This action might not be possible to undo. Are you sure you want to continue?
2013 Current Affairs Special -Science & Technology
January Internet turns 30
The Internet, a revolutionary communications system that has transformed the lives of billions of people across the world, turned 30 on 1st January 2013. The computer network officially began its technological revolution when it fully substituted previous networking systems on January 1st 1983. Known as "flag day", it was the first time the US Department of Defence (DoD)-commissioned ARPANET network fully switched to use of the Internet protocol suite (IPS) communications system. Using data "packetswitching", the new method of linking computers paved the way for the arrival of the World Wide Web. Based on designs by Welsh scientist Donald Davies, the ARPANET network began as a military project in the late 1960s. It was developed and at British computer scientist Tim Berners-Lee was then able to use it to host the system of inter linked hypertext documents he invented in 1989, known as the World Wide Web. which would change mass
laboratories, such as the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) and the Stanford Research Institute. Starting in 1973, work on the powerful and flexible IPS and Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) technology
communications got under way. The new systems were designed to replace the more vulnerable Network Control Program (NCP) used previously, making sure the network was not exposed to a single point of failure. By January 1 1983, the substitution of the older system for the new Internet protocol had been completed and the Internet was born.
Siachen Glacier shrinking due to increasing temperatures
The researchers claimed that the Siachen Glacier reduced to 5.9 km in its longitudinal extent from the time period of 1989 to 2009, due to increasing temperatures. The researchers also believed that presence of humans on Siachen would affect other neighbouring glaciers such as Milan, Janapa, Miyar and Gangotri which are a source to Chenab, Sutlej and Ganges rivers. Hindukush, Karakoram and Siachen is largest mountain glacier of the world, which is 70 km in length and 5-10 km in width. The satellite pictures revealed that the glacier was shrinking.
Himalayas actually form the largest mountain chain on this planet. They are also keepers of the third-largest ice reserves only after Polar Regions.
India’s Mars exploration mission by October
India’s tryst with Mars will begin in October to explore the red planet’s atmosphere and search for life-sustaining elements, said J.N. Goswami, In-charge of the exploration mission on 4th January. Speaking on the sidelines of the Indian Science Congress in Kolkata, Mr. Goswami said the mission is yet to get an official name. The Rs.470-crore mission will demonstrate India’s capability to launch a spacecraft on a 55 million km journey from earth and look for life-sustaining elements from 500 km over the Martian surface. “The mission has a very specific science objective as we want to study the atmosphere of Mars. The Mars mission will allow India to join the elite club of five top nations comprising the US, Russia, Europe, China and Japan which have launched similar missions. As the fourth planet from the Sun and smallest celestial object in the solar system, Mars is terrestrial with breath-taking valleys, deserts, craters and volcanoes in a thin atmosphere. Named after the Roman god of war, the red planet has many similarities with Earth like the rotation period and seasonal cycles.
World largest solar telescope in Ladakh
India is expected to start building the world's largest solar telescope on the icy heights of Ladakh to study the sun's atmosphere and understand the formation of sunspots and their decay process. The Rs. 300-crore project is expected to come up at either Hanle or Merak, which is very near to the Ladakh's Pangong lake along the Line of Actual Control with China. Currently, the world's largest solar telescope is the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope with an aperture size of 1.6 metres in Kitt Peak National Observatory at Arizona in the US "Fabrication of the National Large Solar Telescope is expected to begin in late 2013". Bangalore-based Indian Institute of Astrophysics is the nodal agency for the project, which also has participation from Indian Space Research Organisation, Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, IUCAA, IISc and IISER.
‘ICGS-Rajkamal’ was commissioned in Chennai
Indian Coast Guard Ship ‘ICGS Rajkamal’, the fourth in the series of eight Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs) designed and built by Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers, Kolkata, was commissioned at Chennai by the Minister of State for Defence Shri Jitendra Singh on 8th January. The 50 meter indigenous IPV displaces 300 tones and can achieve a maximum speed of 34 knots, with an endurance of 1500 nautical miles at an economical speed of 16 knots. Equipped with state-of-the-art weaponry and advanced communication and navigational equipment, it makes an ideal platform for undertaking multifarious close-coast missions such as surveillance, interdiction, Search and Rescue, and medical evacuation. The special features of the ship include an Integrated Bridge
www.sakshieducation.com Management System (IBMS), Integrated Machinery Control System (IMCS) and an integrated gun mount with indigenous Fire Control system (FCS). ICGS Rajkamal, literally meaning "Royal Lotus", will be based at Chennai.
National Immunization Day, 2013 inaugurated
President of India on 13th January inaugurated the National Immunization Day, 2013 by giving polio drops to children at Rashtrapati Bhavan. Speaking on the historic occasion, Ghulam Nabi Azad said that he was extremely happy to inform that day is a momentous day for the whole country as India had completed two years without any case of wild polio virus. On 25th February 2012, the World Health Organization removed India from the list of polio endemic countries, which was a historical achievement since there was a perception among many experts that India would be the last country to eradicate polio. This was more so because, until 2009, India accounted for half of the total polio cases in the world. To mitigate the risk, we need to continue to protect every child up to the age of 5 years with the polio vaccine, till polio is eradicated globally. Pakistan, Afghanistan and Nigeria still continue to be polio endemic countries in the world.
“Weather Services of IMD on Mobile” is inaugurated
Union Minister for science and Technology and Earth Sciences S. Jaipal Reddy has inaugurated the “Weather Services of IMD on Mobile” at a glittering function organised to mark the 138th Foundation Day of India Metrological Department (IMD) in New Delhi on 15th January. Mr. Reddy while commending the commend the progress made by the IMD in different fields of atmospheric science said the increased needs of the society for timely, authentic and directly usable information on weather and climate have thrown up new challenges before us. Shailesh Nayak, Secretary, Ministry of Earth Sciences said IMD has taken a new initiative in the development of an application called “Indian-Weather” for smart phones and TABS based on android. This application is freely downloadable through goggle play available on the home screen of android based smart phones and tabs.
Space Weather Conditions Reading Center in Kolkata
A centre of excellence specialising in reading space weather conditions to help air traffic on polar routes would come up in Kolkata by the middle of this year (2013), the first of its kind in the country. Besides air traffic on polar routes, the centre would help in the functioning of GPS networks and mobile satellites placed in space. Scientists said coronal mass ejections (CME) and solar flares were two kinds of storms originating from the sun that exposed flights to immense amounts of radiation over Polar Regions. Several commercial flights from south Asia, Europe and North America flew over the Polar Regions to cut short www.sakshieducation.com
www.sakshieducation.com time and distance. The centre, approved by the Union HRD ministry, would come up at the Indian Institute of Science, Education and Research (IISER) campus. The ministry has sanctioned Rs. 4 crore for it.
