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physical world. Unlike those in films or witchcraft, they are exactly like us in all physical respects but without conscious experiences: by definition there is ‗nothing it is like‘ to be a zombie. Yet zombies behave just like us, and some even spend a lot of time discussing consciousness. Few people think zombies actually exist. But many hold they are at least conceivable, and some that they are possible. It is important to review two philosophical concepts (1) physicalism –the idea that the actual world and everything conforms to a certain condition, the condition of being physical or material and, (2) dualism –the idea that the universe and everything it is marked by a dualistic structure, such as Descartes mind-body distinctions. It is argued that if zombies are so much as a bare possibility, then physicalism is false and some kind of dualism is true. For many philosophers that is the chief importance of the zombie idea. But the idea is also of interest for its presuppositions about the nature of consciousness and how the physical and the phenomenal are related. Use of the zombie idea against physicalism also raises more general questions about relations between imaginability, conceivability, and possibility. Finally, zombies raise epistemological difficulties: they reinstate the ‗other minds‘ problem A philosophical zombie (p-zombie, for short) would be a human body without consciousness which would nevertheless behave like a human body with consciousness. To some philosophers (e.g., Daniel Dennett) this is a contradictory notion and thus an impossible conception. If it behaves like a person and is indistinguishable from a person, then it is a person. Other philosophers (e.g. Todd Moody and David Chalmers) argue that a p-zombie would be distinguishable from a person even though indistinguishable from a conscious person. It is distinguishable, say these philosophers, because it is stipulated that it is not conscious even though it is indistinguishable from a conscious being. In case you are wondering why philosophers would debate whether it is possible to conceive of a p-zombie, it is because some philosophers do not believe or do not want to believe that consciousness can be reduced to a set of materialistic functions. Important metaphysical and ethical issues seem to hinge on whether there can be p-zombies. Can machines be conscious? If we created a machine which was indistinguishable from a human person, would our artificial creation be a "person" with all the rights and duties of natural persons? To the p-zombie advocates, consciousness is more than brain processes and neurological functions. No adequate account of consciousness will ever be produced that is "reductionist," i.e., completely materialistic. I think it is possible to conceive of a machine which "perceives" without being aware of perceiving. In fact, they already exist: motion detectors, touch screens, tape recorders, smoke alarms, certain robots. An android which could process visual, auditory, tactile, olfactory and
gustatory input but which would lack self-consciousness, i.e., would not be aware of perceiving anything, is conceivable. We can even conceive of such machines resembling humans in the flesh. How would we distinguish such automata from persons? The same way we do now: by the imperfect and fallible methods of conversation and observation. But that is not what would make the two distinct; self-consciousness or the lack of it would distinguish the automata from persons. "Visual perception" by a motion detector is unlike visual perception by a person just because of the difference in awareness of perception, i.e., self-consciousness. A smoke detector might "smell" certain chemicals, but it does not process odors the way a person does. In my view, the only conceivable p-zombie would be a machine which perceives but has no awareness of perceiving, i.e., no self-consciousness. Such machines are essentially distinct from conscious persons. For what it's worth, I side with Dennett and those who think that the concept of the p-zombie is a logical absurdity. If the "zombie" exhibits all the symptoms of consciousness, then the "zombie" is not a zombie; for to exhibit all the symptoms of consciousness is to have consciousness, which the zombie is denied by definition.
1) A. B. C. D.
According to passage information, the main tenets of physicalism pre-suppose: A mind-body dualism A reduction to substance or matter X A logical leap between consciousness and perception A dualism between behavior and consciousness
Correct Answer: B In the answer (B) which is correct, we can infer that conforms (referenced below) represents a "reduction" The other options can be negated...physicalism which is opposed to dualism (A) (D), and (C) is buzz phrase - only sounding good, or not relevant to passage information: (1) physicalism –the idea that the actual world and everything conforms to a certain condition, the condition of being physical or material
2) A. B. C. D.
Philosophical zombie advocates maintain that Behavior is conditioned and reducible to consciousness Consciousness is always Consciousness of Someone or Some Thing Behavior is always a sign of the inner workings of Consciousness Consciousness is not reducible to physical functions X
Correct Answer: D
. Zombies are represented by a motive which assumes consciousness X Correct Answer: D All answers (A) (B) & (C) do not necessarily follow --they require too much of a logical leap. completely materialistic. No adequate account of consciousness will ever be produced that is "reductionist.. Zombies are represented by an ―Otherness‖ which assumes ―Identity‖ D. consciousness is more than brain processes and neurological functions.e. Zombies are represented by behavior which assumes consciousness B.I & II are essentially the same answer.making (C) the best choice option. "Motive" or "Intention" would be a sign of consciousness.(D) represents the best choice option." i. it does not logically follow that we can infer ―mentality. 3) In contemporary media and popular films. How often do . which of the following.. 4) Of the following assertions.. and can be inferred to be correct. D. mentioned in Paragraph 1 to be? I Even though we can perceive the behavior of others. III Perceptions of Others is always subjective A. not internal states of others. Certain machines and Amoeba all possess "behavior" "movement" and ―Otherness" but not necessarily "consciousness‖ ―Self" or "Identity" which are all to an extent a "human" construct. III only I & III I & II X II & III Correct Answer: C This complex-sounding question and answer option . Zombies are represented by movement which assumes a ―Self‖ C. B.‖ II We can only assert the existence of others through behavior. what can one infer the ―other minds‖ problem. referenced in the assertion below: To the p-zombie advocates. . BEST supports the idea that p-zombies exist? A. affirming (D) as the correct inference. C.
