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3M Company Purchase Order 0000866971 NEETRAC Project Number: 03-070 August, 2003
A Research Center of
The Georgia Institute of Technology
Mr. Colin McCullough 3M
Principal Investigator: Paul Springer III, P.E.
Reviewed by: Dale Callaway
596TW Type 13, 3M Brand Composite Conductor Stress-strain, Tensile, and Resistance 3M Company Purchase Order 0000866971 NEETRAC Project Number: 03-070
August, 2003 Summary: 3M contracted with NEETRAC for a series of tests designed to characterize the mechanical behavior and DC resistance of 596TW kcmil, 20/7, 3M Brand Composite Conductor. All test results confirm the 3M specifications. The stress-strain data is used for estimating the in-service sag versus tension characteristics. Samples: 1) Conductor reel with 596TW 3M Composite Conductor received from 3M on April 3, 2003. This has also been called 477 ACCR/TW since it has same diameter as 477 kcmil conductor. References: 1) “Proprietary Information Agreement ….” Dated 3/27/01, and renewed 3/03. 2) Aluminum Association Guide, Rev. 1999, “A Method of Stress-Strain Testing of Aluminum Conductors and ACSR”. 3) 3M Purchase Order 0000866971 4) E-mail dated 6/7/01 from Colin McCullough with details on conductor and core strand properties. 5) PRJ 03-070, NEETRAC Project Plan. Equipment Used: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) MTS Servo-hydraulic tensile machine, Calibration control # CQ 0195 (load and crosshead data) Dynamics Research Corporation (DRC)/NEETRAC cable extensometer, Calibration control # CQ 3002 (strain data) Yokogawa DC100 data acquisition system, Calibration control # CN 3022 (temperature data) AVO (formerly Biddle) digital low resistance Ohmmeter, calibration control # CQ 1083 Brooklyn Reference Standard thermometer, Serial # 86-706, calibration control # CN 0155
Procedure and Results: I Tensile Tests
Samples were cut from the reel and terminated using a procedure designed to preserve the “as manufactured” position of all conductor layers. Clamps are installed on both sides of any conductor cut,
NEETRAC 03-070, 596TW Type 13, 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain, Tensile, and Resistance Page 2 of 20
in center of gage section The stress-strain conductor and core samples were also subject to tensile tests following the stressstrain test. The instrument is certified accurate within +/. Careful sample preparation is required to ensure that NEETRAC 03-070. initial tensile test load versus crosshead displacement II Resistance Measurement The AVO model DLRO low-resistance Ohmmeter is a proven 4-wire instrument designed to measure extreme low resistance.263 lbs.950 22. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain.0000 0.500 22.0000 3. 596TW Type 13.000 lb/min. each with a 20-ft active gage section. Tensile. in gage section. According to the 3M conductor specifications.5000 3.5000 Crosshead Displacement (inches) Figure 1. all strands. Samples were pulled to destruction at a loading rate of 10. The process ensures that the test section is representative of the conductor condition as received on the reel.5000 1. Figure 1 shows data recorded for the initial tensile tests.5000 2.0000 2. Initial Tensile Tests 25000 22950 22450 20000 22500 Sample 1 Sample 2 Sample 3 15000 Tension (lbs) 10000 5000 0 0. and Resistance Page 3 of 20 . all strands.and remain in place throughout the sample preparation process. Those results are reported in the section on the stress-strain test.0000 1. in gage section.2% of reading for the resistance values measured during this project. 2 ft from dead end Tensile break. 477 ACCR/TW. Cast-resin terminations were installed on each end of three (3) test samples.0. 2 ft from dead end Tensile break.450 %RBS 106 108 106 Failure description Tensile break. the rated breaking strength (RBS) for the 596TW Composite Conductor is 21. all strands. The following results were obtained: Sample # 03070001 03070002 03070003 Breaking load (lbs) 22.
