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V8i

Verification Manual

DAA039800-1/0001 Last updated: 26 July 2011

Copyright Information

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Verification Manual i

Chapter 2

Table of Contents

Introduction Section 1 Australian Code (AS3600-2001[AMnd 2004])

1.1 General Isolated Foundation 1 1.2 General Isolated Foundation 2 1.3 General Combined Foundation 1 1.4 General Combined Foundation 2

1 3

3 6 14 16

2.1 General Isolated Foundation 1 2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2 2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3 2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4 2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5 2.6 General Isolated Foundation 6 2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7 2.8 General Combined Foundation 1 2.9 General Combined Foundation 2 2.10 Mat Combined Foundation 2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

23

23 26 32 38 44 53 62 71 77 83 88

3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1 3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2 3.3 CSA General Isolated Foundation 3 3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1 3.4 CSA General Combined Foundation s1

99

99 105 112 115 122

4.1 IS General Isolated Foundation 1 4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2 4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3 4.4 IS General Isolated Foundation 4 4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5 4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6 4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

125

125 129 133 138 140 145 150 Verification Manual iii

Chapter 3

4.8 IS Toolkit Combined 1 4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2 4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3 4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4 4.12 IS Pilecap 1 4.13 ISPilecap 2 4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1

5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1 5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2 5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3 5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4 5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5 5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6 5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7 5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1 5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2 5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3 5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4 5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1 5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2 5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3 5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4 5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1 5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning 5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

201

201 206 211 215 220 229 233 241 247 253 258 264 271 280 287 295 302 311

6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1 6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2 6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3 6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

321

321 330 338 347

7.1 Drilled Pier Foundation 1 API 7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API 7.3 Drilled Pier Foundation 3 FHWA iv STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

357

357 361 366

7.4 Drilled Pier Foundation 4 FHWA 7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC 7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic

8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1 8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design 8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design 8.4 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 1 8.5 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 2 8.6 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 3 8.7 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 4 8.8 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 5 8.9 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 6 8.10 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 7 8.11 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 8 8.12 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 9 8.13 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 1 8.14 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 2 8.15 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 3 8.16 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 4 8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1 8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2

385

385 394 403 412 413 414 415 416 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 426 427 431

9.1 Cone Footing Design 9.2 PKPM Isolated Footing Design 9.3 Stepped Foundation Design 9.4 PKPMStepped Footing Design 9.5 Combined Foundation 9.6 Pile Foundation Design

437

437 445 449 457 461 470

Figures Tables

489 493 Verification Manual v

Chapter 3

Introduction

This document is intended to use as a hand calculation reference for STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i (Release 6.0) verification problems. Verification Problems can be found under Start Page > Example > Verification. Each section in this manual represents either specific design code (e.g., AS3600-2001) or particular foundation type (e.g., Dead Man Anchor Guy Foundation). Hand calculation title (e.g., AS GEN ISO 1) indicates corresponding STAAD Foundation file name. At end of each hand calculation a comparison table between hand calculations and program results is provided for various output parameters like bearing pressure, overturning and sliding factor of safety, shear force, etc.

Verification Manual 1

Chapter 4

Section 1

1.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

1.1.1 Reference 1.1.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 500 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 110 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, and FOS against overturning =1.5. Height of soil above footing = 500 mm, GWT is 200 mm from GL. Surcharge= 10 KN/m2

Verification Manual 3

Figure 1-1: Australian code General isolated foundation

1.1.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 500/110 m2 = 4.545 m2 Assuming 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 0.400 m footing dimension, Weight of footing = 2.4 x 2.4 x 0.400 x 25 KN = 57.6 KN Weight of above soil = 2.4 x 2.4 x 0.500 x 18 KN = 51.84 KN Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 2.4 x 2.4 x (0.500+0.400-0.200) x 9.81 KN = 39.554 KN Load due to surcharge = 2.4 x2.4 x 10 KN =57.6 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (500+57.6 +51.84+57.6 -39.554 ) KN = 627.486 KN Maximum pressure = 627.486 /(2.4x2.4) = 108.94 KN/ m2 108.94 KN/m2 <110 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation Total Service load on foundation = 627.486 KN Hence Max possible Resisting Sliding force =0.5 x 627.486 = 313.74 KN Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation Total Service load on foundation = 627.486 KN Hence Max possible Resisting Sliding force =0.5 x 627.486 = 313.74 KN Hence OK

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

WRT Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0 Max Resisting Moment = 0.5 x 2.4 x 627.486 = 752.98 KNm Hence OK

WRT X Direction

Overturning Moment =0 Max Resisting Moment = 0.5 x 2.4 x 627.486 = 752.98 KNm Hence OK

1.1.4 Comparison

Table 1-1: Australian verification example 1 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure, KN/m2 108.94 108.63 Negligible Resisting force for sliding (x), 313.74 312.87 Negligible KN Resisting Moment for 752.98 750.87 Negligible Overturning (z), KNm Resisting force for sliding (z), 313.74 312.87 Negligible KN Resisting Moment for 752.98 750.87 Negligible Overturning (x), KNm

Verification Manual 5

1.2.1 Reference 1.2.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1,500 KN, Mz=50 KNm, Mx=50 KNm, fc = 25 N/m2, fy = 450 N/m2m, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 150 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, and FOS against overturning =1.5 (Include SW for Factored Design)

Figure 1-2: Plan and Elevation

1.2.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1,500/150 m2 = 10.0 m2 Assuming 4.0 m x 4.0 m x 0.73 m footing dimension, Tot Moment wrt Z =50 KNm Tot Moment wrt X =50 KNm Stress at four corners ( service condition) 1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz 2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz

3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz 4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz Tot Vertical Load on soil Self wt of fdn = 4 m (4 m) (0.73 m) (25 KN/m3) = 292.0 KN Column reaction load = 1,500 KN Total Vertical load V =1,792 KN Zz = Z X2/6 = 3.935 x 3.9352/6 =10.67 m3 Zx = Z X2/6 = 3.935 x 3.9352/6 =10.67 m3 Mx= 50 KNm Mz = 50 KNm 1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 112 KN/m2 2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 102.6 KN/m2 3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 112 KN/m2 4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 121.37 KN/m2 Max stress = 122 KN/m2 <150 KN/m2 Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force = 0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 (1,792 KN) = 896 KN Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 (1,792 KN)= 896 KN Hence OK

Verification Manual 7

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

Along X Direction

Overturning Moment =50 KNm max resisting Moment = 0.5 (4 m) (1,972 KN) = 3,584 KNm Hence FOS = 3,584/50 = 71.7 > 1.5 Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Overturning Moment =50 KNm max resisting Moment = 0.5 (4 m) (1,972 KN) = 3,584 KNm Hence FOS = 3,584/50 = 71.7 > 1.5 Hence OK

Factored Design

Axial Load = 292 KN+ 1.4(1,500 KN) = 2,392 KN MX =1.4 x 50 =70 KNm MZ =1.4 x 50 =70 KNm

Average Base Pressure along one edge = 156.07 KN/m2 (left end) Average Base Pressure along other edge = 142.93 KN/m2 (right end) Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 150 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 149.01 KN/m2 Hence, the moment at the left critical section Mu (Left) F = (156.07 + 150.0)/2 (1.85 m)(4 m) = 1,132.46 KN LA = (150.0 + 2 156.07) (1.85 m) /[3(150.0 + 156.07)] = 0.932 m Mu(left) = F LA = 1,132.46 KN (0.932 m) = 1,055.4 KNm Similarly, the moment at the right critical section Mu (Right): F = (142.93 +149.01)/2 (1.85 m) (4 m) = 1,080.2 KN LA = (142.93 +2 149.01) (1.85 m) /[3(142.93 +149.01)] = 0.919 m Mu(right) = F LA = 1,080.2 KN (0.919 m) = 992.7 KNm So max moment with respect to the Z axis, Mu(Z) = 1,056 KNm

eff

m= fc/fy =0.0555 = 0.85 - 0.007(fc - 28) = 0.871 (Take = 0.85 per Clause 8.1.2.2 K

umax

umax

= 0.85 fc K = [R

umax umax

umax

umax d 2] =

(1 - K

umax

/2) = 3.891

5,622.7 KNm

Mu < M Hence OK

AverageBasePressurealongoneedge=142.93 KN/m2(leftend) AverageBase Pressure along other edge = 156.07 KN/m2 (right end) Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 149.01 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 150.0 KN/m2 Hence, the moment at the critical section Mu (left) F = (142.93 +149.01)/2 (1.85 m) (4 m) = 1,080.2 KN LA = (142.93 +2 149.01) (1.85 m) /[3(142.93 +149.01)] = 0.919 m Mu(right) = F LA = 1,080.2 KN (0.919 m) = 992.7 KNm Similarly, the moment at the right critical section Mu (Right): F = (156.07 + 150.0)/2 (1.85 m)(4 m) = 1,132.46 KN LA = (150.0 + 2 156.07) (1.85 m) /[3(150.0 + 156.07)] = 0.932 m Verification Manual 9

Mu(left) = F LA = 1,132.46 KN (0.932 m) = 1,055.4 KNm So max moment with respect to the X axis, Mu(X) = 1,056 KNm

eff

m= fc/fy =0.0555 = 0.85 - 0.007(fc - 28) = 0.871 (Take = 0.85 per Clause 8.1.2.2 K

umax

umax

= 0.85 fc K = [R

umax umax

umax

umax d 2] =

(1 - K

umax

/2) = 3.891

5,622.7 KNm

Mu < M Hence OK

Calculation required steel for balanced section, Ast x = 4,427 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 b d = 5,376 mm2 So, provided area of steel = 5,376 mm2

Calculation required steel for balanced section, Ast x = 4,427 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 b d = 5,376 mm2 So, provided area of steel = 5,376 mm2

Along X Direction

Critical section for moment is at a distance, d, away from the face of column Average Base Pressure along one edge = 142.93kN/m2 AverageBase Pressure along other edge = 156.07 kN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 156.07 + (142.93 - 156.07) 1.178/4= 152.2 kN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 156.07 + (142.93 - 156.07) (4 1.178)/4 = 146.8 kN/m2 Hence, the SF at the left critical section: F = (156.07 + 152.2)/2 (1.178 m) (4 m)= 726.3 kN Shear at the right critical section: F = (142.93 +146.8)/2 (1.178 m) (4 m)= 682.6 kN Critical shear is 727 kN Developed shear stress, v = 726.3 kN (103)/[4,000 (672)] = 0.44 N/mm 2 c

max

= 0.2 fc = 5 N/mm 2

1 = 1.1(1.6 - d/1000) = 1.1(1.6 - 672/1,000) = 1.021 2 = 1 3 = 1 = 1 2 3. [Ast fc/(b d)] 1/3 = 0.75{1.021(1)(1)[5,376 25/(4,000 672)] 1/3} = 0.282 c N/mm 2 Hence OK

Verification Manual 11

Along Z Direction

Critical section for moment is at a distance, d, away from the face of column Average Base Pressure along one edge = 142.93kN/m2 AverageBase Pressure along other edge = 156.07 kN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 156.07 + (142.93 - 156.07) (4 1.178)/4 = 146.8 kN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 156.07 + (142.93 - 156.07) 1.178/4= 152.2 kN/m2 Hence, the SF at the left critical section: F = (142.93 +146.8)/2 (1.178 m) (4 m)= 682.6 kN Shear at the right critical section: F = (156.07 + 152.2)/2 (1.178 m) (4 m)= 726.3 kN Critical shear is 727 kN Developed shear stress, v = 726.3 kN (103)/[4,000 (672)] = 0.27 N/mm 2

cmax

= 0.2 fc = 5 N/mm 2

1 = 1.1(1.6 - d/1000) = 1.1(1.6 - 672/1,000) = 1.021 2 = 1 3 = 1 = 1 2 3. [Ast fc/(b d)] 1/3 = 0.75{1.021(1)(1)[5,376 25/(4,000 672)] 1/3} = c 0.282 N/mm 2 Hence OK

Punching Shear

Punching Shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5 d from the column face. 12 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Pm = 3,888 mm Vmax = 2,251 kN = Vmax/(Pm d) = 2,251 kN (10)3/(3,888 mm 672 mm) = 0.862 N/mm 2

v

Punching shear stress capacity = [0.34 (fc)] = 0.7 [0.34 (25)] = 1.19 N/mm 2

c

Verification Manual 13

1.2.4 Comparison

Table 1-2: Australian verification example 2 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Corner Pressure, KN/m2 112 111.9 None 102.6 112 Resisting force for sliding, KN Resisting Moment for Overturning, KNm Shear Force (One-Way), KN Resisting Shear Stress (OneWay), N/mm2 Shear Force (Two-Way), KN Resisting Shear Stress (TwoWay), N/mm2 Governing Flexural Moment, KNm Resisting Flexural Moment, KNm Reinforcement provided in design, mm2 102.6 896 896 3,584 3,584 727 727 0.284 0.284 2251 1.19 1,056 1,056 5,622 5,622 5,376 ea. way 102.6 111.9 121.32 895.6 895.6 3,582.3 3,582.3 726 735 0.284 0.284 2250 1.19 1,054 1,054 5,622 5,622 5,376 ea. way None None Negligible None None None None None None

1.3.1 Reference 1.3.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 600 KN each column., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm. and C/C column distance = 3,000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 105 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5 Ht of soil =450 mm. Depth of GWT=250 mm.

Figure 1-3: Plan and Elevation

1.3.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2(600)/115 m2 = 10.435 m2 Assuming 5 m x 2.8 m x 0.600 m footing dimension, ( left overhang=right overhang = 1 m) Weight of footing = 5(2.8)(0.600) (25) = 210 KN Weight of pedestal=2(0.3)(0.3)(0.5)(25) = 2.25 KN Weight of soil above footing = [5(2.8) - 2(0.3)(0.3)] 0.450 18 = 111.9 KN Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 5(2.8) (0.45 + 0.6 - 0.25) 9.81 KN = 109.9 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (2 600 + 210 + 2.25 + 111.9 - 109.9) KN = 1,414.3 KN Maximum pressure= 1,414.3 /(5 2.8) = 101.0 KN/ m2 101 KN/ m2 < 105 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0 Total Service load on foundation = 1,414.3 KN Verification Manual 15

Chapter 1 1.4 General Combined Foundation 2 max resisting Moment = 5 m 1,414.3 KN /2 =3,535.6 KNm Hence OK

About X Direction

Overturning Moment = 0 max resisting Moment = 2.8 m 1,414.3 KN /2 = 1,980 KNm Hence OK

1.3.4 Comparison

Table 1-3: Australian verification example 3 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure, KN/m2 101 101 None Resisting Moment for 3,535.8 3,535 None Overturning (Z), KNm Resisting Moment for 1,980 1,980 None Overturning (X), KNm

1.4.1 Reference 1.4.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 600 KN and 550 KN on two col., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 1-4: Plan and Elevation

1.4.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = (600+550)/100 m2 = 11.5 m2 Assuming 5 m x 3 m x 0.500 m footing dimension, ( left overhang = right overhang = 1 m) Weight of footing = 5 m 3 m 0.500 m 25 = 187.5 KN Weight of pedestal = 2(0.3)(0.3)(0.5)(25) = 2.25 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (600 + 550 + 187.5 + 2.25) KN = 1,339.8 KN Pressure from axial load = 1,339.8 KN/(5 m 3 m) = 89.3 KN/ m2 CG of foundation raft = 5/2= 2.5 m from left end CG of load = (1 m 600 KN + 4 m 550 KN)/(600 KN+ 550 KN) = 2.435 m Eccentricity= 2.5 - 2.435 = 0.065 m So Moment Mz = P e = 1,150 KN (0.065 m) = 75 KNm Zz = 3 52/6 = 12.5 m 3 stress due to moment = M/Z = 75 KNm/12.5 m3 = 6 KN/m2 Stress atleft end = P/A + M/Z = 89.3 + 6 = 95.3 KN/m2 Stress at right end = P/A - M/Z = 89.3 - 6 = 83.3 KN/m2 So, Maximum stress 95.3 KN/m2 < 100 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Verification Manual 17

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 5 m (1,339.8 KN) /2 = 3,349.5 KNm Hence OK

Wrt X Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 3 m (1,339.8 KN) /2 = 2,009.7 KNm Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis (sagging)

Bending moment at critical section, Muz = 172 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

m= fc/fy =0.0556 = 0.85 - 0.007 (fc - 28) = 0.87 take = 0.85 ( Clause 8.1.2.2) K

umax u

K = 0.34 (1 - 0.2 ) = 0.34 0.85(1 - 0.2 0.85) = 0.24 R = 0.85 fc K (1 - K /2) = 0.85(25)(0.85)(0.24)(1 - 0.85 0.24/2) = 3.891 umax u u N/mm 2 M = [R b d 2] =0.80 [3.891 N/mm 2 3,000 mm (444 mm)2]10-6 = 1,840 umax umax KNm Muz < Mumax Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section, Muz = 201 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

m= fc/fy =0.0556 = 0.85 - 0.007 (fc - 28) = 0.87 18 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

umax u

K = 0.34 (1 - 0.2 ) = 0.34 0.85(1 - 0.2 0.85) = 0.24 R = 0.85 fc K (1 - K /2) = 0.85(25)(0.85)(0.24)(1 - 0.85 0.24/2) = 3.891 umax u u N/mm 2 M = [R b d 2] =0.80 [3.891 N/mm 2 3,000 mm (444 mm)2]10-6 = 1,840 umax umax KNm Muz < Mumax Hence OK