It was based on the staggeringly false cliché that "the only good bug is a dead bug. Thus. to say nothing of ancillary problems of much importance. 5) It can be inferred. Primitive man lived as an integral part of the living and non-living environment.. could also include behavior. Consciousness X Correct Answer: D This easy. detail-oriented question. of paramount importance. (C) is also partially correct. some of which embody greater attacks on the biosphere. Physicalism B. Dualism C. ecological consequences of vital concern. through use of modern synthetic chemical pesticides.. Because of his success and his awesome technology for modifying the world in achieving that success. often creating pest situations worse than the original ones. we have developed deadly. persistent pesticides and used them too indiscriminately and in ignorance of. not their internal state.. developed single-mindedly with no real regard for ecological consequences. is of course (D) which is at the heart of the debate.that is we can only judge a person by their behavior.we ask "how are you feeling?" or "are you doing ok? based on non-verbal cues of behavior. man has developed an "advanced" technology of pest control. Among his technologies. from passage information that at the core of the argument. (A) and (B) are related but only to the extent that they are philosophical reflections on the debate. This technology can only buy time while we find a solution to the main problem of human population growth and establish a redirection of all our technologies along more compatible ecological lines. man now faces the dilemma that if he proceeds as he has been he will destroy or greatly lessen the earth's capacity to sustain life. . since our perception of Others. It was.. shelter." and on the incomprehensible premise that each pest problem is a separate one — with no entangling feedback loops disturbing to crop-protection objectives. achieved a high degree of perfection in terms of control of insect pests for a time. he has progressively taken on a more dominant role in the chain of life. however.. broad-spectrum. himself included.. Perception D. and the pleasures of his own leisure. but as his proficiency to further his own ends has advanced. to (D) Passage 2 The history of man is a history of his modifying his environment to suit his own needs and desires for food. but secondary. is the notion of: A. Pest-control technology.III is too grand a statement. and disregard for.therefore this answer can be deduced to be incorrect.
This can lead to resurgence. The herbicide 2. The more rapid the resurgence. Immediate hazards to man and wildlife that enter the treated areas. this has usually been due to disturbing effects on their natural enemies: Destruction of honey bees and other important pollinating insects and hazards to the applicators (many deaths and much sickness). Resistance has developed in many target species. Large numbers of insect species that have not been examined are subject to the same selection for resistance. etc. What is the main idea of the passage? The development of pest control and various pesticides The ecological effects of pest control on other insects Pesticide use must be controlled more effectively The development of pest control and its adverse consequences X . Destruction of key natural enemies can be indirect. 6) A. often more so than the pest. B. etc. 5-T is apparently being withdrawn from the market for fear of adverse effects on man and livestock during pregnancy. directly affecting the natural enemies of the target pest. on important estuary anthropods. for example. they will already possess a significant resistance to pesticides. Drainage of pesticides into lakes and rivers has caused great kills of fish and much public alarm. 4. for example. Hazard to crop culture on the same ground (overload of persistent pesticides in the soil. Data collected shows the number of resistant species has been increasing rapidly since the early 1950's and now stands at about 240. The changes in pest species that allow them to survive at higher and higher concentrations of insecticides are genetic and result from natural selection. perhaps of no economic importance. D. this tells the story only of known pests. In addition there are hazards to non-target organisms in places well removed from the treated area. has moved widely in the biosphere — it is found in sea life at the Antarctic.). ospreys. When and if these unknown resistant insects erupt as agricultural pests. Most materials are nonselective.Among the adverse consequences of a single-objective pesticide technology are the following generalizations. Unfortunately. DDT. is concentrated. Rapid resurgence of the pest species then occurs. on grazing livestock and even man himself as a result of residues on crops or range or in fish. and eagles that feed high on the food chains and especially on ones living around estuaries where DDT. and resistance to alternate materials then used often develops even faster. through too severe destruction of the target pest itself (the enemies starve out) and through destruction of some alternate prey species. the more rapidly is resistance developed. This includes significant influences on birds like pelicans. Other important considerations: Previously secondary pests or entirely innocuous species are commonly unleashed. C.