MoEF Organised “GREEN HAAT”
The Ministry of Environment and Forest (MoEF) in its endeavor to promote Forest based Non Timber Handicrafts, Herbal / Health / a Cosmetic Medicinal and Food items
(Forest/Argo/Biodiversity food) is organising 15 Days program: “GREEN HAAT” with primary objective of “connecting nature with our lives”. The event would be organized in New Delhi from 16th January 2013. It will continue till 31st January 2013. Green Haat is an initiative of Ministry of Environment & Forest (MoEF), Govt. of India to raise awareness on the rich forest and bio diverse heritage of the country among the growing urban population often living far off from the forests. The first Green Haat was organized on the eve of World Environment Day 2011 where India played as a Global Host.
ESA released photos of river ran 3.5 Billion years ago
The European Space Agency released surprising pictures of the remains of huge river which ran across the Red Planet, Mars at some point of time, on 17th January 2013. The images which were captured by the ESA’s Mars Express showed Reull Vallis, the river-like structure, which is believed to have formed when water ran from the surface of Mars in distant past. The Reull Vallis, cut a steep-sided channel through Promethei Terra Highlands and then ran towards the floor of huge Hellas basin. The structure which surprised the astronomers stretches for around 900 miles or 1,500 km across the Martian surface and also shows various tributaries. Such images were useful because they provided the scientists and astronomers a glimpse into the past of the Red Planet.
All India Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology held in Mumbai
The 54th All India Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology began in Mumbai on 17 January. Ghulam Nabi Azad, Union Minister of Health and Family Welfare was the Chief Guest at the inaugural programme. Addressing the function, Mr. Azad said Maternal and Child Health has received utmost priority from the Health Ministry. There has been a significant decline in Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR), Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) and Total Fertility Rate 9000005579 (TFR) in India. The current MMR as per the latest Sample Registration Survey is 212 per 100,000 births and the IMR is 44 per 1,000 births. However, the current pace of decline needs to be further accelerated to achieve the commitments on the millennium development goals. About 28 million pregnancies occur along with an estimated 56,000 maternal deaths in India every year. It may be mentioned that the All India Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology (AICOG) is the important
www.sakshieducation.com annual event on the academic calendar of the Federation
Gynecological Societies of India (FOGSI) involved with women’s health.
India will go alone in Chandrayaan-2
India has decided to go it alone in its second lunar mission, the Chandrayaan-2, which was originally proposed as an Indo-Russian venture. This was disclosed on 21st January by S.V.S. Murty of the Planetary Exploration Group of the Physical Research Laboratory (PRL), an institution under the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO). Dr. Murty was speaking on India’s Lunar and Mars missions at the ongoing workshop on exoplanets at the laboratory located in Ahmedabad. According to an agreement signed on November 12, 2007 between ISRO and Roskosmos, the Russian Federal Space Agency, ISRO had the primary responsibility to provide both the orbiter and the rover, while Roskosmos was to design and build the lander for this combined orbiter-rover-lander mission. Chandrayaan2 will be launched by a GSLV powered by an indigenous cryogenic engine.
Anti-Radiation Missile developed by DRDO
A new state-of-the art, anti-radiation missile that can target enemy radars and communication facilities is being developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). At present there is no such missile in India’s arsenal, while some advanced countries, including the US, Israel and Russia, have such a weapon, top DRDO sources told the media. The government recently gave the go-ahead for the project, and the design work has already begun at one of the key DRDO laboratories.
INS Saryu was commissioned on 22nd January
The Naval Offshore Patrol Vessel (NOPV) INS Saryu was formally commissioned into the Indian Navy on 22nd January. The commissioning was done by Air Marshal P.K. Roy, Commander-in-Chief Andaman and Nicobar command, at the Goa Shipyard Limited (GSL) in Vasco. The first in the series of four new classes of NOPVs designed and built by the GSL for the Indian Navy, the state-of-the-art ship will be based at Andaman and will be tasked with protecting India's strategic maritime interests and assets in the region. The 105m INS Saryu is powered by twin SEMT Pielstick diesel engines and is equipped with the latest navigation, communication and radar equipment. Its weapons systems include a 76mm super rapid gun mount and two 30mm close-in weapon system guns as well as six chaff launchers.
TMT Telescope is likely to start in 2014
Construction of the world’s largest optical telescope by a five-nation consortium including India is expected to start next year with Indian scientists making a significant www.sakshieducation.com
www.sakshieducation.com its key components. The
(TMT), dubbed as the world’s most advanced ground-based observatory, will be built at the summit of Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii at a cost of US $ 1.2 billion. The TMT Governing Board ended its two-day meeting in New Delhi on 22nd January, where it reviewed the status of the project and the contributions to be made by partner nations India, China, Japan, Canada and the US.
China successfully carried out interceptor missile test
China on 27th January 2013 successfully performed the second interceptor missile test. The test was said to be of the defensive nature without targeting any other country. This is for the second time that China announced testing such a missile. Likewise, the anti-missile interception test was conducted successfully on 11 January 2010 earlier.
India test- nuclear-capable ballistic missile
India on 27th January made a major stride towards completing its nuclear triad capability by successfully test firing a nuclear-capable medium range K-5 ballistic missile, with a strike range of around 1,500 km, from an underwater platform in Bay of Bengal. Completion of the nuclear triad will give India the ability to fire nuclear-tipped missiles from land, air and sea. This is the first missile in the underwater category to have been fully developed by India and can be launched from a submarine. The missile, which is also known as BO5, has been developed by DRDO's Hyderabad-based Defence Research and Development Laboratory (DRDL).
Iran sends a monkey into Space successfully
Iran on 28th January 2013 announced that it had successfully sent into space a monkey. While declaring the sending of a monkey into space, Iran also declared that it was yet another step towards the space flight goal of Tehran. The rocket called Pishgam (meaning Pioneer) reached at a height of 120 km.
28th Congress of APAO inaugurated at Hyderabad
President Pranab Mukherjee inaugurated the 28th Congress of the Asia Pacific Academy of Ophthalmology at Hyderabad on 17 January. Speaking on the occasion, the President said as stated in the Vision 2020 document of WHO, the problem of blindness can only be combated through increased political commitment, professional commitment, provision of high quality eye care, increasing public awareness and support of nongovernmental organizations and private sector.
