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MASSIMO LANZA DE CRISTOFORIS AND SERGEI V. ROGOSIN Abstract. In this paper we consider the problem of computing the Riemann Map gζ,w of the plane unit disk D onto the Jordan domain bounded by the simple closed curve ζ containing the point w in the interior, and such that gζ,w (0) = w, gζ,w (0) > 0. To solve such problem, we consider a suitable functional equation involving ζ , w, gζ,w ◦ ζ , and we show that one can obtain gζ,w ◦ ζ by applying a version of the Newton-Kantorovich method.

(−1) (−1)

1. Introduction In this paper we consider the Riemann map gζ,w of the unit disk D of the complex plane onto the plane domain I[ζ ] enclosed by the simple Jourdan curve ζ , and normalized by conditions gζ,w (0) = w, gζ,w (0) > 0, where w is a point of I[ζ ], and we show that gζ,w can be computed by applying the Newton-Kantorovich method in a suitable function space. (−1) By Lanza and Rogosin [15], gζ,w ◦ ζ depends real analyticaly on the couple (ζ, w) in a Schauder space setting (see also Lanza [10]), while the dependence of gζ,w upon (ζ, w) has a lower degree of regularity (cf. Lanza [10], Lanza and Preciso [13, §3], Lanza and Preciso [14]). Then instead of trying to obtain gζ,w as a limit of a Newton (−1) iterates, we turn our attention to gζ,w ◦ ζ , and we consider a system of functional equations involving ζ, w, gζ,w ◦ ζ introduced and analyzed by Lanza and Rogosin [15] (see also Lanza [9]). As it is well known, the conformal representation gζ,w relative to ζ, w can be determined explicitly for certain pairs (ζ0 , w0 ), as for example when ζ0 is a circle, and w0 is its center. Then for a pair (ζ, w) = (ζ1 , w1 ) we consider a homotopy (ζλ , wλ )λ∈[0,1] of (ζ0 , w0 ) to (ζ1 , w1 ), and we show that there exists a ﬁnite set of numbers {0 = λ0 < λ1 < . . . < λq = 1} of [0, 1], such that gζλ ,w ◦ ζλk can be k computed by applying the Newton-Kantorovich method to the functional equation (−1) mentioned above, provided that gζλ ,w ◦ ζλk−1 is known. k−1 The importance and the inﬂuence of the Riemann map in the applications is well known, and for historical account we refer to Gray [4] and Ullrich [18]. Several

Date : November 16, 2002. 1991 Mathematics Subject Classiﬁcation. 30C35, 30C30, 45G05, 58G15. Key words and phrases. Newton-Kantorovich method, Nonlinear singular integral equations, Conformal representation, Schauder spaces.

1

(−1) (−1)

R) to be the space of m-times continuously diﬀerentiable real-valued functions in D such that all the partial derivatives up to order m admit a continuous extension to cl D. By T f (s) |ds| we understand the integral of f with respect to the ordinary measure |ds| on T. We denote by H (D) the space of all the holomorphic functions in D. We denote by z and by z the real and the imaginary part of a complex number z . R2 ) to C∗ . 2. Gutknekht [5]. In particular.α (T. C). Probably the most known among these equations is that of Theodorsen. Let N be the set of nonnegative integers including 0. H¨ ubner [6] and references therein). 1] (the subscript ‘*’ means that we are taking the derivatives with respect to the variable m. It is well-known that m. We set C∗ |f (s)−f (t)| 0. f m. and we take as norm of a pair of functions the sum of the norms of the components. Let m ∈ N. The system of integral equations which we examine is more complicated than the Theodorsen equation. Z be normed is linear and continuous from C m. R)) . We equip C∗ |s−t|α j m with its usual norm f m. The problem of the Riemann map has also been studied extensively by means of integral equations (see Gaier [2]). and more generally of univalent functions. ROGOSIN papers have been devoted to the boundary behaviour of the Riemann map. then f denotes the complex derivative of f1 + if2 .α (cl D.α (C∗ (T.g. Let X . Among the contributions onto study of the Theodorsen equation we also mention that of Wolfersdorf [20]. By C m. V. which is applied to star like domains. 2π ] of T. and for a modern presentation we refer to Pommerenke [16] and Wen [19]. m C∗ (T.α (cl D. which is denoted g −1 . although it requires the smoothness of the domain itself. t ∈ T.α (T. C) denotes the subspace of C∗ (T.α (T. e. f2 ) is a map of R2 to R2 . θ ∈ [0. B ) ≡ {f ∈ C∗ in T). C) f ∈ C∗ (T.α (cl D. C) : f (T) ⊆ B }.α m T to C. R2 ) 2 m. C) of those functions which have m-th order derivatives that are H¨ older continuous with exponent α ∈]0. and if f1 + if2 is holomorphic in the complex variable x1 + ix2 . we make no formal distinction between complex numbers and pairs of real numbers. but has the advantage of requiring no restriction on the geometry of the domain. in H¨ ubner [6] the Newton method has been applied to the study of a nonlinear system which appears following a discretization of the Theodorsen integral equation. and by cl D the closure of D. C) denotes the space of m times continuously diﬀerentiable functions from m. The Theodorsen equation has been successfully employed to compute numerically the Riemann map (cf.α ) is a Banach space. Technical Preliminaries and Notation The inverse function of a function f is denoted f (−1) as opposed to the reciprocal of a complex-valued function g . C∗ (T. and such that the partial derivatives of order m are α-H¨ older continuous. LANZA DE CRISTOFORIS AND S. Y .α m. Throughout the paper. By T f (s) ds we understand the line integral of the function f of T to C computed with respect to the parametrization θ → eiθ . we deﬁne C m. by T the boundary of D. C).α m. We denote by D the open unit disk in C (or in R2 ). who has reduced the Theodorsen equation to a nonlinear Riemann-Hilbert problem in order to prove uniqueness. Let B ⊆ C. Similarly. s = t . It can be readily veriﬁed that the trace operator m. so for example if f = (f1 . C).2 M.α we understand (C (cl D. we set |f |α ≡ sup : s.α ≡ m j =0 supt∈T |D f (t)| + |D f |α . If (T.