. Genetic mutation of non-target species D.. Rapid resurgence of species quantitatively X C. "fabrication or falsehood" (redundant) like saying "false false" C.. except (C) are partially correct. this has usually been due to disturbing effects on their natural enemies . The term expresses the notion a ―fabrication‖ or ―falsehood. The term equates to ―a general principle.. "general principle" (not really.‖ B.‖ C.Correct Answer: D Only (D) is generalized and specific enough to warrant as the main idea or thesis. Ineffectiveness of alternative pesticides Correct Answer: B All answers. 8) What can be inferred about the meaning of the term ―cliché‖ used in Paragraph 3. The term expresses the notion of ―witty saying‖ Correct Answer: C (C) can be inferred to be correct. from passage information. even in one does not understand the meaning of the term "cliche'" by filling in the blank method.) B. 5-T is apparently being withdrawn from the market for fear of adverse effects on man and livestock during pregnancy. which clearly denotes (B) as the best choice option. The herbicide 2. It was based on the staggeringly false ____________ that "the only good bug is a dead bug. based on contextual passage information? A. to get an idea of context and appropriateness. "worn out phrase" (correct) D "witty saying" (incorrect) 9) Which of the following assertions. Destruction of non-target species B. (C) though implied is never really stated outright as a statement of policy (should or should not). 4. The other notions or too specific or too general. Previously secondary pests or entirely innocuous species are commonly unleashed.such mutation is never discussed in relation to "non-target" species. BEST represents speculation or conjecture? A. (D) is significant as is (A) but not in terms of the effects of resistance from a target species." A.. B. The term equates to ―a worn out phrase‖ X D. 7) Which of the following BEST represents the effects of resistance to pesticides from a target species? A.
on the basis that they are too general and unfocused in relation to passage information. Control of technology is needed. X Correct Answer: D All answers are statements of facts. despite the generalities concerning "technology" in the first and second paragraph. C. 10) Which assertion below BEST represents the inferred line of reasoning in support of the author‘s thesis? A. X B. . the phrase ―no entangling feedback loops‖ assumes which of the following? I the environment is. based on the claim and evidence supporting the claim. . that is they are true or false." and in the correct answer (D) which states "When and if these . an open system II technological effects ―chain out‖ to other species III environmental species are not interrelated A. I & II X II & III I & III III only Correct Answer: A .C. When and if these unknown resistant insects erupt as agricultural pests. Technological advances are simultaneously a blessing and a curse Correct Answer: A Negate 3 out of 4 Deduction type of Question (B) (C) (D) can be deduced to be incorrect." "Imagine the consequences . 11) According to contextual passage information. B. D. actually. C." which qualifies it as the best choice option. Man is out of control with technological advances D. . Pest control and pesticide regulation is needed. leaving the specific idea of (A) as the best choice option. Pest-control technology. Speculation and conjecture usually assumes the form of ―hypothetical examples or scenarios" marked by "Should this happen . through use of modern synthetic chemical pesticides. . . achieved a high degree of perfection in terms of control of insect pests for a time D. . in Paragraph 3. they will already possess a significant resistance to pesticides.
We may boast of the empire of Henry II and the prowess of Richard I. coming from outside and exempt from local prejudice. Gilbert. The English language went underground. The Norman was more alien to the Mercian than had been Northumbrian or West-Saxon. but they fill the pages of England's history from the days of Harold to those of Edward I. and in both cases the steady pressure of a superimposed civilization tended to obliterate local and class divisions. Geoffrey. 12) Which of the following WOULD NOT be an ―ancillary‖ problem associated with the use of pesticides? A. or Robert had played any part in Anglo-Saxon affairs. Stephen. earls. From the passage information. and we may celebrate the organized law and justice. and their place is taken by names beginning with "fitz" and distinguished by "de. With Waltheof and Hereward English names disappear from English history. Thomas. ministers. We may now feel pride in the strength of our conqueror or pretend claims to descent from William's companions.An open system is based on the flow of mass and energy. we can deduce that III is incorrect." Their common lot. from the roll of sovereigns. all (B) (C) & (D) would be considered "ancillary" problems in relation to the "main" problem of (A) Passage 3 For nearly two centuries (1066 -1272) after the Norman Conquest there is no history of the English people. Peripheral destruction of natural enemies Correct Answer: A We must understand that "ancillary" means "secondary" "accompanying" or "peripheral" not the "main" problem. Foreigners ruled and owned the land. Secondary pests being released D. (I) & (II) express this dynamism of a "feedback loop" -being the best choice answer: on the incomprehensible premise that each pest problem is a separate one — with no entangling feedback loops disturbing to crop-protection objectives. Though significant in their own right. Henry. The Norman. Richard. There is history enough of England. the scholarship and the architecture. and sheriffs." No William. Drainage of pesticides into lakes and rivers C. Destruction of the target species X B.Saxon among an upper class which wrote Latin and spoke French. John. and rival tribes at last discovered a bond of unity in the impartial rigour of their masters. just as Englishmen bring the same ideas to bear upon all parts of India. such as an ecosystem. applied the same methods of government and exploitation to all parts of England. bishops. of the early Plantagenet period. Unwittingly Norman and Angevin despotism made an English nation out of Anglo - . and "native" became synonymous with "serf. the thin trickle of Anglo-Saxon literature dried up. but it is the history of a foreign government. gave birth to a common feeling. however. as well as effects and information between all the constituents of the system. for there was no demand for Anglo. but these things were no more English than the government of India to day is Hindu. because genera and species are inter-related. and became the patois of peasants.
