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BSC1010:

Honors Biological Principles

Exam 2 Test Review: Chapter 9 Name the following:


Drives catabolic process

ATP

the most potent oxidizing agent

oxygen

deriva6ve of vitamin Niacin

NAD+ (Nico1namide adenine dinucleo1de)


Oxida6on of glucose to pyruvate

glycolysis

where glycolysis occurs

cytosol

which enzyme is used in glycolysis from glucose-6-phosphate to fructose-6-phosphate?

isomerase

forms one pryuvate

Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate
macromolecule that allows pyruvate to enter mitochondria

transport protein

genera6on of ATP by the movement of hydrogen ions across a membrane during cellular respira6on

Chemiosmosis fermenta1on

extension of glycolysis when O2 is absent metabolic sequence that breaks faFy acids down to two-carbon fragments

beta oxida1on

the most prevalent and ecient catabolic pathway

aerobic respira1on

BSC1010: Honors Biological Principles

oxydized pyruvate

acetyl CoA

the enzyme that makes ATP from ADP and inorganic phosphate

ATP synthase cytochromes cyt a3

proteins that are remaining electron carriers between ubiquinone and oxygen the last cytochrome of the electron transport chain Where most of the energy of fat is stored

faCy acids

Give short answers to the following:


Scien6cally, why does a person trying to lose weight have to work hard to use up fat?

Fats make excellent fuel because their chemical structure and high energy of electrons, compared to carbohydrates. One gram of fat oxidized by respira1on produces more than twice as much ATP as a gram of carbohydrate, and the body has so many calories stockpiled in each gram of fat.
What does a nega6ve G indicate? A nega1ve G indicates that the products of the chemical process store less energy than

the reactants and that the reac1on can happen spontaneously, without an input of energy.
Name the molecules that conserve most of the energy from the citric acid cycles redox reac6ons. How is this energy converted to a form that can be used to make ATP?

NADH and FADH2; they donate electrons to the electron transport chain.
Is glycolysis dependent on oxygen? What happens if O2 is present?

Glycolysis occurs whether or not O2 is present. However, if O2 is present, the chemical energy stored in pyruvate and NADH can be extracted by pyruvate oxida1on, the citric acid cycle, and oxida1ve phosphoryla1on.
What are the redox reac6ons in a reac6on between methane and oxygen? Why?

The degree of electron sharing changes. When methane forms with CO2, electrons end up shared less equally between carbon and oxygen. So, the carbon atom has par1ally lost its shared electrons and methane is oxidized.

BSC1010: Honors Biological Principles

When does an electron lose poten6al energy?

An electron lose poten1al energy when it shiSs from a less electronega1ve atom toward a more electronega1ve one.
What is the func6on of dehydronases in NAD+?

Enzymes which remove a pair of hydrogen atoms (2 electrons and 2 protons) from substrate (eg. Glucose). Dehydrogenases deliver these two electrons and one proton to NAD+
another way to ask this ques6on: How does NAD+ trap electrons from glucose and other organic molecules?

Enzymes called dehydrogenases remove a pair of hydrogen atoms (2 electrons and 2 protons) from the substrate, thereby oxidizing it. The enzyme delivers the 2 electrons along with 1 proton to its coenzyme, NAD+ . The other proton is released as a hydrogen ion (H+) into the surrounding solu1on
What is the similarity between the reac6on of breaking down glucose and the electron transfer from NADH to oxygen?

They are both exergonic, meaning they are spontaneous reac1ons with a release of free energy. (both free energy changes are nega1ve)
What are the end products of glycoloysis (per glucose molecule)?

2 molecules of pyruvate 2 ATP 2 NADH

What is the consequence of electronega6ve oxygen not pulling electrons down the chain?

oxida1ve phosphoryla1on (produc1on of ATP) stops.

What is the eect of oxidizing NADH produced in glycolysis?

fermenta1on regenerates NAD+, which can take part in glycolysis once again to produce more ATP.
Why do salt marshes smell like roFen eggs?

It does not use oxygen as a nal electron acceptor. Sulfate-reducing marine bacteria can use sulfate ion, the end product is H2S and not H2O. State one signicant dierence, as menBoned in parenthesis, between the following:
NAD+ and NADH (redox reac6ons)

NAD+- oxidizing agent it accepts electrons from other molecules NADH- a reducing agent, dona1ng electrons

BSC1010: Honors Biological Principles

NADH and FADH2 (ATP)

NADH- one equivalent to 2.5 ATP FADH2- one equivalent to 1.5 ATP
uphill neighbor and downhill neighbor (redox reac6ons)

uphill- each component gets reduced when it accepts electrons downhill- same component gets oxidized as it passes electrons
ADP to ATP and breakdown of glucose (reac6on types)

ADP to ATP- endergonic breakdown of glucose- exergonic

alcohol fermenta6on and lac6c acid fermenta6on (uses)

alcohol fermenta1on- yeast: brewing, winemaking, baking lac1c acid fermenta1on- dairy industry: cheese, yogurt
obligate anaerobes and faculta6ve anaerobes (oxygen)

obligate anaerobes- organism that cannot survive in the presence of oxygen faculta1ve anaerobes- organism that can survive in the presence of oxygen or without oxygen Draw and label the following: NaCl redox reac6ons

Na+ : oxida&on Cl- : reduc&on

Make sure to review and know: glycolysis, the calvin cycle, and the TEC