and Resistance Page 4 of 20 . The gage section length. Current lead Puddle weld ensures aluminum and core strands are connected to each other and to the equalizer Terminal for voltage lead Aluminum equalizer plate Conductor Photograph 1. The voltage terminals are located on the conductor inboard of the current leads.conductor resistance measurement is free of extraneous effects caused by voltage gradients within the sample. Current and voltage terminals.01 oC) thermometer. and thereby ensure that all conductor strands carry current free from voltage gradients from localized high current near the current leads. The aluminum bus bar and the puddle weld provide an equipotential plane for the current leads. Layers or strands shifting slightly would not significantly affect the resistance measurement. Voltage terminals. A temperature resistance coefficient of 0. Conductor temperature was measured using a thermocouple inserted between the strands of the conductor test section. which carry negligible current. temperatures.36%/ oC) was used to correct the resistance measurement to the 20 oC reference standard used for resistance specifications. The sample for the resistance measurement was cut from the reel using a method that prevents relative movement of any conductor layer. and scales the results in terms of Ohms/mile. 596TW Type 13. Actual conductor temperature was 20. Tensile. Photograph 1 shows one end of the conductor sample terminated for resistance measurement.0. typical each sample end (conductor shown is not the 596TW) NEETRAC 03-070. and tensile tests. Temperature was controlled as close to the nominal 20 oC as practical to minimize any error due to temperature correction. were placed on the sample by tightly wrapping #14 AWG solid copper strands around the conductor OD. but nonetheless are needed to preserve the remainder of the reel for future stress-strain. or length of conductor between the two voltage terminals. and therefore remote from the influence of current flow near the current leads. Table 1 shows the spreadsheet with data and calculations. and then measuring the distance with a metal measuring tape. Resistance readings were repeatable within +/. A nominal 20-ft test section was terminated at each end by puddle welding the aluminum and MMC strands into a hole drilled in a 3/8” thick section of aluminum bus bar. creep. was measured by pulling the conductor as straight as practical with a rope.0036/ oC (0. corrects readings to the 20 oC reference temperature. and raw resistance readings are loaded into a spreadsheet that calculates resistance. The gage length.5 oC during resistance measurement.1 µΩ with this arrangement. Ambient temperature was recorded using a precision (0. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain.
1/16”. The core is wrapped. and thereby minimize slack affects in the strain data.Table 1. Load. For the core stress-strain test.3 604. not corrected to 20 C not corrected to 20 C not corrected to 20 C Corrected to 20 C Corrected to 20 C Error estimates: Length Resistance Temperature +/. The stress-strain test is run in the tensile machine.5 0.2 +/.5 21. no exceptions to the Aluminum Association’s guide are needed. elongation. and Resistance Page 5 of 20 .1/8 inches value from AVO owners manual Thermometer certified to +/-0. and has negligible effect on the test results.1 oC. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain. and clamps are not required to maintain strands in the correct alignment.2 Units deg C ft µΩ µΩ µΩ µΩ Ω/ft Ω/mi Ω/mi Ω/mi percent Comments Stable +/. The change is small. +/.8024E-05 0. The 3M nominal value for core strand elastic modulus was used.563 604.0.3 604.0. RMS Error III Stress-strain The conductor stress-strain sample was prepared identical to the tensile samples. The conductor sample was mounted in the MTS hydraulic tensile machine.5 RMS is typical error. crosshead position. Actual error can be larger.001 +/.. but cannot control temperature better than +/. A support is used to remove sag at the mid-point. Summary of 596TW Resistance Measurements and Calculations Parameter Temperature Test Section Resistance Readings Value 20. For the composite conductor. See Appendix 1 for an error analysis for the NEETRAC 03-070.0.27 2.27% feet percent deg C percent +/.0.14800 -0. The core stress strain sample was prepared by removing all aluminum strands from a conductor sample. but with the controls set to provide the loading profile specified in the Aluminum Association’s 1999 guide. The file was processed to produce the stress-strain charts.20 Measured at 20.14797 0. The guide provides values for steel core elastic modulus to use in the calculation. nominal 604. Tensile. 596TW Type 13. but does not provide the values for MMC core.5 C. Tension is controlled automatically. the Aluminum Association requires a calculation for the starting condition for the test. The active gage section between knife-edges on the cable extensometer is 18 feet.5 C for one hour Actual measurement was 258 ¾” Average Ω/ft: Ω/mi Ω/mi @ 20C: 3M nominal resistance Discrepancy vs. and temperature data were saved to a computer file.14770 0.