The Dominance of the English before Establishment of a Political System B. His burh was inferior to the Norman castle. they had no equals in that age. . and the greater the problems it stores up for the future.Saxon tribes. The problem for William and his companions was how to organize this military superiority as a means of orderly government. They had no written law of their own. On the other hand. Foreign Influences on the Development of English Culture C. They could not have stood against a nation in arms. Linguistic Influence in Pre-Monarchical England Correct Answer: C Since all answers are partially correct. and his barons had to control their vassals. Pollard 13) The BEST title for this passage could be inferred to be: A. and they were able to enforce it because. either individually or collectively. William had to control his barons. Their methods have been summed up in the phrase. it has been humorously suggested that the feudal system was really introduced into England by Sir Henry Spelman. Adapted from The History of England: A Study in Political Evolution by A. and the Anglo-Saxon warrior was no match for his Norman rival. a seventeenth-century scholar. but to secure themselves they had to enforce order upon their schismatic subjects. as military experts. and he had none of the coherence that was forced upon the conquerors by the iron hand of William and by their situation amid a hostile people. of which (C) represents the best choice option. but the increasing cost of equipment and the growth of poor and landless classes among the AngloSaxons had transferred the military business of the nation into the hands of large landowning specialists. The more efficient a despotism. unless it can divest itself of its despotic attributes and make common cause with the nation it has created. as English despotism has made a nation out of Irish septs. so far from feudalism being introduced from Normandy into England. The provision of this even-handed tyranny was the great contribution of the Normans to the making of England. while none of the others are as encompassing.F. it would be truer to say that feudalism was introduced from England into Normandy. the sooner it makes itself impossible." which William is still popularly supposed to have introduced into England. The Developmental Origins of ―The Feudal System‖ in England X D. Others have maintained that. All discussions of (A) (B) and (C) culminate and are pointed towards the idea of a "feudal system" in the last paragraph. and this problem wore a twofold aspect. we must find a unilateral distinction. and thence spread throughout France. and will make another out of the hundred races and religions of our Indian empire. his shield and battle-axe to the weapons of the mailed and mounted knight. the "feudal system. or the answer which is encompassing of the others.
15) One can infer from passage information. and in both cases the steady pressure of a superimposed civilization tended to obliterate local and class divisions. in a political and/or militaristic fashion.. just as Englishmen bring the same ideas to bear upon all parts of India. applied the same methods of government and exploitation to all parts of England. that the Despotism of ―foreign‖ occupation results in: I obliteration of class divisions II maintenance of the native language III imposition of religious dogma A. 16) In the 3rd paragraph.the "English" language went underground. its relevance or imposition on English subjects is never mentioned. India X Correct Answer: D This detail-oriented question can be inferred to be (D) after a close reading or re-scan. II does not make sense.14) The author makes continual and one could infer. a contemporaneous (at that time) comparison with the English involvement in: A. being equated with "serfs" and "peasants. according to the passage." while III seems a likely effect. D. what is the implication of the phrase ―schismatic subjects?‖ . coming from outside and exempt from local prejudice. Ireland D.. which suggests that at the time of the writing. making (A) I only the correct answer: The Norman. B. Great Britain was occupying India. I only X I & II II & III I & III Correct Answer: A Only I can be inferred from passage information. C. France B. Germany C.
According to Robert H. policy decisions. is NOT true? Which is the exception? A. The Feudal System started in Normandy X Correct Answer: D Only (D) can be considered fallacious. methods of inquiry. according to passage information. but is not synonymous with them. Passage 4 Definitions of critical thinking vary in breadth or inclusiveness. and could not bear arms or might against the advances of the Normans. implies curiosity. Critical thinking. The Anglos and Saxons were tribes from England D. such as problem solving or decision making. Only (C) can be inferred to be correct within this context . . critical thinking is formulation and use of criteria to make warranted judgments about knowledge claims. and rationality. skepticism. Ennis "Critical thinking is reflective and reasonable thinking that is focused on deciding what to believe or do. normative statements. is an essential element of general cognitive processes. and this is the subject matter of the last paragraph. Critical thinking.A. or any other object of concern. The other statements (of fact) are true. whether conceived broadly or narrowly. The English language was associated with Serfdom during this period. or inquiry. 17) Which of the following assertions. problem solving. Broad definitions equate critical thinking with the cognitive processes and strategies involved in decision making. C. notions. B." Limited definitions focus on evaluation or appraisal. Rival political systems were in place in England Barons and vassals needed to be coordinated in arms The tribes or classes of England at the time were split apart X Subjects were marked by dualistic religious and political ideas Correct Answer: C The paragraph has to be viewed as the Norman imposition of power on the phrase in question. defined narrowly. B. reflection. C. alternative positions on public issues. The Norman Conquest came from French invaders. D.the Anglos and Saxons were essentially split by tribal cultures.