α u m.α [x. C). Also. We denote by B (X × Y . we understand an injective map of 1 from T to C.3) (iii) (2.m.α u m. we can take c1. Z ) the space of bilinear and continuous maps of X × Y to Z equipped with its usual norm of the uniform convergence on the product of the unit spheres of X and Y .α ≤ c2.2) |f (t1 ) − f (t2 )| ≤ π f 2 0 |t1 − t2 | ∀t1 .α ≤ c4.m. u m. Lanza and Antman [11. By a simple curve of class C∗ .) . we refer e.α u m. +∞[ such that 1/k m. p.m.α [ k m.m. m.α [x1 . then |f (t1 ) − f (t2 ) − f (t2 )(t1 − t2 )| ≤ π |f |α |t1 − t2 |α ∀t1 . Lemma 2. if m = 1 we can take c4. p. C).m. +∞[×]0.α > 0 such that (2.α .α (ii) The pointwise product is continuous in C∗ (T.m.α ∀u. We now give a formal deﬁnition of a curve.0.α = 2π . y2 ]. when 0 ≤ x1 ≤ x2 .1. Lanza [8.α for all k ∈ C∗ (T. If m = 1.α [x2 . Thus 1 1 from the boundary T of the to be a map ζ of class C∗ we deﬁne a curve of class C∗ 1 unit disk D to C. m. then (2. C).α > 0 such that (2. Furthermore. (iv) There exists c2. 1].α u 2 m. t2 ∈ T. α ∈]0.5) 1 + c2.α ≤ 1 + c2. C). min |k |] . and there exists c1.α v m.m. for our purposes. to Berger [1] and to Prodi and Ambrosetti [17]. We denote by L (X .α We collect in the following Lemma a few facts we need on the space C∗ (T. c1.1. v ∈ C∗ (T.α = 5. a curve ζ should not be confused with ζ (T).α of [0. 1201].α m.m.α ≤π u m m ∀u ∈ C∗ (T. C) which satisfy |k | > 0 on T. y ] = y −1 (1 + 2(x/y ) + 2(x/y )3 ). Let m ∈ N. We ﬁrst note that a regular curve is often deﬁned as an equivalence class of regular parametrizations. u m. We note that the value of the constants of the previous lemma is not optimal.A NEWTON-KANTOROVICH METHOD FOR THE CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION 3 spaces. (vi) There exists a function c4.α = 1. For standard deﬁnitions of Calculus in normed spaces. u m−1. Y ) the space of linear continuous operators of X to Y equipped with its usual norm of the uniform convergence on the unit sphere of X . In particular. 1 (v) If f ∈ C∗ (T.α . y1 ] ≤ c4. C).1.1.4) u·v m.m. it is necessary to distinguish among the diﬀerent parametrizations. 124]. A proof can be eﬀected by elementary computations which we omit. m. m. 1 (i) If f ∈ C∗ (T. 0 < y2 ≤ y1 . C). and such that c4.α ≤ c1.α .g. it can be readily veriﬁed that the following holds (cf.α for all u ∈ C∗ (T. t2 ∈ 2 T. C).α ≤ u 2 m. +∞[ to ]0. Then the following statements hold.α .m. However. then we can take c2. class C∗ By a simple contradiction argument.

C) : l[ζ ] ≡ inf |ζ (s) − ζ (t)| : s. t2 ) or on T \ L(t1 . t ∈ T. t2 ∈ T we set (2. then l[h] ≥ π minT |h |. Since we need to estimate the distance of an element of Z from the boundary of Z . ·] of [0.m. We denote by ind[ζ ] the Cauchy index (winding number) of the map θ → ζ (eiθ ). w ∈ C. C). h ∈ C∗ (T.α [x2 .4 M. w ∈ I[ζ ]. (iii) If h ∈ Z .m. l [h]] u m. Thus 1 ζ (s) ind[ζ ] = ds. whose validity can be readily veriﬁed by exploiting the deﬁnition of l[·]. C). we denote by I[ζ ] the bounded open If ζ is a simple closed curve of class C∗ connected component of C \ ζ (T). Lemma 2. For all t1 . 2πi T ζ (s) − z Clearly. α ∈]0. 1}.1.α m. We ﬁrst introduce some notation. Then there exists a function c3. 2 (ii) If h ∈ Z and h(T) = T. h − h 0 < π l[h].6. ROGOSIN Lemma 2. p. y2 ] if x1 ≤ x2 . C). +∞[ is continuous. and the 1 set Z is open in C∗ (T. h(s) − h(t) . +∞[ such that c3. t2 ) ≡ {s ∈ T : |s − t1 | < 2|t1 − t2 |} and we understand that a line integral on L(t1 . then l[h] ≥ l[h] − π 2 2 1 (iv) If ζ ∈ Z .α ≤ c3.m.α [x1 . +∞[×[0. (i) If h ∈ Z .10) C[h. Then we have the following uniform estimate for the Cauchy integral. C) (T. LANZA DE CRISTOFORIS AND S. Lemma 2. then ζ ∈ Z .α [ h 1 2πi m. t2 ) is computed with respect to the parametrization θ → eiθ deﬁned on a suitable interval of the real line of length less or equal to 2π .11) C[h. ζ −ζ 0 ≤ π l[ζ ]. and which satisﬁes the following inequality (2. The nonlinear map l[·] of C∗ (T. 2π [. We now introduce the following notation.α (T. and w ∈ I[ζ ]. (i). C).9. V. ζ ∈ C∗ (T. and the triangle inequality. ∀z ∈ I[ζ ]. u] ≡ T u(s)h (s) ds. u] m. which we prove by a standard argument developped in Gakhov [3. 1 . where (2. The following statements hold.α . ζ −ζ 0 +|w −w| < minT |ζ (·) − w|. Proposition 2. s = t |s − t| >0 1 coincides with the set of simple curves of class C∗ with everywhere nonvanishing 1 tangent vector.m. ind[ζ ] ∈ {−1. θ ∈ [0. h ∈ C∗ for all u ∈ C∗ Z .α [·. 2 1 h − h 0 > 0. C) to ]0. we introduce the following Lemma.8) L(t1 . then l[h] ≤ minT |h |. 38]. The map ind[·] is well-known to be constant on the open 1 connected components of Z in C∗ (T. m.α .7. C). with respect to any of the points of I[ζ ]. y1 ] ≤ c3. 1[. The set Z≡ 1 ζ ∈ C∗ (T. Let m ∈ N \ {0}. y1 ≥ y2 . +∞[ to [0.

