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PASSIVE VOICE

Autor: Enrique Hinojosa

(Active) (Passive)

The boy S The window S

broke V was broken V

the window O (by the boy) Agent

1.- El sujeto de la frase activa pasa a complemento agente en pasiva 2.- El objeto de la frase activa pasa a ser sujeto en pasiva 3.- El verbo se forma con to be en el tiempo del verbo de la frase activa seguido del participio pasado de ese mismo verbo. Para que podamos pasar una frase activa a voz pasiva es necesario que dicha frase tenga algn objeto directo o indirecto, es decir, que tenga un verbo transitivo. (It rains everyday here no se podra pasar a voz pasiva porque no tiene un objeto, slo complementos circustanciales). La mayora de las veces no es necesario poner el complemento agente, y nunca se pone si es general (they, people, the police, we, everyone...) Si lo ponemos ir precedido de la preposicin by, excepto cuando es un pas, en cuyo caso sera in (Renault cars are made in France).

Active Present Simple Present Continuous Present Perfect Past Simple Past Continuous Past Perfect Future will Future going to Modal verbs have to builds is building has built built was building had built will build is going to build can build must build has to build ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Passive is built is being built has been built was built was being built had been built will be built is going to be built can be built must be built has to be built

Algunos ejemplos: -My friend sells books ---------------Helen is eating a sandwich ---------They have drunk some wine -------Sheila wrote a letter ----------------We will paint the wall --------------Im going to prepare dinner ------You must study English ------------China consumes a lot of rice ------I had finished the work ------------You have to decorate the room --Books are sold by my friend A sandwich is being eaten by Helen Some wine has been drunk (by them) A letter was written (by Sheila) The wall will be painted (by us) Dinner is going to be prepared (by me) English must be studied (by you) A lot of rice is consumed in China The work had been finished (by me) The room has to be decorated (by you)

Cuando nos encontramos una frase en interrogativa, la mejor forma de no equivocarnos es pasarla primero a afirmativa, buscando el orden SVO, luego se hace la pasiva y una vez que tengamos la pasiva, se pasa de nuevo a interrogativa: Does he eat vegetables? -He eats vegetables -----------Are vegetables eaten (by him)? Vegetables are eaten (by him)

When will you wash the dishes? -You will wash the dishes when ----- The dishes will be washed (by you) when When will the dishes be washed (by you)? What are they going to cook tonight? -They are going to cook what tonight ----- What is going to be cooked tonight What is going to be cooked tonight? Did she finish the homework? -she finished the homework -------- The homework was finished (by her) Was the homework finished (by her)? Cuando nos encontramos un verbo ditransitivo (2 objetos), siempre pasaremos a sujeto el objeto indirecto (give, lend, offer, ask, send, sell,). I gave Peter some money --------------------- Peter was given some money She will lend me her bike ---------------------- I will be lent her bike The teacher asked me a question -------------- I was asked a question They have offered him a new job -------------- He has been offered a new job What did you send me? -you sent me what --- I was sent what -------- What was I sent? Cuando nos encontramos un sujeto general (they, people,) con un verbo de juicio, pensamiento u opinin (think, believe, say, suppose, consider,...) seguido de una frase subordinada con that, hay dos pasivas posibles: People S say V that he is crazy O ---------*that he is crazy is said by people

Esa frase no es vlida:

-by people no se pone porque es general - that he is crazy no se pone al principio porque es un objeto demasiado largo, as que se pasa hacia atrs y es sustituido por it, y obtenemos la 1 pasiva

1 It is said that he is crazy La segunda pasiva se obtiene partiendo de la primera; en vez de poner it, colocamos el sujeto de la frase subordinada como sujeto de la frase pasiva, quitamos that y ponemos el verbo en infinitivo: 2 He is said to be crazy They think that he has a lot of money 1 It is thought that he has a lot of money 2 He is thought to have a lot of money

EXERCISES 1.- Write the passive, omitting the by-phrase if possible. 1-A red-haired woman occupied the seat opposite me. 2-A bell broke the silence. 3-They arent restoring the old church. 4-Somebody had locked the door from the inside. 5-We heard a loud explosion in the middle of the night. 6-You can see this sort of advertisement everywhere. 7-Everybody received the books two weeks in advance. 8-Theyve planted olive trees on the sides of the mountain. 9-A new federal law will regulate American universities. 10-We have already wasted too much time. 11-One cannot see the stars during the day. 12-The laboratory was then developing a new vaccine. 13-Theyre investing a lot of money to fight pollution. 14-People should always keep their secrets. 15-Well never know the true story. 16-Has anybody mentioned the subject before? 17-Does the Anopheles mosquito transmit malaria? 18-Will they make new cars? 19-Have you sent the letters? 20-Do they open shops at 9.00? 21-Did you receive the catalogues? 22-Does Germany consume a lot of meat? 23-What are they producing? 24-Who phoned you yesterday? 25-Who did you phone yesterday? 2.- Write the passive voice of these sentences; they have ditransitive verbs or subordinate clauses!! 1-They told me to do it. 2-They gave Peter the first prize. 3-They brought him his supper. 4-They offered us a cup of tea. 5-Somebody gave us your address. 6-They had promised me a watch. 7-They didnt show us the private rooms. 8-Janet introduced me to Mrs. Hayes. 9-Did they lend you their car? 10-Have they offered you a new job? 11-Will you promise me a present? 12-Are they going to send me an email? 13-When did they tell you the secret? 14-What have they brought you? 15-Who told you the news? 16-Who have you given the money? 17-Everybody believes that Sarah is a witch. 18-The police consider that Jonny is the criminal. 19-They say that he is a secret agent. 20-Many people think that the government will lose the election 21-Scientists suppose that the universe is expanding. 22-The Egyptians believed that the Pharaohs were descendants of the gods

