AskAlanAQuestion.Com . . . help with pool & spa water problems & information!!!

Pool Topics Page Maximize Window For Best Viewing Click The Product Information Links !!! For More About Products & Companies Below " " " Pools & Equipment Product Info Pool and Spa Newsletter We Get Feedback Letters Links To Useful Websites E-Mail Alan A Question Home Page On-Line Shopping Stores The Website Store Test Equipment Store New Products Information Table of Contents Site Map Spa Topics Page Spas & Equipment Product Info The Pool & Spa Glossary About Alan Biographic Info Website Sponsorship Info The Telephone Helpline

The resource . . . for pool & spa information!

Scaling or Corrosive Tendencies
Scroll down to browse through SWIMMING POOL and SPA information, related to scaling and corrosion. Please access the Pool Topics Page or Spa Topics Page and other links, at the top of every page, for additional information.
The Langelier or Saturation Index is a calculation used to determine the adequacy of the pool or spa water chemistry, as it relates to corrosion and scale-formation. The adjustment of the pH, total alkalinity or calcium hardness can be used to adjust the Langelier Index, so that it falls within the ideal range. Corrosion is a major concern in swimming pools and is caused by acidic conditions and/or the absence of proper water balance. The factors that contribute to corrosive conditions include: low pH readings, low total alkalinity and low calcium hardness (soft water). Corrosive water conditions are more likely to cause irritation and sensitivity to chlorine. Scale-forming conditions, associated with cloudy water conditions, are caused by alkaline water conditions and/or the absence of proper water chemistry. The factors that contribute to scale-formation include: high pH readings, high total alkalinity and high calcium hardness (hard water). Scale-forming tendencies are more likely to be associated with cloudy water problems and a loss of chlorine efficiency. Please refer to the Glossary, if there are terms or phrases that require explanation.

) More information about The Magnetizer Water Conditioner can be found by clicking on the above image. in order to obtain the appropriate AF value. Using the chart below. in order to obtain the appropriate CF value. AF Total Alkalinity Factor .e.determine the PPM of total alkalinity (TA) in the water sample. Be better informed and avoid costly problems! Unsure About Pool Size? Metric Conversion Help? Pool & Spa Calculations The Test Equipment Store: for all your testing needs! Need Help With Chemical Additions? Calculating Chemical Additions Test Equipment Store LANGELIER or SATURATION INDEX The Langelier or Saturation Index is useful in determining the corrosive or scale-forming tendencies of pool or spa water. +0. use the appropriate total alkalinity (TA) reading.5 (i. CF Calcium Hardness Factor .determine the PPM of calcium hardness (CH) in the water sample.5. The ideal range for the Langelier or Saturation Index is -0.The Magnetizer Water Conditioner (Click on the Image for product & ordering information.6) are considered corrosive and steps should be taken to adjust the pH.5 to +0.6) are . Using the chart below.5 (i. total alkalinity or calcium hardness. use the appropriate calcium hardness (CH) reading.. This magnetic device uses no power and straps around the return line. look up the actual pool or spa water temperature at the time of sampling. in order to avoid the effects of corrosion.e. In order to calculate this Index. creating an effect that helps control scaling and produces other water quality benefits. Test values higher than +0. Test values more negative than -0. -0. it is necessary to have the following information: pH Obtained by testing the pool or spa water TF Temperature Factor .using the chart below.. in order to obtain the appropriate TF value.