The 10th Bio Asia Summit
Bio Asia 2013, Asia's biggest technology and biobusiness platform, which commenced on January 28th, concluded valedictory in Hyderabad on was 30th anuary. by The Bio Asia Grant Thornton Report covers the recent developments in the Biosimilars opportunities particularly partnerships & regulatory dynamics in key global markets.
personalities. Union Minister of State for Commerce and Industry Ms. D Purandeswari has released the special report by Bio Asia- Grant Thornton on the
key trends and alliances in the Biologics and Biosimilars markets. The Minister also released Bio Asia-ISB's report on Intellectual Property Regime and Life sciences.
RSC and CSIR sign MoU
In pursuit of common aims and to raise awareness of the importance of Cheminformatics to accelerate the discovery of novel therapies for neglected diseases like TB and Malaria, the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) affiliated Open Source Drug Discovery Initiative (OSDDI), signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) with Royal Society of Chemistry (RSC) in CSIR headquarters, New Delhi. The MoU, spanning over three years, aims to address the objective of finding novel, faster-acting and more effective regimens for TB and Malaria by advancing the discipline of Cheminformatics. Open Source Drug Discovery (OSDD) is an initiative funded and led by the CSIR. OSDD is an India consortium works with global partnerships with a vision to provide affordable healthcare to the developing world by solving the complex problems associated with discovering novel therapies for diseases like Tuberculosis, Malaria and Leishmaniasis.
The Royal Society of Chemistry is the largest organisation in Europe for advancing the chemical sciences.
Dornier 228 Handed over to Seychelles
The Defense Minister AK Antony handed over a Dornier Surveillance Aircraft to the Foreign Minister of Seychelles Mr. Jean Paul Adam at a function in New Delhi on 31st January. The maritime surveillance aircraft will be used to guard the extensive coastline of the island nation in the Indian Ocean. The Dornier 228 manufactured by the defense public sector undertaking, the Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) will also be supported by the HAL team for maintenance on site to enable the new user to get the requisite expertise. The DO-228 is a highly reliable, multi-purpose, fuel efficient, rugged, light weight twin turbo prop aircraft with a retractable tricycle landing gear.
NASA launched TDR Satellite
NASA on 31st January 2013 launched a new communication satellite to stay in touch with its space station astronauts and relay more Hubble telescope images. An unmanned Atlas V rocket blasted into the starry night sky carrying the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite (TDRS) from Cape Canaveral. This is the 11th TDRS satellite to be launched by NASA. The space agency uses the orbiting network to communicate with astronauts living on the International Space Station. The first TDRS spacecraft flew in 1983.
February C-DAC unveils India’s fastest Supercomputer
Precise weather forecasting, faster tapping of natural resources in the sea and designing of customised drugs for individuals will now be possible using Param Yuva II, India's fastest supercomputer. Developed by the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC), Param Yuva II was inaugurated by J Satyanarayana, Secretary, Department of Electronics and Information Technology, in Pune on 8th February. The supercomputer has been upgraded to 524 teraflops, about 10 times faster than the present facility. With an investment of Rs. 16 crore, it was developed in a record three months. For instance, if it takes about 18 to 20 years to discover a new drug now — from designing to testing — Param Yuva II will help reduce this time to 15 years.
Largest prime number discovered
The largest prime number has been discovered and it's 17,425,170 digits long. The new prime number crushes the last one discovered in 2008, which was a paltry 12,978,189 digits long. The discovery was made by mathematician Curtis Cooper from the University of Central Missouri. To find it, Cooper used a vast network of volunteer computers known as the "Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search" with a combined total of more than 360,000 processors.
DRDO permitted to develop AWACS for IAF
The Union Cabinet of India on 6 February 2013 gave approval to Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) for developing an indigenous Airborne Early Warning and Control System (AWACS) for IAF. AWACS allows IAF to keep a close watch on the enemy territory. The approval was granted in the meeting of Cabinet Committee on Security. At present, India has a fleet of three AWACS aircraft.
First complete Bionic Man of the World unveiled
First bionic man of the world called Rex was unveiled on 7th February 2013 at London's Science Museum. The bionic man was created using US $ 1 million worthy limbs as well as organs. Prosthetic legs and ankle came from MIT, synthetic blood from Sheffield University, spleens, pancreas and artificial kidneys from University College London, retinas from Oxford University and artificial lungs came from Swansea. Rex has a human face with brown eyes and a height of 6.5 feet. It was designed jointly with assistance from 18 universities and companies.
“Rudra, first armoured helicopter handed over to Army
An Advanced Light Helicopter Mk-IV army version 'Rudra' was handed over by Dr. R.K. Tyagi, Chairman, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) to Lt. Gen. Narendra Singh, Deputy Chief of Army Staff (P&S), Indian Army during AERO India 2013 at Yelahanka Air Base, Bangalore on 8th February. Rudra is the Mk IV variant of the Advanced Light Helicopter (ALH) designed and manufactured by HAL. This helicopter is fitted with Day and Night Targeting systems and can carry a mix of weapons (70 rockets, anti-tank missiles, air to air missiles and 20 mm turret gun), providing the required capability to search and destroy any targets”. Rudra is designed indigenously at the Rotary Wing Research and Design Center (RWR & DC) to meet the mission specifications and tested extensively over varied terrains and firing ranges in India.
CCEA approved merger of NLCP and NWCA
The Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs (CCEA) on 7th February, approved the proposal for the merger of National Lake Conservation Plan (NLCP) and National Wetlands Conservation Programme (NWCP) into a new scheme called the 'National Plan for Conservation of Aquatic Eco-systems' (NPCA). The merged scheme shall be operational during the XII Plan Period at an estimated cost of Rs. 900 crore on 70:30 cost sharing between the Central Government and respective State Governments (90:10 for North-East States). For conservation of lakes and wetlands, the Ministry of Environment and Forests is presently, implementing two separate Centrally Sponsored Schemes (CSS), namely the NWCP and the NLCP. To avoid overlap, promote better synergies and to ensure conservation and management works, an integrated scheme, NPCA is proposed, with the objective of conserving aquatic ecosystems (lakes and wetlands), through implementation of sustainable conservation plans and governed with application of uniform policy and guidelines. The principal objectives of the new scheme will be holistic conservation and restoration of lakes and wetlands for achieving desired water quality enhancement, besides www.sakshieducation.com
www.sakshieducation.com improvement in biodiversity and the ecosystem, through an integrated and multidisciplinary approach with a common regulatory framework.