3.- Rewrite these sentences in active voice. 1-Many of the buildings in this town were built by an Italian architect 2-Most of the groceries are run by families from Asia 3-The house is surrounded by a bamboo fence 4-The city was modernized by the British in 1850 5-The project was funded by the National Geographic Society 6-Chicago was destroyed by the Great Fire of 1871 7-The car was still being repaired 8-The thieves have not been caught yet 9-The victim had been poisoned 10-Some of the books have been returned 11-The city was patrolled to prevent thefts 12-Those first hours will be never forgotten 13-We were taken by surprise 14-The child was taken by the hand 15-The vaccine was discovered by chance 16-My books were sent by train 17-The lessons were learnt by heart 18-I was called by my name 19-Were you offered a new job? 20-What was he given for his birthday? 21-When will the bridge be opened? 22-Where have the keys been put? 23-What product is being made here? 24-Is English spoken here? 25-Are texts translated to French? 26-Was penicillin discovered by Fleming? 27-Who was the radio invented by?

4.- Translate these sentences into English using passive constructions 1-Entregarn el paquete a las siete (box) 2-Nos darn una comida estupenda (nice meal) 3-Me estaban observando (watch) 4-Slo se salvaron quince personas (only/save) 5-Nos hicieron muchas preguntas (ask/questions) 6-El espaol se habla en Sudamrica (speak) 7-La declararon culpable (find/guilty) 8-Se debe comprobar la temperatura (test) 9-Haban devuelto el dinero (return) 10-Se rieron de nosotros (laugh at) 11-No me entregaron la casa nueva (give) 12-Cundo te enviaron las fotos? (send) 13-Dnde se coloc el martillo? (put/hammer) 14-Qu te han vendido? (sell) 15-A qu hora te visitaron? (what time) 16-Por qu te expulsaron del cole? (expel) 17-Cundo han entregado los exmenes? (give) 18-Qu le ofrecern? (offer) 19-Cundo se va a inaugurar el puente? (open/bridge) 20-Cmo te contaron la historia? (tell)

5.- PASSIVE VOICE 1.- Shakespeare wrote Romeo & Juliet 2.- My friend is singing a song 3.- They will open the bridge next year 4.- Did you eat your dinner? 5.- What will they lend you? 6.- Sheila offered Arthur a present 7.- Those men have cut the tree 8.- People think that he is a robber 9.- They often close shops at 9 pm 10.- When are the beds going to be made? 11.- The robber was caught last night 12.- It cant be done now 13.- Se le va a vender un coche 14.- Se supone que ella est casada 15.- Se te entreg el examen? 16.- Bad weather has delayed the trains 17.- Someone had informed the police about the robbery 18.- People believe the contract is worth a million dollars 19.- You can make delicious meals with cheese and eggs 20.- He broke his leg in a skiing accident 21.- People play football in most countries of the world 22.- You have to see it to believe it 23.- The neighbours will water the plants 24.- Jack is taking Sandra out for dinner tonight 25.- Students normally study exams the day before

6.- Will and other modal verbs in the passive Example: We can expect a difficult time, you know A difficult time can be expected

1. We have to reduce costs 2. We must keep the factory open 3. We all agree that we must take action 4. We should warn the staff, of course 5. We ought to make things clear to them 6. The company will employ no more new staff 7. We cant allow the situation to continue 8. Well hold the next meeting on May 8th 9. You shouldnt tell him the secret 10. We need more people to help here 11. The police may find the criminal 12. We could possibly finish the work 13. People must always keep their secrets 14. Can we leave the door open? 15. You mustnt turn on the lights

7.- Rewrite these sentences in the passive 1 Someone broke this mirror last night. 2 Someone washes the towels in the hotel every day. 3 Someone built the house ten years ago. 4 They grow this fruit in very hot countries. 5 They pay the office workers weekly. 6 Someone bought all this cheese in France. 7 Someone found Emily's bike in the river. 8 Someone visits most of the prisoners once a week. 9 Someone cleans this car every week. 10 They play a lot of sport on the beach. 11 Someone stole all my best jewellery. 12 They carried the children all the way home. 13 Someone watches the palace twenty-four hours a day. 14 They leave the grapes to dry in the sun.

8.-Complete the sentences using is, are, was or were and a verb grown/cut/taught/locked/sent/explained/killed/given/built/driven 1 His father ______________ in the war. 2 The grass ______ never ________ in the winter. 3 When _______ these houses __________? 4 You can't go into the school. The gates _______ always ________ at 4.30. 5 ________ these potatoes ___________ in your garden? 6 I ___________________ a beautiful gold watch. 7 We take the bus during the week so the car ______ only ________ at weekends. 8 The problem ____________________ to us very clearly. 9 This letter _________ never _____________ 10 Children _______ not ____________ any languages at primary school now.

9.- Rewrite these sentences, putting the verbs in the passive 1 My car / damage / last night 2 This computer / make / in the USA 3 The machines / make / in Scotland 4 The President / kill / last night 5 The money / change into dollars / tomorrow 6 The parcels / post / yesterday 7 Cheese / make / from milk 8 The children / give / some food 9 The house / paint / every year 10 Several people / hurt / in an accident last night