t2 ) s − t2 u(t2 ) − u(t1 ) 1 h (s) ds + 2−1 u(t1 )ind[h] − 2−1 u(t2 )ind[h]. 1.t2 ) (h(s) − h(t1 ))(h(s) − h(t2 )) + Furthermore (2. for all t1 . C). 0. h ∈ C∗ for all u ∈ C∗ 1.α 1. C).14) C[h. We now assume that u ∈ C∗ (T.α (T. T\L(t1 .15) C[h.16) 1 h (s) ds = 2πi T\L(t1 . u](t2 ) = = u(s) − u(t1 ) u(s) − u(t2 ) 1 1 h (s) ds − h (s) ds+ 2πi L(t1 .15) imply that (2. 1.14).17) C[h.18) d (C[h. u]|α . h ∈ C∗ for u ∈ C∗ is ﬁnite.t2 ) h(s) − h(t1 ) 2πi L(t1 . We now estimate the H¨ older quotient |C[h.α that h ∈ C∗ (T. t2 ).α 0. and equality (2. and 2 |s − t2 | ≤ |s − t1 | ≤ 2|s − t2 |.α [x. 2πi T h(s) − h(t) 2 inequality (2.α 9pα l[h]−2 h 2 0.t2 ) (h(s) − h(t2 ))(s − t2 ) ds + . C) ∩ Z . 2}. dt . |ds| j ∈ {1.α + pα + 1 .t2 ) |s − tj |1−α |t1 − t2 |1−α ds |ds|. Since (T. By standard computations.1. C) and (T. we have (2. u](t1 ) − C[h. 2 − α T\L(t1 . and if m = 1.t2 ) |s − t2 | T\L(t1 . u] 0 ≤ | u|α h −1 0 l [h] pα + 2−1 u 0 .α ≤ u 0. t2 ∈ T with t1 = t2 . and inequality (2. 2πi T\L(t1 . T |s − t1 |1−α L(t1 .A NEWTON-KANTOROVICH METHOD FOR THE CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION 5 The supremum pα ≡ 1 sup 2π t1 . y ] = 2−1 + x4 y −4 (20pα + 2). then we can take (2. u](t)) = C [h.t2 ∈T |ds| |t1 − t2 |−α .t2 ) h(s) − h(t2 ) 1 (u(s) − u(t1 ))(h(t1 ) − h(t2 )) + h (s) ds+ 2πi T\L(t1 .t2 ) h(s) − h(t2 ) Since l[h] ≤ h 0 .α 0. t2 ∈ T and for all 3 s ∈ T \ L(t1 .t2 ) h(s) − h(t2 ) 1 (h (s) − h (t2 )(s − t2 ) − (h(s) − h(t2 ) − h (t2 )(s − t2 )) = ds+ 2πi T\L(t1 . u] (2. For all t1 . we have (2. We ﬁrst estimate C[h. u] 0.13) 1 h (s) 1 ds = ind[h].5) and the deﬁnition of l[h] imply that (2. C) ∩ Z . u /h ] (t)h (t).α (T.12) Proof. C) ∩ Z .α .t2 ) s − t2 c3.

m−1. u] 0 + c1. v1 . ·] of (C∗ analytic. and that accordingly inf h−e h m. and the inductive assumption of existence of c3. ·] imply the existence of c3.23) h m. and by exploiting the Cauchy analyticity inequality. m−1.12). C). C) : h − h m. (2. C). Let h ∈ C∗ (T.α Corollary 2. . by inequality |1/h |α ≤ |h |α (min |h |)−2 . C) : h − h m.α + .C): {h∈C∗ sup h−e h 1 w(s) 2πi m.α ≤ r ⊆ Z . 389].C): {h∈C∗ sup h−e h 1 u (s) 2πi m.β m.α (T. . h−e h n vj (t) − vj (s) h(t) − h(s) n ds m.α [·. u] m.α (T. and by inequality (2.α inf m.α ≤r l [h] > 0. C). .α . we have (2. m. Then by equality (2.α ≤ r is compact in C∗ 1 (T. Then we then the set h ∈ C∗ (T. To prove the statement for m > 1. ROGOSIN Then by Lemma 2.15). 1[.11) is complex(T.6 M.20) C[h. Then we have the following.m. u /h ] π l[h]−1 h 2 1 2 m−1. Let r > 0 be m. Let m.1 (ii).α · j =1 vj m.22) m.23). 4.α for all u.α + r.α ≤r m−1.1]. V. then inf h−e h m. and for all v1 .20). (T. and the following inequalities hold. +∞[ point out as in [12. LANZA DE CRISTOFORIS AND S.19) and (2.21.α (T. We observe that by Lemma 2. u] 0 ≤ u m. ·] as in (2. .α vj (t) − vj (s) h(t) − h(s) l[h] · w ds m.α n ≤ ≤(1 + π )nr −n · c3. Furthermore n m.α C [h. n ∈ N \ {0}.α ≤r l[h] · u m. (vi).α .α · j =1 vj m.α m. that the continuous function l[·] of C∗ m. ·] as in the statement. h−e h inf m. C) such that for all w ∈ C∗ T m.α [·.α such that h ∈ C∗ (T. C) is compactly imbedded in C∗ Proof. C) : h − h m. m.α C∗ (T.α (T.α [·. C) when 0 < β < α. . we proceed by induction on m. C) ∩ Z ) × C∗ linear operator C[·.α ≤ C[h. vn ∈ (2.α is strictly positive on {h ∈ C∗ (T. (2.m. the nonm.α ≤nr−n c3. p. Lemma 2. We now turn to the proof of inequalities (2.m−1. vn ∈ C∗ m. Thus by ﬁxing u. α ∈]0. .α ≤r } j =1 T + r. inequalities (2.α h m−1. one .1 (ii) and by (2.α (T. Since minT |h | ≥ l[h].m. .10) with c3. Since C∗ 1 m.1 (ii). Prop. C) to ]0.α ≤ r .α ≤r l [h] > 0. C).α (T.α (T. w(s)ds = 0.22).1. By [12. we obtain inequality (2. C) deﬁned by (2.α .19) C[h.14) and equality (2.α ≤r } j =1 T h m.α m.13) and by the deﬁnition of l[h].18) the following holds (2. .

