ì� � ..


leosoflsct1e Vereniglng
KAIV AL YA NA VA1i��rdar�;
e Cream of Emancipation)
ca ¯ �ll
An ancient classic
Translated into English by
(Compiler of 'Talks with Sri Ramana Maharshi ')
Published by :
: Sri Ramanasramam, Tiruvannamalai.
First Edition-1965
Price R e.
(Postage Extra)
The Juoiter Press Private Ltd., Madras-18.
We have great pleasure in offering to the devotees of
Sri Bhagavan and the students of Vedanta in general, a
valuable little classic. This was one of the works very
frequently referred to by the Maharshi.
ln the absence of any mention in earlier literature on
Vedanta in Tamil we can assume that 'Kaivalya Navaneeta'
was probably written at least five hundred years ago. It
was translated into German and English by Dr. Charles
Graul DD of the Leipzig Lutheran Mission and we have in
the Ramanasramam Library a book containing these
German and English translations and published in 1855,
both in Leipzig and London. We have not come across
any other English translation so far.
We are confdent that this great little book will prove
to be of immense helo to all sidhaks.

The Publisher.
5. 1 adore the feet of the Master wl:o shines
forth tor ever as the wide which has no
or end or interval. and 1 proceed to tdl you the tnt<� natue
of the Absolute Being, to explain bondage aud t:�.·ration
so that even those who are too dull to learn tlH
may understand.
6. Ail the ancient sages Jrew from the boundk�''
Ocean of milk, namely the Vedanta2 and filled th.ir
their works3 l boiled them all (on the fire ol
the Master's words), churned them (with the churn o!
and I present this cream of Emanci
patlon Kaivalya Nuvcmeeta to aiL
Now. will· those who have partaken of this and
satisfied their l�unger, roam about eating the offal of
externals4 ?
7. After adoring my Master, Venkatesa Mukunda,
who is himself ever-f�ce, and who made me his own, I write
this Kaivalya Navaneeta divided into two parts, the frst of
which contains a clear exposition of the Truth,5 and the
second clears away all doubts ari:;ill!! frm the former.''
2 The UJanishads.
3 The sutras,. the ilihisas, the ku, v yas and
4 i.e., seek fulflment of th�ir Jc,ire for
5 Tattva-vilakkam.
6 Sandchantelithal.
8. The Sages say that there arc four prerequisites'
[or realisation of the Truth : (1) Viveka : discrimination
between the temporary (therefore unreal phenomena) anJ
the permanent (therefore the Reality, i.e., the noumena) ;
(2) indifference to the enjoyment of pleasures here o
hereafter; (3) the group of six qualities and ( 41 the
longing for Liberation.
9 & l 0. The six qualities arc sama, dama, uparati,
titiksha, samidhana and sraddhi. Of these, .mma is control
of mind ; dama is control of the senses ; uparati is ccssation
of actlvities (relating to caste, creed, family, etc.) ; titiksfw
is control of passions, and includes endurance ; samidhina
according to the sages. the settling down of the mind
to refect on the Truth, as revealed (by the scriptures and
the sages) ; sraddhi denotes faith in the master and the
scriptures ; such are the meanings of the six terms of this
I I. No one can achieve anything in the world witout
being properly equipped for the task. For the same reason,
only those who are equipped with these four categories of
prerequisites can gain illumination. A novice cannot get
it so readiy. lf so gained, it follows that the person has
successively purfed in cuntless incarnations in the
1 Sidhanas.
l 2. He alone is lit for Knowledge. who, sufering
from the three kinds of troubles rising from the self, the
elements, and Providence {from hunger, thirst and so forth :
from heat, cold, rain, disease, and the like ; Jrm robbers,
wild animals, etc.) squirmed like a worm scorched by heat
and panted for a dip in the nectar of wisdom so as to put
an end to the series of rebirths.
13. As the desire for Liberation grew, he became un"
concerned about his wife, children and property, ran away
from them like an antelope which had extricated itself from
the noose of a hunter, and sought a holy Master and res·
pected him with all his heart
14. After eagerly saluting his Master, he stood up and
sobbed out his heart, saying "0 Lord! I have sufered
long the torture of worldly life, which is after all so false !
Gracious Master; save me by tearing of the cords which
bind me to the fve sheaths. so that my· heart may be at
peace ! "
t5. The Master lovingly considered him, like a tor­
toise its eggs ; looked at him. like a fish its eggs ; and
his hands over him, like · bird its wings over i ts eggs, and
said, "There is a means to put an end to your rehirths.
wil tell you, and i you act upon it you rchirths will cease.'' 1
16. At the very sound of the wor.Js Your rebirths
will cease "', his frame thrilling, his heart rejoicing as if
refreshed after a bath in a spaciou: tank, tears of joy flow­
like love welling forth. he held the holy feet of the
Master and prayed futher .¬ ··
* This symbolises the three kind� of initiation, by thought, by look
and by touch.
1 7. Even if I, your servant, am unable to carry out
your instructions, you can set me right by your grace. You
said just now " There is a means to put an end to your
rehirths ! Kindly tell me it and save me, I pray."
18. 2Finding him self-subdued, the master looks at
the soul of the disciple, and begins to instruct him, so that
it may regain its true nature, as a wasp places a well-chosen
caterpillar in its cell of earth. and then buzzes before it.
1 9 & 20. Look here, my son ! He who has forgotten
his true nature is alternately born and dies, turning round
and round in the unceasing wheel of time, like a feather
caught up in a whirlwind. until he realises the true nature
of the Self. If he comes to sec the individual self and its
substratum, the Overself, then he becomes the substratum,
i.e., Brahman, and escapes rebirths. Should you know
yourself no harm will befalJ you. As you asked 1 have
rold you this."
NoTE : The teaching is complete at this point. and
indeed in this verse.
21. Disciple : " Lord, do you take me for a fool that
you tell me so ? Can there be any in the world who arc
ignorant of the Self ? How then are they all caught up in
the cycle of births and deaths? Tell me the unerring
Truth for I beseech you in full faith."
22. Maste : Only he is· self-realised who knows what
is body and who is embodied.
Disciple : "' Who else is embodied but this gross
On this, the Master smiled in pity, and spke :
2 The change of tense i\ in the original text.
23. You say that you cannot fnd the embodied
being as diferent from the gross body. Then tdl me who
appeared as the subject in your dream ; or who experienced
the sleep in which even the pain of dream was absent ; or
again what is this consciousness in the waking state ! "
24. Disciple . " Every experience proves that the
experiencer in the waking state, or the experienLLr ot
dreams when the waking consciousness is gone, or the
experiencer of deep slumber, must be diferent (from the
gross body). Yet it is not realised. lt just fashes in the
mind, only to fade away at once. Please e7plain this.
25. Just as people pointing to a lrcc on the earth mark
the third day crescent moon, and pointing to other star�
locate Arundhati. so also the sage began pointing to the
gross in order to _make known the subtle Lau`e.
26. Mater . "The Vedanta as a whole, mentions a�
1he cause of bondage and release, supcr-imposition3 and its
efacement4, respecively. BondagL is caused by super­
imposition ; Release by its efacement.
Now listen as the former.
27. Superimposition 1� SLTIIlg L1` Ì another, Ó
�make for instance in í¡ r�1c, a 111an in a post, water in
!' a blue canopy in the empty ;,ky.
28. Similarly, the live �·k·ments <md their combina··
tions seLn in Brahman which is In:'� from name and form,
one and CO11' without s �c�.ond, self-conscious and
are products or ill u�ion.
`� Aropa ¹I!L!L\'\' knewlcd�e. false attribution, or illusion
29. If you ask how superimposition gives rise to crea­
tion (the answer is :-)
The begnningless5 jivas remain unmanifest in
A vyakta as in deep slumber. This state (is disturbed) hy
the geneÏativC thought of lswara otherwise called Time.
Then A vyakta ceO>es to be causa] (i.e. latent) and the three
gwws manifest
and dak.
satva, rajas, and tamns, which are pure
respectively, or again, clear, turbid,
Though one of them will always pre-
3 l. This i� one Another is as follows :--
The causal state which remains unmilnifest, later
expands as mahat tatva (the totality of the jivas) which
manifests O� lhc cgn wherein 1 he thrLe gunas become
32. Ether-like C'hit is ret1ectcd in them. Of the thrLL
satva is dear, and. is caled Mlyi. Brahman refected
in this is Iswara. the intelligent cause of the universe.
immanent in all. untainted by mid or by any of the gwws.
3.3. This tni.w is the state of deep slumber, thL·
, ;md the blissful sheath of lswara. Rajogww
1s avutya ( :•.h>,•ncc of real knowledge). Chit nilctcd in
this guna (whih ) ` not dear to its constanl a1•ita-
tion), gives rise to countless
i' known tI`
' Who< bcginninl \11\!í he k l!IVH.
The _iva in thi� st:!l.c
34. This is the blissful sheath, the state of deep sleep,
and the causal body of the jivas. I have so far described
the causal stage of superimposition.
Hear me now explain its subtle phase.
35. To provide the wherewithal of experience to the
jivas by the loving Grace of Iswara who has all the
wondrous powers of His inseparable Mii , the tanw�·ww
then divides itself into its two aspects, namely : ( 1) dense
of Reality6 and (2) multiplicity of phenomena.7
36. In the latter of these two, there appears ether ;
from ether, air ; from air, fire ; from fre. water ; from
water. earth. All these fve, in the nascent state, arc cal­
ed elements. From these arise bodies suitable for
37. The three gunas permeate all these Jive elements.
In satva, which is. pure, there arise the jnanedriyas,8 of
individual function, and also the mind and intellect, of col­
lective function. These seven products of satva form th:.
instruments of knowledge.
38. Then in rjogww there arise the vital airs,9 of
collective function, a.nd the karmeudriyas,
0 of individual
function. These seventeen
1 fundamentals form the subtle
' Avarana.
7 Vikshepa.
' The senses
" PrIlu,
of hearing. sight, touch, taste and smelL
ryina, udina and samana.
organs of speech, of excretion and of reproduc-
11 The ten principles . mentioned here tml the seven contained
in the previous stanza.
demons. human beings,
39. The jiva, united to such a body, is called
and all
and lswara, under similar conditions, is known as Hiran.va­
larbha. In both cases it is called the linga sharira or the
subtle body which comprises the three sheaths (the vital.
the mental and the intellectual). This is their dream-state.
40. So much for the subtle body. Now hear me des­
cribe the process of superimposition of the gross body.
Jswara, who is ever watchful, combined the fve
elements so as to evolve gross hodies for the iivas. and
objects for experience.
41. Each of the fve elements was divided into two
halves ; each half was subdivided into four quarters. Then
the major half of one clement was combined with one
quarter subdivision of each of the other four. This process
gave rise to the gross elements frm which the four classes
of beings,
2 and their experiences, the universe and its
worlds, were created.
42. The jiva united with the gross body, is called
viswa ; and lswara under similar conditions, is known as
virat. The gross body is the physical sheath,
3 and their
waking state.
Remember this brief statement regarding the gro�s
12(1) Foetus-bor, t2) egg-bor. (3) larva-born. and (4) seed­
ª" Annamaya-kosha. among the pancha koshas.
43. Discple . '' Master ! if tese statcs14 be common
to both, how shall we know the ditfercm`c between e.alted
lswara and the ordinary jiva ? "
Mater . "The jlva is the ctlecl and lswara the
cause. There is also O difference as between units nnd their
44. The trees form lhe units ; their aggregate i�, the
forest. Generally speaking the mobile· and immobile jivas
are the separate units ; their sum tota� is lswara. This 1.
the diference between lswara and the jivas.
45. I have said thus far what superimposition is. Onl}
he is a jnlni who knows beyond doubt that al that is seen
is only ephemeral like a dream.
Now, listen to the process of efacement of super­
imposition+ the way to wonderful mokslul
5 whiÍh resembles
the placid sky when all the clouds of winter dear away.
46. ( 1 ust as one examines and 1inds out t hat ) this i�
not a snake but a rope, and this is not a thief but a thick
post, so also one makes out beyond doubt. by the word oJ
ihe Master and the light of the scriptures. that the body.
the world and the elements í\¯ only Br;1hman. i.e. l1
Vhanging Comciousness·
Know this to be the cllacerw:nl ���
47. Cause and efect are the h-1L. like cloth and yarn,
oraments and utensils and To resolve the body
into its anteceden! IL1ðf. this int its. and so on. until
is traced as the root-cause {Jf all. is the method of
efacing superimposition.·'
14 The gross, subtle ;,nu cau�al �Wtes whkh form the upli.dhis.
15 l.iberation.
48. Disciple : "You have said that the tamoguna
um:tions in two aspects, namely veilng and multiplicity, of
which ym1 have explained the latter, which springs from
Tel me¡ my Lord¡ the result of the other aspect
49. Master . ··A varana16 veis the inner VISIOn of
all embodied beings except unexcelled Iswara and Self­
realsed jnlnis, in the shape of ' It is not lt does not
shine forth', in the same way as the dense darkness of O
wintry night hides the sky¡ the earth and the directions from
our view.
