIII.

PROPOSED FLOOD CONTROL PROJECTS

Pasig-Marikina River Basin Construction of the Marikina Dam for flood control purpose Land Use Zoning and Upper Marikina Flood plain Management Construction of Stages II and III of the PMRCIP

Laguna Lakeshore Ring Road Dike Constructionofthelakeshoreringroaddikeincludingpumpingstations, floodgates and drainage facilities

MARIKINA DAM

Height: 70 m (No control gate) Reservoir Area: 200 ha. Reservoir Capacity: 100 million m3 Cost: P 4.00 Billion (Approx.) Construction Period: 4 years EIRR:26.4%(incl.cost & benefits of river improvements of Pasig-Marikina, and construction of MCGS)

Montalban Fault Line(300m away from dam site) has made no deviation of strata at dam foundation rock. Further, Safety of dam against earthquake could be assured with these is seismic design, which will bring a minimal increase in construction cost. Concrete Gravity Type Dam (Yokoyama Dam in Japan)

LAKESHORE RING ROAD DIKE Total Length: 99.10 km Pumping Station: 10 sites Dike Road: 4 lanes Bridges: 11 bridges (1.1 km in total) Const. Cost: P 23.58 B Const. Period: 10 years EIRR:17.6% (incl. The benefits from the use of lake side dike road) Total volume to be stored in Laguna Lake by the Road Dike is 1.17 B m3 (El 12.5m-13.8m)

BENEFITS OF THE PROPOSED LAGUNA LAKESHORE RING ROAD DIKE

DIRECT BENEFITS FLOODCONTROL-Dike with Pumping Station will mitigate the flooding problems in the twenty-five (25) towns around the lakeshore area, totalling 25,000 ha around the lakeshore area.

TRANSPORTATION/DISTRIBUTION-Dike will also serve as an alternate road to help decongest highways leading to Metro Manila as well as the corridor connecting cities/municipalities around Laguna Lake.

INDIRECT BENEFITS POLLUTIONCONTROL-Drainage channel of Lakeshore dike will be used as an interceptor for wastewater collection as well as a catchment for siltation. With the construction/improvement of wastewater treatment facilities, the pollution of Lake water level will be controlled, and siltation in the lake could be limited. TOURISMANDRECREATION-Ring road dike will facilitate an easy access to tourist spots and promote more tourism development. LANDRECLAMATION-No chronic inundation in the lakeshore area will encourage more economic development. (Land value of area close to Laguna Lake shore became triple after the completion of the West of Mangahan Floodway Area Lake shore Dike).

Therefore, ENHANCING REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT AND ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION Effects of PARAAQUE SPILLWAY Total Length: 8.3 km, partly arched tunnel (200 m) under the expressway Related Structures: Control Gate Bridge: 2 nos. Total Cost: P 17.60 Billion (incl. ROW) Construction Period: 7 years The flood prevention benefits of the Spillway are measured by the reduction in the flood damages by shortening the flooding duration, while the flooding in the lake shore area will not be controlled by the Spillway.

FLOOD MITIGATION PLAN FOR PASIG-MARIKINA-LAGUNA LAKEBASIN

OBJECTIVE To mitigate flood damages in the PASIG-MARIKINA-LAGUNA LAKE BASIN (Metro Manila and Suburban Areas) against the Flood brought by Typhoon Ondoy

SCOPES River Flood is mitigated against the flood of a 100-year return period. Drainage System is improved against the storm rain of a 10-year return period. Laguna Lake shore Area is protected against the lake water level of a 40 -year return.

IX.

SOURCES

http://www.indiastudychannel.com/resources/93153-Flood-MitigationReservoirs.aspx www.wikipedia.org www.dpwh.gov.ph www.mmda.gov.ph

DPWH Presentation for Flood Mitigation Plan for Metro Manila and Sub-urban Areas JICA-Philippines (Japan International Cooperation Agency) DENR (Department of Environmental and Natural Resources) http://www.nzdl.org/gsdlmod?e=d-00000-00---off-0aedl--00-0----0-10-0---0---0direct10---4-------0-1l--11-en-50---20-about---00-0-1-00-0-0-11-1-0utfZz-8-10-0-0-11-100utfZz-8-00&a=d&c=aedl&cl=CL1.1&d=HASH010378a2e0e53e4aa12e6a75.6.6.3.3 Cost-Benefit Analysis for Natural Disaster Management - A Case-Study in the Philippines (Centre for Research on the Epidemiology of Disasters, 1998, 100 p. DPWH-JICA TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND GUIDELINES FOR PLANNING OF FLOOD CONTROL STRUCTURES