α ≤ n!r−n · sup h−e h m.α +|wλk −wλk−1 | < σ .7. we apply a result of Kantorovich and Akilov [7] which requires estimates of ﬁrst and second order partial diﬀerentials of P.vn ∈C∗ sup v1 =0.α ≡ {(ζ. and for which U (1 + π ) · w m−1. (−1) .22). estimates which we obtain in Theorem 3. and by assuming that there is a homotopy (ζλ .. wλ )λ∈[0.α . Prop. Thus we can obtain h[ζλq .wλ > 0 depending only on (ζλ .α ≤r C[h. w) ∈ (C∗ (T. which can be expressed as the limit of appropriate Newton iterates (se Theorem 3.1] δζλ . w.α U ∈ C∗ (T.) To prove the convergence of the Newton iterates. h[ζλk−1 .α . then equation P[ζ. . with λ → (ζλ .24) sup h−e h m.w0 ) ◦ ζ1 is known for some (ζ0 . 3. and in Proposition 3.. .23) by (2. wλ ) continuous from [0.1 .α ≤r m. vn ) m. we ﬁrst introduce a functional equation of the form P[ζ. 4. To obtain (2. 3. T w(s)ds = 0.) Then we show that for each (ζλ .α ≤ v1 m. Prop. u] m..3. and such that h[ζλk .. one Then by Proposition 2. Prop.. < λq = 1 such that supk=1. w) ∈ Em.α (see Theorem 3.α ≤ 3. and that accordingly there exist 0 = λ0 < λ1 < .α .α . wλk−1 ] as limit of Newton iterates.1] . wλk−1 . h] = 0. 3. w]) (see [15.α + |w − wλ | ≤ δζλ .C) v1 . w. Prop.1]).α 0 ≤π w 0 + w m−1. h[ζ. 5.α .q ζλk −ζλk−1 m. [12.. w1 ) in the set m..7. vn m. then the equality U (eiθ ) = θ w(eiξ )ieiξ dξ deﬁnes an element m. To do so. u] (cf. C) ∩ Z ) × C : w ∈ I[ζ ]} (−1) by assuming that g(ζ0 . h[ζ.5.12. such that U = w. and the Newton-Kantorovich approximation scheme As we have anticipated in the Introduction.α (T.w1 ) ◦ ζ1 for (ζ1 . wλk ] can be computed by ζλk−1 . 1] to Em. w0 ) and (ζ1 . C). u](v1 ... . w. of (ζ0 .w ◦ ζ ) for (ζ.vn =0 n ∂h C[h.. we show that there exists 0 < σ ≤ inf λ∈[0. Finally. wλ ) such that if ζ − ζλ m. . and such that the set of solutions of such equations coincides with the set of triples (−1) (ζ. w1 ). w] ≡ gζ.α (T..wλ .9 and by the formula for ∂h m−1.A NEWTON-KANTOROVICH METHOD FOR THE CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION 7 can obtain that (2. We now introduce the functional equation for (ζ. wλ ) of the homotopy there exists a δ = δζλ .. we plan to obtain g(ζ1 . . Prop.α Em. . C) obtains (2. . h] = 0 has exactly one solution h. w0 ) ∈ Em. n C[h. wλq ] in up to q steps.11.22) it suﬃcies to note that if w ∈ C∗ and m. .wλ .3]). w. Introduction of a nonlinear functional equation for the conformal representation.

and in particular. h ∈ Z . C) ∩ Z . R) to itself deﬁned by ˜ be the map of C∗ Πh ˜ [f.α m. h[ζ.α ˜ w. then the ˜ solution h[ζ. Let A be the set deﬁned by A≡ m. w. then (ζ. 6. then h = gζ. w. the corresponding h[ζ. we order partial diﬀerentials of P in a neighborhood of (ζ. C) × C × C∗ (T. w ˜ ]. m.α m. Let Πh (T. the (real or complex) Banach space C∗ (T. then h[ζ. the domain A of P is open in m. Again. R) × C × R × C∗ (T. To do so. w] is the only zero of the map h → Πh ˜ ◦ P[ζ. and h[ζ. We now show that there exists r > 0 depending ˜ ≡ h[ζ. ˜ ) and (ζ. h] = 0.α (ζ.4 ≡ Re ζ (t) − Im ind[h] ζ (s)h (s) ind[h] ζ (s)h (s) ds .1. ˜ ). R) deﬁned by P[ζ. if (ζ. w. then equation Πh ˜ ◦ P[ζ. w. Finally. R) : ˜ (s) h 1 f (s) ds = 0 ˜ (s) 2πi T h . h] = 0. Thus as a ﬁrst step. w]) ∈ A and P[ζ.3. w. Re ζ (s)h (s) ind[h] ds 2πi T h2 (s) >0 . ˜ ). for a given (ζ. LANZA DE CRISTOFORIS AND S. w] is a limit of the Newton iterates relative to the operator h → Πh ˜ ◦ P[ζ. 1[. β.8 M. β. If (ζ. 0 ∈ I[h]. In view of the previous Theorem.α for all (f. 2πi T h2 (s) (−1) If (ζ. h) ∈ A. ω. ˜ h m. m. w). h[ζ. ˜ ) ∈ A.2. ˜ ˜ h ˜ ] is a is satisﬁed if and only if P[ζ. R) × C × R × C∗ (T. w. Let (ζ. b) ∈ C∗ (T.w ◦ ζ ≡ h[ζ. w ∈ I[ζ ]. C) onto the range Vm. w) is less than ˜ δ > 0. w. m. ω. πi 2πi T h(s) T h(s) − h(t) ζ (s)h (s) ind[h] ds . h) ∈ C∗ (T. we will exploit the Newton-Kantorovich Theorem in the form of Kantorovich and Akilov [7. w.α m. ˜ h m. h](t))l=1. w]] = 0.α ≡ of Πh ˜.α Let P be the nonlinear operator of A to C∗ (T. and of the norm of ﬁrst and second the inverse of the linearized operator ∂h P[ζ. R) × C × R × C∗ (T. which requires an estimate of the norm of ˜ w. C) × C × C∗ (T. w. ω. and if w ∈ I[ζ ].α (f. by Theorem 3. b . h] = 0. w. Let α ∈]0. ˜ (s) 2πi T h m. The diﬀerential ∂h {Πh ˜ ◦ P} [ζ. ω. ˜ ]. w] lies in a ball centered at h and with radius r. b) ∈ C∗ (T. b] ≡ f− ˜ (s) ˜] h ind[h f (s) ds.α m.α m. V. ˜ h ˜ w. w.α linear homeomorphism of C∗ (T. if ζ ∈ C∗ (T. Conversely. h].α m. 708]. m ∈ N \ {0}. Thm. h) is still in ˜w the domain of A.α h(T) = T. w. w] is close to h[ζ. h](t) ≡ (Pl [ζ.α h is a bijection of T onto T. w. h] in the set of h’s such that (ζ.1. ˜w ˜w only on h ˜ ] and δ > 0 such that if the distance of (ζ. β. and if P[ζ. ds − w. C). w]. w) is close enough to (ζ. ROGOSIN Theorem 3. R). h(t)h(t) − 1 . β. w. p. C) : ζ ∈ Z . R) × C × R × C∗ (T. h) ∈ A. and with initial ˜ point h.