Cantilever length = (3 - 0.3)/2 = 1.35 m Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 107.34 N/mm2 (5 m) (1.35 m)2/2 =489.1 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

m= fc/fy =0.0556 = 0.85 - 0.007 (fc - 28) = 0.87 take = 0.85 ( Clause 8.1.2.2) K

umax u

K = 0.34 (1 - 0.2 ) = 0.34 0.85(1 - 0.2 0.85) = 0.24 R = 0.85 fc K (1 - K /2) = 0.85(25)(0.85)(0.24)(1 - 0.85 0.24/2) = 3.891 umax u u N/mm 2 M = [R b d 2] =0.80 [3.891 N/mm 2 5,000 mm (444 mm)2]10-6 = 3,068 umax umax KNm Mu < Mumax Hence OK

Along X Direction (Bottom)

Astx = 1,083 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 b d = 2,664 mm2 Provided area = 2,664 mm2

Astx = 1,268 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 b d = 2,664 mm2 Provided area = 2,664 mm2

Verification Manual 19

Therefore, Astz = 3,096 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.002 b d = 4,440 mm2 Provided area = 4,440 mm2

Figure 1-5: Graphs of combined strip footing internal forces

Developed shear stress V = 299.5(10)3/(3,000 444)= 0.225 N/mm2 cmax = 0.2 fc = 5 N/mm2 1 =1.1(1.6-d/1000) = 1.2716 2 = 1 3 = 1 c =1.2.3.(Ast.fc/b.d)1/3 = 0.488 N/mm2 V

umax

= 299.5 KN

max

= 0.2 fc = 5 N/mm 2

1 = 1.1(1.6 - d/1000) = 1.1(1.6 - 444/1,000) = 1.272 2 = 1 3 = 1 = 1 2 3. [Ast fc/(b d)] 1/3 = 0.7{1.272(1)(1)[2,664 25/(3,000 444)] 1/3} = 0.328 c N/mm 2 Hence OK

Punching Shear

For Column One

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5 d from the column face. Two way shear = 777.8 KN Pm = 4 (300 mm +444 mm) = 2,976 mm v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 777.8 KN 1000/(2,976 mm 444 mm) = 0.589 N/mm 2 = [0.34 (fc)] = 0.7 [0.34 (25)] = 1.19 N/mm 2

c

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d from the column face. Two way shear= 713.4 KN Pm = 2,976 mm v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 713.4 KN 1000/(2,976 mm 444 mm) = 0.540 N/mm 2 = [0.34 (fc)] = 0.7 [0.34 (25)] = 1.19 N/mm 2

c

Verification Manual 21

1.4.4 Comparison

Table 1-4: Australian verification example 4 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure, KN/m2 95.3 95.32 None Governing Moment, KNm 83.3 172 201 Resisting Moment, KNm 489 1,840 1,840 Shear Force (One-Way), KN Shear capacity (One-Way), N/mm2 Shear Force (Two-Way), KN Shear capacity (Two-Way), N/mm2 Resisting Moment for Overturning (Z), KNm Resisting Moment for Overturning (X), KNm 3,068 299.5 0.328 777.8 713.4 1.19 3,349 2,010 83.32 167 201 512 1,840 1,840 3,068 299.4 0.328 777.8 713.4 1.19 3,349 2,010 None None None None None None None Negligible

Section 2

2.1 General Isolated Foundation 1

2.1.1 Reference

Reinforced Concrete by T.J.Macgingley & B.S.Choo, Page 333 and Example: 11.1.

2.1.2 Problem

A column 400mm X 400mm carries a dead load of 800 kN and an imposed load of 300 kN. The safe bearing pressure is 200 kN/m2. Design a square base to resist the loads. The concrete is grade 35 and the reinforcement is grade 460.

Verification Manual 23

2.1.3 Solution

Figure 2-1: Bending section considered

Size of base

Self-weight of footing = 2.5 x 2.5 x 0.5 x 25 = 78.125 kN. Therefore, Service load = Dead load + Imposed load + Self weight = (800 + 300 + 78.125) kN = 1178.125 kN. Area required = 1178.125 / 200 m2 = 5.890625 m2. Make the base 2.5 m x 2.5 m.

Moment Steel

Ultimate load = (1.4 x 800) + (1.6 x 300) = 1600 kN. Ultimate pressure = 1600 / (2.5 x 2.5) = 256 kNm2 The critical section YY at the column face is shown in Figure 6.1. MYY= 256 x (2.5 / 2 - 0.4 / 2) x 2.5 x 0.525 = 352.8 kNm. Try an overall depth of 500 mm with 20 mm bars. Effective depth = 500 40 20 10 = 430 mm.

Therefore z = 0.95d,

= 1976.31 mm2. Minimum area of steel = 0.0015 x B x d = 0.0012 x 2500 x 430 = 1625 mm2 < AS (Hence Safe) Let us provide 10 nos. 16 mm bars, AS = 2010.62 mm2.

The critical section Y1 Y1 at d = 430 mm from the face of the column is shown in Figure 6.2. Design shear force, VU = 256 x (2.5 /2 0.43 0.4 / 2) x 2.5 = 396.8 kN Design shear stress, v = 396.9(10)3 / (2500 x 430) = 0.369 N/mm2 Now, vC1 = min(0.8 ,5) = 4.7328 N/mm2 > v (Hence Safe)

Verification Manual 25

Chapter 2 2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2 = 0.395 N / mm2 > v (Hence Safe) Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 625.5 mm from the column face. The critical perimeter is shown inFigure 6.3. Perimeter = 1690 x 4 = 6760 mm. Shear = 256 x (2.52 1.69 2) = 868.8 kN. v = 868 x 103 / (6760 x 430) = 0.3 N / mm2 < VC (Hence Safe). Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Spacing

We provided 10 nos. 16 mm bars, AS = 2010.62 mm2. Spacing = (2500 - 40 x 2 - 16) / (10 -1) = 267.11 mm.

2.1.4 Comparison

Table 2-1: British verification example 1 comparison STAAD Foundation Value of Reference Results Percent Difference Result Effective Depth 430 mm 430 mm None Governing Moment 352.8 KN-m 352.8 KN-m None Area of Steel 1976.31 1976.31 None 2 2 Shear Stress (One-Way) 0.369 N/mm 0.369 N/mm None Shear Stress (Two-Way) 0.3 N/mm2 0.3 N/mm2 None

2.2.1 Reference

Reinforced Concrete by T.J.Macgingley & B.S.Choo, Page 340 and Example: 11.2.

2.2.2 Problem

The characteristic loads for an internal column footing in a building are given in the following table.The proposed dimensions for the column and base are shown in Figure 6.4.The safe bearing pressure of soil is 150 kN / m2.The materials to be used in the foundation are grade 35 concrete and grade 460 reinforcement. Table 2-2: Table BS2.1 - Column loads Vertical Load (kN) Moment (KN m) Dead Load 770 78 Imposed Load 330 34

Figure 2-4: Plan and Elevation

2.2.3 Solution

Self-weight of footing = 0.5 x 3.6 x 2.8 x 24 = 120.96 kN. Total axial load = 770 + 330 + 120.96 = 1220.96 kN. Total moment = 78 + 34 = 112 kN-m. Base area = 2.8 x 3.6 = 10.08 m2. Section modulus = (I / y) = (1/12)BD3/(D/2) = 6.048 m3. Maximum pressure = 1220.96/10.08 + 112/6.048 = 139.65 kN / m2 < 150 kN / m2 (Hence Safe). Factored axial load = (1.4 x 770) + (1.6 x 330) = 1606 kN. Factored moment = (1.4 x 78) + (1.6 x 34) = 163.6 kN-m. Maximum pressure = 1606/10.08 +163.6/6.048 = 186.38 kN / m2. Minimum pressure = 1606/10.08 -163.6/6.048 = 132.28 kN / m2.

1 1

Average pressure for section X1X1 (as shown in Figure 6.5) = 159.33 kN / m2. Moment (MY) = (159.33 x 1.175 x 3.6) x (1.175 / 2) = 395.955 kN-m. Effective depth (d) = 500 40 10 = 450 mm.

Verification Manual 27

Therefore z = 0.95d,

= 2119.475 mm2. The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 3600 x 500 / 100 = 2340 mm2 > calculated area of steel. Provide minimum steel.

Figure 2-5: Sections considered for bending in both directions

1 1

Pressure at section Y1 Y1 (as shown in Figure 6.5) = 162.7 kN / m2.

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.2 General Isolated Foundation 2 Moment(MX) = (162.7 x2.8x 1.575)x(1.575 / 2)+(0.5 x 1.575 x (186.38 162.7) x 2.8)x(2 / 3 x 1.575) = 619.862 kN-m. Effective depth (d) = 500 40 20 10 = 430 mm.

= 3472.334 mm2. The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 2800 x 500 / 100 = 1820 mm2 < calculated area of steel. (Hence safe)

2 2

The critical section Y2 Y2 at d = 430 mm from the face of the column is shown in Figure 6.6. Average pressure for the required section = 177.78 kN / m2. Design shear force, VU = 177.78 x 2.8 x 1.145 = 569.96 kN =473.388 kN / m2 ,5) = 4732.8 kN / m2 > v (Hence Safe)

= 429.6 kN / m2. Let us consider 1.5 times shear enhancement. Vce = 1.5 x 429.6 = 644.4 kN/m2 > v (Hence safe) Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Verification Manual 29

Figure 2-6: Sections considered for one-way shear in both directions

Along Section X -X :

2 2

The critical section X2X2 at d = 450 mm from the face of the column is shown in Figure 6.6. Average pressure for the required section = 159.33 kN / m2. Design shear force, VU = 159.33 x 3.6 x 7.25 = 415.85 kN =256.698 kN / m2 ,5) = 4732.8 kN / m2 > v (Hence Safe)

= 409.6 kN / m2. Let us consider 1.5 times shear enhancement. Vce = 1.5 x 409.6 = 614.4 kN/m2 > v (Hence safe) Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Punching Shear

Figure 2-7: Section considered for punching shear

The punching shear will be calculated for an area outside the area enclosed by the rectangle at a distance 1.5d from the column face as shown in Figure 6.7. Total pressure under the base = 2.8 x 3.6 x 132.28 + 0.5 x 3.6 x 2.8 x (186.38 132.28) = 1606.05 kN. Pressure under enclosed rectangle = (1.74)2 x 146.255 + 0.5 x (1.74)2 x (172.4 146.255) = 482.38 kN Punching shear force = 1606.05 482.38 = 1123.67 kN. Critical perimeter = 1.74 x 4 = 6.96 m. Punching shear stress = 1123.67 / (6.96 x 0.43) = 375.46 kN / m2.

Verification Manual 31

2.2.4 Comparison

Table 2-3: British verification example 2 comparison STAAD FounReference Value of dation Result Result Effective Depth (X-X) 430 mm 430 mm Effective Depth (Y-Y) 450 mm 450 mm Governing Moment (My) 395.955 KN-m 395.943 KN-m Governing Moment (Mx ) 619.862 KN-m 619.909 kN-m Area of Steel (Along X-X) 2340.00 2340.00 Area of Steel (Along Y-Y) 3472.2334 3472.2334 2 Shear Stress (One-Way) (Y1473.388 kN/m 444.81 kN/m2 Y1) Shear Stress (One-Way) (X1256.698 kN/m2 256.698 kN/m2 X1) Shear Stress (Two-Way) 375.46 kN/m2 375.44 kN/m2 Percent Difference None None None None None None Negligible None None

2.3.1 Reference 2.3.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 2-8: Plan and Elevation

2.3.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1500/120 m2 = 12.5 m2 Assuming 3.85 m x 3.85 m x 0.65 m footing dimension, Weight of footing = 3.85 x 3.85 x 0.65 x 25 KN = 240.865 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (1500+240.865) KN = 1740.865 KN Maximum pressure =1740.865/(3.85x3.85)=KN/ m 2 = 117.45 KN/m 2 <120 KN/m 2 (Hence safe) Ultimate pressure =1500x1.4/(3.85x3.85) KN/m 2 = 141.676 KN/m 2

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1740.865 = 870.43 KN

Verification Manual 33

Chapter 2 2.3 General Isolated Foundation 3 Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.85 x 1740.865 = 3351.1 KNm Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1740.865 = 870.43 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.85 x 1740.865 = 3351.1 KNm Hence OK

Moment About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 141.676 x 3.85 x1.775x1.775/2 = 859.26 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

K= Hence safe

Bending moment at critical section, Muz = 141.676 x 3.85 x1.775x1.775/2 = 859.26 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

K= Hence safe

Along X Direction

= 0.971 d>0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 3862.3 m 2m

Along Z Direction

= 0.971 d>0.95d

Therefore, Astz =

= 3862.3 m 2m

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel p =

t

= 0.1689

umax

= 141.676 x 3.85 x

= 644.18 KN

c1

= 0.282N/mm2 = 4 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 35

V3 =

Vc = Vce =

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel p =

t

= 0.1689

umax

= 141.676 x 3.85 x

= 644.18 KN

c1

= 0.282N/mm2 = 4 N/mm 2

V < Vc1, Hence Safe V1 = V2 = V3 = 0.17 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 = 0.352 N/mm 2 0.704 N/mm 2

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 891 mm from the column face. Area within Critical Perimeter A Vmax =

m

= 4.3347 m 2

1485.87 KN

t1

= 4 N/mm 2

Vm1< Vt1 , Hence safe V1 = V2 = V3 = 0.17 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 = 0.352 N/mm 2

Bar Spacing

In the X Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

= 35

= 110 mm

In the Z Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

= 35

= 110 mm

Along x & Z direction Max dia permitted =25 mm = 0.5 Hence Fbu = x fc =0.5 x 5 = 2.5 Ld = 0.95x fy x / 4Fbu = 0.95x 415x25/4x2.5 = 985.6 mm available length = 1725 mm Hence OK

Verification Manual 37

2.3.4 Comparison

Table 2-4: British verification example 3 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Effective Depth 594 mm 594 mm None Bearing Pressure 117.45 117.45 KN/m2 None KN/m2 Ku 0.0253 0.0252 Negligible Governing Moment 859.26 KN- 856.92 KN-m Negligible m Shear Force(One-Way) 644.18 KN 642.87 KN Negligible Shear Force(Two-Way) 1485.87 KN 1483.64 KN Negligible Steel required 3862 m2m 3851 m2m 0.28% ( Negligible) Resisting force for sliding 870.43 KN 870.43 KN None Resisting Moment for 3351.1 KNm 3351.1 KNm None Overturning

2.4.1 Reference 2.4.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 2000 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5 Soil cover above footing =500 mm

Plan and Elevation

2.4.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2000/100 m2 = 20 m2 Assuming 5.3 m x 5.3 m x 0.75 m footing dimension, Weight of footing = 5.3 x 5.3 x 0.75 x 25 KN = 526.687 KN Weight of soil = 5.3 x 5.3 x 0.5 x 18 KN = 252.81 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (2000+526.687+252.81) KN = 2779.5 KN Maximum pressure = 2779.5 KN/ (5.3 m x 5.3 m) KN/ m 2 = 98.9 KN/m 2 <100 KN/m 2 (Hence safe) Ultimate pressure = 1.4(2000 KN) / (5.3 m x 5.3 m)KN/m 2 = 99.678 KN/m 2

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 2779.5 = 1389.75 KN Hence OK Verification Manual 39

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.3 x 2779.5 = 7365 KNm Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 2779.5 = 1389.75 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.3 x 2779.5 = 7365 KNm Hence OK

About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 99.68 x 5.3 x 2.5 x 2.5 / 2 = 1651 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

K= Hence safe

About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 99.68 x 5.3 x = 1651 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth deff = (750-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 692 mm

K= Hence safe

Along X Direction

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4 = 0.97 d>0.95d So, Z= 0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 6351.73 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 5167.5 mm2 Area of Steel Required along Z dir

Therefore, Astz =

= 6351.73 m2m

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.173

Now allowable stress= Vc1 = V < Vc1, Hence Safe V1 = V2 = V3 = Vc = Vce = 0.708 N/mm2 0.173 N/mm2 1 N/mm2 1 N/mm2

= 4 N/mm2

= 0.354 N/mm2

Verification Manual 41

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel p =

t

= 0.173

umax

= 99.68 x 5.3 x

= 955.2 KN

c1

= 4 N/mm 2

c1

V1 = V2 = V3 =

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 1038 mm from the column face. Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 5.645 m2 Vmax = 2237.3 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 9.504 m Vm1 = Vmax/(Pm d) = 0.345 N/mm 2 Now allowable stress= V =

t1

= 4 N/mm 2

Vm1< Vt1 , Hence safe V1 = V2 = V3 = 0.173 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 = 0.354 N/mm 2

Vc =

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.4 General Isolated Foundation 4 Vm1 < Vc, Hence safe

Bar Spacing

In the X Direction

No. of 16 mm bar =

= 32

= 165 mm

In the ZDirection

No. of 16 mm bar =

= 32

= 165 mm

Along X & Z direction Max dia permitted =25 mm = 0.5 Hence Fbu = x fc =0.5 x 5 = 2.5 Ld = 0.95x fy x / 4Fbu = 0.95x 415x25/4x2.5 = 985.6 mm available length = 1725 mm Hence OK

Verification Manual 43

2.4.4 Comparison

Table 2-5: British verification example 4 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Effective Depth 692 mm 692 mm None Bearing Pressure 98.9 KN/m2 98.75 KN/m2 Negligible Ku 0.026 0.026 Negligible Governing Moment 1651 KN-m 1647.74 KN-m Negligible Shear Force(One-Way) 955.2 KN 952.85 KN Negligible Shear Force(Two-Way) 2237.3 KN 2232.14 KN Negligible 2 2 Steel required 6352 m m 6357.649 m m Negligible Resisting force for sliding 1389.75 KN 1374.762 KN Negligible Resisting Moment for 7365 KNm 7148.63 KN Negligible Overturning

2.5.1 Reference 2.5.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1200 KN,Mz=80 KNm, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

