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# Projectile Motion

**Computer Modeling of Projectile Motion
**

Location of Spherical Projectile

25.0

20.0

15.0 Y-Position (m)

10.0

5.0

0.0 0.0 10.0 20.0 30.0 40.0 50.0 60.0 70.0 80.0

-5.0 X-Position (m)

**Frequent User Inputs
**

Launch Angle (degrees) Launch Velocity (m/s) Diameter of Projectile (m) Density of Projectile (kg/m^3) Fluid (Wind) Velocity (m/s)

**Less Frequent User Inputs
**

Density of Fluid (Air) (kg/m^3) Kinematic Viscosity of Fluid (Air) (m^2/s) Acceleration of Gravity (m/s^2) Timestep (sec)

Prepared by G.W. O'Leary and R.J. Ribando

Projectile Motion

ing of Projectile Motion

Plot Scaling

100 25

Delay =

0.1

80.0

90.0

100.0

45 30 0.05 8000 0

1.19 1.54E-05 9.8 0.1

Prepared by G.W. O'Leary and R.J. Ribando

Computed Data

Computed Variables Rhobar 0.00014875 Amass 1.00007438 Bgrav 9.79854225 Ccoef 0.00223125

Time (sec) 0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.40 0.50 0.60 0.70 0.80 0.90 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 1.60 1.70 1.80 1.90 2.00 2.10 2.20 2.30 2.40 2.50 2.60 2.70 2.80 2.90 3.00 3.10 3.20 3.30 3.40 3.50 3.60 3.70 3.80 3.90 4.00 4.10 4.20 4.30

Computed Results Position X Y (m) (m) 0.0000 0.0000 2.1178 2.0689 4.2287 4.0332 6.3329 5.8935 8.4307 7.6502 10.5221 9.3037 12.6074 10.8546 14.6867 12.3032 16.7602 13.6500 18.8281 14.8952 20.8905 16.0393 22.9475 17.0825 24.9993 18.0253 27.0460 18.8678 29.0876 19.6104 31.1244 20.2534 33.1564 20.7970 35.1836 21.2414 37.2062 21.5870 39.2242 21.8339 41.2376 21.9824 43.2465 22.0327 45.2509 21.9850 47.2509 21.8396 49.2463 21.5966 51.2373 21.2563 53.2238 20.8188 55.2058 20.2846 57.1832 19.6536 59.1560 18.9263 61.1241 18.1029 63.0875 17.1835 65.0462 16.1685 67.0000 15.0582 68.9488 13.8529 70.8926 12.5528 72.8313 11.1583 74.7648 9.6697 76.6930 8.0873 78.6158 6.4115 80.5330 4.6427 82.4446 2.7813 84.3504 0.8277 86.2504 -1.2178

Velocity

Page 3

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Computed Data Page 13 .

4922 8.4736 19.9398 20.2490 3.3922 6.0760 19.0874 -19.0126 20.9963 18.8832 16.0217 -0.0294 -19.2027 2.1433 20.3085 -15.1569 1.9275 20.7048 -7.9969 20.9259 20.Computed Data mputed Results Velocity Horizontal Vertical (m/s) (m/s) 21.8874 -3.5968 10.8890 19.2912 19.2233 19.9454 17.9169 19.6105 -9.2548 -16.2132 21.4162 19.4416 7.5277 19.9459 20.9294 20.9592 20.1516 19.7916 19.5133 -11.1651 21.9124 Page 14 .7068 12.7511 -6.6580 -8.5788 19.3555 19.9324 20.2001 -17.6720 19.9498 20.4128 -13.7543 19.6268 19.9702 -20.1221 21.5623 -10.9253 20.5439 9.9767 20.8423 -4.9661 19.3611 -14.8264 19.9360 20.9936 20.0840 20.7145 19.2959 4.1443 -18.0754 19.0665 0.7639 13.9322 -2.3436 5.0217 20.8227 14.1116 0.9770 -1.0506 20.6511 11.0094 18.8589 19.9621 20.2132 21.9762 20.9426 19.7969 -5.4635 -12.

Computed Data Page 15 .

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Computed Data Page 23 .