7. 2.m−1. ˜ ) ∈ A be a zero of P. (3. w.α c4.α ˜ w.C∗ ( T.α .α Proof. Let α ∈]0. Then Theorem 3. ˜ h We observe that if h ∈ Z . provide such estimates.α · m. 1 m.C)) ˜ w.m.m. l [ζ ] m. 1[. C). m ∈ N \ {0}. ≤ a1 [ζ.α .α Vm. m.4) where ˜ w. ˜ h ˜ ]. ˜ w.α c3.m. by Corollary 2.m−1.α ˜ h +1 + ˜]−1 h ˜ +l[ζ ˜ 1+ h ˜ + 1 + 2 −1 h m. ω. ω.α ˜ c1. 2πi T h(s) T 0. ˜ ]. ˜] ∂h P[ζ. and by applying the Maximum Modulus Principle to the function g (h T ˜w ζ.α m. then by [15.α m.3. ˜ 2 (s) h T T T ˜ (s)f (s) h ˜ 2 (s) ds h − f (t) . ˜ h the following inequality holds.α c4. then the following elementary inequality holds (3.3] we h have that µ(t) ≡ ∂h Πe is delivered by the formula h ◦ P[ζ. ˜ (t) h ˜ ]/π . ( h ˜w ˜ T + ˜ ind h 2πi T ˜ ˜ (s))}h ˜ (s) ind h {γ (s)/gζ. ˜ h c1. Then we have the following. 2−1 l[h ˜ ] πl[h ˜ ]−1 (1 + π ) h ˜ + π −1 l[h ˜ ζ m.1. ˜ h (−1) L( m. β. β.α + m.α .3 and 5. and we start with that concerning the linearized ∂h P[ζ. (0) h ˜w ˜ −ω + γ (t) ≡ ˜] ind[h 2πi − where ˜ ind h 4πi ˜ ind h 2πi T ˜ (s)(b(s) − b(t)) h ds+ ˜ (s) − h ˜ (t) h ˜ (s)f (s) h ds .1.α ˜ · (c2. by Lemma 2. b) ∈ Ve .A NEWTON-KANTOROVICH METHOD FOR THE CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION 9 ˜ w.α for all f ∈ C∗ (T. (h ˜w ˜ ds + b + ˜ (s) 2πi h ˜ (s)b(s) h i ds − β− ˜ 2 (s) gζ. Let (ζ.m.α m.α + 1)c2 1. ˜ ].m.α + 1) h (−1) ˜ h m. h(T) = T. If (f. ˜ .α .α ˜]−1 h ˜ +l[ζ ˜ 1 + 2−1 (c2.2) h (s) 1 f (s) ds ≤ sup |f |.21 with r = l[h ˜ (s) h ˜ (s)) ds = 0. Thm. h](f. 4.m.5) a1 [ζ. by noting that Then by Lemma 2. Proofs of Prop. ˜] ≡ (3. b) ˜ ind h ˜ (s) γ (s) − γ (t) µ(t) h = 2i ds + ˜ (t) ˜ (s)) h ˜ (s) − h ˜ (t) 2πi h gζ.α h ˜ h m.