2.5.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1200/120 m2 = 10 m2 Assuming 3.65 m x 3.65 m x 0.75 m footing dimension, Tot Moment wrt Z =80 KNm Stress at four corners ( service condition) 1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz 2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz 3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz 4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz Tot Vertical Load on soil Self wt of fdn = 3.65x 3.65x 0.75x25 = 249.8 KN Dry wt of soil = 0 Col reaction load = 1200 KN Tot Vertical load V =1449.8 KN Zz = Z.X2/6 = 3.65 x 3.652/6 =8.105 m 3 Zx = X.Z2/6 = 3.65 x 3.652/6 =8.105 m 3 Verification Manual 45

Mx=0 Mz = 80 KNm 1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 118.694 KN/m 2 2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 98.953 KN/m 2 3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 98.953 KN/m 2 4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 118.694 KN/m 2 = 118.694 KN/m 2 <120 KN/m 2 Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1449.8 = 724.9 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.63x 1449.8 = 2645.885 KNm Hence OK

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1449.8 = 724.9 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =80 KNm max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.63x 1449.8 = 2645.885 KNm Hence FOS =2645.885/80 = 33.074 Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis

Force creating Moment= (139.922 +127.239) x 0.5 x 1.675 x 3.65 = 816.68 KN Lever arm =(127.239 + 2 x 139.922) x 1.675/ 3x (139.922 + 127.239) = 0.8508 m Moment = Fx LA = 694.84 KNm 46 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5 Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

K= Hence safe

Force creating Moment= 126.103 x 1.675 x 3.65 = 770.97 KN Lever arm = 1.675x 0.5 = 0.823 m Moment = Fx LA =646.08 KNm

K= Hence safe

Verification Manual 47

Figure 2-10: Section considered for bending about the Z axis

Along X Direction

= 0.983 d>0.95d

= 2594 m 2m

min

= 0.0013 x B x D = 3558.75 mm 2

Along Z Direction

= 0.97 d>0.95d

= 2412 m 2m

min

= 0.0013 x B x D = 3558.75 mm 2

So, provided area of steel = 3558.75 mm2 48 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel p =

t

= 0.14

umax

Developed shear stress V = Now allowable stress= Vc1 = V < Vc1, Hence Safe V1 = V2 = V3 = 0.14 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2

= 0.19N/mm2 = 4 N/mm2

= 0.329 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 49

Figure 2-11: Section considered for one-way shear along X direction

Along Z Direction

umax

c1

V < Vc1, Hence Safe V1 = V2 = V3 = 0.141 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 = 0.329 N/mm 2 0.658 N/mm 2

Vc = Vce =

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.5 General Isolated Foundation 5 So V < Vce , Hence Safe

Figure 2-12: Section considered for one-way shear along z direction

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 1038 mm from the column face. Area within Critical Perimeter A Vmax =

m

968.11 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 9.504 m Vm1 = Vmax/(Pm d) = 0.1472 N/mm 2 Now allowable stress= V =

t1

= 4 N/mm 2

Vm1< Vt1 , Hence safe V1 = V2 = V3 = 0.14 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 = 0.329 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 51

Figure 2-13: Section considered for punching shear

Bar Spacing

In the X Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

= 32

= 115 mm

In the Z Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

= 32

= 115 mm

Along X & Z direction Max dia permitted =25 mm = 0.5 Hence Fbu = x fc =0.5 x 5 = 2.5 Ld = 0.95x fy x / 4Fbu = 0.95x 415x25/4x2.5 = 985.6 mm available length = 1725 mm Hence OK

2.5.4 Comparison

Table 2-6: British verification example 5 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Effective Depth (mm) 692 692 None Corner Pressure (KN/m2) 118.69 118.69 None 98.95 98.95 Ku Governing Moment (KN-m) Shear Force ,One-Way (KN) Shear Force, Two-Way (KN) Steel required (mm2) Resisting force for sliding (KN) Resisting Moment for Overturning (KN-m) 118.69 0.01481 0.0156 646.08 694.84 488.69 452.46 968.11 3558.75 3558.75 724.9 724.9 2645.8 2645.8 98.95 98.95 118.69 0.0146 0.0158 643.82 692.8 486.65 456.42 961.62 3558.75 3558.75 724.898 724.898 2645.8 Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible None Negligible Same

2.6.1 Reference

Verification Manual 53

2.6.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN, Fx100 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 90 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

2.6.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1500/90 = 16.67 m2 Assuming 4.65 m x 4.65 m x 0.65 m footing dimension, Tot Moment wrt Z =-0.65x100 =-65 KNm Stress at four corners ( service condition) 1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz 2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz 3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz 4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz Tot Vertical Load on soil Self wt of fdn = 4.65x 4.65x 0.65x25 = 351.37 KN 54 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Dry wt of soil = 0 Col reaction load = 1500 KN Tot Vertical load V = 1851.37 KN Zz = Z.X2/6 = 4.65 x 4.652/6 =16.758 m 3 Zx = X.Z2/6 = 4.65 x 4.652/6 =16.758 m 3 Mx=0 Mz = -65 KNm 1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 81.75 KN/m 2 2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 89.50 KN/m 2 3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 89.50 KN/m 2 4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 81.75 KN/m 2 = 89.5 KN/m 2 <90 KN/m 2 Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =100 KN max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1851.37 = 925.685 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =65 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.65x 1851.37 = 4304.43 KNm Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1851.37 = 925.685 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.65x 1851.37 = 4304.43 KNm Hence OK

Verification Manual 55

Moment About Z Axis

Force creating Moment=1/2 x (102.552+97.472) x2.175x4.65 = 1011.5 KN Lever arm =(97.472 + 2 x 102.552) x 2.175/ 3x (97.472+102.552) = 1.097m Moment = Fx LA = 1109.62 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

K= Hence safe

Force creating Moment= 97.122 x 2.175 x 4.65 = 982.27 KN Lever arm =2.175 x 0.5 = 1.088 m Moment = Fx LA =1068.71 KNm

K= Hence safe

Along X Direction

= 4890 m 2m

min

= 0.0013 x B x D = 3929.25 mm 2

Along Z Direction

= 0.97 d>0.95d

= 4706 m 2m

min

= 0.0013 x B x D = 3929.25 mm 2

Verification Manual 57

Along X Direction

Critical section for moment is at d dist from the face of column

Percentage of steel p =

t

= 0.178

umax

Developed shear stress V = 740.36 x1000/4650 x594 = 0.268N/mm2 Now allowable stress= Vc1 = V < V , Hence Safe

c1

= 4 N/mm2

V1 = V2 = V3 =

Along Z Direction

Critical section for moment is at d dist from the face of column

Percentage of steel p =

t

= 0.171

umax

Developed shear stress V = 714 x1000/4650 x 594 = = 0.258 N/mm2 Now allowable stress= V =

c1

= 4 N/mm 2

V < Vc1, Hence Safe V1 = V2 = V3 = 0.171 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 = 0.351 N/mm 2 0.702 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 59

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 1782 mm from the column face. Area within Critical Perimeter A Vmax =

m

= 2.082x2.082 =4.3347 m 2

1679 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 8.328 m Vm1 = Vmax/(Pm d) = 0.3394 N/mm 2 Now allowable stress= Vt1 = Vm1< Vt1 , Hence safe V1 = V2 = V3 = 0.171 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 = 0.351 N/mm 2 = 4 N/mm2

Bar Spacing

In the X Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

= 44

= 105 mm

In the Z Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

= 42

= 115 mm

Along X & Z direction Max dia permitted =25 mm = 0.5 Hence Fbu = x fc =0.5 x 5 = 2.5 Ld = 0.95x fy x / 4Fbu = 0.95x 415x25/4x2.5 = 985.6 mm available length = 1725 mm Hence OK

Verification Manual 61

2.6.4 Comparison

Table 2-7: British verification example 6 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Effective Depth 594 mm 594 mm None Corner Pressure 81.75 81.74 KN/m2 None KN/m2 89.5 KN/m2 2 89.5 KN/m 89.5 KN/m2 2 89.5 KN/m 81.74 KN/m2 81.75 KN/m2 Ku 0.02606 0.026 None Governing Moment 0.027 1068.71 KNm 1109.62 KNm 740.36 KN 714 KN 1679 KN 4890 m2m 0.0269 1065.83 KNm 1103.31 KNm Negligible

736.98 KN

Negligible

712 KN 1677 KN Negligible 2 4959.354 m m Negligible 4790.8 m2m 925.68 KN 925.68 KN 4304.43 KNm 4304.43 KNm None None

4706 m2m Resisting force for sliding 925.68 KN Resisting Moment for Overturning 925.68 KN 4304.43 KNm 4304.43 KNm

2.7.1 Reference 2.7.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN,Mz=Mx=50 KNm, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 460 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 2-14: Plan and Elevation

2.7.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required =1500/100 m2 = 15 m2 Assuming 4.45 m x 4.45 m x 0.65 m footing dimension, Tot Moment wrt Z =50 KNm Tot Moment wrt X =50 KNm Stress at four corners ( service condition) 1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz 2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz 3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz 4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz Tot Vertical Load on soil Self wt of fdn = 4.45x 4.45x 0.65x25 = 321.79 KN Dry wt of soil =0 Col reaction load = 1500 KN Tot Vertical load V = 1821.79 KN

Verification Manual 63

Chapter 2 2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7 Zz = Z.X2/6 = 4.45 x 4.452/6 =14.686 m 3 Zx = X.Z2/6 = 4.45 x 4.452/6 =14.686 m 3 Mx= 50 KNm Mz = 50 KNm 1 = V/A Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 92KN/m 2 2 = V/A Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 85 KN/m 2 3 = V/A + Mx/Zx - Mz/Zz = 92 KN/m 2 4 = V/A + Mx/Zx + Mz/Zz = 98.81 KN/m 2 = 98.81 KN/m2 <100 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1821.8 = 911 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =50 KNm max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.45x 1821.8 = 4053.5 KNm Hence FOS=4053.5/50 = 81> 1.5 Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 1821.8 = 911 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =50 KNm max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.45x 1821.8 = 4053.5 KNm Hence FOS=4053.5/50 = 81> 1.5 Hence OK

About Z Axis

Avg Base Pressure at one edge=( 96.5149+106.047)/2 = 101.282 KN/m 2 Avg Base Pressure at other edge=( 106.0473+115.5797)/2 = 110.814 KN/m 2

Force creating Moment= (110.814+106.37)/2 x 2.075x4.45 = 1002.72 KN Lever arm = (106.37+2x110.814)x2.075/3x(106.37+110.814) m Moment = Fx LA = 1047.85 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

K= Hence safe

About X Axis

Avg Base Pressure at one edge=( 96.5149+106.047)/2 = 101.282 KN/m 2 Avg Base Pressure at other edge=( 106.0473+115.5797)/2 = 110.814 KN/m 2 Force creating Moment= (110.814+106.37)/2 x 2.075x4.45 = 1002.72 KN Lever arm = (106.37+2x110.814)x2.075/3x(106.37+110.814) m Moment = Fx LA = 1047.85 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

K= Hence safe

Verification Manual 65

Along X Direction

=<0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 4165 m 2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 3760 mm2 So, provided area of steel = 4165 mm2

Along Z Direction

Therefore, Astz =

= 4165m 2m

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.7 General Isolated Foundation 7 So, provided area of steel = 4165 mm2

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel p =

t

= 0.158

umax

Developed shear stress V = 720x1000/(4450 x594) = 0.272N/mm2 Now allowable stress= Vc1 = V < V , Hence Safe

c1

= 4 N/mm2

V1 = V2 = V3 =

Verification Manual 67

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel p =

t

= 0.158

umax

Developed shear stress V = Now allowable stress= Vc1 = V < Vc1, Hence Safe V1 = V2 = V3 = 0.158 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2

= 0.342 N/mm 2

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d from the column face. 68 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

1640 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 8.328 m Vm1 = Vmax/(Pm d) = 0.3315 N/mm 2 Now allowable stress= V =

t1

= 4 N/mm 2

Vm1< Vt1 , Hence safe V1 = V2 = V3 = 0.158 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 = 0.342 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 69

Bar Spacing

In the X Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

= 37

= 120 mm

In the Z Direction

No. of 12 mm bar =

= 37

Spacing =

= 120 mm

2.7.4 Comparison

Table 2-8: British verification example 7 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Effective Depth 594 mm 594 mm None Corner Pressure 92KN/m2 92 KN/m2 None 85.2 KN/m2 85.91 KN/m2 92 KN/m2 98.81 KN/m2 0.027 0.027 1047.85 KNm 1047.85 KNm 720 KN 92 KN/m2 98.81 KN/m2 0.0266 0.0266 1045 KNm 1045 KNm Negligible Negligible

Ku Governing Moment

Shear Force(One-Way)

720 KN Shear Force(Two-Way) 1640 KN Steel required 12 @ 120 c/c Resisting force for sliding 910.9 KN Resisting Moment for Overturning

910.9 KN 910.8 KN 4053.5 KNm 4053.4 KNm 4053.5 KNm 4053.4 KNm

2.8.1 Reference 2.8.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 500 KN each column., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 150 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5 Ht of soil =400 mm. Depth of GWT=200 mm

Verification Manual 71

2.8.3 Solution

Figure 2-16: Plan and Elevation

Approximate area of footing required = 2x500/150 m2 = 6.67 m2 Assuming 5 m x 1.5 m x 0.600 m footing dimension, ( left overhang=right overhang=1m) Weight of footing = 5 m x 1.5 m x 0.600 x25 KN = 112.5 KN Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN Weight of soil above footing = (5 x 1.5-0.3x0.3x2 )x 0.400 x18 KN = 52.704 KN Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 5 x 1.5 x (0.4+0.6-0.2) x9.81 KN = 58.86 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x500+112.5 +2.25+52.704 -58.86) KN = 1108.6 KN Maximum pressure= 1108.6 /(5 x1.5) = 147.82 KN/ m 2 147.82 KN/ m 2 <150 KN/m 2 Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5x 1108.6 = 2771.5 KNm Hence OK

About X Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.5 x 1108.6 = 831.45 KNm Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis (sagging)

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 140 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

eff

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 174.9 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

eff

Cantilever length=(1.5-0.3)/2 = 0.6 m Bending moment at critical section, M

ux

eff

eff

Verification Manual 73

Along X Direction (Bottom)

= 0.998 d>0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 637 m 2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 1170 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 1170 m2m

= 0.998 d>0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 792 m 2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 1170 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 1170 m2m

= 0.994 d>0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 761 m 2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 3900 mm2 Provided area = 3900 m2m

Percentage of steel p =

t

= 0.143

umax

= 225.68 KN

c1

V < Vc1, Hence Safe V1 = V2 = V3 = 0.143 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 1 N/mm 2 = 0.331 N/mm 2 0.662 N/mm 2

Punching Shear

For Column One

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 816 mm from the column face. 2 way shear= 3.24 KN Pm=300x2+300x2=544x12=7728 mm v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 3.24x1000/(7728)x544 =0.00077 N/mm 2 Now allowable stress= V =

t1

= 4 N/mm 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 816 mm from the column face. 2 way shear= 3.24 KN Pm=300x2+300x2=544x12=7728 mm v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 3.24x1000/(7728)x544 =0.00077 N/mm 2 Now allowable stress= V =

t1

= 4 N/mm 2

Verification Manual 75

Figure 2-17: Shear force and Bending Moment diagrams

2.8.4 Comparison

Table 2-9: British verification example 8 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 147.82 KN/ 147.82 KN/m2 None m2 Governing Moment 140 KN-m 135.77 KN-m Negligible 174.9 KN-m 174.9 KN-m Shear Force(One-Way) Shear Force(Two-Way) Resisting Moment for Overturning (Z) Resisting Moment for Overturning (X) 168 KN-m 225.68 KN 3.24 KN 168 KN-m 225.69 KN 3.24 KN Negligible None Negligible Negligible

3.24 KN 3.24 KN 2771.5 KNm 2771.5 KNm 831.45 KNm 831.46 KNm

2.9.1 Reference 2.9.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 600 KN, Mz=30 KNm, each column., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=3500 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 140 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5 No soil above footing and dry condition.