Remove sag with a mid-span support. Relax load to 349 lbs.000 lbs. and remove the extensometer (for its own protection). and remove the extensometer (for its own protection). Pull to 75% RBS (15. Relax load to 349 lbs. The stress-strain plots are in Appendix 2. Core strands: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Pull to calculated initial tension (in this case. Hold for one hour.31333%). Relax load to 1. Pull to 30% of RBS (6. Pull to same strain as conductor at start of 30% of RBS test (0.000 lbs. Tensile.000 lbs. and set to zero. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain. Pull to 75% RBS (8. Pull to 70% RBS (14.880 lbs).726 lbs). Relax load to 1. The modulus data are in “Results” section of this report. Relax load to 349 lbs. and set to zero.000 lbs.000 lbs.630 lbs). Hold for one hour. Hold for 30 minutes. Install extensometer. This ensures the conductor is nearly straight. Pull to same strain as conductor at start of 70% of RBS test (0. 596TW Type 13. Hold for 30 minutes. and Resistance Page 6 of 20 . Photograph 3 shows the mid-span support. Pull to destruction. prevents slack from showing up as elongation in the stress-strain data.950 lbs).test system.380 lbs).10074%). Pull to 50% RBS (10.19148%). Relax load to 349 lbs. as follows: Composite conductor: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) 11) Apply load of 1. Placing a support at 1/2 span minimizes conductor slack. Relax load to 1. Hold for one hour. Photograph 1 shows the long view of the test apparatus. Pull to same strain as conductor at start of 50% of RBS test (0. Hold for one hour. Pull to destruction. 349 lbs) Install extensometer. Relax load to 1. The test profile is in accordance with the Aluminum Association guide. NEETRAC 03-070. Photograph 2 is a close-up of the resin socket and extensometer attachment.
Tensile.Photograph 1. 596TW Type 13. Long View of Stress-Strain Test Photograph 2 Photograph 3 Sliding Carriage and Linear Position Instrument Mid-span Support to Remove Sag (Conductor in photographs is not 596TW. but does illustrate the test configuration) NEETRAC 03-070. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain. and Resistance Page 7 of 20 .
678*(Strain%)2 +326. stress is in psi. findings. Details are in Appendix 1.065*(Strain%) Stress (psi) = 85.5%. strain is in percent.666*(Strain%)2 +298.8oC during the conductor stress strain test.S. Conductor Properties: Initial modulus: Final modulus: Residual tensile strength: Core Properties: Initial modulus: Final modulus: Residual tensile strength: Aluminum Properties: Initial modulus: Final modulus: Acknowledgement: This material is based upon work supported by the U. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain. The strain data were compensated for known effects of thermal expansion of the sample and the strain instrument. and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Department of Energy. The stress-strain test requires approximately 3 hours to complete. Graphs showing data for each test are shown in Appendix 2. Data are temperature compensated. failure in gage section. 596TW Type 13. failure in gage section. DE-FC02-02CH11111.4 oC during the core test.5004 11.595*(Strain%) – 13. The following formulas describe the mechanical properties of the conductor. Disclaimer: Any opinions.212*(Strain%) . multiple locations Stress (psi) = 213. Curve translation and temperature compensation of the raw data change the value of strain predictions by no more than 0.018*(Strain%) – 12. mid-span NEETRAC 03-070. Tensile.242*(Strain%) Stress (psi) = 113.730*(Strain%)2 +125.513 22. “Error Analysis”.113*(Strain%)2 + 99.020 lbs (104% RBS).340 Stress (psi) = -42.075*(Strain%) Stress (psi) = 70. Stress (psi) = 241839*(Strain%)3 -228.952*(Strain%)3-206. or approximately half of the estimated error for the measurement. and Resistance Page 8 of 20 .380 lbs (98% RBS). Department of Energy under Award No. where t is time in hours. and 1. The polynomial equations are translated along the strain axis using a numerical technique. Cycling of the room temperature controls resulted in a temperature shift of 0.Data files containing test data were processed using Excel® to obtain engineering values and graphical presentation.
