3.30a L.

093 2,399 $09 231 306

-*I . 5i.3 73.: 54.: ‘,03.: 33.3

:& .: d jk.3 st.3

:o.o
l

',03.L x.3 '-3 9 .A 39.5

‘:a .:-. . ’de. 3 ?? z ; .b
xa.:

(2) -&at tSe 2rospetrrare far or otfiel: C3zuissfoa acr2oa.

. boss iy a?pr3pr%acs zeTtiac:oT remc izq

. %l?.itf~ ~‘acrgrs:

IGNITION FACTORS CHIMNEYS,

ASSOCIAX WITH FIXED, FLUES GR CCNMCTGRS TO DATA

LOCAL FUflNC - 1978

SOLID FUELED EOUPME!~(T

WUT’S XblD WITH

FROM IS

STATES

iv093
PUctrrk or Daim. C ms-wvc?itn insrcliaTlm Llcrlc:arcY

1,099 loo.6

6c9 fo0.U

3. I20 !OO.O

828 !oo.O

2,153 r0u.C)

loo.0

x 29.7 5.0
4.0

IO.5 6.2 ::: 25.6 12.2
4.9

5,1

15.6 9.1 3’

a 38.3
9.7 4.3

Inr:ailed lmompedy Conrtructicn Deficiency Ott=

2.8 2.2 32.8
4.3

2:; 5i.t 54.7 3-7

-

--

Mehmicrrt

F oiiutt

Pert Faiiure. leak, Break L&c of Maintenance, Wan Out E!ecTrical iaiiufe Othtf Misuse of Muter
ial lanited

8.:
15.4 i:;:

2.6 18.7 7.2

g
2 .6 ;:i

Too Clasc To Heat Improper Ftrcling Ternniqvc otbu
Combustible Misuse of !+2? of Imitim

4.8 5.7 12.3

O?hU

3.7

Unkmwn

6.0

Sowas

D&a obtained from US. Fire Achinistrutim - I978 Alaska, Cofifania, Illinois, Mcrylmd, ,Michigcm,MimeSHa. Rhode Isian& Sarth Ddcota, Utah, and Wimin.
US, Consume ProducT

Missouri, Montana.

New York, Chio, Or-on,

Safety CcmmiuiarlWIEA

---.i._.--..

it zsL2 3.

622 263

-

Ocxbcr-get-tier L977 October42teZber ma Octsber4ecsiilbet15179
1: Is tiea reflect ouly a Tart of :,'le cisg 52as00, xgais, Post of tSe suxaberof rqorttd lzcl&enc:s-2si,=rcreasLq. obe',cua tsar reTorted by rrewmauet . cli;qFzgs. . tke izcid23ts 'w'ere

ALtSoug~ tbse

ii&ezs

,Sab ie.

r

4L 31

G

.

Mm

33

D

&6X -

.

-m rye L425

11-da

,

32 10 IO6

3. A.0 1* Y. i7=

13 3

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-

-

67

:4m

b -

29 ii 29

I

J

13 , 2 L6

I

_

, ! 1

,

A

7

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counectar

(stove

?i?e>

:

.

.

Cracks or segaratLoa izzcmzzeczor or
CO3LX.

fnneczx

3 L

.

xa

izforr?aSiczabout cause.

Oc:ober 1979

.

?7laccnem cf

. Samzable soiicis auc

XC@dS

zoo

dose

fo

ziii0db~rzk~3 aquipect

a

a&pzed tirx3h
tkose
me-r'cukl iut2ti

tie cause of LO4 :tood stove Firm Juze L978 yh be Sr:rte cf !?5issachsatts= reTorted a cause (76) oere at&&ted *at
:a t3 msaf2 ogerat~od~iat2u~ce. _

tkar

Lace 1977 '*rlrrq oct'~~~euCL
'/ . About

thee-focrzhs

of
as=z:l-

a

Cesiq

urzsafa
,&J to

+~staLatious,
tie 3t3v2

dpr'sct i:z tie stave ::sel:. 'fSP2 32 r&ezzed :o the stave csccecr=t or 3
acd 6 to co sj2ci'Fc cauqonezt.

iess tiaii 2 ?erc2xX -2er2 Of tie 53 fires izvoiVdg

tia:ious auc t3 ~~ar'a L=scr,
cklixey,

itsd2

.CCd. z2e ?robism., r'ir2s

.

tier2 us

30t 2aougit. ?r5tec

.
‘3xkecs l

?oor ciisgosaljr' ashes - ?*~zrf=3tat asties 22 agaizsr and aqsic cambustf5i.ezatar-LaL,t-3.,

?iascc a -~ooc!err

shed.

Disc*.zssion:

B

UNITEO

STATES

GOVERNMENT

U.S.