Verification Manual 77

2.9.3 Solution

Figure 2-18: Plan and Elevation

Approximate area of footing required = 2x600/140 m2 = 8.57 m2 Assuming 5.9 m x 1.7 m x 0.500 m footing dimension, ( left overhang=right overhang=1.2m) Weight of footing = 5.9 m x 1.7 m x 0.500 x25 KN = 125.375 KN Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x600+125.375 +2.25) KN = 1327.63 KN Maximum pressure from axial load= 1327.63 /(5.9 x1.7) = 132.37 KN/ m 2 Total Moment=30+30 = 60 KNm CG of load= 2.9 m CG of raft = 2.9 m Eccentricity =2.95-2.9 =0.05 m So Moment= P x Eccentricity = 1200x0.05 =60 KNm Z= 1.7 x 5.92/6= 9.863 m 3 So M/Z = 6.09 KN/m 2 So stress at left end= P/A + M/Z= 138.46 KN/m 2

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.9 General Combined Foundation 2 So stress at left end= P/A - M/Z= 126.28 KN/m 2 138.46 KN/ m 2 <140 KN/m 2 Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =60 KNm max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.9x 1327.63 = 3916.5085 KNm So FOS = 3916.5085/60 = 65.27 >1.5 Hence OK

About X Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.7 x 1327.63 = 1128.48 KNm Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis (sagging)

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 214 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

eff

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 231.62 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

eff

Cantilever length=(1.7-0.3)/2 = 0.7 m Bending moment at critical section, M

ux

Chapter 2 2.9 General Combined Foundation 2 Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth d

eff

eff

Along X Direction (Bottom)

= 0.971 d>0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 1187 m 2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 1105 mm2 Provided area = 1187 m2m

= 0.968 d>0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 1284.5 m 2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D = 1105 mm2 Provided area = 1285 m2m

= 0.99 d>0.95d

Therefore, Astx =

= 1342.74 m 2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0013 x B x D =3835 mm2 Provided area = 3835 m2m

Percentage of steel p =

t

= 0.17

umax

= 347.24 KN

Developed shear stress V = 347.24x1000/(1700x444) = 0.46 N/mm2 Now allowable stress= Vc1 = V < V , Hence Safe

c1

= 4 N/mm2

V1 = V2 = V3 =

Punching Shear

For Column One

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 666 mm from the column face. Two way shear = 380.43 KN Pm=300x2+300x2=444x12=6528 mm v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 380.43x1000/(6528)x544=0.131 N/mm 2 Now allowable stress= V =

t1

= 4 N/mm 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 1.5d = 666 mm from the column face. Two way shear = 407.34 KN Pm=300x2+300x2=444x12=6528 mm v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 407.34x1000/(6528)x544 =0.14 N/mm 2 Now allowable stress= V =

t1

= 4 N/mm 2

Figure 2-19: Shear force and Bending Moment diagrams

2.9.4 Comparison

Table 2-10: British verification example 9 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 138.46 138.45 KN/m2 None KN/m2 126.28 KN/m2 126.28 KN/m2 Governing Moment 214 KN-m 212 KN-m Negligible 231.62 KNm 231.78 KNm 242.122 KNm 347.24 KN 380.42 KN 249.42 KNm 347.24 KN 380.43 KN None None None None

407.34 KN 407.34 KN Resisting Moment for Over- 3916.5 KNm 3916.5 KNm turning (Z) Resisting Moment for Over- 1128.48 1128.48 KNm turning (X) KNm

2.10.1 Reference

Reinforced Concrete by T.J.Macgingley & B.S.Choo, Page 351 and Example: 11.4

2.10.2 Problem

Design a rectangular base to support two columns carrying the following loads: Column 1Dead load 310 kN, imposed load 160 kN Column 1Dead load 310 kN, imposed load 160 kN The columns are each 350 mm square and are spaced at 2.5 m centers. The width of the base is not to exceed 2.0 m. the safe bearing pressure on the ground is 180 kN/m2. The materials are grade 35 concrete and grade 460 reinforcement.

Verification Manual 83

Figure 2-20: Plan and Elevation

2.10.3 Solution

Let us assume the self weight of the base is 130 kN. Total vertical load = (310 + 160 + 430 + 220 + 130) = 1250 kN. Area of base = 1250 / 160 = 7.81 m 2 (considering safe base pressure as 160 kN/m 2). Length of base = 7.81/2 = 3.91 m Let the dimension of the mat is as follows, Width = 2 m, Length = 4.5 m, Depth = 0.6 m. Hence self-weight of mat = 2 x 4.5 x 0.6 x 24 = 129.6 kN. Hence, total vertical load = (310 + 160 + 430 + 220 + 129.6) = 1249.6 kN. Actual base pressure = 1249.6 / (2 x 4.5) = 138.84 kN/m 2.

The ultimate loads are, Column 1 load = 1.4 x 310 + 1.6 x 160 = 690 kN, Column 2 load = 1.4 x 430 + 1.6 x 220 = 954 kN. The distance of center of gravity from column 1 is checked for service load case 1: x = (954 x 2.5)/(690 + 954) = 1.45 m. 84 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.10 Mat Combined Foundation The soil pressure is checked for service loads for case 1: Base area = 4.5 x 2 =9.0 m2, Base modulus = 2 x 4.52 / 6 = 6.75 m3. Direct load = 310 + 160 + 430 + 220 + 129.6 = 1249.6 kN. The moment about the centerline of the base is, M = (430 + 220) 1.05 (310 + 160) 1.45 = 1.0 kN-m. Maximum pressure = 1249.6 / 9 + 1 / 6.75 = 138.9 kN / m2 < 180 kN / m2 (Hence safe) Total uniformly distributed upward load = (690 + 954) / (4.5 x 2 / 2) = 365.33 kN / m.

The ultimate loads are, Column 1 load = 1.4 x 310 + 1.6 x 160 = 690 kN, Column 2 load = 1.0 x 430 = 430 kN. Direct load = 310 + 160 + 430 + 129.6 = 1029.6 kN. The moment about the centerline of the base is, M = 430 X 1.54 (310 + 160) 0.96 = 230 kN-m. Maximum pressure = 1029.6 / 9 + 230 / 6.75 = 148.47 kN / m2 < 180 kN / m2 (Hence safe)

The ultimate loads are, Column 1 load = 1.0 x 310 = 310 kN, Column 2 load = 1.4 x 430 + 1.6 x 220 = 954 kN. Direct load = 310 + 430 + 220 + 129.6 = 1089.6 kN. The moment about the centerline of the base is, M = (430 + 220) 1.05 310 X 1.45 = 233 kN-m. Maximum pressure = 1089.6 / 9 + 233 / 6.75 = 155.59 kN / m2 < 180 kN / m2 (Hence safe)

Verification Manual 85

The maximum negative BM from Figure 6.18 is 221.7 kN-m Assuming 40 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar diameter, effective depth = 600 40 20/2 = 550 mm.

Therefore z = 0.95d,

= 970.95 mm 2. The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 2000 x 600 / 100 = 1560 mm2 > calculated area of steel. Provide minimum steel. Provide 16 bars 12 mm in diameter at 125 mm centers to give area of 1808 mm2.

The maximum positive BM from Figure 6.18 is 99.7 kN-m. Assuming 40 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar diameter, effective depth = 600 40 20/2 = 550 mm.

Therefore z = 0.95d,

= 436.6 mm 2. The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 2000 x 600 / 100 = 1560 mm2 > calculated area of steel. Provide minimum steel as above.

The maximum vertical shear from case 1 is V = 250.8 kN,

V=

= 0.228 N/mm 2.

The critical perimeter for punching shear check is at 1.5 d distance from the face of the column. Here the perimeter crosses the boundary of the base on two sides. Hence punching shear is less critical than the vertical shear in this case.

2.10.4 Comparison

Table 2-11: British verification example 10 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Max Bending 221.7 kN-m 201.204 kN-m 9.2 Moment (-) Max Bending 99.7 kN-m 108.94 kN-m 9.2 Moment (+) Area of Steal 780 mm2/m 780 mm2/m None Required Base Pressure 138.84 136 kN/m2 2 2 kN/m

2.11.1 Reference 2.11.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Loads: Fx =-300 KN Fy =-500 KN Fz=-200 KN Mz= 45.89 KNm Mx=-98.32 KNm Offset of column in X-direction (Oxd) =300 mm Offset of column in Z-direction (Ozd) =300 mm Density of soil =14 KN/m3 Depth of Soil = 0.5m Density of Concrete = 25 KN/cum Coefficient of Friction () = 0.5

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity Safe Bearing Capacity of the Soil () = 120 KN/m2 Factor of Safety against Overturning =1.5 Factor of Safety against Sliding = 1.5 Permissible soil pressure = Column dimension = 0.3m x 0.3m, Strength of concrete (fc) = M-30 = 4349.39 Psi Strength of steel (fy) = Fe-415

Figure 2-21: Plan and Elevation

Self-wt of footing, wt of soil and surcharge are not included for shear and moment computations

Verification Manual 89

2.11.3 Solution

Design started with trial dimensions of 5.0m X 5.0m X 1.0m

The base area of footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net permissible soil pressure. Net permissible soil pressure = 120 KN/ m2 Required base area of footing = (500 + 0.10 x 500)/ 120= 4.5833 m2 Use a 5 .0m x 5.0m square footing (Af =25 m2). Using a depth of 1m; Self-wt. of Footing =(5.0*5.0*1*25) = 625 KN Wt. of soil = 14*0.5*[(5.0*5.0) (0.3*0.3)] =174.37

Serviceability Check

The net moments are given by:Mz =+45.89 (-300*1) +(-500*0.3) = 195.89 KNm Mx= - 98.32 +(-200*1) (-500*0.3) = -148.32 KNm The pressure at the four corners are given by: 1=((500+625)/25)+(6*195.89/53)-(6*148.32/53)=47.283KN/m2 2=((500+625)/25)-(6*195.89/53)-(6*148.32/53)=28.478KN/m2 3=((500+625)/25)-(6*195.89/53)+(6*148.32/53)=42.717KN/m2 4=((500+625)/25)+(6*195.89/53)+(6*148.32/53)=61.522KN/m2 which is < 120 KN/m2. Hence OK

Stability Check

Calculation for Overturning and Sliding: For Sliding:

Along X- Direction

Disturbing force = -300 KN Restoring Force = m*(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 649.685 KN Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (649.685/300) =2.166 > 1.5 Hence Safe

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Along Z- Direction

Disturbing force = -200 KN Restoring Force = mu*(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 649.685 KN Hence, FacFor Overturning:tor of Safety against Sliding = (649.685/200) =3.2484 > 1.5 Hence Safe

About X- Direction

Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) = 98.32 200* (0 +1) = -298.32 KN-m Restoring Moment = Fy * (Width of Footing *0.5 Ozd)+ (Wt of Soil + Wt of Footing) * Width of Footing*0.5 = 3098.425 KN-m Hence, Factor of Safety against Overturning = (3098.425/298.32) =10.386 > 1.5 Hence Safe

About Z- Direction

Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) =45.89 + 300* (0 +1) = 345.89 KN-m Restoring Moment = Fy * (Width of Footing *0.5 Ozd)+ (Wt of Soil + Wt of Footing) * Width of Footing*0.5 = 3398.425 KN-m Hence, Factor of Safety against Overturning = (3398.425/345.89) =9.82516 > 1.5 Hence Safe

The pressure at the four corners are given by: 1=(500/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)=22.2834KN/m2 2=(500/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)=3.47792KN/m2 3=(500/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=17.7167KN/m2 4=(500/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=36.52208KN/m2

Factored loads and soil reaction: To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads are used. For this problem, the factors used are all 1.0

Figure 2-22: Bending about major axes

Verification Manual 91

Bending About Z-axis Critical section for moment is at the face of column

About X- axis

Average Base Pressure along one edge =(22.2834+3.47792)/2 =12.8806 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge =(17.7167+36.5221)/2 = 27.1194 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section =27.1194- {(27.1194 12.8806)/5.0*2.05} =21.2815 KN/ m2 [2.05 =5(5/2+0.3+0.15)] Hence, the moment at the critical section Mu =5.0*{21.2815 *2.05*2.05*0.5+0.5*(27.1194-21.2815)* 2.05*2.05*2/3}= 264.48 KNm Effective depth (d) = 1000 50 20 = 930 mm

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 5000 x 1000 / 100 = 6500 mm2 > Calculated area of steel. So, provide minimum steel = 6500 mm2

About Z- axis

Average Base Pressure along one edge =(36.5221+22.2834)/2 =29.4027 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge =(17.7167+3.47792)/2 = 10.5973 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section =29.4027- {(29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*2.65} =19.4358 KN/ m2 [2.65 =(5/2+0.30.15)] Hence, the moment at the critical section Mu =5.0*{19.4358 *2.65*2.65*0.5+0.5*(29.4027 19.4358)*2.65*2.65*2/3}= 457.874 KNm Effective depth (d) = 1000 50 20 = 930 mm

The minimum area of steel = 0.13 x 5000 x 1000 / 100 = 6500 mm2 > Calculated area of steel. So, provide minimum steel = 6500 mm2

Assume overall footing thickness = 1.0m and average effective thickness d = 0.92m (36.22 in) Wide-beam action (One-Way Shear) :

Verification Manual 93

Vu = qs qs is given by:Average Base Pressure along one edge =(22.2834+3.47792)/2 =12.8806 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge =(17.7167+36.5221)/2 = 27.1194 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section =27.1194- {(27.1194 12.8806)/5.0*1.13} =23.9014 KN/ m2 [1.13=5 -(5/2 +0.3 +0.92 +0.15)] Hence, the one- way shear at the critical section Vux =5.0*{23.9014*1.13+0.5*(27.1194-23.9014)*1.13}= 144.134 KN Design shear stress, v = 144.134/(5.0 x 0.93) =30.996 kN/ m2 Now, VC1 = min(0.8 (fcu),5) N/ mm2= 4381.78 kN/ m2 > v (Hence Safe) tributary area

Bw = 5.00m = 196.8504 in

= 348.5494 kN/ m2 Let us consider 1.5 times shear enhancement. Vce = 1.5 x 348.5494 = 522.824 kN/m2 > v (Hence safe) Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Vu = qs qs is given by:Average Base Pressure along one edge =(36.5221+22.2834)/2 =29.4027 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge tributary area

Bw = 5.00m = 196.8504 in

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

=(17.7167+3.47792)/2 = 10.5973 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section =29.4027- {(29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*1.73} =22.89603 KN/ m2 [ 1.73=(5/2 +0.3 0.92 0.15)] Hence, the Design one-way shear at the critical section Vuz =5.0*{22.89603*1.73+0.5*(29.4027-22.89603)*1.73}= 226.1924 KN Design shear stress, v = 226.1924/(5.0 x 0.93) =48.64353 kN/ m2 Now, vC1 = min(0.8 (fcu),5) N/ mm2= 4381.78 kN/ m2 > v (Hence Safe)

= 348.5494 kN/ m2 Let us consider 1.5 times shear enhancement. Vce = 1.5 x 348.5494 = 522.824 kN/m2 > v (Hence safe) Hence no shear reinforcement is required.

Verification Manual 95

Along X-X axis

[3090 mm = 300 + 2x(1.5 x 930)] The punching shear will be calculated for an area outside the area enclosed by the rectangle at a distance 1.5d from the column face as shown in figure. Total pressure under the base = 5.0 x 5.0 x 10.5973 + 0.5 x 5.0 x 5.0 x (29.4027 10.5973) = 500.00 kN. Pressure at the critical sections:a = 29.4027 ((29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*0.955) = 25.810869 KN/m2 b = 10.5973 + ((29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*0.955) = 14.189131 KN/m2 Pressure under enclosed rectangle = (3.09)2 x 14.189131 + 0.5 x (3.09)2 x (25.810869 14.189131) = 190.962 kN Punching shear force = 500.00-190.962 = 309.038 kN. Critical perimeter = 3.09 x 4 =12.36 m.

Section 2 British Code (BS8110-1-1997) 2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity

Punching shear stress = 309.038/(12.36 x 0.93) = 26.885 kN / m2. Hence, the punching shear stress is less than VC . Hence Safe

The punching shear will be calculated for an area outside the area enclosed by the rectangle at a distance 1.5d from the column face as shown in figure. Total pressure under the base = 5.0 x 5.0 x 12.8806 + 0.5 x 5.0 x 5.0 x (27.1194 12.8806) = 500.00 kN. Pressure at the critical sections:a = 27.1194 ((27.1194-12.8806)/5.0*0.955) = 24.3998 KN/m2 b = 12.8806 + ((27.1194-12.8806)/5.0*0.955) = 15.60021 KN/m2 Punching shear force = 500.00-190.962 = 309.038 kN. Critical perimeter = 3.09 x 4 =12.36 m. Punching shear stress = 309.038/(12.36 x 0.93)= 26.885 kN / m2.

Verification Manual 97

Chapter 2 2.11 General Isolated Foundation with Eccentricity Hence, the punching shear stress is less than VC . Hence Safe Hence, the moment at the critical section Mu =5.0*{19.4358 *2.65*2.65*0.5+0.5*(29.4027 19.4358)*2.65*2.65*2/3}= 457.874 KNm Effective depth (d) = 1000 50 20 = 930 mm

2.11.4 Comparison

Table 2-12: British verification example 13 comparisons STAAD Reference Difference (Reasons Foundation Result there-of) Result* Moment about X 264.48 259.98 Error due to approxKNm KNm imation in base pressure interpolation Moment about Z 457.874 448.24 Error due to approxKNm KNm imation in base pressure interpolation Area of steel about 6500.00 6500.00 Negligible X-X mm2 mm2 Area of steel about 6500.00 6500.00 Negligible 2 2 Z-Z mm mm Shear Stress 48.64 46.66 KN/ Error due to approxKN/ m2 m2 imation in base pressure (One way) along X interpolation Shear Stress 30.996 29.28 KN/ Error due to approxKN/ m2 m2 imation in base pressure (One way) along Z interpolation Shear Force 309.038 305.46 KN Error due to approxKN imation in base pressure (Two way) interpolation Factor of Safety 2.1656 2.167 Negligible against Sliding (X) Factor of Safety 3.2484 3.250 Negligible against Sliding (Z) Factor of Safety 10.386 10.392 Negligible against Overturning (X) Factor of Safety 9.82516 9.830 Negligible against Overturning (Z)

Section 3

3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

3.1.1 Reference 3.1.2 Problem

Design of a square Isolated Footing A tied column, 450 mm square, and reinforced with eight No. 35 bars carries an unfactored dead load of 1300 kN and an unfactored live load of 1000 kN. Suitable soil with a factored soil bearing pressure of 300 kN/m2 is available at a depth of 1.5 m . Design a square footing. The compressive strength fc is 30 MPa for the column and 25 MPa for the footing. All steel has fy=400 MPa. Unit weight of concrete and soil is 24 kN/m2 and 16 kN/m2 respectively.

