PLATINUM

Platinum is generally 95% pure (18 karat gold is 75% pure), platinum jewelry does not fade or tarnish and keeps its looks for a lifetime. Platinum's purity makes it hypoallergenic and ideal for those with sensitive skin. There is very little platinum on this earth and it is found in very few places around the world. This exquisite metal is 30 times rarer than gold. Platinum jewelry is the perfect choice for a lifetime of everyday wear. Its density and weight make it more durable than other jewelry metals. Platinum is also in demand in other fields - it is used in industry, most notably in catalytic converters. Platinum also plays an important role in medicine. It is not affected by the oxidizing reaction of blood, has excellent conductivity, and is compatible with living tissue. Because of these properties, platinum is used for pacemakers. IDENTIFICATION o o o 95% platinum is the world standard, marked 950 plat in country of origin 90% platinum is a popular and traditional USA standard, marked 900Pt 50%-90% platinum may be marked Plat in other countries, but only 950 platinum can be marked Plat in the USA

GOLD
Gold is popular because it can be worked into almost any shape. White Gold is popular for its appearance and price point compared to platinum alloys. Technically there is no such thing as 'White Gold.' Gold can be lightened by combining it with light metals but we plate all WG pieces with Rhodium; a member of the platinum family and the whitest precious metal after silver. This rhodium plating creates a hard skin with good resistance. Over time plating may wear through. Re-plating is a fairly simple process, depending on the condition of the piece. In most cases this will be done approximately as often as a platinum ring requires re-polishing, although a fine plating job may last longer than a polish on platinum due to the superior hardness of rhodium. IDENTIFICATION o o o 18K gold is the most recognized global standard and will be marked '18K' in the USA and '750' in Europe. 14K gold will be marked '14K' in the USA and '585' in Europe. It is not generally practical to manufacture jewelry from pre 24K gold, due to its softness. However, some 20K and 22K alloys are available abroad.

PROS
o o o Platinum does not fade or tarnish and is ideal for those with sensitive skin because it is hypoallergenic. When platinum scratches, none of the volume is lost, the metal is merely displaced as ridges are raised on the edge of the scratch Platinum is versatile. In addition to its strength and density, platinum is pliable, so much so that just one gram of the metal can be drawn to produce a fine wire over one mile long. This quality has enabled jewelers to create some amazing versatile platinum mesh accessories, which could not be fashioned from other precious metals.

PROS
o o o White gold, alloyed with Palladium requires rhodium plating and replating over time, depending on wear Gold is very workable, less ductile than other metals Yellow gold jewelry of 18K and above does not tarnish and rarely causes problems for people with skin irritations.

CONS
o o o o White gold alloyed with nickel requires rhodium plating and re-plating over time, depending on wear. Gold will erode away or wear down over a long period of time. Palladium white gold is more expensive than 18K nickel white gold. Nickel causes skin irritation for people with nickel allergies

CONS
o o o Platinum is soft, and is more susceptible to scratching and showing wear than other metals. Platinum will develop a dark gray patina over time, though it can be repolished to its original luster. Platinum is the most expensive metal used for the manufacture of fine jewelry, as compared to Gold, Palladium, Steel, Titanium, Tungsten Carbide, or Cobalt.

PALLADIUM
Palladium is a platinum group metal that has been in use for jewelry since 1939. With platinum skyrocketing in price the past two years, palladium has seen resurgence in jewelry use as it offers similar benefits to platinum, but at pricing comparable to 18k white gold. Ironically, palladium is much rarer than gold (30x) in terms of quantities mined. Pure palladium for jewelry is 95% palladium, and usually 5% ruthenium (ruthenium is often mixed with platinum as well). Because it is a platinum group metal, it offers the several jewelry related benefits. IDENTIFICATION o 95% platinum is the world standard, marked PD950 in country of origin

STAINLESS STEEL
Iron based alloys have a medical history extending over three hundred years. Corrosion resistant stainless steels were developed in the 18th century, containing a minimum of 10% chromium. As Technology developed, this unique surgical implant material evolved as well and achieved its inert characteristics through the formation of an invisible and adherent chromium-rich oxide surface film. The most oxidization resistant steels are 300 series steels and are mostly used for material implants as well as for body jewelry. Our jewelry uses a high grade steel from 300 series called Grade316L, which are best suitable for invasive body piercing and do not release nickel salts into the body or induce contact nickel dermatitis. Stainless steel products are finished using a unique technique called Electro polishing, which is a sophisticated surface polishing technique, where electrochemical activity slowly eats away a thin surface layer from the jewelry surface, resulting in micro smoothing. The surface's result is extremely smooth finish. IDENTIFICATION