resolution is 0. MTS Tensile Machine “as-found” calibration data show accuracy is typically better than 0. and it is estimated that the residual error is 0. Tensile. Assuming the conductor thermal elongation is 17 ppm/oC.8 ppm. and the more significant data points at the end of the load hold periods are compensated by less than half this amount.02% of reading.000046% (0.5% of reading. Assuming the core thermal elongation is 6 ppm/oC. The Aluminum Association specifications do not provide accuracy requirements. the possible error is 4. Calibration and Error Analysis for Stress-Strain Tests Mechanical load (stress): Measurement equipment is certified to exceed requirements of ASTM E4-1998 (+/-1%). This is a digital measurement made with a laser diode reading an etched titanium silicate (glass) rod. or 0.Appendix 1. Core: See appendix 2 for a graph showing gage rod temperature. Data are transmitted via digital communication with an interface board in a PC data acquisition system. With compensation. and Resistance Page 9 of 20 .3 lbs. the elongation measurement is considered accurate within 1% of reading. recorded strain. Stress is calculated based on the nominal (as opposed to measured) conductor dimensions. Given the assumptions above. there is no calibration drift or temperature sensitivity for the transducer. 596TW Type 13. and the gage rod thermal expansion is 23 ppm/oC.0001 inches in 18 ft).46 PPM).0.5 ppm.0. For the 18 ft.5%. and compensated strain. Note however that the temperature was cycling with the operation of the building air conditioning system.46 PPM (0. The error is less than 0. Errors in the compensated data are caused by uncertainty in the temperature data and thermal modulus values. or 0. The maximum error affects the strain measurement by 0. NEETRAC 03-070. Starting and running friction were measured as 0. Effect of mechanical deflections of the gage rod: The gage rod is a 2” x 6” x 1/8” x 19 ft aluminum box beam. Lab temperature changed 1. The material has near-zero thermal coefficient.0001”. the elongation instrument has other error sources that need to be counted. and the gage rod thermal expansion is 23 ppm/oC. Effect of starting gage length: An error of +/. Temperature compensation was employed. Conductor: Lab temperature changed 0. The system employed has resolution of 0. the error due to thermal expansion effects is estimated at 2 ppm. Error is 0. Sensor accuracy is +/.2 lbs respectively.0001”/216”. Therefore.0002”. ii. Effect of thermal expansion of the sample and gage rod: i. which is extremely stiff. Actual error can be greater than the RMS error. Conductor Elongation (strain): The DRC displacement transducer resolution is +/. RMS error is considered a typical error. Here is an estimate for those errors: Effect of load measurement errors: strain error is linear wrt load error. and 0.4oC during the core stress-strain test. However. plus or minus 2 parts per million. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain. the possible error is 23. not a maximum error. gage section.8oC during the conductor stress-strain test.1/16” is possible. The only bending force is friction in the guide bearings and wiper seals for the displacement sensor.92 PPM. Overall accuracy is calculated based on root-mean squared error estimation.5 PPM. but suggest that the resolution of the measurement should be 10 PPM.8 ppm.
596TW Type 13. and are available upon request) NEETRAC 03-070. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain. and Resistance Page 10 of 20 .Appendix 2 Stress-Strain Graphs (Data files containing raw and processed data have been sent via e-mail. Tensile.
ACCR/TW 3M Composite Conductor Stress-Strain. and Resistance Page 11 of 20 . 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain.36 0. Type 13.16 0. Recorded (raw) Data 30000 25000 Stress (psi) 20000 15000 10000 5000 0 0.08 0.24 0.32 0.20 Strain (%) 0.40 Composite Stress-Strain Plot in Accordance with Aluminum Association Guide NEETRAC 03-070.35000 477 kcmil.04 0.28 0. Tensile.12 0. 596TW Type 13.00 0.
ACCR/TW 3M Composite Conductor. (Initial modulus data) Linear (Final modulus data) Poly.13513 5000 0 0.32 0. 596TW Type 13. (Translated Initial Modulus) Linear (Translated Final Modulus) Stress (psi) 20000 15000 10000 Translated initial y = 213952x3 .20 Strain (%) 0.36 0. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain.206730x2 + 125242x Translated final y = 113595x . Type 13.24 0.12 0.08 0.48029x2 + 101369x + 1871.40 Temperature-corrected Composite Stress-Strain Plot with Data Fit for Initial and Final Modulus NEETRAC 03-070. and Resistance Page 12 of 20 .04 0. Tensile.16 0.00 0.35000 477 kcmil.5 Test data final y = 113595x .28 0.11417 30000 Initial modulus data Final modulus data Translated Initial Modulus Translated Final Modulus 25000 Poly. Temperature-compensated Initial and Final Modulus Stress-strain compensated test data Test data initial y = -74359x3 .
15 20.6 0.25 50% load hold Strain (%) 21.40 21.4 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 Elapsed Time (minutes) 0.20 21.35 21. and Resistance Page 13 of 20 . 596TW Type 13. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain. and compensated strain for the MMC core stress-strain test Chart shows cycling of air conditioning system.8 30% load hold 0.0 0.8 0.30 21.6 0. recorded strain.05 20.00 Time profile for gage rod temperature.10 20.2 0.0 Temperature Sample Raw strain Sample temperature-compensated strain 70% load hold 0. Chart also shows the fortuitous circumstance that the temperature change is small at the end of each hold period. NEETRAC 03-070. and therefore compensation is not significant at the more important points in the test.Temperature and Strain Data for Core Stress-strain Test 22.4 Temperature (deg C) 0. Tensile.
4 Temperature-compensated Core Stress Strain per Aluminum Association Guidelines. and Initial Modulus Fit NEETRAC 03-070. and Resistance Page 14 of 20 . 596TW Type 13. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain. Tensile.