Verification Manual 99

Figure 3-1: Plan and Elevation

3.1.3 Solution

Trial Footing Size

Calculate the initial footing size based on soil bearing capacity. As per CSA A.23.3-04 cls. 8.3 and Annex C. the 2005 National Building Code of Canada load combination factors must be used: Factored Load = 1.25 DL +1.5 LL = (1.25 X 1300 kN) + (1.5 x 1000 kN) = 3,125 kN Required area of footing: 3125/300 = 10.41 m2 Total Axial load = 3125+Self Weight of footing + weight of soil Self Weight of footing = 3.6 x 3.6 x 0.75 x 24 = 233.28 KN weight of soil=3.6 x 3.6 x 1.5 x 16 = 311.04 KN For square footing, the axial force on the footing is: 3125+233.28+311.04 =3669.32 KN So stress on soil=369.32/(3.6x3.6)=283.12 KN/m2

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004) 3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

In this case, we do not have any sliding and overturning forces. The CSA A23.3-04 recommends for a footing that experiences horizontal shear, the designer must make sure that this shear is transferred to the subgrade utilizing the passive soil resistance and the friction between the subgrade and the footing surface. The passive soil resistance will be ignored in STAAD Foundation to calculate the factor of safety against sliding check. Factor of safety against overturning must be checked as per the NBCC. Anyway, max sliding force equals the axial load x coefficient of friction for coeff. of friction =0.5, Sliding force= 0.5x 3669.32 =1834.66 KN (same for X & Z dir) Max resisting moment against overturning =axial force x Dimension/2= 0.5x 3669.32x3.6 KNm= 6604.78 KNm(Same wrt both x and z axis). Stress on soil from Factored load = 3125/(3.6x3.6)=241.126 KN/m2

Along X Direction

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm Vumax = = 768.22 KN = 0.65, = 1 dv = 0.9.deff = 0.9 x 690 = 621 mm bw=3600 mm Now allowable shear Vc = V < Vc, Hence Safe =1030913 N =1031 KN

Along Z Direction

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm Vumax = = 0.65, = 1 dv = 0.9.deff=0.9 x 690=621 mm = 768.22 KN

bw = 3600 mm Now allowable shear Vc = V < Vc, Hence Safe = 1030913 N = 1031 KN

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 345 mm from the column face. Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm Area within Critical Perimeter Am = (450+2x0.5x.69)2=1.2996 m2 Vmax = 1.2996)=2811.63 KN Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2x d) = 4.56 m v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 0.8936 N/mm2 =4 =L/B =4.5/4.5 =1 1.8525 N/mm2 2.5846 N/mm2 1.235 N/mm2 As effective depth>300 mm so the multiplier=1300/(1000+deff)=0.769 So, Vr1= 1.424 N/mm2 =1424 KN/m2 Vr2= 1.987N/mm2 = 1987 KN/m2 Vr3= 0.9497 N/mm2 = 949.7 KN/m2 So min {Vr1, Vr2, Vr3} = 949.7 KN/m2 So allowable shear = Vc = 949.7 KN/m2 V < Vc , Hence safe 241.126x(3.6x3.6-

Development Length

Along Z Axis

ld = 0.45 k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 fy/(f'c) db k1 = 1 if clear cover is less than 300 mm or else use 0.45

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004) 3.1 CSA General Isolated Foundation 1

k2 = 1 if coated reinforcement is used k2 = 1.2 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used k2 = 1.5 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used and clear cover is less than 3x db k2 = 1.5 if bar spacing is less than 6x db k3 = 1 Normal density concrete k4 = 0.8 for 20M and smaller bar size k4 = 1 for 20M and larger bar size ld = 0.45 x 1 x 0.8 x 1 x 0.8 x (400 MPa)/(25MPa) x 19.5 mm = 449.28 mm Available Length = (3600-450)/2-50 = 1525 mm Hence OK

Along X Axis

ld = 0.45 k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 fy/(f'c) db k1 = 1 if clear cover is less than 300 mm or else use 0.45 k2 = 1 if coated reinforcement is used k2 = 1.2 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used k2 = 1.5 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used and clear cover is less than 3xdb k2 = 1.5 if bar spacing is less than 6 xdb k3 = 1 Normal density concrete k4 = 0.8 for 20M and smaller bar size k4 = 1 for 20M and larger bar size ld = 0.45 x 1 x 0.8 x 1 x 0.8 x (400 MPa)/(25MPa) x 19.5 mm = 449.28 mm Available Length = (3600-450)/2-50 = 1525 mm Hence OK

About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section: Mux = 1 = 0.85-0.0015.fc=0.8125 s=0.85 = 1076.66 KN-m

= 0.62817 Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm So, =0.001892 Hence OK

About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 1 = 0.85-0.0015.fc=0.8125 s=0.85 = 1076.66 KN-m

= 0.62817 Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth deff = (750-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 690 mm So, =0.001892 Hence OK

Along X Direction(Bottom)

Astx =.B.deff= 4700 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 6750 mm2 Provided area = 6750 m2m

Astz = .L.deff= 4700 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 6750 mm2 Provided area = 6750 m2m

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 6750 mm2 Provided area = 6750 m2m

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004) 3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 6750 mm2 Provided area = 6750 m2m (as no uplift is present so min steel is provided)

3.1.4 Comparison

Table 3-1: CSAverification example 1 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 286.45 KN/m2 283.5 KN/m2 Negligible Governing Moment 1076.66 KN-m 1076.64 KN- Negligible m 1076.66 KN-m 1076.66 KNm Shear Force(One-Way) 768.22 KN 768.01 KN Negligible Shear Force(Two-Way) Resisting Shear Force (One-Way) Resisting Shear Stress (Two-Way) Resisting force for sliding Resisting Moment for Overturning Ast (B) Ast (T) Ld (rqrd) Ld (available) 768.22 KN 2811.63 KN 1031 KN 1031 KN 949.7 KN/m2 1834.66 KN 1834.66 KN 6604.78 KNm 768.01 KN 2811.49 KN 1031.14 KN 1031.14 KN 949.86 KN/m2 1837.09 KN 1837.09 KN 6613.4 KNm Negligible None Negligible Negligible Negligible None None None None

6604.78 KNm 6613.4 KNm 6750 mm 6750 mm 6750 mm 6750 mm 6750 mm 449.28 mm 449.28 mm 1525 mm 1525 mm 6750 mm 6750 mm 6750 mm 449.28 mm 449.28 mm 1525 mm 1525 mm

3.2.1 Reference

3.2.2 Problem

Design of a square Isolated Footing A tied column, 500 mm square, and reinforced with eight No. 35 bars carries an unfactored dead load of 900 kN and an unfactored live load of 800 kN. Suitable soil with a factored soil bearing pressure of 300 kN/m2 is available at a depth of 1.5 m . Design a square footing. The compressive strength fc is 20 MPa for the column and 20 MPa for the footing. All steel has fy=350 MPa. Unit weight of concrete and soil is 24 kN/m2 and 16 kN/m2 respectively.

Figure 3-2: Plan and Elevation

3.2.3 Solution

Trial Footing Size

Initial footing size is based on soil bearing capacity. As per CSA A.23.3-04 cls. 8.3 and Annex C. the 2005 National Building Code of Canada load combination factors must be used: Factored Load = 1.25 DL + 1.5 LL = (1.25 X 900 kN) + (1.5 x 800 kN) = 2,325 kN Required area of footing: 2,325 /300 = 7.75 m2

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004) 3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Total Axial load = 2,325 +Self Weight of footing + weight of soil Self Weight of footing = 3 x 3 x 0.6 x 24 = 129.6 KN weight of soil=3 x 3 x 1.5 x 16 = 216 KN For square footing, the axial force on the footing is: 2,325 +129.6 + 216 =2670.6 KN So stress on soil=2670.6 /(3x3)=296.73 KN/m2

In this case, we do not have any sliding and overturning forces. The CSA A23.3-04 recommends for a footing that experiences horizontal shear, the designer must make sure that this shear is transferred to the subgrade utilizing the passive soil resistance and the friction between the subgrade and the footing surface. The passive soil resistance will be ignored in STAAD Foundation to calculate the factor of safety against sliding check. Factor of safety against overturning must be checked as per the NBCC. Anyway, max sliding force =axial load x coeff of friction for coeff of friction =0.5, Sliding force= 0.5x 2670.6 =1335.3 KN (same for X & Z dir) Max resisting moment against overturning = axial force x Dimension/2 = 0.5x 2670.6x3 KNm= 4005.45 KNm(Same WRT both x and z axis). Stress on soil from Factored load=2325/(3x3)=258.33 KN/m2

Along X Direction

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm

Vumax = = 0.65, = 1 dv = 0.9.deff = 0.9 x 490 = 441 mm bw = 3000 mm Now allowable shear Vc = V < Vc, Hence Safe

= 550.24 KN

=655986 N =655.99 KN

Along ZDirection

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm

Vumax = = 0.65, = 1 dv = 0.9.deff = 0.9 x 490 = 441 mm bw = 3000 mm Now allowable shear Vc = V < Vc, Hence Safe

= 550.24 KN

= 655986 N = 655.99 KN

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 270 mm from the column face. Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm Area within Critical Perimeter Am = (500+2x0.5x.54)2 = 1.0816 m2 Vmax = 258.33 x (3x3-1.0816) = 2045.56 KN

=4

=L/B =5/5 =1

1.657 N/mm2 2.645 N/mm2 1.1046 N/mm2 As effective depth > 300 mm so the multiplier = 1300/(1000+deff) = 0.844 So,

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004) 3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Vr1= 1.398 N/mm2 =1398KN/m2 Vr2= 2.232N/mm2 ==2232 KN/m2 Vr3= 0.932 N/mm2 =932 KN/m2 So min{ Vr1,Vr2,Vr3} = 932 KN/m2 So allowable shear = Vc = 932 KN/m2 V < Vc , Hence safe

Development Length

Along Z Axis

ld = 0.45 k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 fy/(f'c) db k1 = 1 if clear cover is less than 300 mm or else use 0.45 k2 = 1 if coated reinforcement is used k2 = 1.2 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used k2 = 1.5 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used and clear cover is less than 3xdb k2 = 1.5 if bar spacing is less than 6 xdb k3 = 1 Normal density concrete k4 = 0.8 for 20M and smaller bar size k4 = 1 for 20M and larger bar size ld = 0.45 x 1 x 0.8 x 1 x 0.8 x (350 MPa)/(20MPa) x 19.5 mm = 439.52 mm Available Length = (3000-500)/2-50 = 1200 mm Hence OK

Along X Axis

ld = 0.45 k1 x k2 x k3 x k4 fy/(f'c) db k1 = 1 if clear cover is less than 300 mm or else use 0.45 k2 = 1 if coated reinforcement is used k2 = 1.2 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used k2 = 1.5 if epoxy coated reinforcement is used and clear cover is less than 3xdb k2 = 1.5 if bar spacing is less than 6 xdb k3 = 1 Normal density concrete k4 = 0.8 for 20M and smaller bar size k4 = 1 for 20M and larger bar size ld = 0.45 x 1 x 0.8 x 1 x 0.8 x (350 MPa)/(20MPa) x 19.5 mm = 439.52 mm Available Length = (3000-500)/2-50 = 1200 mm Hence OK Verification Manual 109

About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section Mux = 1 = 0.85-0.0015.fc=0.82 s=0.85 = 605.46 KN-m

= 0.0346 Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm So, =0.002405 Hence OK

About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section Mux = 1 = 0.85-0.0015.fc=0.82 s=0.85 = 605.46 KN-m

= 0.0346 Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 20 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 20) mm = 540 mm So, =0.002405 Hence OK

Along X Direction(Bottom)

Astx =.B.deff= 3896 m2m

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004) 3.2 CSA General Isolated Foundation 2

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 4599.9 mm2 Provided area = 4600 m2m

Astz = .L.deff= 3896 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 4599.9 mm2 Provided area = 4600 m2m Use #20 @ 190 c/c

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 4599.9 mm2 Provided area = 4600 m2m (as no uplift force is present only min steel is provided) Use #20 @ 190 c/c

Minimum area of steel Ast min = (0.2xfc /fy)xB.D= 4599.9 mm2 Provided area = 4600 m2m (as no uplift force is present only min steel is provided) Use #20 @ 190 c/c

3.2.4 Comparison

Table 3-2: CSA verification example 2 comparison STAAD Percent Value of Reference Result Foundation Difference Result 2 Bearing Pressure 296.73 KN/m 296.07 Negligible KN/m2 Governing Moment 605.46 KN-m 605.46 KN- None m 605.46 KN-m 605.46 KNm Shear Force(One550.24 KN 550.06 KN Negligible Way) 550.24 KN 550.06 KN Shear Force(Two2045.56 KN 2045.45 KN Negligible Way) Resisting force for 1335.3KN 1335.3KN 1332.3 KN Negligible sliding 1332.3 KN Resisting Moment 4005.45 KNm 3996.827 Negligible for Overturning 4005.45 KNm KNm 3996.827 KNm #20@190 c/c #20@190 c/c #20@190 c/c #20@190 c/c 439.52 mm 439.52 mm 1200 mm 1200 mm

Ast (B)

None

Ast (T)

None

Ld (rqrd) Ld (available)

None None

3.3.1 Reference 3.3.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1200 KN, fc = 30 MPa, fy = 400 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 90KN/m2.

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004) 3.3 CSA General Isolated Foundation 3 Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5. Height of soil above footing=450 mm, GWT is 300 mm from GL. Surcharge= 10 KN/m2

Figure 3-3: Plan and Elevation

3.3.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1200/90 m2 = 13.33 m2 Assuming 4.3 m x 4.3 m x 0.500 m footing dimension, Weight of footing = 4.3 x 4.3 x 0.500 x 25 KN = 231.125 KN Weight of above soil = 4.3 x 4.3 x 0.450 x 18 KN = 149.77 KN Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 4.3x4.3 x (0.500+0.450-0.300) x 9.81 KN = 117.9 KN Load due to surcharge = 4.3x4.3 x 10 KN =184.9 KN

Therefore, total load on the footing = (1200+231.125 +149.77 +184.9 -117.9) KN = 1647.895 KN Maximum pressure = 1647.895 /(4.3x4.3) = 89.12 KN/m2 89.12 KN/ m2 <90 KN/m2 Hence safe Verification Manual 113

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation

Total Service load on foundation = 1647.895 KN Max resisting force against sliding = 0.5 x 1647.895 KN = 823.95 KN Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation

Total Service load on foundation = 1647.895 KN Max resisting force against sliding = 0.5 x 1647.895 KN = 823.95 KN Hence OK

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

WRT X Direction

Overturning Moment = 0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.3 x 1647.895 = 3542.97 KNm Hence OK

WRT Z Direction

Overturning Moment = 0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.3 x 1647.895 = 3542.97 KNm Hence OK

3.3.4 Comparison

Table 3-3: CSA verification example 3 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 89.12 KN/ 89.03 KN/ m2 Negligible 2 m Resisting force for sliding 823.95 KN 823.12 KN Negligible (x) Resisting Moment for 3542.97 3539.366 Negligible Overturning (z) KNm KNm Resisting force for sliding 823.95 KN 823.12 KN Negligible (z) Resisting Moment for 3542.97 682.862 KNm Negligible Overturning (x) KNm

3.3.5 Reference 3.3.6 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 800 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 450 MPa, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm. Pedestal ht= 500 mm

Pile Data

Dia of pile= 400 mm. Vertical capacity = 250 KN, Horizontal capacity = 100 KN Uplift capacity = 80 KN

Figure 3-4: Elevation and Plan, with dimension and loads

3.3.7 Solution

depth of pilecap= 1.5 x piledia, D=600 mm Take D=600 mm c/c pile distance = 3xpile dia =1200 mm. Edge diatance =350 mm Assuming 4 pile combination, Coordinates of piles considering pedestal at 0,0,0) Pile No 1 2 3 4 X Coordinate (mm) -600 -600 600 600 Z Coordinate (mm) -600 600 600 -600

pilecap dimension is 1900 mm x1900 mm x 600 mm Weight of footing = 1.9 x1.9 x 0.60 x 25 KN = 54.15 KN Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 KN = 0.78 KN Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (800+54.15 +0.78) KN = 854.93 KN 116 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004) 3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1 So Pile reaction = 854.93 /4= 213.73 KN < 250 KN, Hence OK As there is no lateral load, moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift capacity.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken =1 Load factor for axial load is taken 1.25 SO, Load on pilecap = 1.25x800+54.15 x1+0.78x1= 1054.93 KN Load on each pile =1054.93 /4=263.73 KN

Figure 3-5: Bending sections considered

For moment wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1=from pile2=263.73 x 0.475=125.27 KNm So Total Mz X1X1 = 250.54 KNm For moment wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile3=from pile4=263.73 x 0.475=125.27 KNm So Total Mz X2X2 = 250.54 KNm So Max value of Mz = 250.54 KNm

Check For Trial Depth against moment wrt Z Axis Bending moment at critical section, Muz = 250.54 KN-m

Chapter 3 3.5 CSA Pilecap Foundation 1 Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 75 mm pile in pilecap & and 11.3 mm bar ( Bar No 10), effective depth deff = 463.7 mm B =1900 mm , c = Resistance Factor of concrete = 0.6 (Clause No 8.4.2) 1 = 0.8125 (Clause No 10.1.7.c) 1 = 0.8475 (Clause No 10.1.7.c) c = (700.d)/(700+fy) = 282.25 mm (Clause No 10.5.2) a = 239.208 mm (Clause No 10.1.7.a) C = 5539 x 103 KN(Clause No 10.1.7.a) Resisting Moment=C.(d-a/2)=1906 KNm Muz < Resisting Moment, Hence OK

For moment wrt Z1Z1 Contribution from pile 1=from pile4=263.73 x 0.475=125.27 KNm So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 250.54KNm For moment wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2=from pile3=263.73 x 0.475=125.27 KNm So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 250.54KNm So Max value of MX = 250.54 KNm Check For Trial Depth against moment wrt X Axis Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 250.54 KN-m deff = 463.7 mm B =1900 mm , C=5539 x 103 KN Resisting Moment=C.(d-a/2)=1906 KNm Mux < Resisting Moment, Hence OK