PROS o
Palladium is hypoallergenic. Unlike white gold, which is usually mixed with nickel and thus can cause allergic reactions, palladium has no allergy issues. Palladium has a true white color. White gold has a yellowish tint in its natural state, since it is yellow gold mixed with nickel in an effort to make it white, but it results in a grey/yellow metal - this is overcome by plating it with rhodium to give it the platinum white look, but the rhodium will wear off over time. However, palladium is naturally a pure white, will not yellow over time, and does not need rhodium plating. Palladium is 10% stronger than platinum, meaning it can wear longer without as much scratching. Palladium costs less than half of platinum. Palladium does not have as many industrial uses as platinum, and because it is only lightly used in the jewelry industry (currently), its pricing has not seen the recent spikes of gold and platinum.

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There is no standard hallmark for stainless steel. Occasionally, the mark SS may appear, along with the corresponding SAE designation.

PROS
o o Discriminating persons from varying backgrounds like the solid, nearly indestructible nature of jewelry that is hand carved from a solid piece of stainless steel. Stainless Steel Jewelry doesn't rust. It doesn't discolor some skin types like other more traditionally used alloys. Ultra-high-grade stainless steel is non-magnetic, looks just like Platinum but 1,000 times stronger than platinum at a fraction of the cost. .

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CONS
o Stainless steel’s strength also limits jewelry options. Stainless steel cannot be used to make delicate designs. Stainless steel is so tough that resizing rings is difficult for most bench jewelers – though many manufacturers do offer a resizing service to retailers who cannot resize the rings themselves.

CONS
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Palladium is harder to work with in casting. Palladium is lighter than platinum (about the same as white gold in weight) - this can be a negative as many people appreciate the hefty feel of platinum. Like Gold, palladium will erode away in time, though at a decelerated rate.

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TUNGSTEN CARBIDE
Tungsten and Carbide powders are forged together at 2,400 degrees Fahrenheit to form rings that are virtually indestructible and scratch proof. Then, they are polished with a diamond compound, resulting in a polish and shine that will last forever. Tungsten rings offer the perfect combination of unbelievable strength with style and comfort. With gold, platinum and even titanium rings, you will notice varying degrees of scratching, denting and surface mars. However, with tungsten rings, the surface will maintain its original beautiful shiny finish. Many people also enjoy the heavy weight of a tungsten ring. The enduring polish of Tungsten ring together with the solid weight, speak of commitment, security, and an everlasting bond. IDENTIFICATION o o o Tungsten carbide has a dark metallic color, and significant weight. There is no world standard mark for Tungsten carbide. Often, the letters “WC” or the words “Tungsten Carbide” are stamped inside the ring, accompanied by a stamp of the country of origin or manufacturer.

Tungsten, though very hard, is not indestructible. The rings will break or shatter if they encounter a significant impact with a hard object.

TITANIUM
Titanium was first discovered at the end of the 18th century. The name was derived from the Titans of Greek mythology, known for their extreme and superior strength. Titanium is the only element possessing the strength of steel, yet with a weight comparable to aluminum. Titanium has positively and diversely impacted mankind more than any single element. It has taken us to the depths of the ocean and to the far reaches of space. (85% of the space shuttle’s structure is titanium.) It is placed inside our bodies and on our sporting equipment. It is only in the last few years that we have begun to explore the artistic benefits of this miraculous material. Titanium is the only element that offers the unique combination of beauty, strength, light weight and bio-compatibility. Titanium now commands the highest levels of quality for many consumer product industries; including sporting equipment, medical, automotive and marine, art and architecture, gift ware and, of course, jewelry. IDENTIFICATION o o o Like Tungsten Carbide, Titanium also has a dark metallic color, but is extremely lightweight. There is no standard hallmark for Titanium rings. Often, rings are stamped with the word “Titanium,’ and the mark of the manufacturer and/or country of origin.

PROS o Tungsten rings are the most wear resistant rings available on the planet. Tungsten is about 10 times harder than 18K Gold, 5 times harder than tool steel, and 4 times harder than titanium. o Tungsten measures between 8 and 9 on the Mohs hardness scale. (Diamonds are a 10 - the highest.) Due to their extreme hardness, Tungsten Rings will hold their shape and shine longer than any ring on the market. o Tungsten rings will NOT bend, however, in the event of an emergency, a ring can be removed by a medical professional. CONS o Like Steel, Tungsten’s strength limits its jewelry applications…intricate designs and engravings are prohibitive. Tungsten Carbide cannot be sized.

PROS o o o o o
o Highest ratio between strength and density of all metallic materials. Extreme mechanical and thermal loading capacity. Extreme tensile strength - stronger than steel but 42% lighter. High corrosion resistance, particularly against oxygen. Extremely bio-compatible because of its tissue compatibility and its elastic attributes, and hypoallergenic. Titanium, like Tungsten Carbide, will NOT bend, however, in the event of an emergency; a ring can be removed by a medical professional.

CONS
o Although it possesses a great tensile strength, titanium is susceptible to

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scratching and showing wear. Titanium cannot be sized.

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Although cobalt is an essential element for life in minute amounts, at higher levels of exposure it shows mutagenic and carcinogenic effects similar to nickel. Cobalt is soft and susceptible to scratching and wear. Powdered Cobalt in metal form is a fire hazard. After nickel and chromium, cobalt is a major cause of contact dermatitis.

COBALT
Cobalt is a hard, lustrous, grey metal, a chemical element with symbol Co and atomic number 27. Although cobalt-based colors and pigments have been used since ancient times for making jewelry and paints, and miners have long used the name kobold ore for some minerals, the free metallic cobalt was not prepared and discovered until 1735 by Georg Brandt. IDENTIFICATION o o o o Cobalt is a ferromagnetic metal. Pure cobalt is not found in nature, but compounds of cobalt are common. Small amounts of it are found in most rocks, soil, plants, and animals. It is the element of atomic number 27. Cobalt has a hardness of 5.5 on the Mohs scale of Mineral hardness. There is no world standard mark for Cobalt. Often, the letters “CO” or words “Cobalt” are stamped inside the ring, accompanied by a stamp of the country of origin or manufacturer.

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STERLING SILVER
Silver is stunning. Pure silver is the most lustrous precious metal. It reflects 90 percent of light, making it visually bright and luminous. Pure silver is too soft and easily damaged. In order to make jewelry such as, silver bracelets or silver chain necklaces, silver is alloyed with other metals, rendering it harder and gives it properties perfect for jewelry. Sterling Silver is the most popular silver alloy in the world. Sterling Silver is 92.5 percent silver and 7.5 percent copper. It is readily used in silver bracelets and silver chain necklaces. The alloy is harder and stronger than pure silver, which makes it ideal for jewelry. While silver is not as rare as gold or platinum, it is still a fairly rare metal, making up only 73 parts per billion of the Earth. Silver jewelry is also more affordable than gold jewelry and platinum jewelry. IDENTIFICATION o o Sterling Silver is 92.5 percent pure silver and 7.5 percent copper. Standard Silver hallmarks are the stamp “STER” and/or “925,” “92.5,” and “.925,” accompanied by a stamp of the country of origin or manufacturer.

PROS o Cobalt is the whitest contemporary material offered today. Cobalt is natural, and is less dense than other materials, allowing for greater height and shape to be yielded into designs. Cobalt is hard. Platinum is approximately 140 Vickers as compared to Cobalt which is 450 Vickers. When the Vickers hardness increases to such a point, it becomes, in theory, “too hard” making it a brittle-like material. It’s this Vickers hardness that gives Cobalt such durability and wearability. Cobalt is not only hypoallergenic; it is bio-compatible to the body. It is certified by the American Medical Association. Cobalt is designed and jeweled just as precious metals are. With Cobalt, the possibilities are unlimited in design, as it is possible to sculpt and form it.

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PROS
o o o Sterling silver’s versatility and affordability create limitless options for fashionable jewelry When platinum scratches, none of the volume is lost, the metal is merely displaced as ridges are raised on the edge of the scratch Platinum is versatile. In addition to its strength and density, platinum is pliable, so much so that just one gram of the metal can be drawn to produce a fine wire over one mile long. This quality has enabled

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CONS

jewelers to create some amazing versatile platinum mesh accessories, which could not be fashioned from other precious metals.

CONS
o o o Sterling silver is soft, and susceptible to scratching and wear. Sterling silver will react with oxygen and develop a gray, black, or reddish tarnish. Sterling silver is corrosive, and is that it is highly reactive with environmental toxins and normal elements such as table salt. For More Information, Questions and Inquiries... Please don't hesitate to contact Ben Grubb ben@samuelgordons.com

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