methods. experience. or communication. conceptualizations. significance. definitions. claims. critical thinking is commonly understood to involve commitment to the social and political practice of participatory democracy. reflection. willingness to imagine or remain open to considering alternative perspectives. In one sense. relevance. analyzing. Critical thinking employs not only logic but broad intellectual criteria such as clarity. evaluation. historical background Relevant criteria for making the judgment well Applicable methods or techniques for forming the judgment Applicable theoretical constructs for understanding the problem and the question at hand In addition to possessing strong critical-thinking skills. analysis. as a guide to belief and action" More recently. and/or evaluating information gathered from. context.Critical thinkers have a propensity to raise and explore questions about beliefs. inference. interpretation. which uses reasoned consideration to evidence. explanation. critical thinking has been described as ―the correct assessing of statements. breadth. accuracy. and willingness to foster criticality in others. The list of core critical thinking skills includes observation. reasoning. evidence. conclusions. and criteria. There is a reasonable level of consensus among experts that an individual or group engaged in strong critical thinking gives due consideration to: • • • • • Evidence through observation Context – setting or environment. self-regulatory judgment. and actions. precision. applying. synthesizing.‖ It has also been described popularly as "thinking about thinking." Within the critical social theory philosophical frame. or generated by. willingness to integrate new or revised perspectives into our ways of thinking and acting." It has been described in a much more comprehensive sense as "the intellectually disciplined process of actively and skillfully conceptualizing. depth. one must be disposed to engage problems and decisions using those skills. critical thinking has been described as " the process of purposeful. and fairness. credibility. observation. . and meta-cognition.
which result when thinkers fail to appraise fundamental assumptions or standards. is specific. ethnocentric. or observation Sufficiency – is quantitatively sound. General cognitive process of problem-solving and decision-making D. Thinking focused on what to believe. Reflections involving the applications of methodology C. Focusing on how we know what we know X Correct Answer: D Although (D) is related --it is more of a philosophical question. more suitable to the subdiscipline in philosophy known as "Epistemology" Notice that the other answers (A) (B) & (C) are directed towards assessments. They understand the concept of critical thinking only within conventional frames of reference of a society. Critical Thinking has been defined a number of different ways. Criteria for evaluation or judgment X B.In an article for The Center of Skeptical Inquiry James Lett listed six rules. sense focuses on: A. more profound. not overgeneralized Logic – proceeds from a deduction Comprehensiveness – adequately covers what it purports to cover Honesty – is ethically and morally sound Replicability – can be repeated in a study. Rationality in decision-making D. This deeper level of critical thinking counteracts egocentric. that a critical thinker may utilize: • • • • • • Falsifiability – has limited scope. in a broader. or doctrinaire judgments. evaluations. A more profound view encourages appraisal of frameworks or sets of criteria by which judgments are made. Focused efforts towards social consensus . or values. The correct assessment of statements B. 18) Within the passage. there is ―enough‖ data Many proponents of critical thinking stop short of evaluating the most basic criteria. Which of the following CANNOT BE inferred to be a definition of Critical Thinking? A. 19) Critical Thinking. by which they make judgments. decide or do C. or problem-solving in general. or tests.
in the broader sense of the term. II. 20) Based on passage information.which in a sense.. theoretical issue involving proper methods of research. is usually viewed as critical thinking in the narrower sense. & III II & III I & III I only X Correct Answer: D . etc. is an impossibility.al.. C. (D) focused efforts towards social consensus. Thinking about thinking X D. Thinking beyond thinking Correct Answer: C (A) & (B) share the same Latin or Greek root (etymology) but neither of these terms can be inferred to be the definition of meta-cognition. concerns persuasion. (C) rationality in decision-making.. et. setting.Correct Answer: A (B) is a technical. II both refer to context. which of the following is the BEST definition of ―metacognition?‖ A. and/or environment III only Lett‘s rules can be inferred to include the logic of deduction A. Thinking metaphysically B. D. Thinking metaphorically C. I. campaigns.the passage information makes it quite clear that (A) is considered critical thinking. support coalitions. leaving (C) which is what the passage is generally about & (D) thinking beyond thinking . 21) The ―core critical thinking‖ skills in the 3rd paragraph differ from Lett‘s rules or observations in which of the following ways? I the first is a relatively ―macro‖ approach (general appraisal). B. while the second is relatively a ―micro‖ (focused and specific) approach. making (C) the best choice option answer.