50. Outwardly this altogether obstructs the distinguish¬
ing of Brahman who is Perfection, from His modifcations
(as the world), and inwardly that of the Self which is pure
Consciousness, from Its modifcations (as the inner facul¬
ties. i.e. the ego, the mind). lt is therefore the sole cause
of that LhroniL disease. the endless series of births and
5 .1. The question then arises : Whereon does the
superimposition rest when the substratum is completely
hidden ? And how can there be any superimposition if the
substratum is not hidden ? (The answer i< : ) The sub­
stratum js twofold, general and particular, of which the
general suhstratum remains continuous and unbroken
Transient ;uperimposition is particular.
52. In the world. the common substratm This i�
can nevt�r be veiled .¸ but only the particular identity
16 i.e .. rhc veiling power.
' This is a rope '. Similarly with the jiva, ignorance17 does
not veil the substratum ¯ ' 1 AM ' ; but it veils the specific
knowledge - ' l am Brahman '.''
53. Disciple . .. How does it happen, my Master,
that the power of veiling is censured for the doings of the
power of multiplicity which arising as the five sheaths, the
fiva and the world, obstructs pure Being from view ? "
Master : Listen to me in answer to this qucs-
54. Although the power· of multiplicity is the direct
cause of the misery-laden cycle of births (and deaths) yet
it is of service to those who seek Liberation in earest. Can
the darkness of night be of the same service for one's use­
ful activities as the light of day ? What more can I say
to you ? Therefore, my son, the power of veiling is the
more harmful of the two. ·
55. Has any one gained release from the cycle of
subsequent births because the world was totally lost from
view in his deep sleep or in the Dissolution ? The power
of multiplicity can a1togcther bring about Liberation. but the
thick veil of ignorance is the sole cause of the present
56. You may now argue thus . Since the power of
multiplicity is said to be a superimposition like the appear­
ace of silver in mother-of-pearl and is therefore false, the
17 The knowledge 'This is · persists whether we see rope or
�nake . it b unbroken, continuous and genera[, whereas there is n<
knowledge of rope when it is seen a� snake, nor of snake when seen
Uo rope. Such knowledge is real when rope is recognised, and
unreal when snake is presumed.
liberation gained by the aid of this false power must also be
equally fal�e. (The answer is :) A frightful dream, though
unreaL ends in waking up the dreamer from sleep. Even so
Liberation is real.
57. Just as poison is commonly antidoted with
another poison, an iron spike is extracted with another
(piece of) iron, arrows arc turned aside by others, and dirt
is washed away with other dirt (e.g. fuller's earth), so
ignorance which is weak in itself, can be eradicated
methods which are themselves of the same Maya ; later this
also perishes like the pole used to tum a corpse that is
58. Through this Maya, jivas experience seven stages
of development as follows : ignorance, 18 veiling, 19 multi­
plicity,: indirect knowledge,21 direct expericnce22 freedom
from misery, 23 and supreme Bliss.24
5l & 60. Of these, ignorance is to lose sight of the
fact that the inner self is no other than Brahman ; veiling
makes one say ' There is no Brahman. I do not see Him ' ;
multiplicity springs up as 'I am a man. I am a jiva ;
indirect knowledge is to know the nature of the Self by the
of the Master ; direct experience is to stay un­
shaken as the unitary Being aftr enquiry into the Sel ;
freedom from misery is to end limitations and the
19 avaran.
* vikshepa.
:1 paroksha ptana.
* dukha
*¯ sukha avipti.
- -l
sense ot doership, and Supreme Bliss is the final accom­
plishment, i.e. release from bondage.
61 . J shal now relate to you a story to illustrate this :
Ten men fordcd a stream and, on reaching the oth.:r shon:,
each of them counted nine others and omitted to count
himself. They were all perplexed (because the tenth man
was missing) .
62 & 63. Ignorance is want of right understamlin��
which causes confusion. ' The tenth man is missing - not
to be found ' - this thought is the veiling. Grief at the
loss of the companion is vikshepa. To heed the words of
a sympathetic passer-by who says ' The tenth man is among
you is indirect knowledge. When the kindly man further
makes one of them count the others and points to the teller
as the tenth man, the discovery of oneself as the missing
tenth man forms direct experience. The cessation of grief
for the lost man is freedom from misery. The joy of
indubitable ascertainment by oneself is Supreme Bliss.
64. The disciple prayed : '' Lord, Master ! pray show
me my real Self so that I may know It clS truly as the tenth
man did in the anecdote."
Master : "There is the nwhivclkya I hat Thou
Art'. The verb ·art' in it establish•.s the identity of the
pronoun: 'That ' and 'thou in their ultimate meaning. r
shall explain how it does so. Hea me.
65. Just as the ether though single ls fourfold, as the
wide expanse, the ether in tl1e clouds, the ether in the pot,
and the refection in water, so Chit, which is single, is called
the all--pervading Brahman, Isvara, the self, and the jiva.
66. In the mahivikya referred to, the word · That
stands for almighty I svara and ' thou ' stands for the jlva.
But ultimately they mean respectively Brahman, who is
free from Maya, and the inner Self who is free from limita­
,iions. They arc now mutually bound up like butter in
boiled milk. Just as the milk is churned and the butter
separated, so also you should realise the Self and thus stand
67. The way to get rid of the trappings ( of the jiva)
is to kill the present idea that I am the body, which is only
a corpse after all, for it is a mere assemblage of the fve
elements. Nor can you be the breath which moves through
the nostrils like the blasts of air blown by bellows. It is
simply a function of rajoguna.
68. Can the Self be the intellect or the mind which
stand to each other in the relation of agent and instru"
ment? These two sheaths arc only modes of satva­
guna. Let not the unedifying bliss of deep sleep be mis­
taken for the Self, for it is only a mode of tamoguna.
69. Know 'thou', as the Self, to be Sat, Chit, .nanda,
the even, unchanging, single, eternal and all-pervading
Witness and rid yourself of the trap of the five sheaths
which ac of an opposite nature - false, insentient. pain·
ful, etc."
70. Discitlfe : ·· When l dissociate myself from th�·
live sheaths and l01)k beyond, there remains only a blank.
J see nothing more than that. Am I to take this blank. for
the supreme experience of the Self? Tel l me this truly.
my Master."
71. On this request of the disciple, the Master funhct
said . • In the anecdote the tenth man, of deluded intellect,
after counting only nine men and not recognising himself
as the tenth, was stupefied. Can such stupor be the tenth
man '! Good son ! you arc the seer of all (blank and the
five sheaths).
72. By the Lord under the sacred banyan tree!
speak the truth : You are the unchanging Witness of the
gross, subtle and (causal) ignorance, the waking, dream
and sleep states, and the passage of time - past, present
and future, which endlessly rise and fall. like waves in the
ocean of bliss.
73. Do not ask ' By what light shall l see mysdf who
am the all-seeing witness ? ' Can there be a light to illumine
the self-luminous Light? The tenth man knows himself as
such among the others. - Is there an eleventh man in
74. To argue that another knowledge is necessary to
make knowledge known, is foolish, and leads to inter­
minable controversy. You are neither known nor 1Ì*
known. Realise yourself as self-shining
7 5. Is not the nature of sugar to he �Wl'l't what makes
the sweets sweet ? Realise yourself as 1 he meaning of 'I ',
which makes known objects as ' this and 'that '25 and
Itself lies beyond them.
76. The Self, as des\ri bed above, is the prmar mean­
ing of ' thou ' (i the mlhivikya : ' That tou ar
) .
25 Or ; ' the seen ' and ' the unseen · .
Brahman which is never bound by limitations is the pri­
mary meaning of 'that'. Their secondary meanings arc
the transient jlva and lara respectively. Two separat e
l'ntities can never be identical.
77. 'The distinc tions between lsM'ara and the jlva are
due to their names, localities, artificial li mitÓtions, bodies
and capacities. They arc as far apart as the upper and the
nether regions. Thei r identity is unthinkable with these
; ÌssoLiations.
78. When the conventional acceptations of terms
;1ppear inconsistent the pandits of ancient lore bring out
the true meanings by employing three methods of exegesis .
disjunction. conjunction or the two combincd.26
79. (I) 'The house on the G«nges ' ;¯´ (2) 'The
black remained and the red fed ';28 and ( 3) ' This is that
Devadatta' are (respective) examples of the above. The
apparent contradictions in several scriptural passages ÓÏ\
eliminated hy a judicious use of these I hree exegetical
(Here only the last .is appli cable )
80. In the ' This is that Devadatta ', the
man who '«¬ seen i n another plaLe and on another occa-
and also known as Devadatta. is this man who is seen
in this phtcc aud on this occasion. Although the time and
plce O1L diikn:nL a lii! le consideration reveals the man to
he the 'O!!\
�' Jcthat 1£!1..-!JfJur �·it!;ut !nJ..•,/uJnti ;;nd iulutt!uiolillt
.1eaning the hw,,,. ii.' :,!ore nf !he (,.,,,::c·· I1•1! ·J lilt
waters of the river.
2BMeaning the blac.k ·¹¹'^ rt•m::incd ;,nd ilK rnl I" l·.· lkd
o l. Similarly, in the words 'That' and thou ·, their
literal meanings excluded, the Consciousmss-Principle is
t<1ken as Brnhman and the Witness, whose unbroken iden¯
tity is established by 'art'. so that Brahman iq the Self_
<md the Sel f is Brahman.
82. The ether refected in water in a pot, Jlld in tht�
clouds_29 are both of them circumsi.antial and thcR·;on:
unreal, whereas the space in U-e pot und !he wide c;.;p;m::·�
are together one and the same. Si rilary all-pervading
Brahman nnd the Witness in the individual being aru
together one and the same. You must experience it so
that you may remain fxc:d in t!1e realisation : · I <nn lh,:
Reality ,
83. On hearing this, the discple, lo
al to the ir,,;truc­
tions of the master discarded the fve sheaths and the blank,
realised tc Self as l am Brahman ', \ent beyond !hat rtnd
remained as Perfect Being.
84. At the ghmce of the Master who was Grace incar­
nate, the worthy di sciple sauk into the Ocean of Bliss and
merged as the undivided \Vhok, as r;;m: C\m�.ci,llL'r<c.-s free
from body_ organs and all c!:·�e, ,., !th mind ma:.o perfect
so that he became the true S:.1L 1:n;1·,�m· ,·,l;i1L· :1wake.
85. After the blessed di,cip!c h:1d rclrwincd .n that
state for a long ti me, his mind gc:ilt:y tured outward. ''hen
lc saw his glorious lastsr txi"<c :;:•1. His eyes were fll­
ed with tears of joy. He was full ,)r love and feH at the
29 The ether is invisible. But the region in which the clouds
«re, is marked of in our vision. 1 is therefore said to be the
cthl'r reilec<cd in the clouds.
I !lL E:POSITI0: OF ·; :H lRC !"H l 'i
feet of the Master. He rose up, came mund the Master
and with folded hunds spoke to him :--
86. Lord, you are the Rca!ity remaining as my
inmost Self, ruling me during all my co�mtlss incarations '
Glory to you who have put on :m cxh:rai form in order t
instruct me ! I do not see how 1 can repay your Grace f<>r
htving liberated me. Glory ! Glory tc' your holy lect ! '
87. The Master beamed on him as he spoke, drew him
near and said very lovingly : To stay lxcd in the Self,
without the three kinds of obstacles obstructing your ex­
perience, is the highest return you can render me ·· .
88. lty Lord ! Can such realisatiPn as has trans·
cended the dual perception of · You and · 1 :. and found
the Self to be entire and all-pervading, Jail me at any
The master replied : .. The truth that 1 am
Brahman is realised from the scriptures or by the Grace of
the Master but it cannot be tirm in the face of obstructions.
89. Ignorance, uncertainty and wrng knowledge, an'
obstacles resulting from long-standing habits in the innumer­
able incarnations of the past which cause trouble and then
the fruits of realisation slip away. Therefore root them out
hy hearing Truth, reasoning and mcditation.30
90. ('he eked by incantations,21 fre will not scorch.
Likewise ddcctive realisation will not put an end 1\l
bondage. Thrc'forc devote yourself to hearing the Trtl'
reasoning and mcdiL<l:on and root out ignorance. unce;
t<inty and wron. knowledge.
30 SravaJa, tUiiUi!U? and nididhvl.wuitL
:n sthambluma.
91. Ignorance vei1s the Truth that the Self is Brahman
and shows forth multiplicity i nstead ; uncertainty is the
confusion resulting from 1ack of frm faith in the words of
the Master ; the illusion that the evanascent world is a rea·
Jity and that the body i s the self is wrong knowledge. So
say the sages.
92. Hearing the Truth is to revert the mi nd repeated­
ly to the teaching : ' That thou art'. Reasoning is rational
investigation of the meaning of the text, as already heard.
Meditati on is one-pointedness of mi nd.
If every you do these. you will
93. The practice must be kept up so long as the sense
or knower and knowledge persists. No efort is necessary
thereafter. Remaining as pure, eteral consciousness un­
tainted like the ether and thus l iberated while alive, one
will live forever as That, after being disembodied also.
94. The wise, remaining like ether and liberated even
here, are of four classes. namely Bralunm•ir ( i.�:. knowcr of
Brahman), vara, varya, and J'arisbta. in order of merit.
95. The Brahmavids who hy s!cadfa;;t practice have
gained clear realisation of Brahman, continue to perform
even the hard duties32 of their caste ald stage in life.
exactly as prescribed by the sistms. for the benefit of
<lthers, without themselves swc from their supremt'
rurni.1rwna ,/Jwrma.
96. Should passions rise up they disappear instantly
and cannot taint the mind of the Brahmavids who l i ve i n
detached l ike water on a lotus kaf. Thev look
not showing forth their
owing to i ntensity of inward Bliss.
and remain mute
07. Prirabda. i.e. karma which is now bearing fruit,
Jitrcrs according to the actions of the persons in past incar­
nations. Therefore their present pursuits also di1fer among
illinis who an: all however l iberated even here. They may
tapas ; or engage in trade and commerce , or
; or wander about as mendicants.
98. They would not thi nk of the past or future ;
would partake of what comes unsolicited ; would not won­
der i f the sun tured into the moon or at any marvel. whe­
ther the sky were to spread its shoots down like a banyan
tree or a corpse were to be revived ; nor would they dis··
tinguish good and bad, for they always remain as the un-
Witncss of ::1 1 .
99. Among the other three classes. t he vara and the
l'arya remain settled in
The vara feels concern for the mai ntenance of the
hody ; the varya i s reminded of it by others ; the varishta
n.:vcr hceomes aware of the body either by himself or
through other-.
1 00. Although
in the l ives of the
rare in the
there are disti nguishing characteri stic:>
di iTerent sages, who are themselves very
yet there is absolutely no diference in the
What can he the use of the hard won .\cllnildhi?
The Bmhmavid who is outwardly active, seem�:
smetimes to feel the misery of calaÛi ties whereas the
others remain in unbroken Bliss.
I 0! . Now if the Brahmavids live lke the ignorant how
arc they free from 1he cycle of births, and how is their
ignorance gone ?
The all-pervading Ether rtmains uotaintcd by
; the other four e lcments are tain�ed by contact
So it is with the Bnhmavid and the ignorant.
!02. The immemorial Veds declare that single-minded
devoton to a holy sage is not only pleasing to Brahma.
and Siva together, but also secures the rewards of
al the Vedic rites. and liberation from the cycle of
Now listen how liberation while alive persist.'
after disembodiment alw.
I 03. Manifold karma in :,tore,
is altogether burt away in the fire
Ó huge conflagration.
in many birth:,
like cotton in
the j1u!ni.
kmrna ¹<T Ì� ¯`·1 approadr
The kar¡· which i i�t` �nlH_lt pre�cnl
is exhausted by ih frits.
l 04. How wil the merits �uHi tk;,·;_·; ;> <tetions during
his experience of prlra6da L.+`' ; '` alcct him later on?
His detractors share the dcmui;, ,,rH.J his devotees the
I 05. The causal body oJ ignormce is reduced to ashes
in the lire of rare .fniina ; the visible grss body becomes U
corpse in due course ; then like a drop of water on red-hot
iron, the subtle body is dissolved in the Sef which under¬
lies these three bodies and remains entire all
16. /s soon as the entity of a pot is broken up the
ether in \he pot becomes indi<tinguishab!e from the il!­
pervading ether. So also when the limitatjon of the body is
gon:, the jil7anmukta reverts to the natural eternal dis·
embodied Dtate of Lberation. free from beginning, middle
\t end and in or out.
107. Just
seems to be
newly opened in O well which is newly dug, so Brahman
though yd appears as if realised afresh by
enquiry into the self OÍ taugt by a master or the scriptures,
Therefore, 0 son. he at peace that we are always the same
limitless Being !
108. ·rhe whole universe is U` vnreai O` water h1 a
�iilicr in mothcr-(lf-pearl, the city of Gandharvas in
thl ai, the dr>amland ol' dream, the blue of the sky, the
in U mpc, th.· offsp:·ing of U barren woman, the born
of < lÎ 1he thief in a thick post. 0 Son ! Pure
Consciousness is alone real. Do not th0refore the
Sdf Hi <mv moment.
Thu� ,-mls tlle Hr,t Section nf N Mwm"a.
I . Just as men dig a hok, gently piant U l ong
in it, fl i n earth and ram i t in, to fix it l i nnly so too,
take to clearing away doUbts that your mind which has
rLali sed the Self as being the Supreme Consciousness may
remai n unshaken . ,
2. The disciple, pure minded and Self-realised, clung
to his master from the time of wrong i denti fication of the
self with the body to t he moment of unmoded, unemhodied
l i heration. Jike a young monkcv to its mother.
3. Finding that the l oving discipk keeps to him l i ke
hi s shadow, the Master asks hi m . " Are you able to stay
unshaken as a mere witness ? Have all your doubts dis­
appeared ? Or, does .the sense of diferentiation LreLp in
at times ? Tell me your condi ti on. "
4. On t his the disci pl e bowed to the fed of the
Master and said : " Father. dare t he phantoms of di ffercn¯
tmtwn which can roam about only i n the darkness of
ignorance, in the wi lderness of worl dl y life, appear to the
inner vision i n the broad daylight of wi sdom after the Sun
or your teachi ng has risen over the summi t of your Grace '.)
5. Even after the devi l is exorcised, just as the p<:rson
who was possLs`ed is further protectLd by · tal isman
any return of the trouble, `L al so t hough my ignor-
ance has a1ready bLen disrelled by your teaching, yet, si r,
seck moe from you that I may be frmlv fixed i n the Self.
r1 . You were pleased to say ' Know it frol the
tures ( that the Self is Brahman ) , Non-dual Brahman cannot
be reached by speech ( study or discussion ) . l t must be
realised in the Heart. Self-shi ning Brahman cannot be
reached by the miserabh. mind. The<e two doubts have
�lrisen a please cl ear t hem.
7. Maste . As Brahman i s not an object of the
-enscs nor of i nfere1cC, and as there is no second to I t ,
i is beyond direct perception, i nfer.encc or aealogy.1 Also
know that being free from attributes, It cannot he expressed
I. The Vedas which declare that Brahman l i e�
beyond ¬ords also signify lt by the text (' That thou art · )
l f you ask whi ch is ri ght, know that both an' right for the
Vedas can never be untrue.
9. A girt says Not he · . · Not he ' of al l otheÎs, and
remains shy and sil ent when her lover is pointed out. I n
the same way, the Vedas clearly deny what i s not Brahman,
as Not this,' ' Not thi s, ' and i ndicate Brahman by silence.
I 0. Havi ng answered the frst part of your question,
proceed to answer the second.
The Heart governs the external senses, its facul­
ties play, i nteral l y and exterally, as i ntellect and mind.
I I . As your face is seen refected i n a mirror, so t he
image of Pure Consciousness2 i s seen i n i ntellect. Along
anum{na and upamina.
26 KAl VAI YA N.'\" A?EETA
with thi s, mi nd proceeds to function, and 1 hi � i s called
knowledge, my good son !
1 2. As molten metal takes the shapes uf the mould
i nto which it is pnurcd, so the mind assumes the shape:
of the objects, and they are revealed by the refected l ight .
Without cycsi�ht and light. thing in darkness cannot be
1 3 . The aid of a buring lamp and dea eyesight arG
required to discowr an object in darkness. But to see the
Sun, eyesight alone will do. To see the manifest univero�
both moded mind4 and reflected consciousness are neces­
sar. But to realise the Reality. modcd mind eager fm
realisation wil l alone serve.
1 4. The union of the moded mi nd and th- rellecteli
self i s calied the mind.
Brahman can be reached by the mind for th�
reason that the mode · Of mind directed to ilself is necessar)
for real i sat ion. Brahman cannot be reached by that part
of the mi nd which i s refected consci�usncss. Tlms recon-­
ci l ing t iw meaning, be free from doubt"
1 5 . Dis. ·ip/e : '' \Vorthy mast(· •· of ur, l· n \\· isJom. I
hav.: undcrs:ood your teachin: so t ar Plc; J''� iet me ask
you another '�uestion : lree frm nwn:menL unbroken.
perfect . and transformed into Thut, is not �:uch a state or
mi nd cal > cd Sanudhi Yoga ( or lnion i n Peace ) ? How
can thi � mind ahvay�; movi n�' l i ke : t �� wi ng, and raising up
3 Light remoVe>, darkn::>.:: , • but the oh: ccl mu: . t l·.t seen hy 1 11�
c: ·�. Sin1iiarly thlo modes of mi nd arc ohjccL: v;hi c.h a�e i l l wnined
hv the rellec:cd l i cht of th·: r,ind.
.J. Vrit lf.
seven,] worlds in a trice. be stilled so that it may rcmam
steady i n the Self like a fame protected from draughts '
Tell me ki ndly .. ,
I 6 . Master : · · The active mind is composed o[ three
gunas : when on! of them is uppermost, the other two lie
covert. Wit ! .1at ;·a guna. divine qualities manifest :. -vith
rujOJllfW. t he tendenci es pertaining to the worl d, the bod)
and the scslr.\ .
With wmogwza the evi ! nature6 manifest� ..
1 7. Satva i s the very nature ot the mind whereas the
other two quaiities are mere adjuncts and can therefore be
bani shed irom it.
If one holds sh�adily to one ·s divineness. raj(4S
and wnws get st rangled, so that the internal stresses and
l hc external manifold disappear. When this happens, your
mind shines forth untainted and becomes motionless and
�ubtlc like the ether. And then it mllura:ly becomes one
with Brahman, which is al ready �o, and remains i n un­
di ifcrcnt i < i! cd Fe;: cc ( �.iirvif, olpa ,\umidhi ) .
1 8. When one stainless mi rror is pl aced in front of
;mother :imilar one, the refecting surfaces wi.l be one
undistingui�•hablc whol e. Simi larly when the mind whi .:h
is clear has become one with the Infnite, Sat, Chit, Ananda,
Brahrmm.. and remai ns tmt aintccl, how can there he the
m:mlfold (\r mOI' cnwnts i n the mi nd ? Tell me. ' '
1 9. Discple : " How then can the wi�e. liberated
'Vhi l c ali ve, exhaust their pirabda if their J:J<ind has lost
it self in Brahnwn ;md hecomc one \Vith It ? h it nut done
.) Loka v(sana) dcha L(i ( tNlu ;a�;d \"istnt \'{[ \'(!ra.
{l .i \'U.'] \'r1!!lpllf.
experiencing its results ' ? Such experience would
require te mi nd. There cannot be any kind of
i n the absence of the mind. If the mi nd per­
be said to be l i berated ? l am con­
Juscd on thi s point. Be pleased to clear thi s doubt of mi ne,
for I cannot be liberated unless al l my doubts arc cleared
away. "
20. Maste : The anni hil ati on of the mi nd i' of t wo
grades : namely, of the mind pattem7 and of the mind
itself. s The former appli es to sages l i berated whi le ,dive .
the latter to disembodied sages.
El i mination of rajas and tamas leaving satva
cdone is the dissolution of t he patter of the mind. 0 si nless
one ! when satva yanishcs along with the subtle body, the
mi nd itself is said to have perished too.
2 1 . Satva i s pue and forms the very nature of the
mind ; when rajos and tamas ( whih gi ve the pattern
to it ) are destroyed ( by proper practice) , the
of the term ' mind i s l ost . For. in such a
sages will partake of what comes unsol icited to them ; not
think of the past or h1turc ; nor exalt in joy or l ament i n
sorrow ; getting over thei r docrshi p, hccumi ng non-doers ,
witnessing the mental modes and l hL' t hree states9 they can
remai n l i berted at t he same t i me a- they pass through
Prir<bd!w. There i s no cnnt radi .t i on in i t . You need
have no doubts on t hi s poi nt .
7 Sarupa : lit., in its form.
a Arupa : lit., ( the mind) wlrih lws no form.
s The waking, dream and dreamle�s �lecp states.
22. On hearing that the whole period
also the st:!le of peace, you may object,
action denote cham!i ng mind, and on such
Peace away ? '
of activity i \
' Does not
does not
The state of the sage i s like that of a girl who
never ceases to thril l with love for her paramour even whil e
�he attends to her duti es at home. ' '
23 . Disciple : · • Shoul d the sage, li berated whi te ali ve,
who has transcended the i ncidents of the
sense of doershio and the whole indivi duality, and become
one wi t h
iw must also be t he doer. Can there be
to a perfect non-doer '!
of pra-
Master who removes al l misery ! please eludd:!k
this point. "
Master : Hear their greatness as Perfect Doer:,
Perfect Enjoyers and Perfect Renouncers.
24. As a hi !! of lodestonc nei ther moves of itself nor
in motion, and pi eces of i ron orient them-
selves towards it, I nei ther act by myself nor actuate others,
and t he whole world is active before me. Like the Sun
I remai n an unconcerned witness of aH the functions of
i hc . �cm:es, etc. and also of the state of Peace resul t ­
i ng from r iK· merging of the mi nd i n Brahman. On.
possessed of ! hi s f i rm experi ence i:. the Perfect Doer.
25. Th,, Pnkc is he who partake� of an)
without discriminatin:1 \� h .. l hcr i t
or not, ck:an or unch:an.