0287309 0.0001796 0.341 20.0023 0.1176 Volume (m^3) 0.0000335 0.0000446 0.0700 0.0005236 0.1840 0.636 78.623 54.3800 0.8100 Diameter (m) 0. .0560 0.0055753 0.628 68.856 1031.2400 0.5230 0.1440 0.0103060 0.0960 0.2700 0.4370 0. and some are deformable.5950 0.0125 0.0006061 0.0004489 0.0001438 0.0460 6.0072382 0.338 7999.030 All diameters and masses are approximate.5630 0.2200 0.202 389.872 801.382 82. Most of these are not exactly smooth spheres.1000 0.Sample Data for Alternative Projectiles Type Beach Ball Nerf Ball Kickball Ping Pong Ball Soccer Ball Basketball Tennis Ball Softball Baseball Water Balloon Golf Ball Shotput Mass (kg) 0.0008514 Density (kg/m^3) 3.0950 0.0440 0.0650 0.1050 0.448 409.807 998.0400 0.

June 26.Ribando. defect or error in the program or in any such documentation or any malfunction of the program or for any incidental or consequential losses. Wiley (1979) R. or remedy for tort nor any business expense. right.Disclaimer This collection of worksheets was developed for the Session on Projectile Motion and Computer Modeling. Page 25 .J. (2) No part of it may be incorporated into any commercial product. Inc. machine downtime or damages caused to the user by any deficiency. Univ. of Virginia. 310 MEC. All rights reserved.4 in An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics by Chuen-Yen Chow. DISCLAIMER The author shall not be responsible for losses of any kind resulting from the use of the program or of any documentation and can in no way provide compensation for any losses sustained including but not limited to any obligation. presented at the 1997 Summer Institute of the Southeastern Consortium for Minorities in Engineering. This program may be distributed freely for instructional purposes only providing that: (1) The file be distributed in its entirety including disclaimer and copyright notices. liability. held at the University of Virginia June 15 . 1997. It is based on Program 1. however caused. June 1997 Copyright 1997. damages or costs.

For those cases involving uniform acc ele ration (which it will be shown later is appro air drag is neglected). the distance traveled is simply the average velocity times the ela psed tim Distance = Velocity ave rage x Time The average velocity is given by: Velocity average = (Velocity initial + Velocity final ) / 2 The acceleration is the change in velocity over the elapsed time (and is assumed uniform here Acceleration = (Velocity final . But a computer or even a graphing calculator does provide a convenient means o the solution. spherical projectile simplify greatly .to the point thaqt we don’t even need a com solve them. the equations that gove of a simple.Tech Details (1) Some Technical Details (1) If we are willing to ignore the effect of drag on the projectile. second and fourth equations: Distance = Velocity initial x Time + 1 Acceleration x 2 Page 26 .Velocity initial ) / Time Solve this for the final velocity: Velocity final = Velocity initial + Acceleration x Time Combining the first.

the equations that govern the flight t thaqt we don’t even need a computer to es provide a convenient means of visualizing ich it will be shown later is appropriate when rage velocity times the ela psed time: ge x Time al + Velocity final ) / 2 me (and is assumed uniform here): l .Velocity initial ) / Time + Acceleration x Time Time + 1 Acceleration x Time 2 2 Page 27 .Tech Details (1) ails (1) projectile.

8 m/s2 in the metric system. the force is equal to the mass times the acceleration.Tech Details (2) Some Technical Details (2) In order to determine the trajectory of our idealized spherical projectile. launch velocity (Velocityinitial ) and launch an (Angle initial ).0. (The state trooper is interested in your speed. the weight. but will ignore air drag for now. that is. Y = Yinitial + Vinitial x Time - 1 g Time 2 2 The initial velocity components specified in these equations can be found from simple trigono U initial = Velocity initial x Cosine(Angle initial ) Vinitial = Velocity initial x Sine(Angle initial ) The equations for X and Y are easily input to a graphing calculator in this parametric form so trajectory can be visualized as a function of time. there are no forces in the x (horizontal direction). they have both magn itude and direction. the vertical velocity (V) is then given by V = Vinitial . we consider only the force due to gravity: åF y = ma y = .mg . Page 28 . the acceleration in the vertical direction is equal to -g (9. wh magnitude of your velocity. Since we have ignored air drag. We’ll include the force due to gr that is. That mea ns the horizontal velocity (U) will be cons equal to the initial value Uinitial . th horizontal a cceleration is identically 0. your velocity We’ll resolve forces (and accelerations and velocities) into components in the x (horizontal) a (vertical) directions and apply Newton’s 2 nd law separately to each. 3 the English system. but if you are trying to get somewhere in particular. With this uniform acceleration. The horizontal position is then given by: X = X initial + U initial x Time In the y (vertical) direction. we’ll apply Second Law: F= ma that is. Forces and velocities are both vector qua is.g x Time Finally the vertical position is given by: .

n the x (horizontal direction).8 m/s2 in the metric system. which is the where in particular. thus the rizontal velocity (U) will be constant and hen given by: ce due to gravity: (9. your velocity is key.2 ft/s2 in ical velocity (V) is then given by: me 2 can be found from simple trigonometry: le initial ) ) ial culator in this parametric form so that the ocity (Velocityinitial ) and launch angle Page 29 .) omponents in the x (horizontal) and y o each. 32. that er is interested in your speed. we’ll apply Newton’s We’ll include the force due to gravity here.Tech Details (2) ails (2) d spherical projectile. and velocities are both vector quantities.

the t governing equations can’t be solved directly (they are a set of two non-linear. Another sheet gives some approximate data for va common spherical projectiles which the user may want to test. FyoverM and the subroutine Kutta) were all implemented behind-the-scenes in Visual Basic f Applications and are automatically invoked when the user hits the Compute/Plot button on th In addition to the main sheet. it never reaches a terminal velocity. another sheet reports the computed x and y positions and the horizontal (u) and v velocity components as a function of time.no hooks. while convenient fo implementation on a graphing calculator.Y. which includes boxes for user input and shows the traj graph ically. Furthermore. ordinary differe equations). Air drag was ignored consequence. All the heavy-duty calculations (the functions Cdrag.Tech Details (3) Some Technical Details (3) The model of projectile motion developed on the previous sheet. First of all. Page 30 . So we use a numerical technique called Runge-Kutta integration which ha s been implemented in the subroutine Kutta .g. we found that contrary to intuition. this is a 2-D model only . that is. Our experience tells u will be more important for a light sphere. 1979 few highlights are presented here. slices or c allowed. Experimental da drag coefficient of a smooth sphere are used. a beach ball. (Wiley. Unfortuna tely with the extra terms involving the air drag. ha s some obvious problems. e. Chow. This function Cdrag implements curve fits for The accelerations in the x and y directions at each point in time are computed in the functions and FYoverM. and less so for heavy projectiles l put. the vertical velocity just keeps getting more a nd more negative downward) with time. The air drag model and the solution algorithm implemented in this spreadsheet are f explained in An Introduction to Computational Fluid Dynamics by C. respectively. which to have only a horiz ontal component and acts opposite to the relative wind.. the horizontal velocity stays at its initial va never decreases. To rectify this problem w include the force due to the drag of the air on the spherical projectile. The drag force depends on the velocity of the projectile relative to the wind.

To rectify this problem we must rojectile. for user input and shows the trajectory ions and the horizontal (u) and vertical (v) ves some approximate data for various t. which is assumed relative wind. Our experience tells us that drag and less so for heavy projectiles like a shot emented in this spreadsheet are fully mics by C. slices or curveballs ectile relative to the wind. Chow.Y. (Wiley. 1979). Page 31 .Tech Details (3) ails (3) evious sheet. ordinary differential Kutta integration which ha s been calculations (the functions Cdrag. hind-the-scenes in Visual Basic for ts the Compute/Plot button on the main sheet. Air drag was ignored and as a ntal velocity stays at its initial value and s getting more a nd more negative (heading ocity. FxoverM. the two f two non-linear. Only a model only . me are computed in the functions FXoverM erms involving the air drag.no hooks. while convenient for problems. Experimental data for the Cdrag implements curve fits for this data.