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Variables - Characteristics of observations - May be qualitative/quali (nominal, ordinal) or quantitative/quanti (interval, ratio) Primary data Secondary data - from

the study of another researcher/organization Cross-section data

Systematic sampling - just like SRS but drawing is for every 2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th, etc... element, depending on N/n - Note: The concept of a Random Start

Time series data - Observations are taken over time

Stratified sampling - all groups, some units - done if population units are assumed or found to be different or heterogenous with respect to the variable/s of interest - elements are grouped in such a way that all elements in one particular group are already similar or homogenous with respect to the variable/s of interest - SRS or systematic sampling is then done for each group or stratum Cluster sampling - some groups, all or some units - still, an SRS of groups or clusters is done - avoid leaving out a cluster/certain clusters on purpose - usually done if researcher cannot reach/access all possible clusters Multi-stage sampling -

Nominal - Mere labels / values Ordinal - Values can be ordered from highest to lowest and vice versa - unknown distance from one value to another Interval - known distance - no natural zero Ratio -

Non-probability sampling like interval but there is a natural zero Judgment sampling

Population Sample Probability sampling Simple random sampling (SRS) - the usual random drawing of elements - done if population units are assumed or found to be similar or homogenous with respect to the variable/s of interest

Snowball sampling Convenience sampling Quota sampling Raw data Textual presentation Tabular presentation -

Frequency distribution table - values of qualitative variables as classes - ranges of values of quantitative variables as classes o classes should have the same size and should involve all values in the sample Class Frequency Relative frequency - frequency over sample size Percent frequency - relative frequency x 100 Cumulative frequency - sum of frequency of class under consideration and those of preceding classes Cumulative relative frequency Cumulative percent frequency Class limits - two ends of a class Class boundaries - usually, lower limit minus 0.5 and upper limit plus 0.5 Class mark - average of limits or of boundaries Bar graph - quali Pie chart - quali - usually percentages Histogram - quanti

a bar graph with the bars clustered together

Line graph - time series data - trends Pictogram

Frequency polygon - class marks Ogive Stem-and-leaf display -