10 ·nle suhtle a nd t hc· �r">"' c:bll'" •-CL"d and '" IHL
:�o :Al VALY,\ �-AV,\N l³¨
= · Dl crbll) fire consuming al l that l ies in its way. H, ,·
whose mind is crysta clear, unalectcd by passi ng
great or :mall, good or bad, hi s own or others', is the Per­
f<;•-t Renouncer. A liberated sage is strictly an exemplal·
or these three virtues (
. ,
�¹. Discle . " How can it be reckoned that the tsk
of the
tion ?
sage is fnishcdn jf Pftlrabda he lv. ; !\ in a
and teachi ng to sui t others desi rous m : i ben·
0 Master \Vl10 so graciously removed th� c:1use '
answer m�. "
27. }faster : Occupations of people arc of three
kinds . T ho1;e pertai ning to life, here or hereafter, arc
fo the ignorant, possessed by desire for enjoyment,1 sense
of ownership
3 and attachment to the body. Only those
who long for deliverance tur to the learing o( the Truth,
etc. Is there anything to be by learing or othe r
similar actions for a person who is al l-perfect ? "
28. Disciple : " 0 Crest jewel among Masters ! hear
me. . is right that they al one can true wi sdom
who have deliberately di�;cancd the joys of l i f. her.: and
hereafter. Can those who have 1UI nd away rmm worl dl y
:1ctivi tics and rituals to trccd t l r,: p: t t h of ! ever
tur hack to the oid methods ?
Arc not heari ng. n:l{H1 i m• cmd medi tation neccs·
sary to mah:.: the mi nt! l l r m ? TcH me trulv ! ''
29. Alaster . " Wi se �;on. h,_:ar me.
know must learn t1w Tru! h ( as
11 kritakritya.
¹À bhogeccha
*' mwnata.
who do not
by the
:md masters) ; those who have doubts must cngag� in
reasoning ; thmc who are in the grip of wrong
must meditation. Can there be anything
for those who have become the r.�al ethereal Being, Cons­
:.· i ousne�s -P�rfcction ? "
suy like the
You say that
realisation of
" Lord. hear !t ! Can the wi se alsu
did J CO' - l ate and .I went ?
knowledge. C:J n
is admit of such
me on this
3 1 . .Master » " A person \·ho wakes up from a dream
of his cxpcdences in the dream. In the same way.
the Sdf-rca!iscd sage though using the language of the
is not bound as the ego. A man who commit:;
himsel to the names on the eve of hi s becoming an
immortal god is oi a� a man, :mtil his body 1s
reduced to a';hcs. So alw. the c.o-frce sage appears to
function li ke otbcrs unti l he is disembodied."
32. Disciple . '· H so, 0 Jaster ! t hough t he objects
ae unreal, would not the transacti ons (associated with
them) cause ? Can they bestow the Bliss of Know­
ledge '? H can be felt only in their ab�cnce. ls it not
neces�;ary to he onc·-pointed ? And if the per�on prc­
t ises it. .1 he be :>:1id to have finished his task ? "
33. Maste . . . S.. l f.·r�alised son ! Activities end wh.�n
prirabda ends.
ly work an
t ranscendent Self,
L :wt
�,f ( l l L'
L·` he do
of ¡."wniidfi \l worl d­
m; nd ? Bcin_! \ • Ì 1!` wi th t he
di l,:rl' l l t from IT J
3 2
Should he be practising samiidhi. 14 he cannot be :aid t h�
established in the Sel f.
34. Disciple : " Master supreme ! How is it thtn
t hat some of those who are established in the Self, and have
nothi ng more to do. practi se mind-restraini ng meditations ' · •
Muster : " I have already told you that the sages
l i berated whil e alive, appear to he active in m<n) ways
according to their prarabdu.
35. · ' My good boy, hear me further. The activi t i es oi
the sage are solely for the uplift of the world. He does not
stand to l ose or gan anything. The Al mi ghty who is onl)
the store of Grace for the worl d, i s not affected ny the
merit or demerit of the creation, etc. "
36. Disciple : " 0 Master, you who arc formless ( trans­
cendentally) , function as lsvara ( cosmi caly ) , and appear
i n human form ( here) ! You speak of a fnini and lsvara
as the same. How can they be so ? "
Master : " Yes. Isvara and the jnini are the
same because they are free from " l and " Mine · · . The
jnlini is himself Jsvara, the totality of the jvas. anc aho tlw
cosmos. "
37. Disciple : ' ' Lord, if as you S<lY he is all _ivus
when he is liberated, how can others remain bound? H the
jlvas are said to be diverse, he cannot be al l . All-knowing
Master ! please answer me this question i n detail . · ·
38 & 39. Muster :
' ' The Self, which shines fort h :s
l-I in al l , is Perfect and impartite. But j/vas are a�
diverse as the l i mitations i n the form of ego ( make them) .
14 There are said to be six kinds of somiidhis
Look how the moon, who dcl ight5 the worl d, i s only one,
whereas her reilected images are as many as there are
ponds, poo;s, tanks, streams, cisters and pitchers of water.
Where one of them is destroyed, the image is no longer
refected, hut i s rcabsorbed in its origi nal , namely the moon.
It cannot be so with the other reflected i mages. In the
same manner, the jiva whose i i mitations are destroyed I s
withdrawn into its somce, the Self, others not. ''
40. Disciple : " How can a jnrni be the same as
Isvara, who i s Brahma, Vishnu, and Siva, the Lords of
creation, preservati on_ and destruction of the universe ?
They can divine the thoughts of others ; k now the past,
pre�ent15 and future ; and are i mmanent in alL 0 Master
of i mmense austerities ! I do not find even a trace of these
t}ual ities in the jnini."
41 . Muster : " The water in a tank , and a powerful
light, help the whole vi l l age whereas a pot of water and a
tahlc-lamp hdp onl y the family circk in a homeø 0 son
in the company of the wise ! Isvar and the jnini do not
difer in their jnanaY' However, associated wi th the
limitations of M(7i, they art� spoken of as superi or and
42. Lh� the kings and the siddhas17 among men, the
god:;, o :ch as N:rayana, have �ome extraordinar powers
15 Even remote or hidden.
Hi Wi ,,dum, namelv the realisation ' I am Brahman ·.
17 Acepts who hav" <tquin:d t he knowledge of everything past.
and future, rcmo:.e or hi dden ; they divine tht thoughts of others ;
gain the strength of an eleph;mt, the courage of a li on, and the
:wiftnc.s3 of the wind ; fy in the air, foat on watr. di ve into the
earth, contemplate all worlds at a fl:mcc, and perform other strange
like anima, ¯ etc., because of their extraordinary antecedent
austerities. Although men do not possess these powers and
therefore appear less, yet from the standpoint of Brahman
there is not the least difference between them.
43. Disciple : "0 Master who has caused my deli­
verance ! Although there have been many sages in the
world who possessed these extraordinary powers like anima
( minuteness ) , etc. , you say these powers are lsvara's own,
Please make the matter clear to me. "
Master : " Know that the powers are the fruit:'
of their devotion to the Glorious Almighty Being, their
austcrities19 and practices of -¯´
. 44. Disciple . " 0 Siva in the form of my Master ! H
these powers and Deliverance arc together the fruits of
tapas, then al l the sages should possess both, as te ancient
sages did. We have known that the ancient s ages had these
siddh and were also liberated at the same time. Why do
not al l jnanis possess such powers as well ? "
45. Master : " Of the two types of tapa, namely,
tapas for the fulflment of one's desires,21 and dispassionate

The powers are "·'gm
I. A nima : Shri nki ng to U mi nut e form.
2. Mahimi : Enlargement to U
3. Lagl1imi : Levitating (e. g., :;l.mheam to
the solar orb) ;
4. Prikimya : Possessing unlimikd na<:h of the organs (as
touching the moon with the tip of a fnger) ;
5. Garimi : Irresistible will (for i nstance, sinking into the
earth as easily a:J in water) ;
6. isiti : Dominion over aU
7. V asita : Faculty of
8. Prapti : Ability to accompt
¹¯ e.g., fasting, prayers, rituals.
animate or inanimate ;
course of nature ; and
everything desired.
20 Meditation with control of breath, in particular postures.
� �¯ �¯¨¯¯¯¯¯
tapas,22 the former bestows the powers desired, and the
latter wisdom. Each can yiel d its alloted fruits only. That
is the law. The ancient sages had evi dently performed
both kinds of tapas.
46. " Siless son, Janaka, Mahabati, Bhagirata and
others got deliverance only. Did they display any siddhis ?
( No) . Some of the sages sought siddhis only ; others
sought both siddhis and emancipation. These siddhis art
simply for display and nothing more. They do not make fo
47. Disciple : " I emancipation be the sole outcome
of the realisation of identity of the individual self
te Universal Self, how then did some of the sages23 who
were liberated here and now, exert themselves for the
attainment of siddhis ? "
Master : " Prirabda spends itself only after bes�
towing its fruits, to be experienced ( as pain or pleasure) .
Therefore the siddhis gained by emancipated sages must b�
considered to be the results of prirahda only."
48 & 49. Disciple : "0 Master who so graciously
answers all my questions with holy texts and reasoning, so
that my mind may remai n unshaken, I am now free from the
delusions of the mind,24 and remain pure and clear. There
is certainly no harm in cleaning a mirror25 a little more even
though i t is al ready clean.
22 nioll kamva.
23 e.g., Chitdila (vide Yoga V asishta)
24 The deftp,ions are of fve kinds : ( I ) that the world is real,
(2) that I am the body, ( 3) that I am the doer and the expcricncer,
( 4) that I am separate from the Almighty, and ( 5 J that Pure
Consciousness is not " I but Siva.
ª" The ancient metallic mi rror is meant here.
0 Lord who has removed my misery ! Your words
are like nectar and do not satiate. Can the scriptures say
anything that is not absolutely true ? Gracious Master, how
can I reconcile the two statements : the karma of any per­
son wears away only after bestowing its fruits ; and : the
fire of pure wisdom burns away the karma which is waiting
to bear fruits later on ?
50. Master : " My son, the fvas are unlimited (in
number, capacity and kind) , and their actions also arc
similarly unlimited. In three sections27 the beneficent
Vedas prescribe according to the aptitudes of seekers, with
preliminary views succeeded by fnal conclusions,
3 like
iiowers by fruits.
5 1 . " Is it not true that sinners who must sufer in the
l1clls, can yet be saved from them by means of pious gifts,
mantrs, austerities, yajna and the like ? He who has faith
i the saying of the Vedas that the fre of jnina burns away
al karma waiting to yield its results, attains Liberation. "
52. Disciple : " Beloved Master who ever abide i
the taberacle of my heart ! When true wisdom can root
out the karma which has been accumulated in m:y incar­
nations, and l iberate the person, why do even the most
brilliant of men not profit by this wisdom, but faH into the
rut of karma and perish ? Please expl ai n ! ,.
53. Master : " My son, those of in-tured mind29 will
realise the everlasting That. Like absent-minded walhrs
6 Sanchita Karma.
27 Karma, up?sana and jnina.
23 siddhi nta.
29 i.e., thme who look on the diversity as an i llusory phe;
menon, or thwe who consider Brahman to be the undivided Whole.
falling into a ditch even with their eyes open, those of out­
going mind look ior the fulfilment of their desires, fall into
the contemptible sea of never ending rebirths and cannot
gain Li beration. ' '
54. Disciple : " Are not the good and bad actions
actuated by Isvara ? What can the {vas do who are them­
�elves His creatures ? How are they to blame, worthy
master ? "
Master : " My son, hear me ! These are words
of illusion, worthy of fools ignorant of the dear meaning of
the scriptures.
55. The creations of the Almighty Lord and of the
individual jva are diferent. The Almighty's creation is cos­
mic, and consists of all that is mobile and immobile. The
unworthy j'va's creation, which consists of attachment�,
passions, desires and the like, pertains to the ego and is
certainly not of the Al mighty.
56. The creations of the Almighty Lord, who func­
tions threefold,30 may constitute the means for Liberation,
whereas those of the j'ivas are the mal adies which caust
them successive reincarnations. Liability to birth does not
end for <my one, even if creation comes to an end, but it ends
on the giving up of one's passions and the like.
57. Whoever got free from re births at the time of the
dissolution of the Lord's creation ? (No one) . Despite the
persistence of time, space and bodies, people have been
liberated even here, by destroying the illusion of individual
so A' the Creator, the Pre:,erver and the Destroyer.
- -,--
creation, and gaining Knowledge. Therefore bondage and
illusion are clearly of the jva's own making and not of the
58. There is a tree, called the Asvattha and two birds
live on it. One of them who is full of desires, enjoys the
fruits, saying ' This is sweet -this is sweet ' . The other,
who is highly esteemed, does not eat thereof. Understand
this parable by which the holy Veda describes the jlva and
l svara.31
59. Those fools head for disaster who in their ignor­
ance attribute to God the six evils,32 which are of their own
making, but the wise will gain untainted deliverance who
recognise the same evils to be of their own making and not
60. Disciple : " 0 Master, who are Bliss incarnate !
how is it that God who is impartial, advances a few and
degrades others ? ''
Master : " He is like the father who encourage�
his sons who are in the right way, and frowns on the other
sons who are in the wrong way. Know it to be very mercy
to punish the erring and turn them to be righteous.
31 This parable is found in the Mcmdakopani5had. The body
is compared to a tree because it can be felled. Its roots are high
in the holy Brahman and its branches are low, as the vital airs
and the like. Its duration cannot be defnitely ascertained and there­
fore it is called Asvattha (i. e. , not dependable) , the holy fg tree.
rts stay is coeval with ajnana and therefore indeterminate. The
Fivas require the body for experiencing the resul ts of their karma.
Hence it is said to be the kshetra (abode) . In this dwelling place,
there live the two birds, namely the ego and the Universal Self who
are respectively the experiencer and the unconcerned Witness.
32 viz., kima, krodha, lobha, m oh a, mad a & mit.carya (lmt,
anger, greed. delusion. conceit and jealousy ) .
61. 0 son, whose fetters of worldly life are broken I
the celestial tree,33 fire and water, protect those who seck
them, by fulflling their desires, keeping them warm and
quenching their thirst. So also Isvara is kind to His devo­
tees and not so to others. Now think well and judge whose
fault it is.
62. Now, my son ! here is the vital point : Rebirths
will be at an end for him who adopts with perseverance the
way to Del iverance shown by God in the scriptures, follows
the sages, gives up his evil propensities, discriminates the
Real from the unreal , rejects the ill usion born af ignorance
and gains Wisdom (by realising the Self) . Then and then
only will rebirths be at an end for him
This is the Truth.
63. Thi s Wisdom can be gained by a long course of
practice of unceasing enquiry into the Self.
Discle : " What is this enquiry ? ''
.Haster : " Enqui ry consi�ts in pondering over
the que�lions : Who i s this l i n the body, including mind,
senses, etc. ? What is sentience ? What is insentience ?
What is teir combination called hondage ? What i s
Release ? "
64. Disciple : ' ' The cumulative efect of all the
meritorious actions of past births would confer jnlina on
us. What i s the ne�d for an enquiry into the Self ? ' '
Ata.1 rer : " Hear me ! The unselfish actions which
\vere rendered unto God hel p to keep off impurities, and
make the mind pure. The mind which has thus been puri­
fied begins to enquire into the Self, and gains Knowledge. "
33 Kalpaka vriksha.
65. Discile : " Holy Master ! is it not possible for
rituals and other powerful actions which confer devotion,
dispassion, happiness in the other world, supernatural
powers, steadfastness in austerities, success in yoga, medi­
tation and divine form, to give right knowledge which
removes i l l usion ' What need is there for enquiry also ? "
66. A1aster : Hear me, son ; if you want to identify
the persons in a masquerade, you set about to discover thei
nature, habits and traits which are now hidden. If on the
other hand, you run about, jump, turn somersaults, cl i mb
posts, dance and fuss :bout, that will not hel p you to recog­
nise them.
67. Likewise enquiry alone can lead to the knowledge
revealed in the Vedas, which only point to Brahman
i ndirectly. Knowledge of the Self cannot be gained by a
study of the Vedas, feeding the hungry, performing austeri­
ties, repeating mantras, righteous conduct, sacrifces and
what not."
68. Disciple : ·• 0 Master of crystal clear wisdom !
The stain34 on a shining mi rror can be removed only by
rubbing it. Or has anyone made i stainless by knowledge
only ? Similarly the dirt of ignorance should be removed by
karma. How can it be done away with by Knowledge
which is only mental ? Tell me. ''
69. M aster : • Son ! the stain on a ( metallic) mirror
is material and also natural to it. But the black is not
natural to the crystal ( quartz) . It is only superimposed on
i t. Appropriate work i s doubtless necessary to remove the
:14 The mirror is metallic, and the stain is vcrcligns.
4 1
stain on !he mirror. But to know that the bl ack i s a
superimposition on the crystal, the mind alone will
70. Here also, non-being,3� insentience and misery are
ai l superimposed on Being-Consciousness-Bliss by ( the
play of) Maya. They arc neither natural nor real. The
series of karma does not confict with avidya (ignorance)
though it is perishable ; on the contrary, it nourishes it.
Jnina (Realisation) is the fre which burns away karma
zmd ignorance.
71 . A man who has forgotten where he left his things
m the house cannot recover them by weeping even for a
hundred years. But he will get them only if he thinks the
matter over and finds out. The Self is realised directly by
Kowledge which destroys forgetfulness ( ignorance ) , the
root-cause of all misery, but it cannot be realised by any
amount of hard worl, though extended over several
aeons. ":l7
72. Disciple : " Master ! why should the Veda, which
:ays that jnina is the sole means of Supreme Bliss, classify
karma, in the Karmakhanda, as merit, sin and a mixture
Qf the two which make the doers reincarnate as celestial
beings, animals (beasts, birds, trees, insects and so on) and
human being� re:pcctively and further prescribe special
duties for di li�rcnt castes and orders of men as conferring
happiness when properly done ? "
..a,+~..·. ..
35 The master compares ignorance to the colour transmitted by
a clear crystal hehind which a coloured foil is set.
36 Sunya : blank, void.
37 Yugas.
73. Master : " Like the coaxing of a loving mother
concerned with the sickness of her child who has eaten
earth, who ofers it a tempting sweet in which a medicine
is wrapped, the cheering statement of the Vedas ' Do your
household duties - perform sacrifices - they are all
good ! ' means something diferent. rt is not understood by
seekers of pleasures in heaven.
74. Look, it is only natural tat pleasure-seekers eat
what they and embrace whom they can. Would tw
scriptures dictate what is after al l natural to every one "
Do they not know so much ? No one need order : ' Cro\
be black ! Fire burn ! Neem38 be bitter ! You feet wind.
blow ! '
75. When the Vedas enjoin : ' If you desire fermented
drinks and meat, have them by performing sacrifces ; if
you have sexual impulse, embrace your wife ', the person is
expected to desist from other ways of satisfying hi s desires.
The Veda aim at total renunci ation only."
Disciple : " In that case, why should lhcre be
lhese commandments at all ? "
Master . " They arc only prdi rinary7'9 and not
76. Note that the Vedas which advise thus : ' Drink
the fermented juice - eat the meat ', say later on ' smell
i '. Note also the commandment : ' Desire sexual union
for the sake of a child ' . Note again (the commandment)
' Give up this also (i.e. sacrifce, marriage, wealth and
'' Margosa, or azadirachta indica.
* p(.n•apaksha.
40 siddhinta.
other po��essions) '. Note further that complete renuncia­
tion is not a slur on a sanyasin or a strict brahmachiri.
Understand the scheme as a whole, give up any desire for
action, and thus you will gain Beatitude. '
77. Disciple : " 0 Master ! granting that actions sir�
ply aid the ignorance which gives rise to the world, it
knowledge be inimical to ignorance which brings about this
diversity, how can such ignorance co-exist with stainless
Knowl edge l ike the soot in the moon and efect these crea­
tions ? "
78. Master : '' 0 son ! Consciousness which is Itself
self-luminous has two aspects : pure Consciousness,41 and
modal consciousness.42 The former manifests as the latter
and they are not therefore exclusive of each other. You
have known that pure Consciousness is not inimical to
ignorance in deep sleep. Modal Consciousness bums away
ignorance, which rests on pure Consciousness."
79. Disciple . " How can Miyi which expands and
contracts like a bellows, remain unafected by pure Con·
but be burnt away by modal consciousness ? ''
J1aster . " See how the sun who shines over the
whole world and sustains it, yet becomes fire under a lens
and burs. So also, i n samizdhi. modal consciousness can
burn away
41 Svarima jndna . all-difusive, static consciousness.
42 Vritti jnana : di rected or particulari�cd consciousness. Tese
two can be compared to the latent energy in fuel and buring fre
which reduces it to ashes, or to electric current which remained
unmanifest in a live wi re and the same current which manifests as
light in the flament of a bulb.
80. Disciple : " Do not actions include all modes of
mind, speech and body ? Is not modal consciousness ''
function of the inner faculty ? Then should we nat say that
action ( a special mode of mind) destroys ignorance ? Why
is it marked of with the imposing tiiie of Knowledge ?
Please explain me this."
8 1 . Master : " Modal consciousness is truly a mode oi
mind, but we have seen that the sons of the same mother
fght among themselves.
Actions pertain to the doer, whereas knowledge
bor of enquiry, does not pertain to the individual,43 but
pertains to the Thing in Itsel£.44
82. The injunctions may be done, may not be done
or be done differently,4.> but Knowledge, which is para­
mount, cannot be so.
Meditation ( as ' I am Brahman ' ) is certainly
different from Knowledge obtained by enquiry. To for­
mulate one thing as another is forced yoga.45 Direct
knowledge47 can alone be true. Do not be deceived by
fanciful ideas.
83. Knowledge is the result of direct experience,
whereas meditation is mere mental i magery of something
4 Purusha tantra.
4 V as tu wntra ..
45 Even the nirguna Brahma dhyinn may be done as prescribed,
may be omitted or may be done ut the sweet will of the person.
It is not intrinsic to the man as jnina is to the thing in Itself.
4B There are different kinds of dhyina. In one of them, Sal­
grim is meant to represent Vishnu, who is four armed, holdi ng a
conch, a discus, a club and a lotu•, . This dhy.r;a is forced but ycl
47 i.e., gained by expericm:e.
heard. That which i s heard from others will be wiped of1
the memoy, but not that which is experienced. Therefore
that W�lit<1 is experienced is alone real, but not those things
thal an.� meditated. Know that knowledge hut not karma is
the destroyer of ignorance at sight.
84. Do not doubt that unreal meditation can gant
real iinal Deliverance. Hear me ! Durlng meditation the
image meditated upon by hearsay is not real, but when i t
materialises and is seen face to face, i t becomes rcaL48
85. I you ask how unreal meditation leads to real and
everlasting Deliverance : Each one is reborn in accordance
with the last thought of his previous life.49 Persons are
rebor in the forms they meditated upon. But should one
meditate upon the Self in order to do away with any kind
of rebirth, then one becomes the Self. This is sure and
86. Disciple : ·• I those who meditate on attribute­
less ( Le. transcendental) Brahman,50 become That, 0 Master
i human form ! where is the need for enquiry or for
k:owlcdge ?
Master : " Meditation upon Brahman is based
on hearsay ;51 however, it becomes a fact of experience in
due cour<c. This experience is called the everlasting
enquiry, knowledge or jnana (which destroys ignorance ) ,
or Del iv::nmce. This is the fnal conclusion."52
4S H fullu\;· . . that the ' I am Brahman ' of the co;1!emplative
stag·.� i �; no1 r_;,1 hnt the resulting experience ' I am Brahman · is
49 Vide S;·inwd Bha;avad Gita, Ch. VJJI.
50 Nirguna Brahman.
51 Paroksha.
52 siddhinta.
8 7. Disciple : • If modal consciousness53 ( after
destroying ignorance) be left over i the all-perfect Self,54
how can there be the experience of undivided being ? ''55
Master : " Just as cleaning-nut 56 powder car­
ries down the impurities57 in water, and settles down with
them, so also modal consciousness destroys ignorance and
perishes with it."
RS. Disciple : " Well, what is the nature of the wise,
liberated here and now ? "
Mater : " They are free from thoughts and
therefore live happy, like an undisputed suzerain of the
whole world, or like a babe. The ideas of bondage and
Release vanish for them altogether, so much so that they
laugh at those who speak of such things. For, are they not
to b laughed at, who say that a mosquito took in the ether
and vomited it forth ?
89. The son of a barren woman and the man seen in the
post58 wore fowers gathered in the sky, wrangled over the
price of the silver in mother-of-pearl,59 in the city of the
Gandharvas,60 armed themselves with the horns of
5 Vritti jndna.
54 Paripurna.
Aklzanda anublzava siddhi.
56 Strychnos potatorum.
57 Lit. ' the mud '.
In dim light, a thick post is mi �taken for a man. Such an
illusory man is meant here. In a si mi l ar 'tory Yoga Vasishta men·
tions the reflected image of a man in a mirror.
59 The nacre of mother-of-pearl is mistaken for silver. This
fancied silver is meant.
The Gandharvas are a class of celestial beings. At sunset,
the clouds shine with gorgeous colours. In peculiar dispositions of
�uch bright clouds, a fancy may sometime arise that it is the cheer·
ful city of the happy Gandharvas.
hares,61 fought and stabbed each other. died together and
turned into ghosts.
No man of sense will be excited on hearing this
90. Since Maya itself is unreal, all its creation must
likewise be unreal. Can the progeny be of a diferent
species from the mother's ?63
Therefore, do not heed heaven or hell, good or
bad ; but stay a the Self which is Sat-Chit-Ananda-Pirna
( Perfection) ."
91 . Disciple : " My Lord ! t�ll me, is it not blasphemy
to deny as unreal, the lotus-seated Creator and the other
gods, the great men of the world, holy waters like the
Ganges, the places of pilgrimage, the holy occasions, the
four Vedas with their six auxiliaries,
4 the mantras and
austerities ? "
92. Master : " If it be sacrilege to deny dream­
visions as false, it would be sacrilege too to deny the
world65 which derives its existence from illusion. If on the
other hand it is right to deny dream-visions, it is only right
to deny the world also which is derived from illusion.
93. If the Purinas hold up as men of merit the
ignorant who regard the false as true, does any sastra attach
censure to the jnani for calling the truth truth ?
61 They arc no:1-existent.
The otory st arts with two non-existent men and indulges in
mere fancy. The worl d and it3 activities are no more real t o thu
jndni than this story i s to an average man.
6 e.g., can a marc bring forth a human b.ing, :m elephant or
a bird ?
64 Such as chhandas. kalpa, jyotisha.
65 With its contents.
Miyi, which appears as the elements and their
modificatons with different names and forms, is false. Only
the Self which is all diffusive as Sat-Chit-Ananda, is the
94. Disciple ; " 0 Master who an� llke a typhoon in
dispersing the clouds of Maya I
(a) Of what nature i s Maya ?
( b) Who are in its grip ?
(c) How did it come into being ?
(d) Why did it arise ?
(e) Duality is inevitable if Maya. is separate from
(f) I not separate, Brahman Itself is false (like
Maya). "
95. Mater : " (a) Because its nature is not deter­
minable, Maya is said to be inexpressible.66
( b) They are in its grip who think : " This is
mine - I am the body - the world i s real."
(c) 0 Son, no one can ascertain how this myste­
rious illusion came into being.
(d) As to why it arose, it is b�cause of the
(person's ) want of vicluJra ( discering enquir) .
96. (e) and (f) A magician's unseen powers remain
unknown until hordes of illusory beings make their appear­
ance in the show. Similarly the countless powers of Brahman
remain unknown, but they are inferred only after the mani­
festation of the elements.
GG A nirvaclwniya.
97. The magician who stands on terra fimw and t he
hordes (conjured up by hi m ) an .. vi si ble to t he onl ookers.
But hi s wonderf ul geni us for magic remai ns mysteri ous. So
al so the handi work of i l l usion ( the worl d ) and the wielder
of the i l l usi on ( i . e. Brahman) arc visibl e, but not t he power
of illusion. There are many powers di sti nct from Al mi ghty
Brahman and the worl d.
98. The power i s not apart from the wiel der. The
wielder of magic is real, but the appari t i ons ( of magi c) are
not. Wise son. you can from t hi s i l l ustration ascertai n the
t rue nat ure of the .Reality which i s the wi el der of i l lusion
and which a1 t h,� same time remai ns Whole and as the SelL
Th us, get elect r (of your doubts ) .. .
99. Disciple ; ·• Why should the power which is un.
real , be said to exi st ? "
Master : " Good-natured son ! look how the
grasses nnd thei r l i ke which appear insenti ent , put forth
bl ossoms and bear crops. But for t he consciousness per"
vading them al l . the mobile and i mmobi l e bei ngs woul d lose
their i mmemori al nature.
l 00. See the wonder, how t he embryos i n eggs develop
i nto bi rds of so many hues ! But for the goverance of an
unseen force, al l ( t he Jaws of nat ure ) woul d be bl otted out,
l i ke a ki ngdom \Vi t hout a king. Fire woul d tur water ; <t
bi tter thing t<tstc sweet ; even the degraded recite the Vedas ;
t he i mmovabl e mountai n range$ !Joat l i ke clouds i n the ai r ;
al l the oceans become �andy wastes and t here woul d he no
!ixit y
J 0 L Disciple : " 0 Master who are the Transcendent
Reality ! how can t hi s power of Consciousness ( i . e. Maya)
which cannot be seen or known or expressed by any one
in words, and forms the root-cause of diverse names and
forms, be rooted out ? Otherwise how is Brahman to be
meditated upon as the non-dual Reality, to gain Deliver­
ance ? "
I 02. Moster : .. What becomes of the well-known qua­
lities of air, water or tire when they arc checked by amulet�
or incantations ? If you stay as Sat-Chit-Ananda, free from
other thoughts, Maya becor;1es extinct. No other method
wn be found in the whole range of the Vedas.
I 03� What remains unmanifest i n clay, becomes mani­
fest ( as a pot ) . For the practical purposes of life, the
word makes earth a pot and destroys it. To discard names
and forms and recognise the day, i s true knowledge. I n
the same manner discard the fancied notions of plurality
of beings and realise the Self as pure Consciousness. "
! 04. Disciple : " Though false, how can the persistent
appearance of non-being-insentience-misery i n the fulness
of Being-Consciousness-Bliss be wiped away ? "
Master : " Though the reflection i n the water
appears head downwards and t remul ous, yet when the
fgure on the ground is considered, which remai m upright
and steady, that worthless i mage is onl y unreal .
l 05. Knowledge is the cause, and objects the efects.
I t is fruitless to discuss how the phantoms of names and
forms came into being and how they will vanish.
Worthy son ! not caring how this long-drawn out
dream of the world came into being or how it is withdrawn
only remain aware as the Consciousness--Self which is all­
1 06. To the degree that you t urn away from at tach-
m;nts to the unreal your inner vision of Reality develops.
l by a steady practice of this kind, the mind comes under
control and becomes aware as Consciousness-Self, you can
abide a� the Ocean of Bl iss though living in the bitter body. "
I 07. Disciple : •· 0 Master ! I do not see the propriety
of the statement that all beings are permeated by the single
non-dual Self which is all--embracing as Being-Conscious­
ness-Bliss. The existence of the fvos is clear because they
all say ' I ' ; Consciousness also is clear because of know­
ledge which is obvious ; why does not Bliss show forth i n
a similar way ? "
1 08. Master : " Son, although there are shap, frag­
rance and softness together present in the same fower, each
of them is cognised by a separate sense only. Otherwise
lhey are not
perceived ; such is the l aw of nature. Simi­
larly though t he beatific qualities, Being, Consciousness and
Bliss together form the Self, yet the modes vary constantly
and give rise to the differences which appear as the world.
1 09. My son ! the three quaiities -Satva, Rajas and
l'amas -give rise to the three modes -repose, agitation
and ignorance respectively. Being, Consciousness and Bliss
which arc themselves glorious, al ways remain a homoge.
neous Whole yet appear diferent.
l l 0. Bare e xistencc alone is noticed in plants, minerals
and the earth which look i nsentient and arc ignorant.
There can be no happiness in the state of disturb­
ance caused by passions, such as lust, which act l i ke poison.
But Being and Consciousness arc evident in i t.
Consciousness and Bliss together becom(\
manifest i n the state of Peace which is characterised by a
ster detachment ( f rom externalities ) .
Therefore Bl i ss becomes cl ear i n a
rid of i gnorance and agitati on . "
mi nd
I I I . Disciple . " Lord who has appeared as my master
i n the worl d ! I do not cl early understand the character
of Bei ng-Consciousness-Bl i ss ( Sat-Chit-Ananda) . What i�
t hi s $'at ' What i s Chit ? And what is A nanda ? .,
Master , " Sat ( Bei ng ) is that whi ch does not
at any time past, present or fut ure.
Chit (Consciousness) i s that whi ch cognises the
di ferent objects.
A nanda ( Bl i ss )
rience of bl i ss duri ng the
ari si ng out of the expc·
of an obiect of desire . ''
1 12. Disciple . " 0 Maste r who like an elephant in rut.
attacks and demol ishes the forts of the sheaths6 al though
the mahivakyas i n the four V edas declare ' Thou art Sat­
Chit-Ananda ' to the i ndwel l er i n the mortal body, and
Masters say Thou art Brahman ' ,
rience ' l am Sat-Chit-Ananda ' ? ' '
how can one expe-
J 1 3 . Master : " When it is said that rebirths are the
i nevitabl e resul ts o[ past actions, does i t not follow that the
person was existent in the past ? Again should heaven and
hel l be the rewards of present actions. does i t not follow
that he wi l l conti nue to exist i n the future ? A subtle body
( sui ted to heaven or hel l ) , a cel esti al body, or a human
which are al l the resul ts of illusi on. often chamre and
'´ annamayakosa. etc.
pass away. Al ways s urvi vi m the false
to say that he i s Sat.
5 3
i t i s but
I 14. l n the darkness coveri ng deep sl eep and ni ght,
when there i s no sun or lamp. he i s unmi stakably aware ol
d<trkncss and objects, ¬\ he i s Chit.
He is al so Ananda because hi s love never fade�
for the impomparabl y beati fic Sel f. for l ove manifests
for an object of pl easure.
1 5. Food. dri nk and s o forth are dear t o al l al i ke
because pleasure is deri ved f rom them. The Sel f i s no!
I i kewise a means to beati tude. Shoul d the Sel f described
above be cl assed al ong wi th other mean,; of pleasure, where
is the pleasure aoart or the en iover thereof '? Can the Sel t
L�e two '?
1 16. Love for sensual pl easure ] s evident , but the love
for the Self remai ns unr i val l ed. The love for sensual plea­
sures undcrg�1cs changes whereas the i ntense Love for the
Sel f remai ns unchanging. Sensual pl easures can be
or rejected. but who i s there to accept or reject the Sel f ?
The Sel f can reject al l other pl easures but not reject i tsel f.
l 1 7. It is wrong to i magine t hat the Self ki l l s i t self
and get� rid of i tsel f by committi ng s uicide in a buring
He who k i l l s the body cannot be the body gi ven
The di sgust i s for the bodv and never for the
1 1 8 . Weal th i s much sought after . but a son i s cearer
than wealth ; one's own body i s dearer t han a son ; the
senses are dcar cr t han the body ; the l ife breath is dcarer
than the senses and the Sel l i s very much cl earer than l i fe
i tsel f. Thi s Self i s the essence and the other three selw''
-the secondary6 ( viz. the son) , the illusory69 (the body )
and the acting70 ones ( the ego) successively increase i n
i mportance.
1 1 9. At the time of one's death, the secondary sel f.
namely the son, who succeeds to the father's estate, assumes
prominence. At the time of nourishment, the illusory self,
namely the body, is prominent. When a happy future l ife
is desired, the act ing self, i . e. , the ego, becomes prominent .
Rut i n the state of Liberation, the Self. t o wit pure Cons­
ciousness. is paramount.
1 20. Even a tiger becomes a favourite when it i '
obedient and a son is hated when he thwarts one. l n t hi s
world. the things li ke straw whi ch are neither loved nor
hated, arc treated with indift'erencc. But under no ci rcum­
stances does the love of the stainless Self diminish for
Therefore, my son, investigate your true nature
which is unbroken Bliss only and realise the Self ! ,.
1 2 1 . Disciple : ' ' Worshipful Master ! How many k ind<
of A nand a ( bliss ) are there ? "
A1ater : " There arc three :
( 1 ) Brahmi'nandu ( which shines as Pure Con­
ci ousness, e. g. i n sl eep)
( 2) Vilsanananda ( whi ch i s present i n remi ··
niscence ) ; ;md
( 3 ) Vi.lhaylinandll ( whi ch i s the joy of gai ni n�
the desired object.
5S Gaww iznw.
{!9 l1ithya itma.
70 Karta.
" ' = = ¹
However others say that there arc eight kinds ot
Anande. The above three cover the other fve ( of the
eight ) . I shall nevertheles� tel l you al l these ei ght. Hear
1 22. ( I ) Vis!W)'( sukha71 the pl easure of senHt�ll
e njoyment ;
( 2) Brohma sukha : the bliss of dreamless sleep ;
( 3 ) Vasana .sukha : t he remembrance of the
above for a few mi nutes immediately after waking ;
( 4 ) A una sukha : the happiness which ensues on
determinin� that the Self is t he dearest of all dear things ;
( :; ) Mukhyo sukho : the bl iss of Swnildhi when
t he n::il ''t ignorance i ' completely l ifted ;
( 6 ) Nija suklw : the content ment w·hi ch resul ts
from i ndi terence ;
( 7 ) Advitiyd sukha : Lhe happi ness of holdi ng
on l o t he Self to the excl usion of dual ity ;
( X ) V idyl ,1 ukha : the happi nes� that resul ts Jrom
the enquiry i nto t he Sel f i n accordance with the scriptual
texts .
l 23. My son ! hear me dL: scri bc their disti nguishi ng
characteri,tics. A man who is aiways exerting hi msel f i n
t he \\ :,ki n; state. �ec ks rest on hi s hcd, out of sheer exham­
tion. Thl n hi' mi nd is well 1 urcd i nwards and in that
state i t rdkct" t he i mage of t he Bliss of Consciousness
71 They ; , ,_ : ( I ) Ohject i vc delight, descri bed l at er i n v. I 21 ;
f 2) Delight in Hrahma, in vv. 1 24- 1 27 ; ( 3 ) Remi ni�cent del ight,
in v. 1 28 ; ( 4 1 Delight in Sf, i n vv. 95- 1 0 and 1 64- 1 66 ; ( .� )
J>aramount dclig;1t. i n v. 1 30 : ( 6 ) Natural delight. in v. I :9 ;
( 7 } Non-dunli't d(ighL in vv. I 1 4- 1 2 1 and l l7 ; f 8 ) Delight of
l.nowledge, at the L' nd. Sukha i' anrmda.
whi ch shi nes by Itsel f. The pl ca:; urc whi ch he then expe­
ri ences, represen ts objective pl· �asurc.72
! 24. The person who, feel i ng objective pl easures poor
!xcause they i nvolve the pai nful t ri ads,73 keeps the mind
i n repose and fal ls i nto sl eep l i ke an eagl e droppi ng i nto
I ts nest, becomes one with t he l i mitl ess tnsccndcnt Bei n�
dnd remai ns as the Blissful Self. Thi s supreme state of
Bl i ss i s unri val led Brahnu/n(mdu [see v. 1 22-( 2 ) ] .
1 25 . That t he Bl i ss of deep �J eep i s Bralmu/nanda. i s
the statement of the scri ptures. That some persons take
el aborate care to provide t he msel ves wi th downy beds to
sleep on, i s the fact which supports it. That in that state,
al l sense of right and wrong, of nE or woman, of in ot
uut, i s tot al l y lost as at t he t i me of the embrace of t he
beloved, i s the experi ence whi ch confirm- i t . So i t i s
Brahmiinonda. sme and certai n. "
1 26. Disciple : " 0 Master, adored even by the gods !
You are a l l-knowi ng and can k i ndl y cl ear t hi s doubt ol
;ni ne : In thi s worl d of cause and efect. the experience o!
une cannot be fel t by anot her. I n deep sl eep, the i ntcl lcc­
l ual sheath has subsided and t he bl i ssful sheath ha� the
experience of happiness. i t is right that t hi s experi ence
should be remembered by the i ntel l ect ual �heath which
expresses it ' ' '
1 27. Masrc : " Know that these two ( stand to each
olher i n the rel ati onshi p of mel ted ghee and sol i di fl ecl ghee.
72 A lW I Ilia ha:; al ready been said to be t he characteri st i c ol
. 1111m uww whi ch i s the state of repos·�. Therefore any shade ol
llllilnda must be traced t o the mi nd whi ch is free from agitat i on.
even sensual pl easure.
73 The cnjoyer, enjoyment and the object enjoyed.
DOCBTS CLL\ !U ' D A\,\Y 5 7
fhcy di ffer i n t hei r ( l i mi t i ng ) t houghts. but not i n thei r
( intri nsi c J knowl edge. The i ntel l ectual sheath l i mited by
t he mi nd and active in the waki ng state, and t he blissful
one made of the bl iss of pure Consci ousness whi ch appears
when the pai nful mi nd subsides i n deep s l eep, are not
di fferent from each other, just l i ke rain-water and the water
stored i n a reservoi r, or l i ke sugar and syrup. "
1 28. DiMiple : · · I n that case, why shoul d any one l ose
hold of that ncm-d!!al Bl i ss of Brahman and come out ol
i t ? "
!ltsle : ' · He i s drawn out by the force of hi s
past karma. The man who has just wakened from deep
"�l cep, does not i mmedi ately lo�'c the happi ness of sl eep for
he does not besti r himsel f at once nor forget the happi ness -
Thi s short i ntcrv<ll of peace which is nei t her sl eep nor
waki ng. i s t he Rl i ss of remembrance [sec v. 1 22 ( 3 ) ].
1 2L. At the int : mt t he 1 -anHhc-hody ' i dea starts, he
l oses himsel f i n t he troubl es of the world and forgets the
bl i ss. Hi s past karma bri ngs on pai n o pleasure. Peace
results i n equi poise. Everyone has experienced the state
voi d of thoughts a n cl the pleasure consequent upon i t . Thi s
i s Nijiinandll [ sec v. 1 22 ( 6 ) [ .
I 30. Cct n t hi s be the Bl i ss of swnidhi ? ( No ) . The
external moi �l urL' i: not the water contai ned wi thin the pot.
Thi s happi nc-; � ( uf i ndifference ) i s onl y the shadow of the
Bl iss of yog! ; .1 wniidhi cast upon t he ri sing ego. When
t he ego subsitks c : nd .1omadlli resul ts there is the �tate of
Repose in whi ch t he rni nd i s not aware of t he envi ronments
nor asl eep and t he body stays stitf l i kc a post.
J 3 1 . Of the happiness enjoyed by the sole sovereign of
t he world, the earthly Gandharvas and celestial Gandhar­
vas .74 thL brilliant pitris,75 the gods existing from creation
t he l ater gods and celestial chiefs, I ndra, ´¨ Br.ihaspati.71
( or Vir at or Hiranyagarbha ! ( Brahma) ,`¯
each is a hundred times as great as the preceding one. Yet
all are fragmentary and like froth and foam i n the waters
of the Del uge of Brahminanda.
1 32. Whosoever re mai ns in the luriyamaso sl ate. the
sevcnth31 ( and the highest) plane, his of Cons­
ciousness-Bliss i s the same as that of Narada, Suka, Siva.
Vishnu, Brahma and such others, free from duÓlity or sleep.
May the dust of his holy feet settle on my ( humble ) head !
1 33. So far l have now told you of five kinds of
inanda ; J shal l later describe the Bl i ss of Knowledge [see
V· 1 22 ( 8) ] ; I have al ready described the Bliss of the Self82
as the dearest of all and the Bliss of the non-dualist SeH8:
Maya and Sat-Chit-Ananda. 0 Son fret
74 A class of celesti;!l beings who enjoy music, dancing. et c.
°'The elders of the gods because thev ¹\v lTCated before
t hem.
°' The ki ng of the celesti a! s.
77 The preceptor of }ndra.
¹' The Creator of the gross world .
´* The Root of the Creation.
öV Lit e * beyond the four1h. The dream and Male�
are the t hree whi;h have their basis in Self. so i t is the
fourth i n relation to the other three. Bu! when the Self is realised
Ub the Sole Reality comprising alL there is no duality and rela1cd
t hing. It i s therefore ab:;olute.
The spiritllal ÜlC ( l )
tanmninasi. (4 ) ( 5 ) asamsakti,
;md ( 7) turiyaga ( tramcendcntal \late
from the pairs of
doubt�, ' • •
! telt me. have you any moe
1 34. Disciple : " 0 Master that has created and pre­
serves Lord Subrahmanya. mvsl l' and the whole cosmos,
hear me !
I each of the terms, St, Chit and .4 nanda of
which you have spoken, has characteristics of it s own, how
IÔJ the mind which is already unsteady be fixed (on
? I do not see that they are ditierent words with
t he same meaning. I pray you, kindly show me how it is
all an indivisible, homogeneous whole like honey which is
uniform though gathered ( from diferent fowers ) by the
bees. ' '
1 35. Master . · ' Is water tripartite because of its cold­
ness, lluidity and whiteness ( i . e. , transparency) '? Or is
!ire tripartite bcause of its lig)1t, heat and redness ?
The Vedas have analysed and dismissed the
cosmos beginning with the ether Ob unsubstantial, insen�
tient and misery-laden. In contradistinction to this and for
easy understanding they have described Brahman as Sat�
C'hit-.-1 nm1dcf4 which is One
! 36. The r:edas describe Brahman in afrmative terms
as folov. � . r he Whole, Unique, the highest Truth,
t he Supreme Brahman, the Reposi tory, or the Source,
Ever-Tre. Ab�{1l ute ( continuum of the Source.
states. and therefore) the Fourth, Conti,
all. the �iuht the Witness of al l. Know-
whid1 i ndi rectly

Vedas ) , I ndwcl l cr, the Reality , Ethe r.
the ScJ L Li beration. the Lord, Subtl e, and so on ;
37. i n negati ve terms as : the
I mmeasurabl e.
speech, not insentient, the Discascl ess, Uncontumi nateu,
I ncomparabl e¡ Uni nterrupted, Unattai nabl e ( by the mi nd o
the senses ) . U ndivi dcd, Unborn. I nt1ni te, I nccstructiblc
whi ch i s ) wi thout Undi vided. wi thout
l i mbs or part s, Bcgi nningl ess.
and so lÌ1 .
Changel ess. Non ·
1 38. When al l t hese qual i t i es, a!irmati ve or otherwi se,
arc considered together i n the ri ght way, they point to One
only and t here can be no ot he r. Many may be t he words
to signi fy the same. Thus Brahman, signified by Chit,
and Ananda i s One onl y. Real ise t hi s unity and remai 1 1
as one undi vided Whole .
1 39. Do not say : ' To descri be Brahman by
Í* l i ke of a barren mother. ' Can there be any
one so tal ented as to understand the nature of Brahman
without bci nl t ol d ? What t he Vedas have revealed out o1
knowledge of Brahman and l i b�rati on i n
of Brahman but Brahrmm Jsc l f85
! 40. Disciple : · · 0 Lord ! Li ke mi l l i ons of suns
, you have come fort h .¯ my Master to
the darkness of my ignorance ! Hear me agai n. '
I n accordance with t he s tatement of t he srtis
have now understood bevond doubt that my Sel f is the
'´ Truth i s acert<l i ned l'y three ki nd:i of proofs, shruti, v uk!J
and anuhha!u. Of t hc,;c shmri i : deal t wi th in YV. 1 30- 1 3' ). vukli
from VV. 1 40- 1 43 , nnd wt11hlrol"l in ' .. 1
i ndi visi ble Real i ty. I you wi l l furt her establish i t
argument s. the t ruth wi l l be fixed i n my mi nd l i ke an i ron
kc dri ven i nto a l i vi ng tree. ''
14 1 . Master . " Being must i tsel f be Consciousness,
Should 1 hc Consciousness be different from being, it must
be non-existent. How then can the bei ng be reveal ed ?
Again , Consciousness must itsel f be t he being. I f
diJrcrcnt from Consciousness, i t must be insenti ent. The
i nsentient cannot exist by itself. Thus Being and Conscious.
ness, bei ng i denti caL i t is al so Rl i ss. Thi s is the most
agreeable argument (l i t . . ' semi nal l i ne of reasoning ' ) .
Otherwise bl iss will be non"exi st ent and i nsent ient and
there can be no cxnericncc of bliss ( whi ch is absurd) .
I 42. ¯´ How is Sat which exi sts at al l ti mes revealed ?
By i tself or by another ?
A. Hy another.
I s t hat other non-exi stent or exi st ent ?
A. Non-exi stent.
Q. Fool ! Can the son of a barren woman
efect anythi ng ?fl
A . Ten let i t be somet hi ng exi st i ng but di ferent
from the origi nal Sat.
Q. How is its exi stence revealed ? You must81
say ; by another. ' Will t here be an end t o
this chai n of exi stent thi ngs and t hei r cog·
ni sers ? Your ans·cr is t herefore untenabl e.
so get ri d of this fal se reasoni ng.
'The master frames t he questions and answers him�elf.
87 Jt i s as absurd as the statement · I am the son of a barren
I n conformity with your previous answer.
62 KAIV:\L!A :,\VA:E E r A
1. 43. Listen t o experience agreeable to scripture ami
reason. Since the bliss of profound sleep persists .
memory, this bliss itself must be knowledge. There was
nothing besides it. Existing i n the dissolution and
you witness the darkness of ignorance. Now
the Heart abide as the all-perfect Self ! ''
�:: * *
44. I n accordance with the teachings of the master whn
had himself realised the very essence of the several
tmes, this di sciple too realised that Being, Consciousness
and Bl i ss arc but the same Real i ty, which is homogeneou�
li ke the honey that is gathered from diferent sources, and
was long fixed i n samihi. When he opened his eyes he
realised hi mself to b the screen on which moves the
kaleidoscopic picture composed of the mobile and i mmobi le
objects of the universe.
l 45. Disciple : '' 0 worthy master after my own heart !
is there anything more for us to do than to have this
experience ? To think and speak of i t and to remai n soaked
with the experience, appears to be the only duty for sages,
Be gracious to make clear to me how the previously men­
tioned (sec v. 1 32) turii fta or sevent h pl ane of know­
ledge is the highest"
! 46.
arc seven stages of
Of them
of ignorance. The
the elders say that there
·�norance" and seven degrees of know·
first hear me mention the seven :.tates
elders have named them thus :
89 Ajnana saptabhumi.
90 lnana saptnbhumi.
l . lJa-ji grat :
•. T ,-_..n'
: the
3 . Mali
establ i shed,
state of
4. ligrt-svapna : the state of day-dreaming,
castles i n the
5. Svapna : the dream state,
6. Svapna-ji ral : cogitation of the dream after
waking up from it, and
} .
1 47 & 1 48. I . The
state is the uncom-
pounded consciousnes: whih ris4s up fresh from the unitary
state of being.
2. The waking state contains the sprout of the
ego which was previously absent from the germinal state.
3. The sprout of the ' I ' and mine ' which rises
up with every birth, i s the flnn�1 waking state.
4. The fussy ego conjuring up visions i s the
wakeful state.
5. To have uncontrolied visions while sleeping
after a fuU meat is the state of dream.
6. To be thinking of the dreams after waking up
frm them. is the waking dream.
7. The dense darkness of ignorance is the stale
of deep slumber
TJ>c�e ar. t he seven states of ignoranc. I
now tell you t he seven stages of knowledge which bestow
Li beration.
91 Firm b.cau•;e it sow� i lstl f a;, cften as it rises.
i !i

i 1 1

1 49.
The elders have them as :
I . Subheccha : desire for
2. Vicharana : i nvestigation i nto the Truth,
3. 1anum(lnasi : pure and attenuated mind,
4. Satvipatti : the Realisation of the Truth.
5. Asamsakti : a detached outl ook on the
verse and its contents.
6. Palirthibhavani : untainted awareness of
uni -,
7. the and i ndescribable state.
1 ubheccha.
. t o wean f rom unedifying associations and
of the Supreme i s the first plane cal led
2. To associate wi th enl ightened sages, l earn from
them and refect on the Truth. i s called investigati on.
3. To be free from desires by meditating on the
Truth with faith, is the attenuation of the mi nd.
4. The shining forth of the highest knowl edge i n
the mind owing t o the development of the foregoi ng con­
i s Realisation.
5. To be free from i ll usion by firm realisation of
is the detached outlook on the universe.
6. The bliss of the non-dual Self. devoid of
triads92• i s untai nted awarenes� of Sel f.
7. Subl ime Silem·e of the very nature of Sel f, i s
Hear why this seventh plane ( v. 1 4S ) was sai d
t o be turiyit7ta ( i . e . µ beyond the turiya) .
92 Namely, t he
11isor. the cognised
the object and their l i nk, i . e. , the cog­
1 52. The first three pl anes are said to be jigrat ( i. e. ,
the waking state) because the world i s perceived ( in them
as ever before ) .
The fourth plane corresponds to dream ( because
the world is recognised to be dreamlike ) .
Even the dim perception of the world gradually
vanishes and therefore the fifth pl ane i s cal led the sleep
Transcendental Bliss prevails in the sixth which
is therefore called turiya (i . e. , the fourth state relatively to
one which the Vedas i ndicate as subl ime Silence ! ( i . e. ,
turiyitita) .
1 53. Some sages consider the name turiya93 to be i n
confict with the foregoing explanation of turiyiitlta which,
according to them, will be the glorious Liberation after
disembodi ment.94 I n such a scheme, the si xth plane is the
state of very deep sl umber as compared with the dreamless
sleep of the fifth pl ane.
I shal l further tel l you the pecul iarities of t hese
54. Those who yet remain in the frst three planes are
praetiscrs and not emancipated.
Brahmavids are those who have gone i nto the
fourth plane ; they are pure and l i berated.
Those i n the next three pl anes arc respectively
vara, varya, and varishta, i. e. , the eminent, the more emi-
93 the fourth.
94 Videha mukti.
nent and the most eminent among the knowers of Brahman.
1 shal l still further tell you the excel l ence of the planes of
the enlightened.
1 55. Those who have remained i n the frst three pl anes
and died before they reached the fourth pl ane, go to the
happy regions ; then they reincarnate and gradually gain
Liberation. They do not surely go to the unedifving lower
0 son ! the frst pl ane i tself is dificul t to
This gained, Liberation is as good as gained.
1 56. I they gai n the frst or second pl anes of enl ighten­
ment i n this worl d, even mlcchas95 are as good as emanci­
pated. By the hol y feet of my Master, this i s true ! cursed
be they that deny it ! Doubt not the Vedas, common to al l .
Strictly foll owing t he indicated way, clearly real ise ' 1 am
Brahman ! "
1 57. Disciple : '' 0 Lord who h as taken me l ike rice
out of paddy l iable to sprout again ! You have just said
that the pl anes of knowledge l ead even contemptible
mlecchos to fina l Liberation. But some say that Liberation
cannot be gai ned unless te person renounces al l domestic
ties and retires as a sanylisin.96 Please clear my confusion
on thi s point. "
95 The mlecc/ws are tho�e who deprecate the Vedas.
96 Here is t he i mpl i cation . sanyas is the fourth stage of li fe
fo1· a l>ra/unin. He starts as a brahmachiri and learns the V edas ,
t hen marries and becomes a grilwsta ; then retires as a v{naprastha,
and lastly renounces everything and becomes a sanyisin. Some
say that the kslwtriyas are alo eligible for sanyis, e.g. , Raghu.
Others say that the vaisya.1· too can take sanyis, but not the sudras
and the rest.
1 58. Master . " Son worthy of respect by the righteous !
Your doubt is right, hear me cl ear it. The renunciation
which snaps domestic ties is of four ki nds. They are : ( 1 )
Kuteeclka, ( 2 ) Bahoodaka, ( 3 ) Hamsa and ( 4) Paruma·
al l of which are a panacea to the miseries of the
world. But detach ment and not the habil iments ( ochre
is the sole f(Jili<IH� for such renunciati on.
1 59. Detachment is agai n of three according as
i t i s dul l , intense and very intense. That which is caused
by a shock, is impulsive and dul l . Discarding home and
wealth for life i s the intense form. Disgust for Brahmaloka
as bei ng i l l usory is the very intense.
60 & 1 6 1 . Dull detachment does not qualify one for
sany,is.97 I ntense detachment makes the person eligible for
the first two orders of Sanyis. If strong and ft h e must
move about as a bahoodaka ; otherwise h e must stay ( at
one place ) as a kuteechaka.
When detachment i s very i ntense, he can take to
the hamsa or paramahamsa order. They say that the hamsa
cannot gain final l iberation unl ess through Satyaloka91
whereas the paramahamsa can gai n it here and now.
The paramahamsa order whi ch i s so efficient, is
again of two grades.
1 62. A poranwhamsa may be one who desires to know
the Truth I is a real i sed
The former i s an intel ligent practiser i n the frst
three pl anes.
*´Because shock is t he result of past sins whereas sanyas is
the fruit of virtue.
98 i.e., Brnhmaloka to which he goes after death.

The latter is a remarkable and pure sage who is
l iberated here and now.
The former class of paramahamsa is of two ki nds.
Here me speak of them also.
1 63. Of these one will give up the ties of home (accord­
ing to ritual ) formally enter the order of sanyis and gain
Supreme Knowledge.
The other kind remaining as brahmins, kshatriyas,
vaisyas and sudras, gains Supreme Knowledge.
Knowing it from the sastras and in actual prac­
tice, why do you still get confused ? You must clear your­
self by the authority of the srutis, your own reasoning and
immediate experience.
1 64. If birth be a fact, then death is inevitable. But
am Brahman who i s never born. lf I be that which is
born, this ' I ' cannot surely be Brahman. Therefore I am
that ' I ' which is birthless and deathless Brahman . "
1 65 & 1 66. Q. " If I am Brahman, how does i t happen
that I do not know this ' I ' ? "
A. " Who says ' l ' now ? "
Q. " The intellect. "
A . " The intellect gets lost in a swoon. That
which remai ns, never lost, as perfect Consciousness is ' I ' . "
Q. " This state of perfection is not clear to me.
How can I experience i t ? "
A . " There is the experience of happiness in deep
sleep, and it i s that. No happiness can be experienced
anywhere when a want i s felt. Therefore the Self must be
this perfection. This is the source of all .
1 67. The cosmos originated i n the i magination of the
mind. Reason shows that these worlds have their bei ng i n
that Consciousness. I f the enquiry is pursued into the self
as transcending all this and extending l imitless, I remain as
the one perfect Being. "
1 68. Disciple : " How should I remain, so that l may
experience what you have described as Bliss ? "
Master : " If you get rid of that mode of mind
which gives rise to the states of waking, dream and sleep,
you will remain as your true being and also experience Bl i ss.
1 69. I f you ask how to control the activities of the mind,
rising up from its l atencies : Rul e over the intellect and
senses as your sl aves. They will become extinct.
1 70. Also by gentle control of the breath which blows
l ike bel lows, the activities of the mind cease. I you are
not incl ined to practice this yoga, they will cease if you
root out the massi ve i gnorance of the causal body. Then
too the mi nd stops its activities. "
1 7 1 . Disciple : " By what means can 1 root out ignor­
ance, the causal body ? "
Master : " The srutis can never mislead one.
How can there be ignorance i f you frmly fix their teaching
in your mind : ' I am the all-perfect being in whom the
worlds appear ' ? "
1 72. Disciple : " How can I remain so when I engage
in worldly transactions, with wandering mind ? "
Master : " There is nothing apart from Me.
Whatever i s seen, i s of Me. I am I who i s consciousness
which sees all this as fictitious as my dream.

1 73. If you always remain aware that ' l ' am perfect
Consciousness, what does it matter how much you thi nk, o
what you do ? Al l this i s unreal l i ke dream vi sions after
waking. l am all-Bliss ! "
1 74- 1 77. Disciple : " I h ad i n my countless past incar­
nations mistaken the body for the self. High or low, seeing
al us a mirage, l have by the grace of my Master realised
the Self as ' I ' and been liberated.
What meritorious work have I done ' I cannot
describe my good fortune. 1 am blessed by the grace of
my master, Narayana, of Nannilam ! In my ecstasy I throw
up my cl oth in the air, and dance for joy !
How noble have my parents been tat they named
me Tandava (Dancer) as if they even then foresaw tat
I would be overpowered by the joy of having real i sed the
Self and therefore dance i n ecstasy !
Before whom shall I pour forth this ecstatic Bl iss
of mine ! It rises from within, surges up, fi l l s the whole
uni verse and floods unbounded !
I bow to the lotus feet of the Al mighty who was
so gracious as to bring me into contact with the Master
who could teach me the Tru th according to the holy texts !
* * * * *
1 78 & 179. Such is Vidyananda. Those who study this
work with devotion will realise the high state of Repose
and be liberated here and now. In order that al l may under­
stand clearly Vidyinanda, the true spirit of the Holy books,
in Nannilam Master Narnyana appeared i n my samidhi and
commanded me to make this Kaivalya Navaneeta perfect i n
every detail, and free from defect.
1 80. Through the Grace of his Lord, Tandavesa has
shown how, freeing oneself from interior and exterior, one
may be converted into the ONE ; and h aving been con­
vinced that the intended sense of the Vedas, which are
beyond thought, is " 1 ", and that the body and such are
but modes of Sound (Nida) , one may become al l eye and
sec everything within onesel.
1 8 1 . Those who, without wavering, recognise the One
Witness of bl azing lustre TiriyitUa which is perfected
i n the meani ng of those three most excellent words : ' That
thou art , wil l unravel the knot of ' diferences ' and over­
coming every obstacle, will be themselves converted into
the SELF.
1 82. This i s the " delight of knowledge " spoken of by
the Vedas. Those who worship the feet of Narayana, who
has described it, are without bl emish ; those who, through
t he teacher of thi s pupi l approach the stage i n which doubt
is fi ni shed and steadily go forward to Perfection, wil l obtain
spotless Emancipation.
1 83. The author has, through the two parts of thi s
work, kindled the sublime light of the Spirit, to the end that
the cleral darkness of Maya may perish and, clearing all
doubts ri si ng from mental knowledge which is affected by
diference, has subjected the disciple to himself.
I &4. Prai se, prai se to the author of my salvation ! He
pl aced on his head the Foot of Narayana, the Infinite Lord,
who had made him his slave, and who, by means of the
process of negation had destroyed what through imposi­
tion had arisen as a mere fctitious appearance, and put me
/ I
in such a condition that I, with eyes of Grace, can remain
for ever the Spectator.
1 85. 1 ust as the refreshingly cool water from the holy
feet of one's wise Master sprinkled on one's head confers
all the merits obtained from all the hol y pl aces of pi lgri­
mage, so also the learners of this unique work acquire the
merits of all the holy books and live as sages in the world.
No. The plane. of
I. Subhecchi
II. Vicharana
IlL Tanu-Manasi
IV. Satvapatti
V. Asamsakti
VI. Padarthi
VII. Turiya
VIII. Turiyatita
I Scheme Remarks
ligrat (the waking
Because the world is perceived
state) among the in them as ever before.
J nina-bhumikas
Svapna (dream)
Sushupti (sleep)
Dense Sushupti
Sublime Silenc
Videha Mukti
Because the Reality underlying
the world is realised and the
world itself appears like a
The darkness of ignorance is
totally lost and therefore it
corresponds to sleep in the
planes of enlightenment.
There i s no place for the cog­
nisor, the cognised and cogni­
tion. The person cannot him·
self wake up from this state
unless external infuences draw
him out forcibly.
Existence as the Self only,
whether manifest or unmani­
The state of Liberation after
II Scheme Remarks
Turiya. Because it is the
fourth in relation to the
three previous states.
Turiyatita. That which lies
beyond the Turiya.
Not taken into account
because there is nothing t o
speak of.
who is a bachelor,
learns the Vedas.
He is physically weak
and therefore stays i n
some chosen place.
However, he is engaged
in the qu�st of Truth.
who marries and become�
a householder. He per­
forms the rituals such
as Yajna, Yaga, etc.
He is strong and able to
visit the holy places.
He always moves about,
all along keeping his
spiritual quest i n view.
( l ) (&) (2) These two orders are
for persons who are detached from the
ties of home. Their detachment is of
the middling quality,
who retires as a recluse
for meditation and tapas
He goes to Satyaloka
after disembodiment from
this world and there
gains Liberation.
Jijnisu, i. e. , one who is
desirous of knowing the
Who has renounced the
world, and devotes him­
self to the spiritual quest
and realisation.
or a Jnini, i. e. , a rea­
lised sage. He is libe­
rated here and now.
( 3 ) & ( 4) These two orders of sanyas
are only for them whose detachment is
of the noblest kind, i.e., ingrained and
true. They do not care for anything
but the Truth.
a formal sanyisi who
observes rituals. He is
always a brahmin only.
an i nformal sanyisi who
is however highly deve­
loped, and therefore
does not care for rituals
and formality. He may
be of any caste, or even
a mleccha.