Figure 3-6: Shear sections considered

For shear wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1 =pile2=263.73 x528=139.25 KN So Total V X1X1 = 274.5 KN For shear wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile 3=pile4=263.73 x528=139.25 KN So Total V X2X2 = 274.5 KN So Max V parallel to X direction = 274.5 KN

Shear Strength Vr = 260/(1000+d).c..(f'c ).bw.d=>0.1..c.(f^' c).bw.d = max(469.497, 264.309) KN = 469.5 KN (Clause no 11.3.5.2) Where c = Resistance Factor of concrete=0.6 (Clause No 8.4.2) = factor to account Concrete density=1(Clause No 8.6.5) bw = Section Width=1900 mm d = effective Depth= 463.7 mm (Clause 11.0) VX < VResistanceX, Hence Safe

For shear wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1 =pile 4 =263.73 x528=139.25 KN So Total V Z1Z1 = 274.5 KN For shear wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2=pile 3 =263.73 x528=139.25 KN So Total V Z2Z2 = 274.5 KN So Max V parallel to Z direction = 274.5 KN

Shear Strength Vr=260/(1000+d).c..(f'c ).bw.d=>0.1..c.(f^' c).bw.d = max(469.497, 264.309) KN = 469.5 KN VZ < VResistanceZ, Hence Safe

Punching Shear

Figure 3-7: Two-way shear sections considered

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =231.85 mm from the column face. Contribution from pile 1=from pile2=from pile3=from pile 4= 263.73 KN So total punching shear Vmax= 1054.92 KN b0=Perimeter of failure line at d/2 distance from column face=2.(Column Length+Column Width+2d)x 2= 4x(250+463.7/2+463.7/2)=2854.88 Therefore Shear stress c= =Vmax/(b0 x d)= 797 KN/m2 Calculation of punching shear stress capacity = 1 (Clause 8.6.5) c = 0.6 (Clause 8.4.2) f' = Strength of concrete (in MPa)

c

c s

mod factor=1 Vr1=(1+2/c).0.2..c.(f'c).mod factor=1800 KN/m 2 (Eqn no 13.5 Clause no 13.4.4a) Vr2=(0.2+(s. dv)/bo)..c.(f'c).mod factor=2549 KN/m 2 (Eqn no 13.6 Clause no13.4.4b) Vr3=0.4..c.(f'c).mod factor= 1200 KN/m 2 (Eqn no 13.7 Clause no 13.4.4c) Vr=Min (Vr1,Vr2,Vr3)=1200 KN/m 2 V < VResistance , Hence safe

Along X Direction

Calculate Kr (neutral axis/depth ratio) for Actual Bending Moment

Where 1= 0.85- 0.0015.fc>=0.67 (Clause No 10.1.7) c = 0.6 (clause 8.4.2) s = 0.85 (clause 8.4.3) Solving the equation (steel area ratio = 0.165 % Therefore, Astx = .b,d= 1450 m2m Minimum area of steel Astmin = 0.2/100 x B x D = 2280 mm2 Provided area = 2280 mm2

Along Z Direction

Calculate Kr (neutral axis/depth ratio) for Actual Bending Moment

Solving the previously stated equation (steel area ratio = 0.165 % Therefore, Astx = .b,d= 1450 m2m Minimum area of steel Astmin = 0.2/100 x B x D = 2280 mm2 Provided area = 2280 mm2

Ld (required)=1.15.k1.k2.k3.k4.fy/((dcs+Kr) ).Ab/(f' )= 380.7 mm

c

(CSA A23-3-04 Clause No 12.2.2 & 12.2.3) Ld (available)Along X=(Length-pedestal length) 1/2 Cover=775 mm Ld (required)<Ld (available)Along X Hence OK Ld (available)Along Z=(Length-pedestal length) 1/2 -Cover=775 mm Ld (required)<Ld (available)Along Z Hence OK

3.3.8 Comparison

Table 3-4: CSA verification example 5 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Depth 600 mm 598 mm Negligible Governing Moment (wrt 250.54 KN- 250.54 KN-m None X axis) m Resisting Moment (wrt Z 1906 KN-m 1933 KN-m Negligible axis) Governing Moment (wrt 250.54 KN- 250.54 KN-m None X axis) m Resisting Moment (wrt Z 1906 KN-m 1933 KN-m Negligible axis) Shear Force(One-Way) X 274.5 KN 274.3 KN None Shear Resistance(One469.5 KN 471.8 KN Negligible Way) X Shear Force(One-Way) Z 274.5 KN 274.3 KN None Shear Resistance(One469.5 KN 471.8 KN Negligible Way) Z Shear stress(Two-Way) 797 KN/m2 787.6 KN/m2 None Resistance Shear Stress 1200 KN/m2 1200 KN/m2 None (Two-Way) Ld required 381 mm 381 mm None Ld Available ( Along X) 775 mm 775 mm None Ld Available ( Along Z) 775 mm 775 mm None Ast ( Along X) 2280 mm2 2240 mm2 Negligible

3.4.1 Reference

Section 3 Canadian Code (CSA A23.3-2004) 3.4 CSA General Combined Foundation s1

3.4.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 900 KN each column., fc = 30 MPa, fy = 400 MPa, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm, Pedestal height-400 mm. and C/C column distance=3500 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5 Ht of soil =500 mm. Depth of GWT=200 mm. Surcharge= 5 KN/m2

Figure 3-8: Plan and Elevation

3.4.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2x900/120 m2 = 15 m2 Assuming 5.7 m x 3.15 m x 0.500 m footing dimension, left overhang = right overhang = 1.1 m, C/C col dist=3500 mm Weight of footing = 5.7 x 3.15 x0.500 x25 KN = 224.44 KN Weight of pedestal=2x0.25x0.25x0.4x25=1.25 KN Weight of soil above footing = (5.7 x 3.15-2x0.25x0.25) x 0.500 x18 KN = 160.47 KN Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 5.7 x 3.15 x (0.500+0.500-0.200) x9.81 KN = 140.91 KN Surcharge load = ( 5.7x3.15-2x0.25x0.25)x5= 89.15 KN Therefore, total load on the footing is

(2x900+224.44 +1.25+160.47 +89.15 -140.91) KN = 2134.4 KN Maximum pressure= 2134.4 /(5.7 x3.15) = 118.87 KN/m2 118.87 KN/ m2 <120 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0 Total Service load on foundation = 2134.4 KN max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.7x 2134.4 = 6083 KNm Hence OK

About X Direction

Overturning Moment =0 Total Service load on foundation = 2134.4 KN max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.15x 2134.4 = 3361.7 KNm Hence OK

3.4.4 Comparison

Table 3-5: CSA verification example 5 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 118.87 118.87 KN/m2 None 2 KN/m Resisting Moment for 6083 KNm 6083 KNm None Overturning (Z) Resisting Moment for 3361.7 KNm 3361.7 KNm None Overturning (X)

Section 4

4.1 IS General Isolated Foundation 1

4.1.1 Reference

Reinforced Concrete by A.K. Jain, Page 539, Example 18.2.

4.1.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1000 KN, fc = 15 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 400 mm X 400 mm, Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100 KN/m2, and Load Factor = 1.5.

Figure 4-1: Plan and Elevation

4.1.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1000/10 m2 = 10 m2 Assuming 3.5 m x 3.5 m x 0.6 m footing dimension (I = 12.5 m4) Weight of footing = 3.5 x 3.5 x 0.6 x 25 KN = 183.75 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (1000 +183.75) KN = 1183.75 KN Maximum pressure = 1183.75/(3.5 x 3.5) KN/ m2 = 96.633 KN/m2 <100 KN/m2 Hence safe Ultimate pressure = 1000 x 1.5/ (3.5 x 3.5) KN/m2 = 122.45 KN/m2 Bending moment at critical section, Mu = 122.45 x 3.5 x 1.55 x 1.55/2 = 514.826 KN-m Assuming 35 mm clear cover and 10 mm bar, effective depth de = (600-35-0.5 x 10) mm = 560 mm

Ku,max =

= 0.479

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.1 IS General Isolated Foundation 1

Ru,max = 0.36 x fc x Ku,max x (1-0.42 Ku,max ) = 2.066 Mulim = Ru,max x B x de2 = 2267.642 x 106 N-mm = 2267.642 KN-m> Mu Hence safe

Area of steel required along length,

Ast = 0.5 x

x B x de = 2646.4 mm2

c

= 424.289 KN

c,all

(Hence

Vumax = 1500 KN = 0.698 N/mm2

= 1 x 0.25

= 0.968 N/mm2

Note: There is no deduction for the upward force underneath the area enclosed by the critical perimeter. This approach is conservative.

Spacing

No. of 10 mm bar =

= 33.69 (34)

Spacing =

= 102.73 mm

Figure 4-2: Plan of Reinforcement

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2

Figure 4-3: Cross Section showing Reinforcement

4.1.4 Comparison

Table 4-1: IS verification example 1 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Effective Depth 560 mm 560 mm None Governing Moment 514.826 KN-m 514.821 KN-m Negligible 2 2 Area of Steal 2646.40 mm 2645.01 mm 0.05 2 2 Shear Stress (One- 0.216 N/mm 0.216 N/mm None Way) Shear Stress (Two- 0.698 N/mm2 0.700 N/mm2 0.286 Way)

4.2.1 Reference

Reinforced Concrete Structure by Punmia-Jain-Jain, Example 25.1.

4.2.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 600 KN, fc = 15 MPa, fy = 250 MPa, Column Dimension = 500 mm x 500 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2.

Figure 4-4: Plan and Elevation

4.2.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 600/ 120 m2 = 5 m2 Assuming 2.4 m x 2.4 m x 0.35 m footing dimension, Weight of footing = 2.4 x 2.4 x 0.35 x 25 KN = 50.4 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (600+50.4) KN = 650.4 KN Maximum pressure = 650.4 / (2.4 x 2.4) KN/ m2 = 112.92 KN/m2 <120 KN/m2 Hence safe Ultimate pressure = 600 x 1.5 /(2.4 x 2.4) KN/m2 = 156.25 KN/m2 Bending moment at critical section, Mu = 56.25 x 2.4 x 0.95 x 0.95 /2= 169.21875 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 12 mm bar, effective depth de = (350-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 294 mm

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.2 IS General Isolated Foundation 2

Ku,max =

= 0.53

Ru,max = 0.36 x fc x Ku,max x (1- 0.42 Ku,max ) = 2.225 Mulim = Ru,max x B x de2 = 461.568 x 106 N-mm = 461.568 KN-m > Mu Hence safe

Area of steel required along length,

x B x de = 2837.87 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0015 x B x D = 1260 mm2 Ast = 0.5 x

Percentage of steel pt = 100Ast/(Bde) = 0.4022 Corresponding allowable

c

= 0.42 N/mm2

= 246 KN

= 0.3486N/mm2 <

c,all

Vumax = 900 KN = 0.96 N/mm2

= 1 x 0.25

= 0.968 N/mm2

Note: There is no deduction for the upward force underneath the area enclosed by the critical perimeter. This approach is conservative.

Spacing

No. of 12 mm bar =

= 25.09 (26)

Spacing =

= 91.52 mm

Figure 4-5: Elevation and Plan showing reinforcement design

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

4.2.4 Comparison

Table 4-2: IS verification example 2 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Effective Depth 294 mm 294 mm None Governing Moment 169.2187 KN- 169.2187 KN-m None m Area of Steel 2837.87 mm2 2836.34 mm2 0.05 Shear Stress (One- 0.3486 0.3486 N/mm2 None 2 Way) N/mm Shear Stress (Two- 0.96 N/mm2 0.96 N/mm2 None Way)

4.3.1 Reference 4.3.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 2000 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 4-6: Plan and Elevation

4.3.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2000/100 m2 = 20 m2 Assuming 4.95 m x 4.95 m x 0.700 m footing dimension, Weight of footing = 4.95x4.95x0.7 x 25 KN = 428.79 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (2000+428.79) KN = 2428.79 KN Maximum pressure = 2428.79/(4.95x4.95) = 99.124 KN/ m2 <100 KN/m2 Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 2428.79 = 1214.395 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.95 x 2428.79 = 6011.25 KNm Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 2428.79 = 1214.395 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.95 x 2428.79 = 6011.25 KNm Hence OK

About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section Mux = 122.436 x 4.95 x 2.325 x 2.325 / 2 = 1638.06 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (700-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 642 mm K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 7026 KNm Hence OK

About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section Mux = 122.436 x 4.95 x 2.325 x 2.325 / 2 = 1638.06 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (700-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 642 mm K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Along X Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 7358 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4158 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 7358 m2m

Along Z Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 7358 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4158 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 7358 m2m

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2315

Vumax = 122.436 x 4.95 x Developed shear stress V = Now allowable stress= 0.348 V < c Hence Safe N/mm2

= 1020 KN

= 0.321 N/mm2

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.3 IS General Isolated Foundation 3

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2315

Vumax = 122.436 x 4.95 x Developed shear stress V = Now allowable stress= 0.348 V < c Hence Safe N/mm2

= 1020 KN

= 0.321 N/mm2

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 321 mm from the column face. Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 0.887 m2 Vmax = v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 1.19 N/mm2 =L/B =4.95/4.95 =1 k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1 Hence, k=1 Now allowable stress c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c , Hence safe 2892 KN

4.3.4 Comparison

Table 4-3: IS verification example 3 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 99.124 99.124 KN/m2 None 2 KN/m Governing Moment 1638.06 1638.038 KN- None KN-m m Shear Force(One-Way) 1020 KN 1019 KN Negligible Shear Force(Two-Way) 2892 KN 2891 KN Negligible Resisting force for sliding 1214.395 1214.397 KN None (X) KN Resisting Moment for 6011.25 6011.155 KNm None Overturning (Z) KNm Resisting force for sliding 1214.395 1214.397 KN None (Z) KN Resisting Moment for 6011.25 6011.155 KNm None Overturning (X) KNm

4.4.1 Reference 4.4.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1000 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 110 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5 Surcharge=20 KN/m2

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.4 IS General Isolated Foundation 4

Figure 4-7: Plan and Elevation

4.4.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1000/110 m2 = 8.33 m2 Assuming 3.65 m x 3.65 m x 0.600 m footing dimension, Weight of footing = 3.65x3.65x0.6 x 25 KN = 199.8 KN Surcharge= 20 KN/m2 Surcharge force=20x3.65x3.65= 266.4 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (1000+266.4+199.8)= 1466.2 KN Maximum pressure = 1466.2/(3.65x3.65)= 110 KN/m2 (Hence OK)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0 Max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation Total Service load on foundation =1466.2 KN

Max Resisting force =0.5 x 1466.2 = 733.1 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.65 x 1466.2 = 2675.815 KNm Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 Max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation Total Service load on foundation =1466.2 KN Max Resisting force =0.5 x 1466.2 = 733.1 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.65 x 1466.2 = 2675.815 KNm Hence OK

4.4.4 Comparison

Table 4-4: IS verification example 4 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 110 KN/m2 109.9 KN/m2 Negligible Resisting Moment for 2675.815 2672.535 KNm Negligible Overturning (x) KNm Resisting force for sliding 733.1 KN 732.2 KN Negligible (z) Resisting Moment for 2675.815 2672.535 KNm Negligible Overturning (z) KNm Resisting force for sliding 733.1 KN 732.2 KN Negligible (x)

4.5.1 Reference 4.5.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1200 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 110

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5. Height of soil above footing=450 mm, dry condition.