is determined by the ..(C) is incorrect. and not inclusive of the other material within the passage. Criteria for evaluating policies or judgments usually do not carry cultural biases X D. 23) How would a "deeper level of critical thinking (NOT) counteract egocentric. As a detail-oriented question this can be deduced from a close reading or re-scan of both lists of skills or criterion. The Narrow and Broad Definitions of Critical Thinking C. there is really no application of the notions within the passage. you might think. as created by a musical instrument or one‘s voice. 22) The BEST title for this passage could be inferred to be: A.(B) & (D) would help identify any of the biased tendencies carried with the question.‖ It‘s an easy question. ethnocentric. A musical note.. leaving the most inclusive and correct answer (D). Passage 5-New Passage Excerpts What is a musical note? This is one of the deceptively simple questions asked and answered by John Powell in his fascinating book. ―How Music Works. Critical Thinking and Its Application D.. Implicit assumptions or standards may be hasty or illogical C. An Overview of Critical Thinking Skills X Correct Answer: D (A) is too over the top. Meta Metacognition: Critical Thinking B.Only (I) (D) can be inferred to be true based on passage information.thinking about thinking about thinking? too much here to qualify as the Best title. or doctrinaire judgments?" Which is the exception? A. Unstated leaps between claims and evidence may carry fallacious claims Correct Answer: C Similar pair options type of question All(A). (B) is too specific. only (C) would NOT counteract such tendencies. Uncritical judgments concerning a policy or statement may be self-serving B. because the assumption is already made that criteria for evaluation do not carry such tendencies.
This one is rough though. or I have a passage on Avian Flu. is a repeating pattern of sound waves (which distinguishes it from the chaotic sound waves of nonmusical noises). Powell provides a chapter on how and where to listen to music. For those who approach music more passively. For instance. pianos are easier. Violins are too hard. After explaining the meaning of musical terms. a timbre. Powell then interprets those strange-looking symbols found in a piece of sheet music. and still needs to be pieced together in a coherent form. which is written in a language that is as foreign to most of us as Sanskrit. who is both physicist and musician.frequency of the sound waves produced. that‘s not a note. that‘s a chord. then move the speakers around to get the best sound.‖ Jeanne. a duration. He brings his explanations to life with a wide range of examples. He explains every common musical term. from ―key‖ to ―bar‖ to ―scale.‖ Powell says. pulled from many different sources. And for those who would like to use their newly acquired musical education to make their own music. A note. H5N1 – and fears of bio-warfare because of experiments in the Netherlands.‖ Starting with the four properties of a note. a certain type of chord called an arpeggio is found in ―Hotel California‖ by the Eagles. uses easy-to-follow. Powell offers advice on how to choose an appropriate first instrument. Well. He also answers a question that is being passionately debated by audiophiles all over the world: ―Are vinyl records better than CDs?‖ The answer. It is amazing that after a few hours of Powell‘s explanations. he says. conversational language to lead the reader into the science of music.‖ He differentiates a concerto from a sonata and shows how composers use chords to create harmonies. Wrong. Let me know. I could expand on this another 100 words. while a complex harmony called counterpoint was used by Bach in his concertos.000 on ―a special listening room. the basic building block of all music. 24) 25) 26) 27) 28) Passage 6 . is no. Nope. It ―consists. and a pitch. the author. Those favoring vinyl are victims of ―technology nostalgia. ―of four things: a loudness. a musical novice (like me) can begin to read music. Instead of spending $75. one can surely form a note by simultaneously depressing several related piano keys.‖ he advises us to install our equipment in a normal room. that would be the note‘s pitch.
called the Planck length. where a' is pronounced "alpha prime" and is equal to the square of the string length scale. If string theory is to be a theory of quantum gravity. they have tension. and included in the excitations of a string in string theory is a particle with zero mass and two units of spin. This has been known by theoretical physicists for a long time. In string theory. For gravitons. However. General relativity has yielded a wealth of insight into the Universe. at zero distance between the interacting particles. but the calculations that are supposed to describe Nature become useless. Relativistic quantum field theory has worked very well to describe the observed behaviors and properties of elementary particles. string theory was proposed as an explanation for the observed relationship between mass and spin for certain particles called hadrons. then the particle that would carry the gravitational force would have zero mass and two units of spin. But the zero distance behavior is such that we can combine quantum mechanics and gravity. In string theory. then the average size of a string should be somewhere near the length scale of quantum gravity. Think of a guitar string that has been tuned by stretching the string under tension across the guitar. though. the evolution of stars and galaxies. and Quantum Chromodynamics eventually proved a better theory for hadrons. If there were a good quantum theory of gravity. This doesn't mean that string theory is not without its deficiencies. These musical notes could be said to be excitation modes of that guitar string under tension. Unfortunately. In a similar manner. the strings collide over a small but finite distance. However. But the theory itself only works well when gravity is so weak that it can be neglected. The string tension in string theory is denoted by the quantity 1/(2 p a'). which include the proton and neutron. the elementary particles we observe in particle accelerators could be thought of as the "musical notes" or excitation modes of elementary strings. Depending on how the string is plucked and how much tension is in the string. they aren't tied down to a guitar. the string must be stretched under tension in order to become excited. This is because particle interactions occur at a single point of space time.String Theory was proposed to try to reconcile quantum mechanics and particle theory. One can add a graviton to quantum field theory by hand. the strings in string theory are floating in space-time. the mathematics behaves so badly at zero distance that the answers just don't make sense. this means that strings are way too small to see by current or expected particle . in string theory. and the answers do make sense. Particle theory only works when we pretend gravity doesn't exist. as in guitar playing. But particles in string theory arise as excitations of the string. This theorized particle is called the graviton. Originally. which is about 1033 centimeters. the orbits of planets. Nonetheless. and we can talk sensibly about a string excitation that carries the gravitational force. the theory itself only works when we pretend that the Universe is purely classical and that quantum mechanics is not needed in our description of Nature. the Big Bang and recently observed black holes and gravitational lenses. or about a millionth of a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a centimeter. Things didn't work out. different musical notes will be created by the string.
