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**Electric Power Systems Research
**

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/epsr

A wavelet-based approach for reactive power metering in modern three-phase grids considering time-varying power quality disturbances

W.G. Morsi ∗

University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON, L1H 7K4 Canada

a r t i c l e

i n f o

a b s t r a c t

Three-phase reactive power meters that are currently available in the market can accurately measure reactive power only under time-invariant operating conditions. However when considering time-varying power quality disturbances, the performance of these meters is questionable. In future grids, the emergence of active loads characterized by their dynamic operation could possibly lead to time-varying disturbances that will propagate along the distribution networks. In order to address this issue, a timefrequency approach based on wavelet transform is presented in this study to measure three-phase reactive power while taking into consideration the new time-varying operating environment in threephase systems. A wavelet-based approach for reactive power measurement has been developed and tested under different time-varying power quality disturbances including balanced and unbalanced systems considering different wavelet basic functions of the Daubechies family. Results are analyzed, and recommendations are presented regarding the operating principles of such reactive meters under the new measuring environment. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Article history: Received 2 October 2011 Received in revised form 4 January 2012 Accepted 6 January 2012 Available online 14 February 2012 Keywords: Power quality Reactive power Three-phase systems Wavelet packet transform

1. Introduction Reactive power is an important quantity that affects the electric power system utilization. For decades, reactive power has been known as the reciprocating power back and forth between the source and the load with zero net average energy transfer [1], hence the name “useless power” [2]. Reactive power/energy measurement is essential for billing the consumers, designing proper compensators and for energy monitoring. The reactive power/energy meters currently available in the market are designed based on either the quadrature (90◦ ) phase shift or the apparent power approach. Although having distinct operating principles, these meters provide the same readings only if the voltage and current waveforms in single and balanced three-phase systems operating at the power system frequency (50 or 60 Hz) are timeinvariant. Cataliotti et al. [3] investigated the performance of static reactive energy meters in single phase-systems when operating in the presence of harmonic distortion. The studies showed that under harmonic distortion, the performance of these meters is highly affected, leading to erroneous results which is not the case when operating only under the fundamental power system frequency (50 or 60 Hz). The author in [4] investigated the performance of these meters when operating under time-variant voltage and

∗ Tel.: +1 905 721 8668x5483; fax: +1 905 721 3370. E-mail address: walidmorsi.ibrahim@uoit.ca 0378-7796/$ – see front matter © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/j.epsr.2012.01.004

current waveforms in single-phase systems. However, these studies did not cover three-phase systems either balanced or unbalanced when operating under abnormal operating conditions. One of the main design objectives of smart grid is to ensure that the delivery of the electric power is at very high quality. Poor power quality may result because of deviations in the voltage and /or current waveforms as deﬁned in [5]. This could lead to system performance degradation and economic impacts which in some cases are evaluated to be ranging from $30 billion to $130 billion in the United States [6]. In a smart grid, energy management is addressed through consumers’ participations in the delivery of power and energy. For example Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEVs) can send power back to the grid when operating in Vehicle to Grid (V2G) mode. Demand response (DR) programs can provide opportunities for consumers to become “prosumers” through their participation in those programs to control the energy consumption and also through their provision of ancillary services. The uncertainty associated with the process of plugging/unplugging PHEVs and the non-stop Enable/Disable control of consumers’ loads will adversely impact the power quality. Moreover, the large penetration of PHEVs acting as single-phase loads will increase the three-phase system unbalance hence increasing the neutral current. In this new environment, reactive power/energy meters that are designed to operate under strict ideal situations will be affected when operating under these new operating conditions. In this paper, the performance of three-phase reactive power/energy meters based on different operating principles is