Figure 4-8: Plan and Elevation

4.5.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1200/110 m2 = 10.91 m2 Assuming 3.7 m x 3.7 m x 0.55 m footing dimension, Weight of footing = 3.7x3.7x0.55 x 25 KN = 188.237 KN Weight of above soil = 3.7x3.7x0.45 x 18 KN = 110.889 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (1200+188.237+110.889) KN = 1499.126 KN Maximum pressure = 1499.126/(3.7x3.7) = 109.5 KN/m2 <110 KN/m2 Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 1499.126 = 749.6 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.7 x 1499.126 = 2773.383 KNm Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 1499.126 = 749.6 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.7 x 1499.126 = 2773.383 KNm Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 131.4828 x 3.7 x 1.7 x 1.7/2 = 702.97 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (550-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 492 mm K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4443 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3084.8 KNm Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 131.4828 x 3.7 x 1.7 x 1.7/2 = 702.97 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth 142 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.5 IS General Isolated Foundation 5

deff = (550-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 492 mm K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4443 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3084.8 KNm Hence OK

Along X Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 4120 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2442 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 4120 m2m

Along Z Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 4120 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2442 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 4120 m2m

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.226

Vumax = 131.4828 x 3.7 x = 0.322 N/mm2 Now allowable stress= 0.344 N/mm2 v < c Hence Safe

= 587.7 KN

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.226

Vumax = 131.4828 x 3.7 x Now allowable stress= 0.344 N/mm2 v < c Hence Safe

= 587.7 KN

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 246 mm from the column face. Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 0.627 m2 Vmax = v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 1.1 N/mm2 =L/B =3.7/3.7 =1 k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1 Hence, k=1 Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c , Hence safe 1718 KN

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

4.5.4 Comparison

Table 4-5: IS verification example 5 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 109.5 109.45 KN/m2 Negligible 2 KN/m Governing Moment (x&Z) 702.97 KN- 700.1 KN-m Negligible m Shear Force(One-Way) ( 587.7 KN 586 KN Negligible x&Z) Shear Force(Two-Way) 1718 KN 1716.5 KN Negligible Resisting force for sliding 749.6 KN 749.187 KN Negligible (X) Resisting Moment for 2773.4 KNm 2771.9 KNm Negligible Overturning (Z) Resisting force for sliding 749.6 KN 749.187 KN Negligible (Z) Resisting Moment for 2773.4 KNm 2771.9 KNm Negligible Overturning (X)

4.6.1 Reference 4.6.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 2000 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 100 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5. Height of soil above footing=500 mm, depth of GWT =200 mm

Figure 4-9: Plan and Elevation

4.6.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2000/100 m2 = 20 m2 Assuming 4.95 m x 4.95 m x 0.700 m footing dimension, Weight of footing = 4.95x4.95x0.7 x 25 KN = 428.79 KN Weight of above soil = 4.95x4.95x0.5 x18 KN = 220.522 KN Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 4.95x4.95x0.5 x18 KN = 240.369 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (2000+428.79+220.522-240.369) KN = 2408.943 KN Maximum pressure = 2408.943/(4.95x4.95) = 99.12 KN/m2 <100 KN/m2 Hence safe

Ultimate pressure =

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 2408.943 = 1204.5 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.95 x 2408.943 = 5962 KNm Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation=0.5 x 2408.943 = 1204.5 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.95 x 2408.943 = 5962 KNm Hence OK

About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section Mux = 122.436 x 4.95 x 2.325 x 2.325 / 2 = 1638.06 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (700-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 642 mm K=700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru= 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 7026 KNm Hence OK

About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section

Mux = 122.436 x 4.95 x 2.325 x 2.325 / 2 = 1638.06 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (700-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 642 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2

Along X Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 7358 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4158 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 7358 m2m

Along Z Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 7358 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4158 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 7358 m2m

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.6 IS General Isolated Foundations 6

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2315

Vumax = 122.436 x 4.95 x Developed shear stress V = Now allowable stress= 0.348 V < c Hence Safe N/mm2

= 1020 KN

= 0.321 N/mm2

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt =

= 0.2315

= 1020 KN

= 0.321 N/mm2

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 321 mm from the column face. Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 0.887 m2 Vmax = v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 1.19 N/mm2 =L/B =4.95/4.95 =1 k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1 Hence, k=1 Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2 2892 KN

4.6.4 Comparison

Table 4-6: IS verification example 6 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 98.314 98.2832 None KN/m2 KN/m2 Governing Moment (x&Z) 1638.06 1634 KN-m Negligible KN-m Shear Force(One-Way) ( 1020 KN 1017 KN Negligible x&Z) Shear Force(Two-Way) 2892 KN 2889.7 KN Negligible Resisting force for sliding 1204 KN 1204 KN None (x) Resisting Moment for 5962 KNm 5960 KNm Negligible Overturning (z) Resisting force for sliding 1204 KN 1204 KN None (z) Resisting Moment for 5962 KNm 5960 KNm Negligible Overturning (x)

4.7.1 Reference 4.7.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN, Fz=120 KN fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

Figure 4-10: Plan and Elevation

4.7.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1500/120 m2 = 12.50 m2 Assuming 3.95 m x 3.95 m x 0.600 m footing dimension, Weight of footing = 3.95x3.95x0.6 x 25 KN = 234.04 KN Therefore, total axial load on the footing = (1500+234.04) KN = 1734.04 KN Maximum axial pressure =P/A= 1734.04 /(3.95x3.95) = 111.138 KN/ m2 Moment due to lateral load= 120x0.6 72 KNm Total moment (Mx=72 KNm Zx=3.95x3.952/6 = 10.27 mm3 M/Z=7.01 KN/m2 So, 1=P/A M/Z=104.129 KN/m2 2=P/A M/Z=104.129 KN/m2 3=P/A +M/Z=118.148 KN/m2 4=P/A +M/Z=118.148 KN/m2 118.148 KN/m2 <120 KN/m2 (Hence safe) Verification Manual 151

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 1734.04 = 867.02 KN Hence OK Overturning Moment =72 KNm max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.95 x 1734.04 = 3429.729 KNm FOS = 47.6 > 1.5 Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =120 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 1734.04 = 867.02 KN FOS = 7.22 > 1.5 Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 KNm max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.95 x 1734.04 = 3429.729 KNm Hence OK

About X Axis

Critical section for moment is at the face of column; wrt z axis: Average Base Pressure along one edge = (113.69 + 154.73)x0.5 = 144.21 KN/m2 (left end) Average Base Pressure along other edge = (113.69 + 154.73)x0.5 = 144.21 KN/m2 (right end) Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 144.21 +(144.21144.21) x 2125/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 144.21 +(144.21144.21) x 1825/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2 Hence, the moment at the critical section, Mu = F x LA Where: 152 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

F = (144.21 + 144.21) x 0.5 x 1.825 x 3.95 = 1039.57 KN LA = (144.21 +2x 144.21) x 1.825/ [3x (144.21 +144.21)] = 0.913 m Mu (right) = 949.13 kNm So, max moment wrt Z axis Mu (z) = 950 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 542 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3997 KNm Hence OK

About Z Axis

Critical section for moment is at the face of column; wrt x axis: Average Base Pressure along one edge = (133.69 + 133.69)x0.5 = 133.69 KN/m2 (left end) Average Base Pressure along other edge = (154.73 + 154.73)x0.5 = 154.73 KN/m2 (right end) Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 154.73 +(133.69154.731) x 2125/3950 = 143.42 KN/m2

Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 154.73 +(133.69154.73) x 1825/3950 = 145.01 KN/m2 Hence, the moment at the critical section, Mu = F x LA Where: F = (133.69 + 143.42) x 0.5 x 1.825 x 3.95 = 1080.38 KN LA = (143.42 +2x 133.69) x 1.825/ [3x (144.21 +144.21)] = 0.923 m Mu (right) = 997.19 kNm So, max moment wrt Z axis Mu (z) = 998 KNm

Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 16) mm = 542 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 3997 KNm Hence OK

Along X Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast,

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

Astx = 5056 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2844 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 5056 m2m

Along Z Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 5323 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2844 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 5323 m2m

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt = = 0.236 Average Base Pressure along one edge = (133.69 + 154.73)x0.5 = 144.21 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge = (133.69 + 154.73)x0.5 = 144.21 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 144.21 +(144.21 144.21) x 2667/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 144.21 +(144.21 144.21) x 2667/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2 Hence, the SFat critical section F = (144.21 +144.21) x0.5 x 1.283 x 3.95 = 730.84 KN So max SFalong X axis Fux = 731 KN Developed shear stress v = 731 x 1000 / (3950 x 542) = 0.341 N/mm2

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt = = 0.2486 Average Base Pressure along one edge = (133.69 + 133.69)x0.5 = 133.69 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge = (154.73 + 154.73)x0.5 = 154.73 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 154.73 +(133.69 154.73) x 2667/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 154.73 +(133.69 154.73) x 1283/3950 = 144.21 KN/m2 Hence, the SFat critical section (left) F = (133.69 +140.53) x0.5 x 1.283 x 3.95 = 694.84 KN Hence, the SF at critical section (right) F = (15473 +147.90) x0.5 x 1.283 x 3.95 = 766.83 KN So max SFalong X axis Fux = 731 KN

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.7 IS General Isolated Foundation 7

So max SF=767 KN Developed shear stress v = 767 x 1000 / (3950 x 542) = 0.358 N/mm2 Now allowable stress= 0.359 N/mm2 v < c Hence Safe

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 271 mm from the column face. Area within Critical Perimeter Am = 0.709 m2 Vmax = 2148 KN

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 6 x d) = 3368 mm v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 1.177 N/mm2 =L/B =3.95/3.95 =1 k=0.5 +=1.5 , k<=1 Hence, k=1 Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c Hence safe

Figure 4-11: Final Plan Dimensions

4.7.4 Comparison

Table 4-7: IS verification example 7 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Max Bearing 104.129 104.129 KN/m2 None 2 Pressure KN/m MinBearing 118.148 KN 118.148 KN None Pressure Governing 999 KN-m 994 KN-m Negligible Moment 950 KN-m 946 KN-m Shear Force(One- 767 KN 764 KN Negligible Way) 731 KN 728 KN Shear Force(Two- 2148 KN 2146 KN Negligible Way)

4.8.1 Reference

4.8.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 400 KN each column., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 4-12: Plan and Elevation

4.8.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2x400/120 m2 = 6.67 m2 Assuming 5.75 m x 1.35 m x 0.600 m footing dimension, (left overhang = right overhang = 1.375 m) Weight of footing = 5.75 m x 1.35 m x 0.600 x 25 KN = 116.375 KN Weight of pedestal=2x 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.5 x 25 = 2.25 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x400+116.375+2.25) KN = 918.625 KN Maximum pressure = 918.625 /(5.75x1.35) = 118.34 KN/ m2 < 120 KN/m2 Hence safe Ultimate pressure = 800 x 1.5/ (5.75 x 1.35) KN/m2 = 154.589 KN/m2

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

With Respect to Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5.75 x 918.625 = 2641 KNm Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.35 x 918.625 = 620 KNm Hence OK

About Z Axis (Sagging)

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 197.2 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1376 KNm Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 37.49 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1376 KNm Hence OK

Cantilever length = (1.35-0.3)/2 = 0.525 m Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 154.589 x5.75 x0.5252/2 = 122.5KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 =5860 KNm Hence OK

Along X Direction (Bottom)

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 1029 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 972 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 1029 m2m

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 192 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 972 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 972 m2m

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast,

Astz = 627 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4140 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 4140 m2m

Figure 4-13: Dimension, Moment, and Shear and diagrams

= 0.133

Developed shear stress V = 168.2 x 1000 / (1350 x 544)= 0.229 N/mm2 Now allowable stress= 0.29 N/mm2 V < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear

For Column 1

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face. 2 way shear= 489.89 KN v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 489.89 x 1000/(300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 = 0.2668 N/mm2 =L/B = 5.75/1.35 = 4.26 k=0.5 +=5.26 , k<=1 Hence, k=1 Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c , Hence safe

For Column 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face. 2 way shear= 489.89 KN v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 489.89 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 +544 x 4) x 544 = 0.2668 N/mm2 =L/B =5.75/1.35 =4.26 k=0.5 +=5.26 , k<=1 Hence, k=1 Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c , Hence safe

4.8.4 Comparison

Table 4-8: IS verification example 8 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 118.35 118.35 KN/m2 None 2 KN/m Governing Moment 197 KN-m 191.4 KN-m Negligible 37.49 KN-m 37.4 KN-m Shear Force(One-Way) Shear Force(Two-Way) Resisting Moment for Overturning (Z) Resisting Moment for Overturning (X) 122.5 KN-m 122.5 KN-m 168.2 KN 168.2 KN 489.89 KN 489.88 KN 489.89 KN 2641 KNm 620 KNm 489.88 KN 2641 KNm 620 KNm None Negligible None None

4.9.1 Reference 4.9.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 350 KN each column., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 110 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5 Ht of soil =500 mm. Dry condition

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2

Figure 4-14: Plan and Elevation

4.9.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2x350/110 m2 = 6.36 m2 Assuming 5 m x 1.65 m x 0.600 m footing dimension, ( left overhang=right overhang=1m) Weight of footing = 5 m x 1.65 m x 0.600 x25 KN = 123.75 KN Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN Weight of soil above footing = 5 m x 1.65 m x 0.500 x18 KN = 74.25 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x350+123.75+2.25+74.25) KN = 900.25 KN Maximum pressure = 900.25 /(5 x1.65) = 109.12 KN/ m2 109.12 KN/ m2 <110 KN/m2 Hence safe Ultimate pressure = 700 x 1.5 / (5.0 x 1.65) = 127.273 KN/m2

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5x 900.25 = 2250 KNm Hence OK

About X Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.65 x 900.25 = 742.7 KNm Hence OK

Moment About Z Axis (Sagging)

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 105 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1681.78 KNm Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 131.2 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1681.78 KNm Hence OK

Cantilever length=(1.65-0.3)/2 = 0.675 m

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2 Bending moment at critical section Mux = 127.273 x5x0.6752/2 = 144.97 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 =5096.3 KNm Hence OK

Along X Direction (Bottom)

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 541 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1188 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 1188 mm2

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 677 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1188 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 1188 mm2

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astz = 742 m2m Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 3600 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 3600 mm2

= 0.133

Developed shear stress v = 169.3 x 1000 / (1650 x 544) = 0.1886 N/mm2 Now allowable stress= 0.29 N/mm2 v < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear

For Column One

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face. 2 way shear= 434.3 KN v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 434.3 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 = 0.2356 N/mm2 =L/B =5.75/1.35 =4.26 k=0.5 +=5.26 , k<=1 Hence, k=1 Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c , Hence safe

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face. 2 way shear= 434.3 KN v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 434.3 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 = 0.2356 N/mm2 =L/B =5.75/1.35 =4.26 k=0.5 +=5.26 , k<=1 Hence, k=1 Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c , Hence safe

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.9 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 2

Figure 4-15: ShearForce andBending Momentdiagrams

4.9.4 Comparison

Table 4-9: IS verification example 9 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 109.12 108.92 Negligible KN/m2 KN/m2 Governing Moment 105 KN-m 101.8 KN-m Negligible 131.2 KN-m 131.2 KN-m 144.97 KN- 144.97 KN-m m 169.3 KN 169.26 KN 434.3 KN 434.3 KN 434.3 KN 2250 KNm 742.7 KNm 434.3 KN 2246 KNm 741.37KNm

Shear Force(One-Way) Shear Force(Two-Way) Resisting Moment for Overturning (Z) Resisting Moment for Overturning (X)

4.10.1 Reference 4.10.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 350 KN each column., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=3000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 130 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5 Ht of soil =500 mm. Depth of GWT=200 mm

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

Figure 4-16: Plan and Elevation

4.10.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2 x 500/130 m2 = 7.69 m2 Assuming 5.4 m x 1.65 m x 0.600 m footing dimension, (left overhang = right overhang = 1.2m) Weight of footing = 5.4 m x 1.65 m x 0.600 x25 KN = 133.65 KN Weight of pedestal=2x0.3x0.3x0.5x25=2.25 KN Weight of soil above footing = 5.4 m x 1.65 m x 0.500 x18 KN = 80.19 KN Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 5.4 m x 1.65 m x (0.5+0.6-0.2) x9.81 KN = 78.67 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x500+133.65+2.25+80.19-78.67) KN = 1137.42 KN Maximum pressure= 1137.42 /(5.4 x1.65) = 127.66 KN/ m2 127.66 KN/ m2 <130 KN/m2 Hence safe Ultimate pressure = 1000 x 1.5 / (5.4 x 1.65) = 168.35 KN/m2

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

wrt Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 5x 1137.42 = 3071 KNm Hence OK

Wrt X Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.65 x 1137.42 = 938.37 KNm Hence OK

About Z Axis (Sagging)

Bending moment at critical section Mux = 200 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1681.78 KNm Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section Mux = 112.4 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1681.78 KNm Hence OK

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

About X Axis

Cantilever length = (1.65-0.3)/2 = 0.675 m Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 168.35 x5.4x0.6752/2 = 207 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 =5504 KNm Hence OK

Along X Direction (Bottom)

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 1040 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1188 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 1188 mm2

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 579 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1188 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 1188 mm2

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astz = 1062 mm2

Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 3888 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 3888 mm2

Figure 4-17: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Percentage of steel pt = Vumax = 223.95 KN = 0.133

Developed shear stress V = 223.95 x 1000 / (1650 x 544) = 0.249 N/mm2 Now allowable stress= 0.29 N/mm2 V < c, Hence Safe

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.10 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 3

Punching Shear

For Column 1

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face. 2 way shear= 630.07 KN v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 630.07 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 = 0.343 N/mm2 =L/B =5.4/1.65 =3.27 k=0.5 +=4.27 , k<=1 Hence, k=1 Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c , Hence safe

For Column 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face. 2 way shear= 630.07 KN v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 630.07 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 = 0.343 N/mm2 =L/B =5.4/1.65 =3.27 k=0.5 +=4.27 , k<=1 Hence, k=1 Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c , Hence safe

4.10.4 Comparison

Table 4-10: IS verification example 10 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 127.48 127.66 Negligible KN/m2 KN/m2 Governing Moment 200 KN-m 199.9 KN-m Negligible 112.4 KN-m 112.4 KN-m Shear Force(One-Way) Shear Force(Two-Way) Resisting Moment for Overturning (Z) Resisting Moment for Overturning (X) 207 KN-m 223.95 KN 630.07 KN 630.07 KN 3071 KNm 207 KN-m 223.89 KN 630.08 KN 630.08 KN 3067 KNm Negligible None Negligible Negligible

4.11.1 Reference 4.11.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 350 KN & Fx=-30 KN each column., fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 300 mm x 300 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm. and C/C column distance=4000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 90 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5. No soil above footing. Dry condition

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

Figure 4-18: Plan and Elevation

4.11.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2x350/00 m2 = 7.78 m2 Assuming 6 m x 1.75 m x 0.600 m footing dimension, (left overhang = right overhang = 1 m) Weight of footing = 6 m x 1.75 m x 0.600 x25 KN = 157.5 KN Weight of pedestal = 2 x 0.3 x 0.3 x 0.5 x 25 = 2.25 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x350+157.5 +2.25) KN = 859.75 KN Maximum pressure for axial load=P/A = 859.75 /(6x1.75) = 81.88 KN/ m2 Moment on each col = 30 x (0.5 x 0.6) = 33 KNm So total moment = 33 + 33 = 66 KNm Z=1.75x6 2/6 = 10.5 m3 M/Z = 66/10.5 = 6.28 KN/m2 Streaa at left end = 81.88+6.28= 88.16 KN/m2 Streaa at right end = 81.88-6.28= 75.6 KN/m2 88.16 KN/ m2 <90 KN/m2 Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

wrt Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 6 x 859.75 = 2579.25 KNm Hence OK

Wrt X Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 1.75 x 859.75 = 752.28 KNm Hence OK

About Z Axis (Sagging)

