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**Dr. Philippe B. Laval Kennesaw State University September 7, 2005
**

Abstract This handout describes techniques of integration involving various combinations of trigonometric functions. It also describes a technique known as trigonometric substitution. Students may want to review some basic trigonometric identities before reading further. The following trigonometric identities will be used: • sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 • 1 + tan2 x = sec2 x 1 − cos 2x • sin2 x = 2 1 + cos 2x • cos2 x = 2 • sin 2x = 2 sin x cos x In addition, students need to remember the following: π π • sin x is invertible when − ≤ x ≤ . Its inverse is denoted sin−1 x. 2 2 π π • tan x is invertible when − < x < . Its inverse is denoted tan−1 x. 2 2 3π π or π ≤ x < . Its inverse is • sec x is invertible when 0 ≤ x < 2 2 − 1 denoted sec x.

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Powers of Sine and Cosine

Before we explain the technique, let us recall that we can integrate integrals of the form sinn x cos xdxor cosn x sin xdx where n is a positive integer, by using substitution. For example, to integrate sinn x cos xdx, we let u = sin x

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The technique used here depends on whether one of the powers is odd or both are even. Then. then save one cosine factor. that is n = 2k + 1. use the substitution u = sin x. In other words sinm x cosn xdx = = = sin2k+1 x cosn xdx sin2k x cosn x sin xdx 1 − cos2 x k cosn x sin xdx 3. then do some examples. and use the identity sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 to express the remaining factors in terms of sine. Therefore sinn x cos xdx = = un du un+1 n+1 sinn+1 x = n+1 The other integral is done similarly. We summarize the techniques.then du = cos xdx. In other words sinm x cosn xdx = = = sinm x cos2k+1 xdx sinm x cos2k x cos xdx sinm x 1 − sin2 x k cos xdx 2. Then. and use the identity sin2 x + cos2 x = 1 to express the remaining factors in terms of cosine. If m is odd. 1. If n is odd. then save one sine factor. Proposition 1 Suppose we have an integral of the form sinm x cosn xdx. use the substitution u = cos x. If both m and n are even. that is m = 2k + 1. we use the half-angle identities 1 − cos 2x 2 1 + cos 2x 2 cos x = 2 sin2 x = as well as the identity sin x cos x = sin 2x 2 2 .

Example 2 Find cos3 xdx This is the case where the power of cosine is odd.We illustrate the following techniques with some examples. We save one cosine factor and write cos3 x = cos2 x cos x = 1 − sin2 x cos x Therefore. cos3 xdx = = The ﬁrst integral is known cos xdx = sin x (2) 1 − sin2 x cos xdx cos xdx − sin2 x cos xdx (1) The second integral can be evaluated using the substitution u = sin x =⇒ du = cos xdx and therefore sin2 x cos xdx = = u2 du (3) u3 3 sin3 x = 3 sin3 x +C 3 Using equation 2 and equation 3 in equation 1 gives us cos3 xdx = sin x − Example 3 Find sin5 x cos2 xdx This is the case where the power of sine is odd. We save one sine factor and write sin5 x cos2 x = sin4 x cos2 x sin x = sin2 x 2 cos2 x sin x 2 = 1 − cos2 x cos2 x sin x = 1 − 2 cos2 x + cos4 x cos2 x sin x = cos2 x sin x − 2 cos4 x sin x + cos6 x sin x 3 .

if we were given x 1 − x2 dx. 2 Trigonometric Substitution The techniques we are about to describe apply to integrals containing expressions of the form a2 − x2 a2 + x2 x2 − a2 for √ which the other techniques have failed. For example.Therefore. if we were 4 . We use the half angle identity sin2 x = to obtain 2 sin2 xdx = 1 2 (1 − cos 2x) dx We use the substitution u = 2x =⇒ du = 2dx to get sin2 xdx = 1 (1 − cos u) du 4 1 = (u − sin u) + C 4 1 = (2x − sin 2x) + C 4 x sin 2x +C = − 2 4 Similar techniques can be applied to powers of tangent and secant. However. the substitution u = 1 − x2 would work. sin5 x cos2 xdx = cos2 x − 2 cos4 x + cos6 x sin xdx We then use the substitution u = cos x =⇒ du = − sin xdx to get sin5 x cos2 xdx = − =− u2 − 2u4 + u6 du u3 2u5 u7 − + +C 3 5 7 cos3 x 2 cos5 x cos7 x + − +C =− 3 5 7 Example 4 Find sin2 xdx This is the case when the powers of sine and cosine are even (the power of cosine 1 − cos 2x being 0). They can be found in most Calculus books. We will not cover them here.