m.α .7. w. h − h m. ˜ w. 1[. ˜w ˜ +|w−w ˜ |≤δζ.6. ˜ h) ∈ A. h] is given by formula (3. ˜ h . rh ˜ ≡ inf 2 . w. ˜) ≡ ˜h m.α h m. ˜ |(min |ζ ˜ |)−1 |β | + + max |h and γ m. ˜h (3.8) sup B(ζ.α m. LANZA DE CRISTOFORIS AND S. h] B1 ˜ w.α m. ˜ w.α +|w−w ˜ |≤δζ. ROGOSIN we obtain ˜ ≤ c1. and ˜h inf inf inf inf ˜ h−h ˜ h−h ˜ ζ −ζ ˜ ζ −ζ m.α + c3.α m.α + 1) (1 + π )πl h ˜ (·) h ˜ (·)) (h g ˜ζ. 2−1 l h ˜ + π −1 l h m.α ˜ . Let ˜w ˜ ≡ 2 B(ζ. ˜(t) − w ˜ . V. ˜ w. Proposition 3. −1 −1 ˜ Lemma 3.α (ζ. w. h) ∈ A. ˜ ) be deﬁned as in Lemma 3. w.7.α c2.α m.α (c2.α m. ˜ ) ⊆ A.α ˜ .m. mint∈T |ζ ˜(t) − w δζ.w) Πh ˜ ◦ P [ζ. and (ζ.w ˜ M. π l [h] .5).m. δζ. provides an explicit upper bound for a possible radius of such ball.α m. The following elementary Lemma.m.α ˜ + + 2−1 max |b| max h ˜ h . h) ∈ C∗ (T. ˜w ˜ ˜ h m. 1[. −1 ˜ ]. l[h] ≥ 2−1 l[h minT |h| ≥ 2−1 . Then ˜ and the ball B(ζ.α c3. ˜w ˜ Then we have the following. Let (ζ.4). ˜w ˜ w. Thus we have inequality (3.α ≤ rh .m. 2−1 l h ˜ + π −1 l h + · · γ m−1. ˜w ˜.α ˜ + |w − w ˜ | ≤ δζ. C) × C × C∗ (T. We now turn to estimate the partial diﬀerentials of Πh ˜ ◦ P on a closed ball centered ˜ ˜ at (ζ.α |ω | + f m. m ∈ N \ {0}. Let α ∈]0. ˜) ˜ h ∂h ∂(ζ.α ˜ |(min |ζ ˜ |)−1 max |γ | + b + max |h ˜ h b m. g ˜ (z ) ζ. ≤ a2 ζ.m. Let α ∈]0.α ˜ h m. which follows immediately by Lemma 2. l[ζ ] ≥ 2−1 l[ζ m. and contained in A. h) ∈ A. Let the constants rh ˜ .α −1 µ m. inf 2π −1 l[h ˜ | .α m. ˜ ≤rh ˜ ≤rh ˜ ˜ ].6. m ∈ N \ {0}. w. mint∈T |ζ (t) − w| ≥ 2−1 mint∈T ζ ˜]. where the constant a1 [ζ.10 1 . ˜ . w. C) : ˜ ζ −ζ Then B(ζ.α ˜ (·)−1 ≤ c1.α + 1 2 ˜ 1+ h ˜ max |f | max h m.

h] L ˜ w. ˜ h ≤ a3 ζ.α + m.α + δζ.α −1 ˜ + rh ˜ . h](ξ.α . C))2 . C). ˜ w. 3. µ) = − − 21 πi 1 πi T (·)−µ(s) ξ (s) µ ds + h(s)−h(·) 1 2πi 1 2πi T 1 πi T (t)−µ(s) ξ (s) µ ds h(s)−h(t) ˜ (t) h ˜ (t) dt. ˜ w. w.m.1]. R)) . w. h] B2 ˜ h m.9) where sup B(ζ. by [15. ˜ h ˜ h ˜ h m.α −1 ˜ ˜ + rh ˜ . m. ˜w ˜ ) + 2.m.α m. w. µ) ∈ C∗ ˜ w.10) where m. w.α (T. Since B(ζ.α ˜ h m. C) × C) × C∗ (T. Prop.m. ˜ h ˜ w. ˜ ) . h) ∈ B(ζ. (T. C∗ (T. R) × C × R × C∗ (T.α l[h] + rh +6 . − h(s) T ξ (s)µ(s) ds h2 (s) . 2 l [h] + 6 . ˜ w. ˜ w. C)) × C.6. h T ξ (s)µ(s) ds. and (3.α m.2).α + 1)c3. h) ∈ B(ζ. η.m. ˜ h −2 ≡ 4(1 + π )rh ˜ (c2. ˜ ) .0 . and thus ˜h ˜h we can assume that it is identically equal to one.w) ∂h Πh ˜ ◦ P [ζ. ˜ ≡ 2(1 + π )r−1 (c2. 4.α m.α B2 ≡ B (C∗ (T. where ∂h Πh ˜ ◦P has been computed).m. we have ∂(ζ.α (T.m.w) ∂h Πh ˜ ◦ P [ζ.α ˜ h m. ˜. Prop.α m. R)) . C). C∗ (T. R) . η. and for all (ζ. and thus ˜h by Lemma 2. Then by [12. Lemma 4. ˜ w. C) × C × C∗ for all (ξ.α + 1)c3.m.α a2 ζ.m.1]. L ≡ L ((C∗ sup ˜ +|w−w ζ −ζ ˜ |≤δζ. 2 l [h] ˜ h m. 2 l [h] + 20 ( ζ m. by inequality (3. m.1. w.α m. ˜w ˜ ˜ ∂(ζ.α + 1) h Proof. ≤ a4 ζ.21 with r = rh ˜ . by Corollary 2.α m. ˜ ) is connected.α B1 ≡ B ((C∗ (T. ind[h] is constant for (ζ. C∗ (T. ˜ h ˜ h Furthermore. and by Lemma 3.7].α m.α + 1)c3. and by elementary Calculus (see also [15.α a4 ζ. ˜ + 1 + 2−1 (c2. R) × C × R × C∗ (T.m. ˜ ≡ a3 ζ. ˜ .α m. ˜ ≡ 2(1 + π )r−1 (c2. we have ∂(ζ. R) × C × R × C∗ (T. w. ˜ . (3.α ≤ + 1)c3.w) Πh ˜ ◦ P [ζ.α −1 ˜ + rh ˜ . h] ≤ 2(1 + B1 −1 π )rh ˜ (c2.A NEWTON-KANTOROVICH METHOD FOR THE CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION 11 where m. 2 ˜ . ˜ w. ˜) ˜ h 2 ∂h Πh ˜ ◦ P [ζ.