Pakistan test fired Hatf IX
Pakistan on 11th February 2013 successfully test fired short-range surface-to-surface missile Hatf IX (NASR). The test fire took place with consecutive launches of two missiles from multi-tube launcher. NASR has 60 km range with the capability of in-flight manoeuvring. It also has the capability of carrying nuclear warheads. NASR is designed specifically to defeat Anti-Tactical Missile Defence Systems of all kinds.
Kerala became first state to install roof-top solar power systems
Kerala has become the first state in the country to launch an ambitious programme to generate over 10 MW of solar power through over 10,000 roof-top solar power systems of 1 KW each to be installed at individual houses. The unique programme was formally launched by Dr Farooq Abdullah, Minister for New and Renewable Energy at Tiruvanthapuram on 11 February. This is the biggest program sanctioned to Kerala so far with an overall expenditure of over Rs. 175 crore and budgetary support of over Rs. 80 crore from the Ministry of New and Renewable Energy (MNRE).
'Rajratan’ was commissioned in Kolkata
Indian Coast Guard Ship ‘Rajratan’, the fifth of a series of eight Inshore Patrol Vessels (IPVs) was commissioned by Director General Indian Coast Guard, Vice Admiral MP Muralidharan in Kolkata on 11th February. Indigenously built by Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers, Kolkata, the 50m long IPV displaces 300 tonnes and can achieve a maximum speed of 34 knots, with an endurance of 1,500 nautical miles at an economical speed of 16 knots. Equipped with state-of-the-art weaponry and advanced communication and navigational equipment, it makes an ideal platform for undertaking multifarious close-coast missions such as surveillance, interdiction, Search and Rescue, and medical evacuation. The special features of the ship include an Integrated Bridge Management System (IBMS), Integrated Machinery Control System (IMCS) and an integrated gun mount with indigenous Fire Control system (FCS).
SAAN Conference held in New Delhi
A daylong Conference of South Asian Autism Network (SAAN) will be held at New Delhi on 11th February 2013. Smt. Sonia Gandhi, Chairperson, National Advisory Council will inaugurate the conference. Representatives from India, Bangladesh, Thailand and WHO, SEARO will participate in the daylong conference. It may be mentioned that Autism is a
www.sakshieducation.com developmental disorder which is characterized by communication difficulties, social, behavioral challenges as well as repetitive behaviours. The WHO perspective about health, especially mental health, shows an escalation in the disease burden for autism from 10% to 14% over the period 1990 to 2011. It is expected to rise to 15% by 2020. After the adoption of Dhaka Declaration on 25 July 2011, the South Asian Autism Network (SAAN) was born to combat the devastating autism public health crises.
AYUSH collaborated with WHO-SEARO
The Department of AYUSH, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, in collaboration with WHO-SEARO, New Delhi, will organize International Conference on Traditional Medicine in New Delhi on 12-14 February 2013. The conference will be participated by Health Ministers of the SEARO region, experts from WHO SEAR (South East Asia Region), WPR (Western Pacific Region) and other countries. The objective is to promote the role of traditional medicine and complementary medicine (TM & CM) in healthcare provision in general and primary health care in particular, evaluate the integration of TM & CM into National Health Systems and promotion of their use in Primary Healthcare, share research methodologies for studies on safety, efficacy and quality of TM & CM for PHC.
NASA Satellite data found freshwater losses in Middle East
A new study using data from a pair of gravity-measuring NASA satellites found on 12th February 2013 that large parts of the arid Middle East region lost freshwater reserves rapidly during the past decade. Scientists at the University of California at Irvine found that during a seven-year period beginning in 2003, parts of Turkey, Syria, Iraq and Iran along the Tigris and Euphrates river basins lost 117 million acre feet (144 cubic kilometers) of its total stored freshwater. That is almost the amount of water in the Dead Sea. The researchers attribute about 60 percent of the loss to pumping of groundwater from underground reservoirs.
NACO provides preventive, care support to port workers
As a part of its efforts to mainstream issues relating to HIV/AIDS, the Department of AIDS Control, Ministry of Health and Family Welfare signed the first MoU with the Ministry of Shipping on 15th February. It was signed by Lov Verma, Secretary, Department of AIDS Control, and Pradeep K. Sinha, Secretary, Ministry of Shipping. According to the MoU, NACO will provide HIV/AIDS/STI preventive, care support and treatment services to port workers as well as community around major ports including fishermen, seafarers, truckers, single male migrants and other vulnerable population etc.
Pakisthan successfully tested Hatf-II
Pakistan successfully tested the nuclear-capable Hatf-II ballistic missile, also known as Abdali on 15th February 2013. The test was conducted in order to evaluate the capabilities of Strategic Forces. Hatf-II ballistic missile is a short range surface-to-surface ballistic missile. Hatf-II has a range of 180 km.
ISRO's PSLV-C20 rocket successfully launched
Six foreign micro and mini spacecrafts as well as the Indo-French oceanographic study satellite, SARAL (Satellite for Argos-3 and Altika) were launched successfully by ISRO's PSLV-C20 rocket on 25th February 2013 from the spaceport at Sriharikota. The Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) of Indian Space Research Organization’s (ISRO) flew from first launch pad of Satish Dhawan Space Centre and was successfully put into the orbit. The President of India, Pranab Mukherjee witnessed this launch from mission control centre at Sriharikota. Satellites launched by PSLV-C20 rocket: • • • • • • 410-kg SARAL with payloads - Argos and Altika Two micro-satellites UniBRITE and BRITE from Austria AAUSAT3 from Denmark STRaND from United Kingdom Micro-satellite (NEOSSat) Mini-satellite (SAPPHIRE) from Canada These seven satellites were launched successfully by PSLV which depicted its versatility and recorded 22nd successful consecutive flight. ISRO also has plans to launch the Geo-Synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle that has indigenous cryogenic engine, along with the India’s mission to Mars, both of which are scheduled for 2013.
NTPC signs MoU with CREDA
National Thermal Power Corporation Limited (NTPC) has signed a Memorandum of Understanding (MoU) on 26th February, with Chhattisgarh Renewable Energy
Development Agency (CREDA) to explore the potential of geothermal resources and subsequently implement geothermal project at Tatapani in Chhattisgarh. The MoU was signed by Ajit Kumar, Executive Director (Business Development), NTPC and Shailendra Kumar Shukla, Director, CREDA. Tattapani Geothermal field is located approximately 100 kms northeast of Ambikapur in Surguja district of Chhattisgarh and is considered to be one of the most promising sites in India for developing geothermal based power project.