while (D) is too specific on aspects of String theory in general. which of the following describes the properties of a graviton? I have a corresponding fermion and boson II has zero mass and two units of spin III are mathematically verifiable A. String theory – from the graviton to supersymmetry Correct Answer: C Since both quantum mechanics and particle physics are considered to be theoretical physics (C) represents the best choice answer. 29) The main idea or thesis of the passage is: A. A general overview of string theory in relation to theoretical physics X D. which means for every boson (particle that transmits a force) there is a corresponding fermion (particle that makes up matter). Particle physics and an exploration of the implications of string theory C. 30) According to passage information. The assessments must include whether or not the particle spectrum includes fermions. (A) & (B) only reflect one of the two. So supersymmetry relates the particles that transmit forces to the particles that make up matter. D. C. In order to include fermions in string theory. String theory – an augmentation of quantum mechanics B.physics technology and so string theorists must devise more clever methods to test the theory than just looking for little strings in particle experiments. because the passage focuses on how string theory provides a general overview and a connection between the two. there must be a special kind of symmetry called supersymmetry. B. though never directly observable thus far. I I & II II only X II & III Correct Answer: C .
but: String theories are classified according to whether or not the strings are required to be closed loops 33) What is the major theoretical drawback of the notions proposed by String Theory? A. The hadron. String theory itself is unobservable. The properties and degree of gravity X C. to a certain extent. B. All types of strings are closed loops X String Theory attempts to philosophically ―verify‖ gravitational spin All types of strings roughly correspond to the size of Planck length The string tension is equal to the square root of the string length Correct Answer: A All are true except (A) it does not state this in the passage.Only II or (C) describes the properties of the graviton. gravity must be considered primary. as asked in the question. The graviton lacks explanatory power for gravitational spin B. Classical thermodynamic notions of energy and volume Correct Answer: B At the very basis of discussion. Supersymmetry between boson and fermion D. Classical Physics and Quantum Mechanics really cannot be reconciled on a scientific basis Correct Answer: C . all the other notions are related. D. which of the following assertions. C. its main weakness. which can be affirmed by a close reading or re-scan. Strings cannot be empirically quantified. but not at the core. 31) It can be inferred from passage information. in relation to String Theory is false? Which is the exception? A. made up of a proton and neutron B. ruling out III. 32) Based on passage information. Fermions and bosons are associated with supersymmetry. nor observed in experiment X D. therefore considered a hasty generalization C. that at the basic core of discussions of String theory is: A. Supersymmetry is too specific.
Passage 7 I believe that the use of noise to make music will continue and increase until we reach a music produced through the aid of electrical instruments which will make available for musical purposes any and all sounds that can be heard. custom noise software. hiss and hum. that represents the beginning of noise music proper. He defines noise at different times as "intrusive. as was the Dada art movement (a prime example being the Antisymphony concert performed on April 30. in which an audience sits through four and a half minutes of "silence" (Cage 1973). noise. feedback. atonality. dissonance. not being appropriate" and "a threatening emptiness". circuit bent instruments. Hegarty contends that it is John Cage's composition 4'33". In defining noise music and its value. indeterminacy. Indeed. is that music made up of incidental sounds that represent perfectly the tension between "desirable" sound (properly . live machine sounds. specifically the Fluxus artists of the 60‘s and 70‘s which included noise experimenters such as Joe Jones and Yoko Ono Contemporary noise music is often associated with extreme volume and distortion. Georges Bataille and Theodor Adorno and through their work traces the history of "noise". various types of acoustically or electronically generated noise.Clearly (C) is the best answer. unwanted. replacing it with a sparkling Allegro. Paul Hegarty (2007) cites the work of noted cultural critics Jean Baudrillard. Strings are only theoretical. Noise music can feature distortion. in his article Noise as Permanent Revolution. and non-traditional musical instruments. They cannot be observed. —John Cage The Future of Music: Credo Noise music is a term used to describe varieties of avant-garde music and sound art that may use elements such as cacophony. static. as with 4'33". "noise music". Noise music may also incorporate manipulated recordings. lo-fi music. However. For Hegarty. industrial techno. Genres such as industrial. randomly produced electronic signals." "lacking skill. The Futurist art movement was important for the development of the noise aesthetic. He traces these trends starting with 18th century concert hall music. Various definitions of noise music shift over time. and repetition in their realization. Ben Watson. They subsequently published it separately. Sonic Youth and Lou Reed's Metal Machine Music. many noise musicians are keenly aware of dynamics and build them into their pieces. Beethoven‘s publishers persuaded him to remove it from its original setting as the last movement of a string quartet. He did so. 1919 in Berlin). points out that Ludwig van Beethoven‘s Grosse Fuge (1825) ―sounded like noise‖ to his audience at the time. particularly in the popular music domain with examples such as Jimi Hendrix's use of feedback. and non-musical vocal elements that push noise towards the ecstatic. black metal and glitch music employ noise-based materials.and later the Surrealist and Fluxus art movements.