ROGOSIN Thus. ˜w ˜.m.m. Then we are ready to prove the following. m. w. w. ˜ ]a2 [ζ. ˜ w.m. h] ·c3.α ˜ + |w − w for all (ξ. h] B2 ≤ ˜ h m. µ2 ) ∈ (C∗ (T. w. ˜ w.α + 1) . −1 . h]. 2 h2 (s) T s)µ2 (s) ζ (s) µ1 ( ds . 4. h] ˜ H0 ≡ h (−1) ˜ ◦ Πh ˜ ◦ P [ζ.1]. and (ζ. ˜ ˜ h ˜ ]a4 [ζ. ˜ w.m.10) follows.α ˜ (T.10).α + 1)c3.8). h + 21 πi + 21 πi T T 1 πi T µ1 (s))(µ2 (t)−µ2 (s)) ds ζ (s) (µ1 (t)−( h(s)−h(t))2 1 2πi s)µ2 (s) ζ (s) µ1 ( ds.α l[h] + rh ˜. η ) = − 21 πi ξ (·) − 1 πi T T ˜ (s)ds ξ (s)h ˜ (s)−h ˜ (·) h ˜ (s)ds ξ (s)h ˜ h(s) + − η. w. ˜w ˜ . ˜] 2a1 [ζ.α m. ˜ h ˜ h . ˜ ]2 a3 [ζ.11. h] = 0 m. we can deduce the validity of (3. C))2 . we consider (3. we have 2 ∂h Πh ˜ ◦ P [ζ. h](ξ. By elementary Calculus. h](µ1 .α L −1 ≤ 2(1 + π )rh ˜ (c2.m. w.α +2 . . w. Again by [12. 1[. Theorem 3.α + 1)· −1 ˜ + rh ˜ .14) ˜ Hj +1 ≡ Hj − Πh ˜ ◦ P [ζ. h) ∈ A be a zero of P.12 M. we have ˜ ∂(ζ. ˜ ) . m. for j ≥ 0. 2πi h T .α then (3. ˜ w. then equation ≤ rh ˜.α + 20 ζ m. η ) ∈ C∗ (T.13) Πh ˜ ◦ P [ζ. C) × C. w. and thus ˜ ∂(ζ.12) δζ. µ1 (·)µ2 (·) + µ2 (·)µ1 (·) . ˜] rh ˜ h ˜ 4a1 [ζ.α 2 (c2.α ˜ (T. ˜ ]a4 [ζ.α ζ m. m ∈ N \ {0}.α ˜ +1+ h −1 m. −1 ˜ w. w. 2 l [h] ˜ h m. LANZA DE CRISTOFORIS AND S. ˜] 16a1 [ζ. h3 (s) m. 2 ˜ −2 ≤ 4(1 + π )rh ˜ (c2. w] ∈ C∗ Furthermore. (3. w. and thus we have (3. ˜ h m.9). and if ζ − ζ If (ζ. ˜ w. 1 2πi ˜ (s)ds ξ (s)h ˜ h2 (s) T ξ (t) − 1 πi T ˜ (s)ds ξ (s)h ˜ ˜ (t) h(s)−h ˜ (t) h 1 ˜ (t) dt.α . V. w) ∈ C∗ + |w − w ˜ | ≤ σζ. ˜w ˜ . Finally. C) × C. µ2 ) = − 1 πi T µ1 (s))(µ2 (·)−µ2 (s)) ζ (s) (µ1 (·)−( ds + h(s)−h(·))2 ˜ (t) h ˜ (t) dt. and by elementary Calculus. and thus ˜h 2 ∂h Πh ˜ ◦ P [ζ. and for all ζ − ζ ˜ | ≤ δζ. and for all (ζ.w) Πh ˜ ◦ P [ζ. Prop. −1 ˜ w. Let α ∈]0.0 . such that h − h has one and only one solution h[ζ. the Newton iterates (3. h) ∈ B(ζ. Let σζ.α for all (µ1 . ˜ h ˜ h ˜ h m. w. C). ˜w ˜ be equal to the minimum of the following four numbers: (3.w) Πh ˜ ◦ P [ζ.

˜w . 708] to deduce that the Newton iterates of (3. for all λ ∈ [0. However. Proof. 1] to Em. and ˜ Thus we can involve Kantorovich and Akilov [7. k = 1. w] m. ˜w ˜ . h] (−1) 2 ˜ ◦ ∂h Πh ˜ ◦ P[ζ. ˜ w.19. q . ≤ a4 [ζ. ˜h ˜ w. Thm. 708]. Besides. ˜ w. wλk−1 . ˜ ]a3 [ζ. Let Λ(λ) ≡ (ζλ .15) Hj − h[ζ. C) : h − h ∗ h with h[ζ. with ζ. w. ˜ h ˜ h ζ. ˜ h ˜ ◦ Πh ˜ ◦ P[ζ. ) ≤β≤ 1 4 <1 . wλ . with λk − λk−1 = q −1 .α + |w − w ˜ |) ˜ w. w.α ˜ w. p.α converge to h in C∗ (T. ˜ h ˜ h ˜ h ˜ h ζ.18) 2a1 [ζ. by Therorem 3. · · · . in the ball m. α ∈]0. h) ∈ Bζ. h ζλ . w]. as a limit of the Newton iterates of ˜ w.3. h] (−1) m.A NEWTON-KANTOROVICH METHOD FOR THE CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION m. and by Theorem 3. h] · (−1) 2 ∂h Πh ˜ ◦ P[ζ. w.α ˜ < r˜ .α . wλ ). Then we have the following. (3. ˜ w. 1[.α · ˜ ∂h Π h ˜ ◦ P[ζ. ˜] ≤ 2a1 [ζ. 1]. Then there exists q ∈ N and 0 = λ0 < λ1 < · · · < λq = 1.α ( . ˜ h[ζ. ˜] ≤ a3 [ζ. h] = 0. h] m. by inequality (3. such that h [ζλk . wλk ] can be obtained by ζλk−1 . ˜ ]σ ˜ . then by the mean value inequality.C∗ TC .w ˜ √ 1 − 1 − 2β ˜ w. Let m ∈ N \ {0}. and by deﬁnition of σζ. C) and satisfy the inequality 13 (3.14) converge to a solution of equation Πh ˜ ◦ P[ζ. h ζλk−1 . ˜ w. h) ∈ B(ζ. ˜ ]a3 [ζ. ˜ h Similarly.α + |w − w whenever (ζ. ˜ ]σ ˜ .14).C)) 2 m. ˜ ]. ˜ ] ≡ ζλ . 6. h] m. p. w. Thm. w. As we have announced. 2 ˜ w. w. (3.w ˜ h β ˜ m. h] B2 ˜ Πh ˜ ◦ P[ζ. w. ˜w ˜w ˜ . 6. ˜ ]a4 [ζ. ˜ w. w. ˜ ]a4 [ζ. ˜ w. Let Λ be a continuous map of [0. w. our result will follow by applying the Newton-Kantorovich method in the formulation of Kantorovich and Akilov [7.8). and the proof is complete.α ( C∗ T. )) TC ≤ −1 1 ˜ ˜ ] − a2 [ζ.w ˜ ∀(ζ. wλk−1 .α L(Vm. wλ k −1 k−1 k −1 k−1 . ≤ 2a1 [ζ. w.17) Thus we have ˜ ∂h Πh ˜ ◦ P[ζ. we have ˜ ∂h Πh ˜ ◦ P[ζ. ˜). h] B ( m. ˜ ]σ ˜ ≤ r˜ (3. ζ −ζ ˜ | ≤ σζ. ˜ w. We ˜ m. where β ≡ 2a1 [ζ.α + |w − w ﬁrst note that if ζ − ζ ˜ | ≤ σζ.1 such solution coincides h ∈ C (T. m.α ˜ w. ˜ h ζ. Theorem 3. ˜ ] 2a1 [ζ. ˜ ]( ζ − ζ ˜ ≤ a− ˜ h ˜ h 1 [ζ.α . ˜w ˜ . ˜ h ˜ h −1 √ 2−1 √ 2 j +1 ∀j ∈ N. w.16) and (3.C∗ ( .