AICTE signs an MoU with BSNL
To facilitate technical institutions to respond to the need of providing State of art Telecom equipment based operational skills to engineering graduates to enhance their qualification, competence and employability by enhanced skill up-gradation All India Council For Technical Education is signing an MoU with BSNL on 27th February to use the training facilities and faculty of BSNL for the benefit of students in AICTE approved intuitions under its Employability Enhancement Training Program (EETP). The programs will focus on practical hands-on training in field/lab work supplemented with structured academic content that is currently being provided online and can be supplemented with appropriate theory sessions in academic institutions/colleges.
DRDO to setup MTR in Nagayalanka, AP
Defense Minister A.K. Antony in a written reply to a question in the Rajya Sabha on 27th February informed that, Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) has proposed to set up two Missile Test Ranges at the Rutland Island at Andaman and Nicobar Islands and Nagayalanka in Krishna District of Andhra Pradesh. A proposal for diversion of forest land in Andaman and Nicobar Islands has been initiated by DRDO. A request has also been made to the Government of Andhra Pradesh to spare unassigned revenue land and reserve forest land at Nagayalanka.
Researchers discovered small continent beneath the Indian Ocean
Researchers from Norway, South Africa, Britain and Germany, in the last week of February 2013 discovered a sunken and small continent beneath the Indian Ocean. This is the ancient and mini continent named Mauritia and it lies beneath the lava flows which led to the formation of islands of Mauritius and Reunion. This lost continent called Mauritia, dates back to the time Mauritia is said to be a part of the mass of Gondwana which had eventually split into Antarctica, India, Australia and Madagascar after around 170 million years ago.
when the super continents of the Earth- Laurasia and Gondwana shattered into the present day geography.
March India ranked third in spam spewing nations’ list
India ranked third on list of countries which distribute spam all over the world, after US and China, as per the new report of Sophos Labs. Sophos Labs is part of the Sophos’s global network of threat analysis centers. In the study, US was single highest ranking country, but Asia ranked at number one position in the list of the continents with 36.6 percent of overall www.sakshieducation.com
www.sakshieducation.com spam of the world. US sent 18.3 percent of the junk emails overall in the world. In last few months of 2012, India topped the spam spewing nations’ list, but eventually fell back to the third position. Second position was held by China. In the study, the spam sent from December 2012 to February 2013 was tracked. China and India took second and third positions respectively with 8.2 percent and 4.2 percent of the spam of the world. In order to prevent spamming, the PC users can keep the anti-virus software updated and regularly run the malware checks.
BARC develops largest magnet
Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) announced that it was developing the largest magnet of the world. This largest magnet would weigh 50,000 tons. The magnet is said to be much bigger than the one which is found at Compact Muon Solenoid detector at CERN in Geneva. This magnet will play a crucial role in the India-based Neutrino Observatory which will come up almost 4,300 feet below in a cave in a mountain in Tamil Nadu.
AIDS is “functionally cured”: Doctors in Mississippi
In a development that might represent a breakthrough in the treatment of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the deadly disease it causes, Acquired
Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a child treated by doctors in Mississippi was said to be “functionally cured” after being exposed to the virus during birth. The child was given standard anti-retroviral (ARV) drug therapy within 30 hours of birth by specialists at the University of Mississippi Medical Centre. A series of sensitive blood tests performed on the child 29 days after birth revealed “progressively diminishing viral presence in the infant’s blood, until it reached undetectable levels.
Kapil Sibal launched e-PPS
Union Minister Kapil Sibal on 6th March 2013 launched the Electronic - Project Proposal System (e-PPS), developed by the Department of Electronics and Information
Technology, through the Centre for Development of Advanced Computing (C-DAC) during a round table discussion with Academia, Industry and R&D Organisation. The e-PPS system will initially start as a pilot project. It is a web based system in form of solution to fund the R&D projects, which will start from online submission of the project proposal for funds and will monitor as well as manage the funded projects. It will replace existing manual system of project funding in which the project investigators submit hard copies of R&D proposals, which are presented to a Working Group and based on the
recommendations of the Working Group the proposals are further processed.
World’s largest concentrated solar power plant opened
The oil-rich United Arab Emirates (UAE) on 17th March 2013 officially opened the world’s largest concentrated solar power plant. The solar power plant opened is the 600-million dollar project which is aimed at providing electricity to 20,000 homes. The solar power station which is named Shams 1 was inaugurated in Madinat Zayed by the President of UAE and the Ruler of Abu Dhabi, Sheikh Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan. The solar power plant was constructed over a span of three-year period by an international conglomerate, with UAE’s Masdar having 60 percent stake, France’s Total having a 20 percent interest and Spain’s Abengoa which has a 20 percent stake. With this new solar project, Masdar will be producing 10 per cent of world’s renewable energy.
India successfully test fired BrahMos
India on 20th March 2013 successfully test fired its submarine-launched version of BrahMos supersonic cruise missile of the over 290 km-range in the Bay of Bengal off the coast of the southern port city of Visakhapatnam. The launch of Missile is counted as the first testfiring of an underwater supersonic cruise missile anywhere in the world. The missile travelled its complete range of over 290 km.
India and the US agreed for Moon and Mars Missions
India and the US agreed for cooperation on future missions to the Moon and Mars after successful collaboration in Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission in the month of March 2013. The highly successful Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission, which was launched by the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) in October 2008 led to strong evidence of the presence of lunar water. So, in light of the Chandrayaan-1 lunar mission, National Aeronautical and Space Administration (NASA) and ISRO agreed to explore further cooperative space exploration work, including future missions to the Moon and Mars. The scientist from both the working groups ISRO and NASA agreed to continue discussions on planetary science and Helio physics to identify areas of potential cooperation. The existing cooperation, in the use of US and Indian earth observation satellite data, helped in producing information yielding a broad range of societal benefits including improved weather and monsoon forecasting, disaster management and response, improved agricultural and natural resource use and better understanding of climate change.