u = 1 − x2 . we deﬁne the new variable in terms of the old. We illustrate this with examples.1 Integral Containing √ a2 − x2 π π We use the substitution x = a sin θ. as noted above. knowing one of them. We will look at each case separately. 2 2 5 . This technique can be found in any book dealing with trigonometric functions. We impose 2 2 this restriction on θ so that sin θ will have an inverse. Also. 2 2 √ 9 − x2 dx Example 6 Find x2 π π We let x = 3 sin θ. we redeﬁne the given variable. It can also be found on the handout linked to on the web site for the class. Remark 5 In order to be able to do this substitution successfully. it would be much more diﬃcult to do. it is important to keep in mind an important diﬀerence between the substitution technique learned before and the one we are about to explain. with − ≤ θ ≤ and a > 0. Then dx = 3 cos θ. you must be able to ﬁnd all the trigonometric functions. 2. This substitution is based on the identity 1 − sin2 θ = cos2 θ and works as follows: x = a sin θ =⇒ x2 = a2 sin2 θ =⇒ a2 − x2 = a2 − a2 sin2 θ = a2 1 − sin2 θ = a2 cos2 θ Therefore √ a2 − x2 = a2 cos2 θ = |a cos θ| = |a| |cos θ| = a cos θ We were able to remove the absolute value because a > 0 and cos θ ≥ 0 when π π − ≤ θ ≤ .√ given 1 − x2 dx. In trigonometric substitution. For example. with − ≤ θ ≤ . This can be done either by using trigonometric identities or a triangle. In the traditional substitution. Before we do this.

√ 9 − x2 dx = x2 = = = 3 cos θ 3 cos θdθ 9 sin2 θ cos2 θ dθ sin2 θ cot2 θdθ csc2 θ − 1 dθ = − cot θ − θ + C We need to express our answer in terms of x. Therefore. or a triangle. then use the given limits of integration. Therefore 2 0 4 − x2 dx = 1 (area of a circle of radius 2) 4 1 2 = 2 π 4 =π This method is very quick and easy. x √ √ 9 − x2 9 − x2 x dx = − − sin−1 + C 2 x x 3 √ 2 Example 7 Find 0 4 − x2 dx √ Method 1 We recognize that 4 − x2 is the upper half circle of radius 2 centered at the origin. Also. it would not work if the problem had been to ﬁnd an antiderivative. The integral of it between 0 and 2 corresponds to the area of the ﬁrst quadrant of this circle. Since x = 3 sin θ. using trigonometric substitution. Therefore. we ﬁnd 3 √ 9 − x2 that cot θ = . However. we let x = 2 sin θ. it follows that x θ = sin−1 . Method √ 2 According to what was explained above. either using trigonometric identities. 4 − x2 dx = 4 =4 cos θ cos θdθ cos2 θdθ 6 . To ﬁnd the value of this integral. dx = 2 cos θdθ. Therefore. Then. 4 − x2 = 2 cos θ. Also. we will ﬁrst ﬁnd an antiderivative.√ 9 − x2 = 3 cos θ. We show another technique.

we have cos θ = = 1 − sin2 θ 1− x2 4 4 x2 = − 4 4 1 = (4 − x2 ) 4 √ 4 − x2 = 2 Therefore 4− x2 dx = 2 sin −1 = 2 sin−1 √ x x 4 − x2 +2 2 2 2 √ x x 4 − x2 + 2 2 7 . 2 If we let u = 2θ. we see that x sin θ = 2 and x θ = sin−1 2 To express cos θ in terms of x. then du = 2dθ and we have 4 − x2 dx = (1 + cos u) du = u + sin u = 2θ + sin 2θ = 2θ + 2 sin θ cos θ We obtained the last equality using the identity sin 2θ = 2 sin θ cos θ.Remembering the techniques of the previous section. we write everything back in terms of x. we use cos2 θ = 1 − sin2 θ and since cos θ ≥ 0. 4 − x2 dx = 4 =2 1 + cos 2θ dθ 2 (1 + cos 2θ) dθ 1 + cos 2θ . we use cos2 θ = Therefore. First. since x = 2 sin θ. Now.