3.2 0 2 4 6 Order of Harmonic 8 10 Fig. The method is based on wavelet packet transform and is intended to accurately assess the reactive power when considering different power quality disturbances that could arise due to the operation of modern active loads in smart grid. On the other hand. In threephase systems. 2. the symmetrical components introduced by Fortescue [7] are used to extract the positivesequence reactive power while the Fast Fourier transform (FFT) is utilized to extract the fundamental reactive power out of other non-fundamental frequency components (non 60 Hz) according to [8]: + + + + Q1 = 3V1 I1 sin Â1 systems. the same approach shows to be incapable of assessing the non-active power at individual frequency components. reactive power meters are designed to operate according to one of three distinct approaches: (1) fundamental reactive power. This section introduces the distinct operating principles that represent the backbone of three-phase reactive/power energy meters which will be used in this study to assess their performance under different operating conditions. those approaches can be modiﬁed so that the meters would be able to measure the total reactive power/energy in the three phases. Quadrature phase shift reactive power approach This approach is inspired by the time-domain active power in single phase systems presented in [13]. 1 shows a plot of the reactive power for the case of a balanced sinusoidal linear load in which the reactive power is a constant line over time and the FFT plot show one single value. 1. Apparent power approach The time domain decomposition presented in [14] splits the current into two components: (1) active component responsible for active power transmission and (2) a residual component responsible for the oscillations such that: QS = S2 − P 2 (3) where S is the apparent power (the product of the voltage and current rms) and P is the active power. Reactive power in non-ideal three-phase operating conditions Three-phase systems are operating under ideal conditions when the system is perfectly balanced. the concept of effective apparent power Se was introduced and discussed in [15].3. (2) reactive power based on 90◦ phase shift and (3) apparent power approach as outlined in [4]. Fundamental positive-sequence reactive power approach In three-phase systems. instead of introducing the phase shift to each phase. 2. The three-phase non-active power is formulated in [8] as: QN = Se 2 − P 2 (4) (1) where V1 + and I1 + are the root mean square (rms) of the voltage and current with the phase angle Â 1 + of the positive sequence at the fundamental frequency (or 60 Hz).05 0. with linear loads and supplied from ideal sinusoidal sources. 2. Reactive power in balanced three-phase system. to represent the apparent power based on the equivalent three-phase effective voltage and current rms. In three-phase The apparent power approach seems to be acceptable in globally assessing the non-active power when the system is under non-sinusoidal operating conditions.G.1. In three-phase system. . The paper also considers the effect of using different wavelet methods on the measurement which will help identifying the proper wavelet for such analysis. this paper introduces a time-frequency reactive power/energy measurement method for balanced and unbalanced three-phase system. where the total three-phase reactive power is represented by constant line and a single value in frequency. Fig.32 W. line voltages are used so each can form 90◦ phase angle with the phase current: 1 Qquad = √ 3 0 (vST · iR + vTR · iS + vRS · iT )dt (2) where is the integration interval while R.15 0. 2. Operating principles of reactive power/energy meters In single-phase systems. the reactive power in these cases will incorporate oscillations which are reﬂected in the reactive power frequency a 3000 2500 Reactive power (Vars) Reactive Power Magnitude (Vars) 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0 b 2000 1500 1000 500 0 0. This represents a limitation of this approach when considering power quality disturbances of time-evolving nature. Morsi / Electric Power Systems Research 87 (2012) 31–38 investigated and evaluated in three-phase systems considering the new operating conditions associated with smart grids. When considering non-ideal situations that could possibly include load or source imbalance.2. The reactive power in such a system could be represented in the time domain as indicated in Fig.1 Time (s) 0. in which a 90◦ phase shift is introduced in the voltage waveform so that its dot product with the current provides a measure of the reactive power. Studies [9–12] have shown that the use of FFT should be restricted to the time-invariant voltage and current waveforms since erroneous results are associated with the windowing of the FFT when handling time-variant waveforms. or separating the reactive power at the power system frequency component from other reactive power components at any non-power system frequencies. 1. Moreover. S and T are the phase labels.