CONSUMER SAFETY

PROOUCT COMMISSION

Memorandum
TGIJ: FFWM

*I . *..a . -

*?34

:John Liskey, Program Manager, NPI, Judith M. Pitcher,Director, :T. El. Karels, HICS fl< J

aATE: April 2, 1981 -e'

wm:Gas-fired

AppliancePositionPaper

This is in response to your memorandumof March 14, 1981, in which you requested information about gas-firedappliancesand their component parts and accessories. Given the diversityof productsand suppliers of as involved,even a "brief description" these industries, you requested,would require much more time than we have. HICS has, however, gathered some backgroundmaterial on selectedgas-firedappliances, which will illustratethe scope of these industries. IndustryShipments (In Thousandsof Units)
1979

Estimated 1980
6’74

Gas-fueledAppliances: Clothes Dryers Ranges (including ovens) Water Heaters Boilers Furnaces Unit Heaters and Duct Furnaces Outdoor Grills
Source :

768

1,973 2,887
221

1,555
2,7:52 300 1,48 1 233 1,217

1,863 186 1,327

Appliance,January 1987.

As can be seen, shipmentsof most of these articleshave fallen off from 1979 to 1980; shipmentsof %nit heaters"have shown a slight increase from 1979 to 1980, as consumerspurchasedalternative heating sources. The fall in shipmentsis attributedto softenedconsumer demand for these articlesduring a recessionary period. This softened demand can beat be describedas a defe.rment purchasesof major appliof ances - at Some point, replacementof these articleswill be necessary. The replacementis determined,in large part, by the useful life of the product. and abuse, Many factors,such as frequencyof use, maintenance, affect the life expentancyof these products. An industrysurvey conducted in 1980, baaed on manufacturers estimates,projectedthe average product life for a number of apppliances:

Average Product Life (Years) Dryers Ranges Water Heaters Furnaces Hydronic Heating (water c:irculating) Room Heaters source: Appliance,September, 1980 Thus, it is apparentthat those units purchasedin 1981 will be in service for many years in the future. Further,as shown in the following table, sales of these gas-firedappliancesare projectedto increase significantly over the next 5 years. While gas boilers are expected to decline in popularity,other selectedappliancesare expectedto experiencecontinuedgrowth from 1981-86. Outdoor gas grills are projected as the productswith the greatestgrowth pattern; increasingby some 63 percent from 1981-86. Selected Gas Appliances: Five-YearStatisticalForecastof Shipments (In Thousandsof Units) 1981 Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Gas Dryers Ranges Water Heaters Boilers Furnaces Unit Heaters and Furnaces Outdoor Grills 700 1,605 2,975 275 1,620 255 1,350
1982

12 14 11 16 20 9

1982 816 1,866 3,342 215
2,117

1984 841 1,934
3,482

v85

1986 891

.

780 1,758 3,165 220
2,003

210
2,193

271 1,503

290
1,627

300

870 2,008 3,605 205 2,150 260
2,033

2,076 3,774 200
2,253

1,820

260 2,200

Source Appliance,January, '1981 :
A number of large corporations effectivelycontrol the market for several of these appliances. For example, four companiesaccountedfor 67 percent of all shipmentsof gas ranges in 1980, three firms for 77 percent of water heater shipments,and one firm alone accountedfor 40 percent of all gas clothes dryer shipmentsin 1980. It is common i.n this industryfor major manufacturers produce articles for sale under to another brand name. One appliancemanufacturer, for instance,does not market any product under its own brand, but produces strictlyfor other producersand marketers. For this reason, an accountingof all manufacturers producingappliancesand componentswould be difficult.

Home heating is the major householduse for gas. The American Gas Association has estimatedthat, in 1979, about 55 percent of home heating was fueled by gas; an estimated43.5 million homes were gasheated in 1979. From 1975 to 1979,new hookups have grown at an annual rate of 1.5 percent; this rate of increasewas influencedby restrictions on natural gas hookups in the middle to late 1970's. While all of the above products can be aggregated,to some extent, into the "gas-fired" appliancecategory,it is importantto note that these products include articlesfueled by natural gas - the most common propane,butane and LP gas. For this reason, it may not be possible to address all gas-operated applianceswithin the scope of a single analysis. Further,given the sales and frequencyof use of these articles, it may be necessaryto address each of these appliancesseparately. Also includedin your request for information were certain component parts and accessorieso:f these appliances: gas tanks and fittings, gas pipe, pipe fittingsand distribution systems,connectors and valves, and controls. These items are generallynot producedwithin the scope of the applianceindustriesthemselves,but rather are manufactured in the "Fabricated Metal Products"industry. They are used in businessand manufacturing well as in households;the portion as of these products designatedfor householduse is unable to be ascertained from availabledata. A memo prepared by Arlen Slobodow of EconomicAnalysis,dated January 8, 1981, relating to gas valves is attached. This memo illustrates the problems inherent in defining "gas valves." Any future study relatingto these componentsand accessories will need to be more narrowly defined to allow the team to focus on a specificproduct or type of component.

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