Unknown huge Radio Galaxy discovered
An international team of astronomers led by ASTRON astronomer Dr. George Heald, in the third week of March 2013 discovered an unknown huge radio galaxy, by making use of the powerful International LOFAR Telescope (ILT), built by ASTRON. The galaxy was www.sakshieducation.com
www.sakshieducation.com discovered in the LOFAR's first all-sky imaging survey called Multi-frequency Snapshot Sky Survey (MSSS). The new source which was equivalent to the size of full Moon was identified during the analysis of the MSSS images. The radio emission was observed, which is associated with the material that is ejected from one of the members of interacting galaxy triplet system. The newly found galaxy is the member of group of objects known as Giant Radio Galaxies (GRGs). GRGs, as the name suggest, are kind of radio galaxies which have huge physical size, indicating towards the fact that either they are very old or very powerful. LOFAR is one of the most efficient tools for exploring the GRGs because it is very sensitive to the large objects.
CMSS registered under Societies Registration Act 1860
Central Medical Services Society (CMSS), a Central Procurement Agency of Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, has been registered under Societies Registration Act, 1860 on 22nd, March 2012. CMSS will be responsible for procuring health sector goods in a transparent and cost-effective manner and distributing them to the State/UT Governments by setting up IT enabled supply chain infrastructure including state warehouses in 50 locations. The main objective of CMSS will be to ensure uninterrupted supply of health sector goods to the State Governments.
April US announced a new research initiative called BRAIN
US government on 3rd April 2013 announced a new research initiative called BRAIN (Brain Research through Advancing Innovative Neurotechnologies) which is designed to revolutionize the understanding of the human brain. Indian born Arati Prabhakar, director of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, which pioneered the Internet, is among that leading the multi- agency project. Launched with approximately USD 100 million in the President's Fiscal Year 2014 Budget, the BRAIN initiative ultimately aims to help researchers find new ways to treat, cure, and even prevent brain disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, and traumatic brain injury.
Agni-II missile was successfully test fired
The medium range nuclear capable Agni-II missile was on 7th April 2013 successfully testfired with a strike range of more than 2,000 km from the Wheeler Island off Odisha coast. The two-stage missile equipped with advanced high accuracy navigation system, guided by a novel scheme of state of the earth command and control system was propelled by solid rocket propellant system. The 20-metre long Agni-II is a two-stage, solid-propelled
www.sakshieducation.com ballistic missile. It has a launch weight of 17 tones and can carry a payload of 1,000 kg over a distance of 2,000 km. Agni-II is part of the Agni series of missiles developed by DRDO which includes Agni-I with a 700 km range, Agni-III with a 3,000 km range, Agni-IV with 4,000 km range and Agni-V more than 5,000 km range.
“High blood pressure” theme of World health day
World health day was celebrated on 7th April 2013. The theme for 2013 was “High Blood Pressure”. This day marks the anniversary of the founding of WHO (World Health Organization) in 1948. Each year a theme is selected for World Health Day that highlights a priority area of public health concern in the world. High blood pressure also known as raised blood pressure or hypertension increases the risk of heart attacks, strokes and kidney failure. The ultimate goal of World Health Day 2013 is to reduce heart attacks and strokes. According to the World Health Organization, High Blood Pressure affects one in three adults worldwide and leads to more than nine million deaths globally every year.
Indian researchers developed world's smallest antenna
Indian researchers on 7th April claimed to have invented the world's smallest super compact ultra-wideband (UWB) planar antenna that can find application in homes and the military among other domains. Professor Srikanta Pal, who is with the Birla Institute of Technology in Mesra, and his research scholar Mrinmoy Chakraborty have developed the antenna. This antenna is the world's smallest at 14 mm X 11 mm, with much more than a 10:1 bandwidth.
Scientists designed new Adaptive Material inspired by human tear
A team of US scientists on 8th April 2013 designed a new adaptive material inspired by human tears. The new material was inspired by dynamic, self-restoring systems in Nature, such as the liquid film that coats our eyes. Individual tears join up to form a dynamic liquid film with an obviously significant optical function that maintains clarity, while keeping the eye moist, protecting it against dust and bacteria, and helping to transport away any wastes.
Researchers identified new set of genetic markers for Alzheimer's
Researchers at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified a new set of genetic markers for Alzheimer's that point to a second pathway through which the disease develops. Much of the genetic research on Alzheimer's centers on amyloidbeta, a key component of brain plaques that build up in the brains of people with the disease In the new study, the scientists identified several genes linked to the tau protein, www.sakshieducation.com
www.sakshieducation.com which is found in the tangles that develop in the brain as Alzheimer's progresses and patients develop dementia.
H-191 was commissioned at Mumbai
Indian Coast Guard Ship H-191, the fifth of the series of twelve Air Cushion Vehicles (ACVs) was commissioned at Mumbai by Director General Indian Coast Guard Vice Admiral Anurag G. Thapliyal on 10th April. The 21 metres long Air Cushion Vehicle with 31 tonnes displacement can achieve a maximum speed of 45 knots. The ACV is capable of undertaking multi-faceted tasks such as surveillance, interdiction, search and rescue and rendering assistance to small boats/craft in distress at sea. The Air Cushion Vehicle H191 will be based at Okha under the Administrative and Operational Control of the Commander Coast Guard Region (North-West).
California & Canadian varsities to build the world's largest telescope
A plan by California and Canadian universities to build the world's largest telescope at the summit of Hawaii's Mauna Kea volcano received approval from the state Board of Land and Natural Resources on 12th April. The decision clears the way for the group managing the Thirty Meter Telescope project to negotiate a sublease for land with the University of Hawaii. The telescope would be able to observe planets that orbit stars other than the sun and enable astronomers to watch new planets and stars being formed. It should also help scientists see some 13 billion light years away for a glimpse into the early years of the universe.
President inaugurated 14 MW solar power project in Jharkhand
The President of India, Pranab Mukherjee inaugurated the 14 MW Solar Power project and laid foundation stones for Pilgrim Queue Complex and Deoghar – Basukinath 44 kw Solar Street Light Project at Deoghar, Jharkhand on April 30th 2013. Speaking on the occasion the President said that he was hopeful of these initiatives contributing to the overall growth of Deoghar and helping in setting high standards for pilgrimage management. He also commended the government authorities and local MPs for having taken the initiative to establish the high technology solar lighting project.
May Nut sized biological command centre found for the ageing process
Scientists have found a biological command centre for the ageing process in a lump of brain the size of a nut. The U.S. team identified the mechanism in the hypothalamus, which sits deep inside the brain, and showed that they could tweak it to shorten or lengthen the lives www.sakshieducation.com
www.sakshieducation.com of animals. In a series of experiments, the researchers found they could extend the lives of mice by a fifth, without the animals suffering from muscle weakness, bone loss or memory problems common in old age.
NASA sends Grover for exploration and research
NASA is sending a six feet-tall solar-powered rover prototype for ice exploration on highest part of Greenland’s massive ice sheet. The space agency’s newest scientific rover is set for testing in the highest part of Greenland, NASA said. The robot, known as Grover, which stands for both Greenland Rover and Goddard Remotely Operated Vehicle for Exploration and Research, will roam the frigid landscape collecting measurements to help scientists better understand changes in the massive ice sheet. This autonomous, solarpowered robot carries a ground-penetrating radar to study how snow accumulates, adding layer upon layer to the ice sheet over time.
Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga collaborates with WHO
The Department of Yoga Therapy and Training of Morarji Desai National Institute of Yoga (MDNIY) has been designated as WHO Collaborating Centre in Traditional Medicine for a period of four years recently. This is the result of the efforts initiated in 2008 when MDNIY started collaborating with WHO Country Office under the biennium programme of traditional medicine and developed Yoga Resource Centre and brought out disease-specific booklets of Yogic interventions for healthcare. There are 21 WHO Collaborating Centres for Traditional Medicine across the globe, but none in India in spite of having a large number of AYUSH institutions and 32 Collaborating Centres for Modern Medicine. The network of 23 designated WHO Collaborating Centres for Traditional Medicine is meant to assist in implementing WHO strategies and resolutions relating to traditional medicine. The priority area of work for WHO Collaborating Centres of Traditional Medicine is to generate evidence-based information on the safety, quality, and costeffectiveness of traditional medicine products and therapies.
Pen shaped, needleless drug delivery device designed
The MoS of HRD, Dr. Shashi Tharoor on 8th May told the Loksabha in a written reply that, the scientists at the Indian Institute of Science (IISc), Bengaluru, have designed a pen shaped, needleless drug delivery device, that uses supersonic shock waves for the painless delivery of medicine into the body. This new method has been developed based on the collaborative work between the Laboratory for Hypersonic and Shock Waves, Department of Aerospace Engineering, and the Microbiology and Cell Biology Department of the Indian Institute of Science. Using the new technique, typhoid vaccines have been successfully delivered into mice in the laboratory. The depth of penetration of drug below
www.sakshieducation.com the skin is very small the animals during vaccine delivery do not experience a great deal of pain.
India developed Rotavirus Vaccine named “Rotavac”
India on 14 May 2013 unveiled its indigenously developed Rotavirus Vaccine named Rotavac after the Phase-III clinical trial of low cost India accounts for 22 percent of the global deaths that occurs due to diarrhoea-causing rotavirus. So far, two similar vaccines are available in Indian market and they cost around Rs. 1,000 per dose and thus remain out of reach from millions of people in developing and third world nations. rotavirus vaccine. The Rotavac that has
demonstrated strong efficacy and excellent safety profile; if gets its approval by the Drugs
Controller General of India (DCGI) than will be made available in the market at a rate of Rs. 54 per dose. Approximately 4,53,000 children across the world die every year due to rotavirus diarrhea. According the recent reports, about one
lakh children below five years are dying in India due to severe diarrhea that is caused due to Rotavirus bacteria.
India received Boeing P-81
Indian Naval Aviation received a major fillip with the arrival of the first of eight Boeing P8I Long Range Maritime Reconnaissance and Anti-Submarine Warfare (LRMRASW) Aircraft at Naval Air Station Rajali (Arakkonam) on 15th May 2013. The remaining seven aircrafts would be delivered over the next two years. The P-8I aircraft, based on the Boeing 737-800(NG) airframe, is the Indian Naval variant of the P-8A Poseidon that Boeing has developed for the US Navy. The aircraft is equipped with foreign & indigenous sensors for Maritime Reconnaissance, Anti Submarine operations and Electronic Intelligence missions.
India successfully test fired BrahMos
India on 22 May 2013 successfully test fired the 290-km range BrahMos supersonic cruise missile from the Navy's latest guided missile frigate INS Tarkash off the coast of Goa. The missile performed the high-level 'C' manoeuvre in the pre-determined flight path and successfully hit the target. Jointly developed by India and Russia, the BrahMos is capable of carrying a conventional warhead of 300 kg. India is readying several different versions of the missile which includes land attack, anti-ship and submarine- launched versions.
Defence Ministry inaugurated Su-30MKI
Defence Ministry on 27th May 2013 inaugurated the first fighter aircraft base at Thanjavur in southern India. Su-30MKI combat aircraft will be stationed here. Thanjavur airbase can www.sakshieducation.com
www.sakshieducation.com be another strategically important airbase of the Indian Air Force. IAF can protect vast area of interests by stationing frontline fighter aircraft Sukhoi at Thanjavur. The setting up of the premier fighter base is important because of current geo-political scenario and threat perception in the Indian peninsula and in the Indian Ocean.
CSL Launched fast patrol vessel Abhinav
Cochin Shipyard Limited (CSL) on 28th May 2013 launched its third Fast Patrol Vessel (FPV) which is built for the Indian Coast Guard. The vessel was launched by Nina Paul Antony, the Chairman of Cochin Port Trust. This vessel was named Abhinav. This vessel is third in series of 20 FPVs contracted by CSL. The primary objective of the vessel is monitoring, fisheries protection as well as patrolling within Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Also, the objective of this vessel is coastal patrolling and involvement in patrolling for anti-smuggling, search and rescue operations and for anti piracy operations. The secondary role of the vessel is to provide communication link as well as escort convoys during the war time as well as hostilities.
PC-7 Mk-II turbo trainer aircraft was inducted into the IAF
Swiss-made Pilatus PC-7 Mk-II turbo trainer aircraft was inducted into the Indian Air Force (IAF) in a ceremony held at the Air Force Academy at Dundigal near Hyderabad on 30th May. The aircraft, which meets all basic training functions of ab-initio pilots including aerobatics, tactical and night flying, has been customised to meet the requirements of IAF. Since there was a requirement for 173 trainer aircraft the IAF might exercise the option of procuring another 37 PC-7 Mk-II aircraft.
June Endowed fellowship established at Caltech
The Department of Space on 2nd June established an endowed fellowship at the Graduate Aerospace California Laboratories Institute of of the Prof. Dhawan was an alumnus of the Graduate Aerospace Laboratories at Caltech and obtained his PhD in aerospace in 1951. He was serving as Distinguished Visiting Professor during 1971-72 at Caltech, immediately preceding his assumption of the Chairmanship of ISRO in 1972. The Government of India honoured Prof. Dhawan by awarding him Padma Vibhushan in 1981.
(Caltech) in the US. The fellowship has been established in honour of Prof. Satish Dhawan, who was the Chairman of Indian Space Research Organization during its formative period 1972-1984. “The fellowship provides an excellent opportunity every year starting from
the winter session of the academic year 2013-14 to one meritorious graduating student from the Aerospace Department of the Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, www.sakshieducation.com
www.sakshieducation.com Thiruvananthapuram, to be sponsored by the Department of Space, to pursue Masters in Aerospace Engineering at Caltech.”
Nicobar Islands designated as a world biosphere reserve
The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (Unesco) has designated India's Nicobar Islands as a world biosphere reserve under its Man and the Biosphere Programme, on 30th May. Member countries establish such reserves and the world body recognizes them under the programme to promote sustainable development based on local community efforts and sound science. They are considered as sites of excellence, where new and optimal practices to manage nature and human activities are tested and demonstrated. The island chain, home to 1,800 animal species and some of the world's most endangered tribes, was among 12 new sites added to the global network of biosphere reserves in Paris on Thursday. Such reserves are located in 117 countries and nine of them are now located in India. Other sites added to the list include Pakistan's Ziarat Juniper forest and China's Snake Island.
Highest Krishi Vigyan Kendra will be set up in Leh, J&K
Nation’s highest Krishi Vigyan Kendra (KVK) will be set up at Nyoma, Leh district of Jammu & Kashmir at a height of about 14,000 feet. The Nyoma Krishi Vigyan Kendra is likely to bring about substantial change in the lives of people of nearby areas who are mostly nomads and rear pashmina goats. This region is extremely cold and dry and therefore, it is a challenge to promote stable agriculture there. The KVK will seek to improve fodder production, provide health care to the roaming animals, introduce vegetable production under protected environment and impart training to women on animal care, etc.
Japan tested speed of maglev bullet trains
Japan on 5th June 2013 conducted the first successful test of new generation L0 Series Trains (maglev bullet trains) designed to travel at speeds of 311 kmph. These trains are lashed with latest magnetic levitation technology (maglev) instead of the conventional wheels. The commercial services of this series of trains will start in 2027. The LO Series Trains are designed by Central Japan Railway Co (JR Tokai), and in its first phase will link central Tokyo with Nagoya station and cut the current time of journey by bullet train by more than half, from 90 to 40 minutes. The train will have 16 carriages and will carry up to 1000 passengers at a time. In 1964, Japan unveiled its first bullet train named Shinkansen to coincide with its hosting of the Olympic Games. At present, Japan is the home of World’s most sophisticated
www.sakshieducation.com rail network. The central line in Japan, Tokaido Shinkansen is the world’s busiest highspeed rail and it carries about 151 million passengers each year.
China built the fasted Supercomputer Tianhe-2
Tianhe-2 (Milky Way-2), the 33.86 Peta FLOP supercomputer of the China, emerged as the fastest super computer on the Earth. It was placed in service ahead of schedule in 2013 after it had been expected to be completed in 2015. According to the TOP 500 list for June 2013, Tianhe-2 is the faster super computer. It is housed at the National
Supercomputing Center in Guangzhou (NSCC-GZ) and was designed and developed by the National University of Defense Technology (NUDT) and by Inspur.
New layer in the Cornea Dua’s discovered
The Scientists from University of Nottingham in UK, in June 2013 discovered a new layer in the Cornea and named it Dua’s Layer after the name of an Indian Researcher named Harminder Dua, the person responsible for the discovery. The new layer has been named after the name of the professor Harminder Dua. This discovery can help the surgeons to improve the results of treatment of patients who undergo corneal grafts and transplants. Earlier scientists believed that the cornea consists of five layers namely Descemet's Membrane Corneal Epithelium, Corneal Stroma, Bowman's Layer and Corneal Endothelium. The newly discovered layer is located between the Corneal Stroma and Descemet's membrane. Cornea is a protective lens in the eyes that allows light to enter into the eyes.
NASA launched a satellite to explore a little-studied region
NASA launched a satellite on 27th June, on a mission to explore a little-studied region of the sun and to better forecast space weather that can disrupt communications systems on Earth. Unlike a traditional liftoff, the Iris satellite rode into Earth orbit on a Pegasus rocket dropped from an airplane that took off around sunset from the Vandenberg Air Force Base on California's central coast.
Cabinet approves GSAT-15 C-Sat project
The Union Cabinet on 28th June gave its nod to the proposal for the GSAT-15 communication satellite project along with procurement of launch services and insurance. The building of the GSAT-15 is part of the Indian Research Organisation’s (ISRO) efforts towards in-orbit spare capacity to meet contingency and to protect the services of existing users. The satellite will provide required redundant capacity, will augment capacity in the Ku band, and shall provide in-orbit redundant requirement of safety of life operations benefitting civil aviation services in the country. Nine operational INSAT/GSAT satellites
www.sakshieducation.com are currently providing different frequency bands to nearly 195 transponders. The GSAT15 satellite will cover the entire Indian mainland. Total cost involved in the project is Rs.859.5 crore including launch services. The Union Cabinet also gave its approval to the proposal for the GSAT-16 communication satellite project along with procurement of launch services and insurance.
Navy inducted INS Trikand
In tune with its operational drive to turn "stealthy" as surprise and deception are crucial in modern-day warfare, the Navy inducted its latest guided-missile stealth frigate INS Trikand on 29th June. INS Trikand is the last of the six stealth frigates ordered from Russia. The Navy had earlier inducted three 4,000-tonne Talwar-class stealth frigates (Talwar, Trishul and Tabar) from Russia in 2003-2004. Then, impressed by the punch the frigates packed, India ordered another three (Teg, Tarkash and Trikand) under a US $ 1.15 billion contract inked in 2006. India, of course, is also building its own stealth frigates. Three Shivalik-class frigates, built at Mazagon Docks (MDL), have already been inducted by the Navy. Then, there is an over Rs. 50,000 crore plan on the anvil to construct seven advanced stealth frigates, with all weapon and missile systems under the hull for a lower radar "signature", in a programme called Project-17A. The project will be shared between MDL at Mumbai and Garden Reach Shipbuilders and Engineers (GRSE) at Kolkata.