Berlin. P. . (to appear). (see Theorem 3.1] l[ζλ ] > 0. minλ∈[0. M. 31. and by the deﬁnition of σζλ . Studies in the history of modern mathematics. of Intergal Equations and Appl. The large deformation of nonlinearly elastic tubes in two dimensional ﬂows. Anal. Pergamon Press. M. Gaishun and A. F.A. Lanza de Cristoforis and L. h [ζλ . Oxford etc. Math. we deduce that inf λ∈[0. Lanza de Cristoforis (1992). Special Functions and Fractional Calculus (I. 16. J. of Japan. 22 (1991). Kilbas (eds.α 3. Berlin etc. Mat. and the proof is complete. Suppl. Comput. Ambrosetti (1973). Engl transl. with j ∈ {1. Analisi non lineare. J. LANZA DE CRISTOFORIS AND S.α < +∞. Pommerenke (1992). Preciso (1999). Circ.)). 1964. Lanza de Cristoforis and L. by Pergamon Press. 363-391.α < +∞. [10] [11] [12] [13] [14] [15] [16] [17] [18] . Gaier (1964).7). Analiticity of a nonlinear operator associated to the conformal representation in Schauder spaces. Circ.3 and Proposition 3. maxλ∈[0.α on C∗ (T. M. wλ ] m. Gutknekht (1977). Springer Verlag. the continuity of l[·].H¨ ubner (1986) On the fast solution of a linear system arising in numerical conformal mapping. Lanza de Cristoforis (1996).D. M. . 1193–1221.11). and of · m. On the Analiticity of the Cauchy Operator in Schauder Spaces. Lanza de Cristoforis and S. Academic Press. Berger (1977). 478-480. 9-42. Palermo (2). Prodi and A. wλ ]] > 0. Nauka. References [1] [2] [3] [4] [5] [6] [7] [8] [9] M. M. 381-386. The Riemann mapping theorem.Gray (1994). Conformal representation and domain dependence. Boundary Behaviour of Conformal Maps. 1996. II. The second author would like to express his gratitude to the Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics for the ﬁnancial support and especially to Prof. 49. Acknowledgement This work appears in the framework of the Agreement on scientiﬁc and cultural cooperation between the Department of Pure and Applied Mathematics of the University of Padova and Mechanical-Mathematical Department of the Belarusian State University. M. 3. Suppl.wλ > 0.. G. Pisa.. J. Gakhov (1966).. 4}. Preciso (1999).1] ζλ m. Complex Variables. Lanza de Cristoforis and L. A functional decomposition theorem for the conformal representation. M. Boundary Value Problems. and January 2000.V. Palermo (2). . I. 47-94. Oxford-London etc. Regularity properties of a nonlinear operator associated to the conformal welding. Proceedings of International Conference. N. On the history of the Riemann mapping theorem. J. Moscow (in Russian). Comput. O. Lanza de Cristoforis for the warm hospitality during his visits to the University of Padova in November 1999. submitted. M. Mat.S.S. Ediﬁce Tecnico Scientiﬁca. 121–133. A note on conformal representation in Sobolev spaces. Appl. maxλ∈[0. 759–780. of Math. C). Rogosin (1997). Konstruktive Methoden der konformen Abbildung. Lanza de Cristoforis and S. Diﬀerentiability properties of some nonlinear operator associated to the conformal welding of Jordan curves in Schauder spaces. wλ ]]. Mat.1] σζλ . Rend. 20. G. Minsk. Studies in the history of modern mathematics. Nonlinearity and Functional Analysis. Ch. Belarus. D.V. Soc.1] h [ζλ . L. M. Existence of a solution to the discrete Theodorsen equation for conformal mappings.V. typewritten manuscript. Boundary Value Problems. ·] on Em. and the positivity of l[·] on Z imply that minλ∈[0. Lanza de Cristoforis (1997).Akilov (1959) Functional Analysis in Normed Spaces.H. New York.. February 16-20. wλ .wλ (see Theorem 3. SIAM J. N 34. Math. Preciso (1999). 11. V. N 44.α inferred by Theorem m.1] l [h [ζλ . An integral equation approach.14 M. ROGOSIN Proof. Springer Verlag.1.P. Then by the deﬁnition of aj [ζλ . 195– 203.Ullrich (1996). M. Antman (1991).Kantorovich. Rend. J. It suﬃces to note that the continuity of h[·. ..

[20] L. 3. Italy. Department of Mathematics and Mechanics. von Wolfersdorf (1984) Zur Unit¨ at der Losungen der Theodorsen Integralgleichungen der konformen Abbildung. Belarusian State University. Belarus. Math. Z.. . Soc. 35131 Padova.A NEWTON-KANTOROVICH METHOD FOR THE CONFORMAL REPRESENTATION 15 [19] Guo-Chun Wen (1992) Conformal Mappings and Boundary Value Problems. Providence. Anal Anwend. ` di Padova. 220050 Minsk. Rhode Island. Universita 7.. F. Skaryny av. 4. Amer. Via Belzoni Dipartimento di Matematica Pura ed Applicata. 523-526.

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