These frequency components represent major source of error in the measurement of reactive power in three-phase systems when using traditional approaches for reactive power measurement which is the case with commercially available electronic reactive power/energy meters. For example.15 0. the reader can refer to [31]. and it has been proven that orthogonal wavelets outperform bi-orthogonal. Reactive power in unbalanced three-phase system with linear load under voltage sag. hence orthogonal wavelets are adopted in this study. in the presence of time-varying power quality disturbances such as dips. Orthogonal and bio-orthogonal wavelets have been investigated for single-phase systems in [4].x (5) 2j −1 2N −j −1 ix (t ) = k=0 d 0 j.x (k) j. Also since the instantaneous p–q theory has been criticized in [30]. the frequency spectrum is uniformly distributed. Consequently. the frequency spectrum becomes non-uniform which characterizes the discrete wavelet transform (DWT).x = v0 + j.x (t ) + n=1 2j −1 vx (t ) = k=0 0 dj.k. This is the motivation behind developing a timefrequency approach for measuring the reactive power/energy in this new environment allowing future generation of smart meters to handle the unbalanced three-phase systems operation under time-evolving power quality disturbances.x (6) where d and d are the wavelet packet coefﬁcients for the voltage and current respectively.05 0. 2. 2.W. Morsi / Electric Power Systems Research 87 (2012) 31–38 33 a 6000 5000 4000 Reactive power (Vars) b Reactive Power Magnitude (Vars) 3000 2000 1000 0 -1000 -2000 0 0. and are the scaling and wavelet functions.G. and the sub-bands are determined based on the chosen number of decomposition levels.1 Time (s) 0. spectrum. Because of all these superior capabilities.x + n=1 n ij. Although Park’s transform is applicable to three-phase systems.k. time-domain voltage and current have to be expressed in terms of the wavelet basis functions and the wavelet decomposition levels. The author’s earlier work includes comprehensive surveys outlining the implementation of wavelet transform in power measurement for single-phase [12] and other timefrequency based approaches are presented in [22]. Because these non-ideal circumstances were not taken into consideration when designing those reactive power/energy meters.x 2j −1 0 = ij. Also. the approach introduced in [29] has salient limitations.x n=1 2N −j −1 vn j. The root mean square . The non-ideal environment is due to the changes imposed on the operation of the electric distribution grid in many aspects.x (k) 2n n (t )) j. 4. However. wavelets have been successfully implemented in solving many power quality problems in electric power system [16–21]. attempts have been made to implement time-frequency transforms to measure the reactive power in single-phase systems and the algorithms have been tested on time-invariant harmonic distortion. it does not exist in single-phase or two-phase systems. another advantage is that it captures events/variations at high resolution and owns a comprehensive library of family wavelet functions that are used as basis for the analysis. will include different frequency components that are spread along the frequency spectrum as shown in Fig. For further insight into wavelet theory. Each operating principle is based on mathematical formulation of reactive power as deﬁned in the literature. As a time-frequency transform.2 3000 2000 1000 0 0 2 4 6 Order of Harmonic 8 10 Fig. Time-frequency reactive power and energy Wavelet transform is a powerful tool in handling time-evolving waveforms which is the case when considering power quality disturbances in modern grids. when considering wavelet transform. the frequency spectrum is divided into n nodes according to j decomposition levels as mapped in the decomposition tree. but neither time-variant harmonics nor three-phase systems are considered. The wavelet transform as a powerful time-frequency analyzing/synthesizing tool can be used as a basis for the measurement of reactive power/energy in three-phase system through expressing the operating principles of three-phase reactive energy meters in its domain.x (t ) + n=1 ( k=0 d j. numerous advantages are associated with wavelets such as preserving both time and frequency information. 2N is the signal length. the emergence of PHEVs as single-phase loads on a large scale while being equipped with power electronic devices could lead to three-phase unbalances and could increase the harmonic distortion. When merging high frequency sub-bands in a dyadic fashion. The author of [16] formulated the voltage and current waveforms of a three-phase system based on wavelet analysis using the generalized wavelet transform or wavelet packet transform (WPT): 2N −j −1 2j −1 2N −j −1 j. In [23–28].x (k) ( k=0 2n dj. the performance of these meters when operating under these types of disturbances is worth investigating.k. When considering generalized wavelet decomposition (or what is called wavelet packet). the FFT spectrum of the total threephase reactive power.k. and x is a subscript used to represent any phase of the three-phases. As a generalized wavelet transform. The study in [29] considered the instantaneous p–q theory and Park’s transform as basics in implementing the wavelet transform for three-phase systems.x (k) n (t )) j. The lack of a uniﬁed approach for three-phase reactive power/energy measurement under time-variant power quality disturbances is the motivation for introducing wavelet transform to solve this problem.

four decomposition levels are chosen leading to 16 nodes at the terminal of the decomposition tree.T = 1 WPT (v · iWPT ). the quadrature approach was esteemed from the time-domain approach in which the reactive power of each frequency component is not accessible. Ix + INNZ. the effective rms values of the voltage and current. WPT Ie = 2 + I2 + I2 IR T S 3 . 2N NZ. Morsi / Electric Power Systems Research 87 (2012) 31–38 (rms) values of the voltage and current are: 2N −j −1 0 (k))2 (dj. otherwise errors will arise.S (13) Ix = 1 2N 2N −j −1 0 (d j.k k =0 2j −1 2j −1 2N −j −1 n (k)) (dj.x . 2N NZ +WPT +WPT +WPT SNZ = 3VNZ INZ (10) The reactive power as calculated above represents the sum of all the ﬂuctuating powers which do not contribute to the net average energy transfer. Se 2 P WPT = 1 2N (vx . x x = R. in which node zero includes the fundamental frequency component.R = WPT QNZ. 4. Originally. Non-active power based on the apparent power approach In three-phase systems. For example. True values of the generated simulated waveforms in MATLAB Simulink are used as reference values for the analysis since the time and frequency information are known a priori. Different power quality disturbances that are expected to proliferate in future grids due to the operation of modern loads are included in the analysis and their inﬂuences on the reactive power measurement are evaluated.k n=1 k=0 2 system frequency accessible.k (k)) + k=0 2j −1 2 1 2N 2j −1 2N −j −1 (d j.x The author in [32] expressed the voltage and current (not power) in the time-frequency domain using wavelet transform in balanced and unbalanced three-phase systems. The effective rms and the equivalent apparent power in the wavelet domain are deﬁned as follows: WPT Ve = 2 + V2 + V2 VRS TR ST = 0 ) + (Ij.34 W. In order to make the reactive power at the power . Normally in power systems this sub-band is reserved for the power system frequency (50 or 60 Hz) and hence separation of this term from other non-node zero (NNZ) frequency sub-bands is highly recommended. In wavelet packet transform. MATLAB Simulink is used as the simulation environment for simulated case studies involving balanced and unbalanced three-phase systems. In the case studies considered in this paper. Evaluation The proposed wavelet-based approach is tested in this section through different case studies including simulated and real waveforms. T (12) = 0 ) + (Vj. a choice of 3. Positive sequence voltage and current are extracted at node zero (lowest frequency subband).3. 2N NZ.k n=1 2 n )2 (Vj.x .R 1 WPT (v · iWPT ) 2N NZ. Node zero quadrature phase shift reactive power approach The quadrature reactive power approach is modiﬁed here to be expressed in the time-frequency domain.1. T (15) 3 +WPT +WPT (v · iNZ ). and hence the equivalent apparent power is recommended in [8]. 5.T WPT QNZ.x NZ. 2 2 2 = V2 2 = I2 (9)Vx + VNNZ. This non-active power based approach takes into consideration all time-invariant and time-variant power quality disturbances since it is deﬁned in the time-frequency domain. in the case of wavelet packet transform.ix ).TR NZ.x NZ. The following section provides an evaluation of the performance of the three modiﬁed approaches in the wavelet domain.RS NZ.k (7) WPT QNZ. the choice of four decomposition levels leads to ﬁve sub-bands The presented formula represents the basis for the proposed time-frequency reactive power measurement which is presented as follows: 4. S. 64 samples per the power system frequency (60 Hz) component are chosen for the analysis which ensures that odd harmonics are centered in each frequency sub-band. S.84 kHz as sampling frequency needs 4 decomposition levels in order to ensure 60 Hz to be centered at node zero. x Vx = 1 2N 1 + N 2 x = R.S = 1 WPT WPT (v . The impact of using different wavelet functions is also included in this study through a comparative study involving three wavelet functions belonging to the Daubechies family.k 2 (8) Node zero (NZ) includes the low frequency information. Daubechies 10 and 43 which proved their effectiveness in reactive power measurement in single-phase systems [4] and Daubechies 4 which has been used in power quality analysis in [18].k n=1 2 n ) (Ij. In discrete wavelet transform where the dyadic scale is used. the quadrature approach is expressed in node zero as: 1 WPT QNZ = √ (quad) 3 Where: WPT QNZ. Node zero positive sequence reactive power approach The positive sequence reactive power at node zero which represents a measure of the reactive power at the lowest frequency sub-band which includes the fundamental power system frequency component can be calculated as: +WPT QNZ = +WPT +WPT (SNZ ) − (PNZ ) 2 2 (11) It is worth noting that when choosing the number of wavelet decomposition levels and the sampling frequency.k (k)) n=1 k=0 n 2 4. consideration must be given to node zero sub-band such that the power system frequency is located at its center. The recommended measurement window according to the IEC 61000-4-30 [33] is 12 cycles in a 60 Hz system.i ). which is chosen in the analysis included in this study.G.ST NZ. positive sequence active power and apparent power at node zero can be calculated based on the time-frequency voltage and current sequence components introduced in [32] as: +WPT PNZ = 9 . In this study. (14) WPT WPT Se = 3Ve Ie The total non-active power in the wavelet domain is: WPT = QN 2 − (P WPT ) .2.

1. The voltage and current waveforms measured at the point of common coupling are shown in Fig.8 1999. Also Table 1 shows the wavelet packet transformbased reactive power measured using the proposed reactive power approaches with Daubechies of order 43 and four decomposition levels which again shows agreement with the true values and the values measured with electronic reactive power meters.e. Also the apparent power approach is intended to measure the non-active power which includes the unbalance power that is the source of the stationary oscillations in the three-phase reactive power. positive sequence.2. but wavelet introduces the node zero positive sequence reactive power.2.2 Current (A) 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 0 0. The results of the positive sequence and quadrature approach agree.2 Fig. Morsi / Electric Power Systems Research 87 (2012) 31–38 Table 1 True and wavelet-based three-phase reactive power for three synthetic case studies. Simulated cases This subsection includes simulated case studies where synthetic voltage and current waveforms of known time and frequency information are generated to simulate balanced and unbalanced three-phase under different operating conditions. Unbalanced three-phase source-load system This case (case 2) simulates an unbalanced three-phase load fed from a balanced stationary sinusoidal three-phase voltage source. Balanced three-phase source-load system Three-phase voltage and current waveforms shown in Fig. Wavelet based results are identical to the true values.1.8 3098.1.G. These differences arise due to the oscillations of the three-phase reactive power generated because of the unbalance. i.1 Time (s) 0. The controllable switch is used to simulate the switching of a controllable singlephase load while a three-phase current source is set to generate a third harmonic current to represent a nonlinear load.05 0. 6. The main source of these errors is that when considering non-stationary disturbances the fundamental positive sequence component includes errors due to leakage in the frequency spectrum while the reactive power based on the quadrature approach suffers similar errors in addition to the error due to harmonic injection. Unbalanced nonlinear load under time-varying disturbance This case (case 3) simulates an unbalanced three-phase controllable non-linear load supplied from balanced three-phase sinusoidal source undergoing non-stationary disturbance.24 35 of which the approximations at the fourth level of decomposition includes the fundamental frequency component. The programmable source is set to generate a voltage dip of 60% for a period of 7 cycles. 5.W. Introducing node zero reactive power allows separately measuring the reactive power that is due to the presence of reactive elements.08 Wavelet Positive sequence approach 1999.61 Apparent power approach 1999.1. Results presented in Table 1 for this case (Case 1). 5 shows a programmable voltage source supplying a combination of linear and nonlinear loads. 3 are measured at the point of common coupling of a three-phase balanced linear load (5 MW and 2 Mvar) fed from a balanced timeinvariant three-phase voltage source.15 0. Balanced linear load fed from time-invariant balanced three-phase source.8 1999. The interpretation is that there is no oscillation in the three-phase reactive power since there is no time-varying component in the voltage or the current and there is no unbalance. quadrature and apparent power.1 Time (s) 0.8 459. The reason is due to the non-stationary oscillations caused by the time-varying power quality disturbances (voltage sag and controllable load) and hence varying between a minimum value of 140 and a maximum value of 1000. The voltage and current waveforms are shown in Fig. are identical.98 Apparent power approach 2000 3091 639.05 0. 4 while the calculated and measured reactive powers are listed in Table 1. The reactive power measured by electronic meters will provide values in agreement with the true values based on quadrature and apparent power approaches.98 Quadrature approach 2000 2000 461. wavelet packet transform is adopted in this study. indicate that the reactive power values measured using all three approaches. True values Cases Case 1 Case 2 Case 3 Positive sequence approach 2000 2000 461. but they are different from those based on the apparent power approach. 5. It is worth noting that the oscillations in the reactive power due to unbalance are of the stationary type and hence no time-varying component is present in this case.8 459. Fig. Since wavelet packet transform is a generalization of wavelets with uniform frequency spectrum which is not accessible through discrete wavelets.61 Quadrature approach 1999. 5. a 200 150 100 Phase R Phase S Phase T b 25 20 15 10 Phase R Phase S Phase T Voltage (V) 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 0 0.15 0.7 638. . 3. Reactive power measured using wavelet-based approach provides very close results to the true values while the measurement provided by electronic meters are highly unstable. 5. A single-phase load of 10 MW is connected in parallel with balanced three-phase load of 5 MW and 2 Mvar and fed from balanced three-phase voltage that is free of harmonics or any time-varying disturbances.

3.05 0.012 0. Real case The proposed reactive power measurement approach based on wavelet transform is implemented in this subsection considering voltage and current data collected from an adjustable speed drive using Fluke 435 Power Quality Analyzer and are shown in Fig.2 Current (A) 5 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 0 0.2 10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 0 0.004 0.1 Time (s) 0. Since this condition is not satisﬁed under time-varying power quality disturbances. a 200 150 100 Phase R Phase S Phase T b 25 20 15 10 Phase R Phase S Phase T Voltage (V) 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 0 0.62.2 Fig.15 0.006 0.05 0.83 power factor and 89% efﬁciency.05 0. and 638. Unbalanced nonlinear load fed from time-variant balanced three-phase source. node zero quadrature approach and the apparent power approach respectively. 5.2 Fig.1 Time (s) 0.014 0.008 0. 10.016 -6 0 0. a 1000 800 600 b8 Phase R Phase S Phase T Phase R Phase S Phase T 6 4 400 Voltage (V) Current (A) 200 0 -200 -400 -600 2 0 -2 -4 -800 -1000 0 0. 1760 rpm.G. 4.01 0.002 0. Unbalanced nonlinear load fed from time-invariant balanced three-phase source.016 Time (s) Time (s) Fig.006 0. 6. 60 Hz.05 0.2 A.012 0. Unbalanced linear load fed from time-invariant balanced three-phase source.60.01 0. 7.1 Time (s) 0.15 0. Fig. Adjustable speed drive representing real case study. The results obtained acknowledge previously obtained results in the simulated cases in which the positive sequence approach and the quadrature approach provide identical results. The wavelet-based reactive power measures 459. reactive power/energy meters based on the quadrature approach provide erroneous results because the reactive power measured is based on the assumption that the 90-phase shift is maintained under all operating conditions. 7.004 0. 0. 459. 575 V.002 0.014 0. On the other hand.36 W.1 Time (s) 0.15 0. 5. the performance of these meters is grossly affected and hence the operating principle needs to be modiﬁed.15 0.24 according to node zero positive sequence approach. The motor is rated 10 HP. Morsi / Electric Power Systems Research 87 (2012) 31–38 a 200 150 100 Voltage (V) Phase R Phase S Phase T b 50 40 30 20 Current (A) Phase R Phase S Phase T 50 0 -50 -100 -150 -200 0 0.008 0. .

Diego. M. Morsi. Also the non-active power based on the apparent power approach is expressed in the wavelet domain under timevarying power quality disturbance and considering three-phase system unbalance. Bollen. with the uncertainty in their charging/discharging pattern and also considering the widespread use of controllable loads taking part of demand side management programs. [12] W. Daubechies of order 4 has been successfully implemented in power quality analysis. 29 (1980) 420–426. Reekmans.G. and considering the percentage error differences between Daubechies 10 and 43. pp. Morsi. [3] A. Page. Morsi / Electric Power Systems Research 87 (2012) 31–38 37 Fig. Meas. approach especially when considering time-varying power quality disturbances. D. The paper also presented a sensitivity analysis of using different wavelet basis functions which are members of the Daubechies family. less number of coefﬁcients (20 in case of db10 compared to 86 in case of db 43) and tolerable absolute percentage error. M. Eto. Keeping this in mind. Diduch. Instrum. References [1] P. Meas. Conf. The results of the simulated and real case studies have shown that those quantities accurately quantify the reactive power that is due to reactive elements at the power system frequency component which are not accessible using traditional . Electricity Consumers. New York. Power Deliv.E. Driesen. C. Understanding the Cost of Power Interruptions to U. of the IEEE PES Summer Meeting. All these changes will impact the performance of these meters since they are not designed to operate properly in this new environment. R. [15] IEEE Working Group on Non-sinusoidal Situations. linear and under timeinvariant sinusoidal operating conditions. Static meters for the reactive energy in the presence of harmonics: an experimental metrological characterization. Meas. [4] W. IEEE Trans.J.E. Conclusion Reactive power/energy can be accurately measured using currently available reactive power/energy meters in the markets as long as the three-phase system is balanced. Meas. IEEE Trans. Instrum. [5] M. IEEE Std. 2000. Ernest Orlando Lawrence.G. Increasing the order of the wavelet function has the effect of steeping the fall-off characteristics in the transition zone of the frequency response of the Daubechies ﬁlter on one hand.S.W. 37 (4) (2009) 373–392. El-Hawary. in: Proc. Cataliotti.I. Tech. Wavelet basis functions sensitivity analysis The wavelet library is rich with many basis functions among them Daubechies’ which have shown promising results in many ﬁelds especially in power quality analysis. Fortescue. Van Dommelen. Berkeley CA.Z. M. 21 (1) (2006) 533–535. IEEE Trans. This paper introduces a new reactive power/energy measurement method based on wavelet transform which proves to be powerful in handling time-varying power quality disturbances compared to other time and frequency domain techniques. 37 (1918) 1027–1140. 58 (8) (2009) 2574–2579. Berkeley National Laboratory. Electr. L. Nuccio. 11 (1) (1996) 79–101. 1999. and for this reason it has been included in the sensitivity analysis along with Daubechies 10 and 43 to measure the three-phase reactive power. vol. J. 8 shows the absolute percentage error when using Daubechies 4. R. [9] J. S. Reactive power in non-sinusoidal situations. IM-32 (4) (1980) 423–426. [10] J. Meas. Analyzing time-varying power system harmonics using wavelet transform. The number of wavelet coefﬁcients associated with Daubechies 10 is 20 and in case of Daubechies 43 is 86. a good choice is to go for Daubechies of order 10 so not to impact the processor.I. [14] C. El-Hawary. The study concluded that Daubechies of order 4 may not be the best choice when considering such application since the errors associated with the calculated reactive powers when using Daubechies 4 as basic functions are larger than those obtained using Daubechies 10 and 43. 10 and 43 in measuring three-phase reactive power according to the proposed approaches. T.. Method of symmetrical components applied to the solution of polyphase networks. Barros. According to [18]. IEEE Trans. Morsi. Bosnjakovic. 2. Reformulating three-phase power components deﬁnitions contained in the IEEE Standard 1459-2000 using discrete wavelet transform. Practical deﬁnitions for powers in systems with non-sinusoidal waveforms and unbalanced loads. 6. in: Proc.G. Application of the wavelet packet transform to the estimation of harmonic groups in current and voltage waveforms.M. Power quality evaluation in smart grids considering modern distortion in electric power systems. (2010). 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