from this perspective. which can be deduced to be incorrect. Writer Douglas Kahn. the signal contains equal power within a fixed bandwidth at any center frequency. In other words. or change the meaning of a message in both human and electronic communication. George Brecht. White noise is considered analogous to white light which contains all frequencies. C. distort. Which of the following is NOT representative of passage detail? A. distortion pedals. al. echoes. White noise is a random signal (or process) with a flat power spectral density. 34) It can be inferred from passage information that ―Noise‖ at its basic level is: A. for Michel Serres (1982) The Parasite. Noise can block. In electronics noise can refer to the electronic signal corresponding to acoustic noise (in an audio system) or the electronic signal corresponding to the (visual) noise commonly seen as 'snow' on a degraded television or video image. Water. Meat: A History of Sound in the Arts (1999). Serres views noise as the beginning of order B. yet none of the others can encompass it. Attali explores noise as a predictor of social values . the word noise means unwanted sound or noise pollution. et. Oddly enough. In signal processing or computing it can be considered data without meaning. William Burroughs. B. 35) There are many critics discussed within the passage. Fluctuation Disorder X Change Distortion Correct Answer: B Unilateral Distinction type of question – which term encompasses all the others. and other variations of the noise motif. One can certainly view aesthetic movements as introductions of dissonance within established orders. Such as the introduction of noise and dissonance in rock and roll music. that is. (B) is the obvious choice here it is pretty much inclusive of the other answers except (C) change. In common use.played musical notes) and undesirable "noise" that make up all noise music from Erik Satie to NON to Glenn Branca. He indicates that noise in music is a predictor of social change and demonstrates how noise acts as the subconscious of society – validating and testing new social and political realities. Jacques Attali explores the relationship between noise music and the future of society. noise factors in as the beginning of order or novelty. In Noise: The Political Economy of Music (1985). data that is not being used to transmit a signal. Each has a particular view of noise. with the use of various gadgetry. Sergei Eisenstein. but is simply produced as an unwanted by-product of other activities. D. such as stomp boxes. discusses the use of noise as a medium and explores the ideas of Antonin Artaud. in his work Noise.
"objectively" created. We can infer that implicitly what constitutes "noise" for one can be "harmony" for another.the example smacks of elitism. while others using noise in music at the same time. All are representative except Watson who is considered in the passage in regard to "Beethoven's" noisy composition. only to provide a juxtaposition . D. B. C.there were many popular examples way before Cage. 37) Implicit within the passage argument.. The divisions between music and noise are measurable Music and Noise constitute a spectrum of meaning What constitutes the meaning of Music is socially constructed Musical tonality is entirely random X . Being too general – hasty and overarching Being telescopic – fits his theory X Being too selective – the example is obvious Being too specific – not enough range or examples Correct Answer: B (B) is the correct answer in this question. Subjectively Received X Objectively Recorded Intentionally Composed Randomly Distributed Correct Answer: A While (C) and (D) are true. (B) is kind a wrong sort of notion. unwanted. Rock and Roll are all examples of this line of reasoning. D... 38) Following the same line of argument indicated in the above question.. Kahn explores noise as a medium D.. B. is the idea that noise in music is: A. Watson views noise as ―intrusive.C. B.‖ X Correct Answer: D This detail-oriented question can be deduced to be (D) after close reading or a re-scan..counter to (A) the correct choice. they are hardly implicit.. are excluded to the benefit of someone being a semi-famous "composer and pianist" --because of this . 36) Hegarty‘s claims of noise music starting with John Cage‘s composition 4’ 33” (roughly 4 and half minutes of silence) could be criticized for: A. one could further infer that: A. D. the example fits his theory. Electronic Music. C.they are mentioned explicitly in the passage information. C.
. from the question directly above. C. C.A social construction infers the use of symbol making and common usage. would deduce that (A) the aesthetics of music is created symbolically... B. D. 40) Which artist or musician represented below transformed the noise of feedback into musical ―harmony‖ inferred from passage information? A. contentious in its own right. The other answers are created distractions. B. The aesthetics of music is created symbolically X The aesthetics of music is non-referential The aesthetics of music is meaningless The aesthetics of music is entirely quantifiable Correct Answer: A This line of reasoning extends one step further.Correct Answer: C If the idea of music is subjectively received and meaning is attached. we must logically deduce that (C) what constitutes the meaning of music is socially constructed.. D. yet arguable. one could make the assertion that: A. 39) If one follows the argument one step further. Yoko Ono Jimi Hendrix Lou Reed Beethoven X Correct Answer: B This detail-oriented question can be affirmed to be (B) Jimi Hendrix after a close reading or passage re-scan.