.8 0.0 .12..1 is a constant used in the calculation of the Langelier/Saturation Index Langelier Index = pH + TF + CF + AF .12.4 1......4 0..7 1.2 to 7. Low Langelier Indexes can be raised.. in order to avoid scale formation and cloudiness.. within or close to the recommended ranges for pH..0 1.6 2.9 The actual total alkalinity (TA) = 97 PPM : from the chart use AF = 2.......0 -12. by adjusting the pH to 7........ to within -0.5 0..1 is a constant used in the calculation of the Langelier/Saturation Index LANGELIER INDEX CONVERSION CHART TF Temp°F / °C 32°F / 0°C 37°F / 3°C 46°F / 8°C 53°F / 12°C 60°F / 16°C TF 0.2 2...5 to +0.1* Langelier Index = 7. the Langelier Index should not be a concern... the total alkalinity to 80 to 120 PPM and the calcium hardness to 150 to 200 PPM for a masonry pool or spa or 80 to 200 PPM for a vinyl or fiberglass unit.. For the typical pool or spa owner..7 1.. that maintains the water balance.12.3 0.6 0..7 0.6 + 1. inasmuch as it will fall within the ideal range of -0.. the Langelier Index can give insight into the proper course of corrective treatment.0 ...1 2.5 2. 66°F / 19°C 76°F / 24°C 84°F / 29°C 94°F / 34°C 105°F / 41°C 128°F / 53°C The following example illustrates how the Langelier/Saturation Index is calculated: The actual pH = 7..5 to +0.8 1..6 The actual calcium hardness (CH) = 198 PPM .1* = Results: -0.4 + 0.2 (from above data) LANGELIER INDEX CORRECTIONS The Langelier Index is a tool that is most frequently used by knowledgeable pool and spa professionals..0 2.9 2..6 5 AF TA PPM 25 50 75 100 150 200 300 400 800 1000 AF 0.5 1. ... from the chart use CF = 1.. In those instances where the pool or spa water chemistry is substantially out or balance or problems are in evidence...5.9 2.6 1....6.5 2..0 CF CH PPM 5 25 50 75 100 150 200 300 400 800 1000 CF 0....2 is in the ideal range of -0..2 0.3 2.. bather irritation and discomfort.9 3..5 to +0.3 1.0..indicative of scale-forming tendencies and steps should be taken to adjust the pH....4 The actual water temperature = 78°F or 25°C : from the chart use TF = 0........ total alkalinity and calcium hardness..9 + 2.. A low Langelier Index can result in corrosion.9 1.0 0...5 ....2 2.5.1* * -12.. total alkalinity or calcium hardness...3 1..1 0. The following formula is used to calculate the Langelier/Saturation Index: Langelier Index = pH + TF + CF + AF .

2 to 7. While it is always possible to lower the pH. Lowering the total alkalinity usually lowers the pH as well. Lowering the calcium hardness is not always possible. Pool water chemistry is where the path to proper water quality. The proper maintenance of the pool water is an ongoing responsibility and not something to be taken for granted.6. by adjusting the pH to 7. loss of chlorine efficiency and bather discomfort. to within -0. pH is always more important! To more correctly determine the total alkalinity. the total alkalinity to 80 to 120 PPM and the calcium hardness to 150 to 200 PPM. Water testing provides the basis for determining which chemicals are required to correct and optimize chemical concentrations.5. clarity and sanitation starts. due to the nature of the dissolved minerals.High Langelier Indexes can be lowered. In those situations. It is not always possible to get the pH and total alkalinity in range. deduct 30% of the cyanuric acid reading from the total alkalinity test result.5 to +0. filtration problems. it is not as simple with the total alkalinity or calcium hardness. attention should be paid to lowering the pH and/or total alkalinity as a means of improving the Langelier Index. Having the right water testing equipment will make the task easier. cloudy water. heater problems. Become better informed and take charge of your own water quality! More information about Pool/Spa Water Testing Products can be found in the Test Equipment Store. save money on chemicals and help avoid problems. where the calcium level is high. A high Langelier Index can lead to scale formation. given the fact that some pools are filled with hard water. .

A. ©..S.) # Return To Top Of Page # Thank you for visiting AskAlanAQuestion.(Click the image for more information and ordering details. If you found the website helpful. or resulting from. . state or local regulations or guidelines. Inc. does not make any warranty or representation. Inc. if it is conflict with any applicable federal. Inc. The content of this website should not be used. nor does Aqualab Systems. 2002-9. regarding the accuracy or completeness of the information provided by this website.. assume any liability of any kind whatsoever related to. please tell us!!! Your suggestions are appreciated.Com. If not. All rights reserved. any use or reliance on this information.. either expressed or implied. please tell your friends and dealers. on the complete selection of testing products. Aqualab Systems.

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful