S.O.

Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Student Supplement for Optoelectronics and
Photonics: Principles and Practices
Second Edition
[4 February 2013]
A Complete Course in Power Point
Chapter 2
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
This Power Point presentation is a copyrighted supplemental material to the textbook
Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles & Practices, Second Edition, S. O. Kasap,
Pearson Education (USA), ISBN-10: 0132151499, ISBN-13: 9780132151498. © 2013
Pearson Education. Permission is given to instructors to use these Power Point slides in
their lectures provided that the above book has been adopted as a primary required
textbook for the course. Slides may be used in research seminars at research meetings,
symposia and conferences provided that the author, book title, and copyright information
are clearly displayed under each figure. It is unlawful to use the slides for teaching if the
textbook is not a required primary book for the course. The slides cannot be distributed
in any form whatsoever, especially on the internet, without the written permission of
Pearson Education.
Copyright Information and Permission: Part I
Please report typos and errors directly to the author: safa.kasap@yahoo.com
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
This Power Point presentation is a copyrighted supplemental material to the textbook
Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles & Practices, Second Edition, S. O. Kasap,
Pearson Education (USA), ISBN-10: 0132151499, ISBN-13: 9780132151498. © 2013
Pearson Education. The slides cannot be distributed in any form whatsoever,
electronically or in print form, without the written permission of Pearson Education. It is
unlawful to post these slides, or part of a slide or slides, on the internet.

Copyright © 2013, 2001 by Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, New J ersey,
07458. All rights reserved. Printed in the United States of America. This publication is
protected by Copyright and permission should be obtained from the publisher prior to
any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or
by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or likewise. For
information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department.
Copyright Information and Permission: Part II
PEARSON
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Important Note

You may use color illustrations from this Power Point
in your research-related seminars or research-related
presentations at scientific or technical meetings,
symposia or conferences provided that you fully cite
the following reference under each figure
From: S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles
and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education, USA
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
m = integer, n
1
= core refractive index, θ
m
is the
incidence angle, 2a is the core thickness. φ
m
is the phase
change upon TIR at the n
1
/n
2
boundary
Minimum θ
m
and maximum m must still satisfy TIR
There are only a finite number of modes
Propagation along the guide for a mode m is

β
m
= k
1
sinθ
m
=
2πn
1
λ
|
\

|
.
|
sinθ
m
π φ θ
λ
π
m
a n
m m
= −
(
¸
(

¸

cos
) 2 ( 2
1
Waveguide Condition
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.

β
m
= k
1
sinθ
m
=
2πn
1
λ
|
\

|
.
|
sinθ
m
π φ θ
λ
π
m
a n
m m
= −
(
¸
(

¸

cos
) 2 ( 2
1
Modes in a Planar Waveguide: Summary
E(y,z,t) = E
m
(y)cos(ωt − β
m
z)
Traveling wave along z
Field pattern along y
Phase change upon TIR at n
1
/n
2
, and depends on θ
m

S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Intermode (Intermodal or Modal) Dispersion
Schematic illustration of light propagation in a slab dielectric waveguide.
Light pulse entering the waveguide breaks up into various modes which
then propagate at different group velocities down the guide. At the end of
the guide, the modes combine to constitute the output light pulse which is
broader than the input light pulse.
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Example on Waveguide Modes
Consider a planar dielectric guide with a core thickness 20 µm, n
1

=1.455, n
2
=1.440, light wavelength of 900 nm. Find the modes
( )
m
m
m
n
n
θ
θ
φ
cos
sin
tan
2 / 1
2
1
2
2
2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
π φ θ
λ
π
m
a n
m m
= −
(
¸
(

¸

cos
) 2 ( 2
1
Waveguide
condition
TIR phase
change φ
m
for
TE mode
Waveguide
condition
TE mode
π θ φ m ak
m m
− = cos 2
1
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
) (
cos
sin
2
cos tan
2 / 1
2
1
2
2
1 m
m
m
m
f
n
n
m ak θ
θ
θ
π
θ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
.
|

\
|

TE
mode
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
m
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
θ
m

89.2° 88.3° 87.5° 86.7° 85.9° 85.0° 84.2° 83.4° 82.6° 81.9°
δ
m
(µm)
0.691 0.702 0.722 0.751 0.793 0.866 0.970 1.15 1.57 3.83
Critical angle θ
c
=arcsin(n
2
/n
1
) =81.77°
Highest
mode
m =0
Fundamental
mode
λ
θ π
α
δ
2 / 1
2
2
2
1
2
1 sin 2
1
(
(
¸
(

¸


|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
m
m
m
n
n
n
Mode m, incidence angle θ
m
and penetration δ
m
for a planar dielectric waveguide
with d =2a =20 µm, n
1
=1.455, n
2
=1.440
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
The slope of ω vs. β is the group velocity v
g

Waveguide Dispersion Curve
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Mode Group Velocities from Dispersion Diagram
The group velocity v
g
vs. ω for a planar dielectric guide with a core thickness (2a)
=20 µm, n
1
=1.455, n
2
=1.440. TE
0
, TE
1
and TE
4
Group velocity vs. frequency or wavelength behavior
is not obvious. For the first few modes, a higher
mode can travel faster than the fundamental.
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
A Planar Dielectric Waveguide with Many Modes
The group velocity v
g
vs. ω for a planar dielectric guide
Core thickness (2a) =20 µm, n
1
=1.455, n
2
=1.440
[Calculations by the author]
ω
v
g

0.5×10
16
1.0×10
16
1.5×10
16
0

2.04

2.05

2.06

2.07

2.08

×10
8
c / n
2
c / n
1
(c/n
1
)sinθ
c
= cn
2
/n
1
2
m =0
m =10
m =20
m =30 m =40 m =60
ω
cutoff
Slower than
fundamental
Not in the textbook
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Dispersion in the Planar Dielectric Waveguide with TE
0
and TE
1

(Near cut-off)
TE
0
TE
1
=
Broadened
pulse
Output light
pulse
Input
light
pulse
ω
v
g

ω
cutoff
c / n
2
c / n
1
Operating
frequency
ω
1
v
gmax

v
gmin

v
gmax
≈ c/n
2
v
gmin
≈ c/n
1
max min g g
v v
L L
− = ∆τ

∆τ
L

n
1
− n
2
c
Spread in
arrival times
Dispersion
TE
1
TE
0
TE
2
ω
1 ω
1
λ
1
= 2πc/ω
1
Not in the textbook
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
A Planar Dielectric Waveguide with Many Modes
Multimode operation in which many modes propagate with different group
velocities
v
g
vs. ω for a planar dielectric guide with a core thickness (2a) =20 µm, n
1
=1.455, n
2
=1.440
[Calculations by the author]

ω
v
g

0.5×10
16
1.0×10
16
1.5×10
16
0

2.04

2.05

2.06

2.07

2.08

×10
8
c / n
2
c / n
1
(c/n
1
)sinθ
c
= cn
2
/n
1
2
m =0
m =25
m =35
m =45
m =55
m =65
ω
cutoff
Operating
frequency
Range of group
velocities for 65
modes
Not in the textbook
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Dispersion in a Planar Dielectric Waveguide with Many Modes
Far from Cutoff
TE
highest
θ
c
θ
c
c/n
1
(c/n
1
)sinθ
c

c/n
1
|
|
.
|

\
|
= ≈
1
2
1 1
min
sin
n
n
n
c
n
c
c
θ
g
v
1
max
g
N
c

g
v
max min
1 1
g g
v v
− =

L
τ
c
n n
n
n n n
c c
n
cn
n
L
) ( ) ( 1
2 1
2
1 2 1 1
2
2
1


(
¸
(

¸

= − =
∆τ

∆τ
L

n
1
− n
2
c
(Since n
1
/n
2
≈ 1)
ω
v
g

c / n
1
(c/n
1
)sinθ
c

Operating
frequency
Range of group
velocities for
65 modes
c / n
2
Not in the textbook
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
TE
highest
θ
c
Dispersion in the Planar Dielectric Waveguide
Many Modes
=
Broadened
pulse
Output
pulse
Very
short
input
pulse
ω
2
ω
2
θ
c
TE
0
max min
1 1
g g
v v
− =

L
τ
|
|
.
|

\
| −


2
1 2 1
) (
n
n
c
n n
L
τ

∆τ
L

n
1
− n
2
c
∆τ
Not in the textbook
(Since n
1
/n
2
≈ 1)
S.O. Kasap, Optoelectronics and Photonics: Principles and Practices, Second Edition, © 2013 Pearson Education
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ. All rights reserved. This publication is protected by Copyright and written permission should be obtained from the
publisher prior to any prohibited reproduction, storage in a retrieval system, or transmission in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or
likewise. For information regarding permission(s), write to: Rights and Permissions Department, Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ 07458.
Updates and
Corrected Slides
Class Demonstrations
Class Problems
Check author’s website
http://optoelectronics.usask.ca
Email errors and corrections to
safa.kasap@yahoo.com

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