Tensile.71.05 0.25 Strain (%) 0.30 0.40 0.1853.255 2 R = 1. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain.10 0.00 0.0000 2 100000 Stress (psi) 75000 Core Stress-strain data Final Modulus data Linear (Final Modulus data) Poly.50 Core Stress Strain per Aluminum Association Guidelines. and Resistance Page 15 of 20 . Type 13.35 0.477 kcmil.6 2 R = 0.20 0. ACCR/TW 3M Composite Conductor Temperature-compensated Stress-Strain Graph for MMC Core Showing Final Modulus Fit 150000 125000 Linear y = 326958x .45 0. 596TW Type 13. and Final Modulus Fit NEETRAC 03-070. (Final Modulus data) 50000 25000 0 0.15 0.9996 2 nd order y = 71606x + 300067x .
3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain.10 0. ACCR/TW 3M Composite Conductor Temperature-compensated Stress-Strain Graph and Translated Curves for MMC Core 125000 Initial y = -41968.2 50000 25000 0 0.25 0.3x + 5609.0000 100000 Final y = 71606x2 + 300067x . 596TW Type 13. (Initial Modulus data) Poly.05 0. data fits.35 0.3x2 + 324357. Tensile.00 0.255 R2 = 1.15 0. and data fits translated along the strain (x) axis NEETRAC 03-070.477 kcmil.20 Strain (%) 0.5004. (Final Modulus Data) Translated initial y = -42678x2 + 326075x Translated final y = 70666x2 + 298212x .9 2 R = 1.40 Initial and final modulus data. and Resistance Page 16 of 20 .71. Type 13.0000 75000 Stress (psi) Initial Modulus data Final Modulus Data Translated Initial Modulus Translated Final Modulus Poly.30 0.
ACCR/TW 3M Composite Conductor. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain.884688 10000 0 0.115312 Aluminum: 0.9*strain^2 + 34387*strain .000 0.050 0.206730*strain^2 + 125242*strain Final Composite Stress = 113595*strain-11825 Init.450 Init.201809*strain^2 + 87642*strain Final Aluminum Stress*(area ratio) = 75214*strain . and Resistance Page 17 of 20 . normalized to area ratio.200 0. Type 13.100 0. Core Stress*(area ratio) = -4921.300 0.3*strain^2 + 37600*strain 30000 Final Core Stress*(area ratio) = 8147.477 kcmil. Combined Stress-Strain Diagram 40000 Init.250 0. and translated along the strain axis NEETRAC 03-070.350 Stress-strain construction. temperature-corrected. Composite Stress = 213952*strain^3 . 596TW Type 13.10917 Stress*area ratio 20000 Area ratios: Core 0. Aluminum Stress*(area ratio) = 213952*strain^3 . Tensile.150 Strain (%) 0.
ACCR/TW 3M Composite Conductor. Composite Stress = 213952*strain^3 . Tensile. Core Stress = -42678*strain^2 + 326075*strain Final Core Stress = 70660*(strain)^2 + 298212*(strain) .200 0.350 Strain (%) Construction of stress-strain curves.206730*strain^2 + 125242*strain Final Composite Stress = 113595*strain-11825 100000 Init. Combined Stress-Strain Diagram 125000 Init.050 0. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain. and Resistance Page 18 of 20 .300 0.477 kcmil.228113*strain^2 + 99065*strain Final Aluminum Stress = 85018*strain .12340 75000 Stress (psi) 50000 25000 0 0. Type 13.150 0.100 0.250 0. not normalized for area ratio NEETRAC 03-070.3902.000 0. 596TW Type 13.5 Init. Aluminum Stress = 241839*strain^3 .
and Resistance Page 19 of 20 . 596TW Type 13.5 3 Crosshead Displacement (inches) Plot of Crosshead Displacement versus Load.Ultimate Tensile Test Following Conductor Stress Strain 25000 Max Load: 22020 lbs 20000 15000 Load (lbs) 10000 5000 0 0 0. Tensile Test Following Stress Strain Test NEETRAC 03-070.5 2 2. Tensile.5 1 1. 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain.
0000 0.8000 Crosshead Displacment (inches) Crosshead Displacement versus Load.2000 0.4000 1. Tensile.6000 0.8000 1. and Resistance Page 20 of 20 . 3M Composite Conductor Stress-strain.6000 1. Tensile Test Following Core Stress Strain Test NEETRAC 03-070.2000 1.4000 0.Ultimate Tensile Test Following Core Stress Strain 12000 Max Load: 11380 lbs 10000 8000 Load (lbs) 6000 4000 2000 0 0. 596TW Type 13.0000 1.
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