x2 + 4 = 2 sec θ.2 Integral Containing √ a2 + x2 π π We use the substitution x = a tan θ. Also. dx = 2 sec2 θdθ.We can now ﬁnd the deﬁnite integral 2 0 4 − x2 dx = 2 sin−1 √ x x 4 − x2 + 2 2 √ 2 0 = 2 sin−1 1 + − 2 π = 2 + 0 − (0 + 0) 2 =π 2 0 2 sin −1 √ 0 4 0+ 2 2. The substitution is based on the identity 1 + tan2 θ = sec2 θ and works as follows: a2 + x2 = a2 + a2 tan2 θ = a2 1 + tan2 θ = a2 sec2 θ √ a2 sec2 θ √ = a sec2 θ = a |sec θ| = a sec θ π π Because a > 0 and sec θ ≥ 0 if − < θ < . Therefore: a2 + x2 = x2 1 √ dx = x2 + 4 = Now. with a > 0 and − < θ < . 2 2 1 √ dx Example 8 Find x2 x2 + 4 √ We let x = 2 tan θ. We impose 2 2 this restriction on θ so that tan θ will have an inverse. 1 sec θ cos θ = tan2 θ sin2 θ cos2 θ cos θ = sin2 θ 8 1 4 2 sec2 θdθ 4 tan2 θ (2 sec θ) sec θ dθ tan2 θ Therefore .

2 2 We impose this restriction on θ so that sec θ will be invertible. 2 2 dx √ . with a > 0 and 0 ≤ θ < or π ≤ θ < . where a > 0. 2 x − a2 According to the explanation above. we let x = a sec θ.If we make the substitution u = sin θ.3 Integral Containing √ x2 − a2 π 3π We use the substitution x = a sec θ. dx = a sec θ tan θdθ. Then. This substitution is based on the identity sec2 θ − 1 = tan2 θ and works as follows: x2 − a2 = a2 sec2 θ − a2 = a2 sec2 θ − 1 = a2 tan2 θ Therefore x2 − a2 = a2 tan2 θ = |a| |tan θ| = a tan θ because a > 0 and tan θ ≥ o when 0 ≤ θ < Example 9 Find π 3π or π ≤ θ < . 9 . then du = cos θdθ and we get: x2 1 1 cos θ √ dx = dθ 2 4 sin2 θ x +4 1 du = 4 u2 1 = u−2 du 4 −1 = +C 4u −1 +C = 4 sin θ x sin θ = √ 4 + x2 Therefore √ − 4 + x2 1 √ dx = +C 4x x2 x2 + 4 We express sin θ in terms of x and obtain 2.

Using the technique of example 7. sec θ + tan θ) 2. Find 8. √ x2 − a2 = a tan θ.Also. Therefore dx √ = x2 − a2 = a sec θ tan θdθ a tan θ sec θdθ = ln |sec θ + tan θ| + C x (see homework 1). Now. Therefore. Find 3. sec θ = a √ x2 − a2 and tan θ = . we need to write everything in terms of x. 2. Find cos4 xdx (hint: multiply both numerator and denominator by cos5 x sin5 xdx √ a2 − x2 dx 4. Answers sec θdθ = ln |sec θ + tan θ| + C 1 6 sin x − 6 3 1 cos4 xdx = x + sin 2x + 8 4 cos5 x sin5 xdx = 1 8 1 sin x + sin10 x + C 4 10 1 sin 4x 32 10 . Find 6. Find sec θdθ. a √ x x2 − a2 dx √ = ln + +C a a x2 − a2 = ln x + = ln x + x2 − a2 − ln a + C x2 − a2 + C 3 Problems 1. 3. Find x √ dx 1 − x2 √ 1 − 4x2 dx x √ dx 2 x +3 √ et 9 − e2t dt 4 1. Find 7. ﬁnd 5.

5. 6.4. √ x√ 2 a2 x a2 − x2 dx = a − x2 + sin−1 + C 2 2 a √ x √ dx = − 1 − x2 + C 1 − x2 √ 1 1 √ 1 − 4x2 dx = sin−1 2x + x 1 − 4x2 + C 4 2 √ x √ dx = x2 + 3 + C x2 + 3 √ 1 t√ et et 9 − e2t dt = e 9 − e2t + 9 sin−1 +C 2 3 11 . 7. 8.

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