Bending moment at critical section Mux = 95 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1783.71 KNm Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section Mux = 264.25 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 1783.71 KNm Hence OK

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

About X Axis

Cantilever length=(1.75-0.3)/2 = 0.725 m Bending moment at critical section, Mux = (109.43+90.57) x6x0.7252/2 = 157 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover and 16 mm bar, effective depth deff = (600-50-0.5 x 12) mm = 544 mm K = 700/(1100+0.87x fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 .fck. Kumax .(1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 =5860 KNm Hence OK

Along X Direction (Bottom)

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 490 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1260mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 1260 mm2

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 1380 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1260 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 1380 mm2

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b: Mu =0.87.fy.Ast.d.(1-Ast.fy/b.d.fck) So solving equation for Ast,

Astz = 807 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 4321 mm2 ( as fy>250) Provided area = 4320 mm2

Percentage of steel pt = 0.133 Vumax = 248.613 KN Developed shear stress V = 0.261 N/mm2 Now allowable stress= 0.29 N/mm2 V < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear

For Column One

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face. 2 way shear= 449.289 KN v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 449.289 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 = 0.245 N/mm2 =L/B =6/1.75 =3.43 k=0.5 +=4.43 , k<=1 Hence, k=1 Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c , Hence safe

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 272 mm from the column face. 2 way shear= 458.245 KN v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 458.245 x 1000 / (300 x 2 + 300 x 2 + 544 x 4) x 544 = 0.2496 N/mm2 =L/B =6/1.75 =3.43 k=0.5 +=4.43 , k<=1 Hence, k=1 Now allowable stress= c =k.0.25.fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c , Hence safe

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.11 IS Toolkit Combined Foundation 4

Figure 4-19: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

4.11.4 Comparison

Table 4-11: IS verification example 11 comparison STAAD Reference Percent DifValue of Foundation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 88.17 KN/m2 88.16 KN/m2 Negligible Governing Moment 75.59 KN/m2 129.7 KN-m 264.25 KN-m Shear Force(One-Way) Shear Force(Two-Way) Resisting Moment for Overturning (Z) Resisting Moment for Overturning (X) 157 KN-m 248.61 KN 449.289 KN 458.245 KN 2579.25 KNm 752.28 KNm 75.6 KN/m2 95 KN-m 264.25 KN-m 167 KN-m 248.61 KN 449.29 KN 8.5% None 6% None None

4.12 IS Pilecap 1

4.12.1 Reference 4.12.2 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 800 KN, fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm. Pedestal ht= 500 mm Pile Data- Dia of pile= 400 mm Vertical capacity = 250 KN Horizontal capacity = 100 KN Uplift capacity = 80 KN

Figure 4-20: Plan and Elevation

4.12.3 Solution

depth of pilecap is equal to 1.5x the pile diameter, D = 600 mm Take D= 920 mm c/c pile distance is equal to 3x the pile diameter =1200 mm. Edge distance = 350 mm Assuming four pile combination, Coordinates of piles (considering pedestal at 0,0,0) Table 4-12: Pile Locations X CoorPile No dinate (mm 1 -600 2 -600 3 600 4 600 pilecap dimension is 1900 mm x1900 mm x 650 mm Weight of footing = 1.9 x1.9 x 0.92 x 25 KN = 83.03 KN in Plan Z Coordinate (mm) -600 600 600 -600

Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 KN = 0.78 KN Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (800 + 83.03 + 0.78) KN = 883.81 KN So Pile reaction = 883.81 /4 = 220.95 KN < 250 KN Hence OK As there is no lateral load , moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift capacity.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken =1 Load factor for axial load is taken 1.5 So, Load on pilecap = 1.5(800) + 1(883.81) + 1(0.78) = 1,283.81 KN Load on each pile = 1,283.81/4 = 320.95 KN

For moment wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1 = from pile 2 = 320.95 x 0.475 = 152.45 KNm So Total Mz X1X1 = 304.9 KNm For moment wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile 3 = from pile 4 = 320.95 x 0.475 = 152.45 KNm So Total Mz X2X2 = 304.9 KNm So Max value of Mz = 304.9 KNm

For moment wrt Z1Z1 184 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Contribution from pile 1 = from pile 4 = 320.95 6 x 0.475=152.45 KNm So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 304.9 KNm For moment wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2 = from pile 3 = 320.95 6 x 0.475=152.45 KNm So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 304.9 KNm So Max value of MX = 304.9 KNm

About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section Muz = 304.9 KNm Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 50 mm pile in pilecap & and 12 mm bar, effective depth deff = 814 mm K = 700/(1,100 + 0.87 fy ) = 0.479107 Ru = 0.36fckKumax (1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 B = 1,900 mm, deff = 814 mm Resisting Moment =RuBdeff2 = 4,336 KNm Hence OK

About X Axis

Bending moment at critical section Mux = 304.9 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 50 mm pile in pilecap & and 12 mm bar, effective depth deff = 814 mm K=700/(1,100 + 0.87 fy )= 0.479107 Ru = 0.36fckKumax (1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 B =1,900 mm, deff = 814 mm Resisting Moment =RuBdeff2 = 4,336 KNm Hence OK

Along X Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

1 A stf y Mu = 0.87fyA st d bd f ck

So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 1,050 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2,098 mm2 ( as fy > 250) Provided area = 2,098 mm2

Along Z Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

1 A stf y Mu = 0.87fyA st d bd f ck

So solving equation for Ast, AstZ = 1,050 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 2,098 mm2 ( as fy > 250) Provided area = 2,098 mm2

Calculation of Shear

Parallel to X Axis

For shear wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 320.95 x 0.67 = 215.03 KN So Total V X1X1 = 430 KN For shear wrt X2X2

Contribution from pile 3 = pile 4 = 320.95 x 0.67 = 215.03 KN So Total V X2X2 = 430 KN So Maximum V parallel to X direction = 430 KN

Parallel to Z Axis

For shear wrt Z1Z1 Contribution from pile 1 = pile 4 = 320.95 x 0.67 = 215.03 KN So Total V Z1Z1 = 430 KN For shear wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2 = pile 3 = 320.95 x 0.67 = 215.03 KN So Total V Z2Z2 = 430 KN So Max V parallel to Z direction = 430 KN

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt = 100Ast/(Bde) = 0.136 Vumax = 430 KN Developed shear stress V = 430 x 1,000 / 1,900 x 814 = 0.278 N/mm2 Now allowable stress= 0.29 N/mm2 V < c, Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt = 100Ast/(Bde) = 0.136 Vumax = 430 KN Developed shear stress V = 430 x 1,000 / 1,900 x 814 = 0.278 N/mm2 Now allowable stress= 0.29 N/mm2 V < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 407 mm from the column face. Contribution from pile 1 = from pile 2 = from pile 3 = from pile 4 = 276.4 KN So total punching shear Vmax= 1,105.7 KN Pm = 4 x (250 + 814/2 + 814/2) = 4,256 mm v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 0.319 N/mm2 = L/B =1,900/1,900 = 1 k = 0.5 + = 1.5 , k 1 Hence, k = 1 Now allowable stress= c = k(0.25)fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c , Hence safe

4.12.4 Comparison

Table 4-13: IS verification example 12 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Pile Reaction, Service 220.95 220.5 None (KN) Pile Reaction, Ultimate 320.95 320.5 None (KN) Governing Moment, Mx 304.9 304.5 None (KNm) Governing Moment, Mz 304.9 304.5 None (KNm) Shear Force, One-Way, 430 429.5 None X (KN) Shear Force, One-Way, 430 429.5 None Z (KN) Shear Force, Two-Way 1,105.7 1,104.3 None (KN)

4.13 ISPilecap 2

4.13.1 Reference 4.13.2 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 1,100 KN, Mx= 50 KNm, Fz= 50 KN,fc = 25 MPa, fy = 415 MPa, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm. Pedestal ht= 500 mm Diameter of pile= 400 mm. Vertical capacity =300 KN, Horizontal capacity = 100 KN Uplift capacity = 80 KN Pedestal dimensions: 250 mm x 250 mm

Figure 4-21: Plan, Elevation, and Pedestal dimensions

4.13.3 Solution

depth of pilecap is equal to 1.5x the pile diameter, D = 600 mm Take D = 1,255 mm c/c pile distance = 3x pile diameter =1,200 mm. Edge distance =350 mm Assuming five pile combination, Coordinates of piles considering pedestal at 0, 0, 0

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.13 ISPilecap 2 Table 4-14: Pile Coordinates in Plan Pile X Coordinate Z Coordinate No (mm) (mm) 1 -849 -849 2 -849 849 3 0 0 4 849 -849 5 849 -849 pilecap dimension is 2,400 mm x 2,400 mm x 1,255 mm Weight of footing = 2.4 x 2.4 x 1.255 x 25 KN = 180.72 KN Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 KN = 0.78 KN Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (1,100 + 180.72 + 0.78) KN = 1,281.5 KN So Pile reaction from axial load= 1,281.5 /5= 256.3 KN Moment from lateral load = (1.255 + 0.5) x 50= 87.75 KNm Moment Mx ( from input) = 50 KNm So Total moment = 137.75 KNm Using Rivet theory: Reaction from moment= 137.75(0.849)/[4(0.849 2)] = 40.56 KNm So Reaction at Pile 2= reaction at pile 5 = 256.3 + 40.56 = 296.86 KN Reaction at Pile 1= reaction at pile 4 = 256.3 - 40.56 = 215.74 KN Reaction at Pile 3= 256.3 KN So Critical vertical reaction= 297 KN< 300 KN Lateral reaction = 50/5 = 10 KN < 50 KN, Hence OK As there is no net uplift load, so each pile is safe in uplift capacity.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken =1 Load factor for axial load is taken 1.5 So, Axial Load on pilecap = 1.5(1,100) + 1(180.72) + 1(0.78) = 1,831.5 KN Moment on pilecap = 1.5(137.75) = 206.62 KNm Load on each pile from axial reaction = 1,831.5/5 = 366.3 KN Reaction from moment= 206.62(0.849)/[4(0.849 2)] = 60.84 KNm So Reaction at Pile 2= reaction at pile 5 = 366.3 + 60.84 = 427.14 KN Reaction at Pile 1= reaction at pile 4 = 366.3 - 60.84 = 305.46 KN

Calculation of Moment

Moment is calculated at face of column

About Z Axis

For moment wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1 = 305.46 x 0.724 = 221.15 KNm Contribution from pile 2 = 427.14 x 0.724 = 309.25KNm Contribution from pile 3 = 1.7 KNm So Total Mz X1X1 = 532.1 KNm For moment wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile 4 = 305.46 x 0.724 = 221.15 KNm Contribution from pile 5 = 427.14 x 0.724 = 309.25KNm Contribution from pile 3 = 1.7 KNm So Total Mz X2X2 = 532.1 KNm So Max value of Mz = 532.1 KNm

About X Axis

For moment wrt Z1Z1

Contribution from pile 1 = 305.46 x 0.724 = 221.15 KNm Contribution from pile 4 = 305.46 x 0.724 = 221.15 KNm Contribution from pile 3 = 1.7 KNm So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 444 KNm For moment wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2 = 427.14 x 0.724 = 309.25 KNm Contribution from pile 5 = 427.14 x 0.724 = 309.25 KNm Contribution from pile 3 = 1.7 KNm So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 620.2 KNm So Max value of MX = 620.2 KNm

Moment About Z Axis

Bending moment at critical section Muz = 532.1 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 50 mm pile in pilecap & and 12 mm bar, effective depth deff = 1,149 mm K = 700/(1,100 + 0.87x fy ) = 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 (fck) Kumax (1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 B =2,400 mm, deff = 1,149 mm Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 10,913 KNm Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section Mux = 620.2 KN-m Assuming 50 mm clear cover, 50 mm pile in pilecap & and 12 mm bar, effective depth deff = 1,149 mm K = 700/(1,100 + 0.87x fy ) = 0.479107 Ru = 0.36 (fck) Kumax (1-0.42Kumax) = 3.4442 N/mm2 B = 2,400 mm, deff = 1,149 mm Resisting Moment =Ru. B deff2 = 10,913 KNm Hence OK

Along X Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

1 A stf y Mu = 0.87fyA st d bd f ck

So solving equation for Ast, Astx = 1,510 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 3,614 mm2 ( as fy > 250) Provided area = 3,614 mm2

Along Z Direction

From IS -456-2000 Annex G, G-1, b:

1 A stf y Mu = 0.87fyA st d bd f ck

So solving equation for Ast, AstZ = 1,293 mm2 Minimum area of steel Ast min = 0.0012 x B x D = 3,614 mm2 ( as fy > 250) Provided area = 3,614 mm2

Calculation of Shear

According to Amendment 1shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =574.5 mm from the column face.

Parallel to X Axis

For shear wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1 = 305.46 x 0.873 = 266.67 KN Contribution from pile 2 = 427.14 x 0.873 = 372.89 KN So Total V X1X1 = 639.56 KN For shear wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile 4 = 305.46 x 0.873 = 266.67 KN Contribution from pile 5 = 427.14 x 0.873 = 372.89 KN So Total V X2X2 = 639.56 KN So Max V parallel to X direction = 639.56 KN

Parallel to Z Axis

For shear wrt Z1Z1 Contribution from pile 1 = 305.46 x 0.873 = 266.67 KN Contribution from pile 4 = 305.46 x 0.873 = 266.67 KN Contribution from pile 3 = 0 KN So Total V Z1Z1 = 533.34 KN For shear wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2 = 427.14 x 0.873 = 372.89 KN Contribution from pile 5 = 427.14 x 0.873 = 372.89 KN Contribution from pile 3 = 0 KN

Chapter 4 4.13 ISPilecap 2 So Total V Z2Z2 = 745.7 KN So Max V parallel to Z direction = 745.7 KN

Along X Direction

Percentage of steel pt = 100Ast/(Bde) = 0.131 Vumax = 639.56 KN Developed shear stress V = 639.56 x 103 / (2,400 x 1,149) = 0.232 N/mm2 Now allowable stress= 0.29 N/mm2 V < c, Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Percentage of steel pt = 100Ast/(Bde) = 0.131 Vumax = 745.75 KN Developed shear stress V = 745.75 x 103 / (2,400 x 1,149) = 0.27 N/mm2 Now allowable stress= 0.29 N/mm2 V < c, Hence Safe

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 574.5 mm from the column face. Contribution from pile 1 = from pile 4 = 300.6 KN Contribution from pile 2 = from pile 5 = 420.3 KN Contribution from pile 3 = 0 KN So total punching shear Vmax= 1,441.8 KN Pm = 4x(250 + 574.5 + 574.5) = 5,596 mm

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1

v = Vmax/(Pm d) = 0.224 N/mm2 = L/B = 2,400/2,400 = s1 k = 0.5 + = 1.5 , k 1 Hence, k = 1 Now allowable stress= c =k(0.25)fck = 1.25 N/mm2 v < c , Hence safe

4.13.4 Comparison

Table 4-15: IS verification example 13 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Pile Reaction, Service 215.74 215.62 Negligible (KN) 296.86 296.788 256.3 215.74 Pile Reaction, Ultimate (KN) 296.86 305.46 427.14 366.3 305.46 Governing Moment (KNm) Shear Force, One-Way (KN) Shear Force, Two-Way (KN) 427.14 532 620 640 746 1441.8 256.203 215.617 296.788 305.32 427.081 366.203 305.324 427.081 531 619.5 641 747 1435.7 Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible

4.14.1 Reference

Reinforced Concrete Design by Pillai & Menon, Page 652, Example 14.7.

4.14.2 Problem

Design a combined footing for two columns with the given data: C1 (400 mm x 400 mm) with 4-25 bars and C2 (500 mm x 500mm) with 4-28 bars supporting axial loads P1 = 900 KN and P2 = 1600 KN respectively (under service dead and live loads). The column C1 is an exterior column whose exterior face is flush with the property line. The center-tocentre distance between C1 and C2 is 4.5 meters. The allowable soil pressure at the base of

Chapter 4 4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1 the footing, 1.5 m below ground level, is 240 KN/m2. Assume a steel of grade Fe 415 in the columns as well as the footing, and a concrete grade of M 20 in the footing.

Figure 4-22: Footing Plan

4.14.3 Solution

Dimension of Mat (Based on the bearing Capacity given): Length = 6.16 m Width = 2 m Depth = 0.95 m

Self-weight of mat = 6.16 x 2 x 0.95 x 25 KN = 292.6 KN Total load on the mat = (1600+900+200.2) KN = 2792.6 KN Base pressure = 279.6 / (6.16 x 2) KN/m2 = 226.67 KN/m2 < 240 KN/m2 (Hence Safe) Ultimate load for C 1 = Pu1 = 1.5 x 900 = 1350 KN Ultimate load for C 2 = Pu2 = 1.5 x 1600 = 2400 KN

Section 4 Indian Code (IS 456 -2000) 4.14 IS Mat Combined Foundation 1

Then uniformly distributed upward load = (Pu1+Pu2)/6.16 KN/m = 608.8 KN/m Developed shear stress,

c,allowable

c,allowable

Hence safe Note: There is no deduction for the upward force underneath the area enclosed by the critical perimeter. This approach is conservative.

Calculation of reinforcement

Maximum negative moment Mu(-) = 1227 KN-m Maximum negative moment/width = 1227/2 KN-m/m = 613.5 KN-m/m Area of steel required on top face along length,

Ast = 0.5 x B = 1000 mm de = 865 mm Mu= 613.5 x 106 N-mm Ast = 2067.97 mm2/m Ast,min = 0.0012 x B x D = 1140mm2/m

x B x de

Figure 4-24: Shear Force (kN, top) and Bending Moment (kNm, bottom) diagrams

4.14.4 Comparison

Table 4-16: IS verification example 14 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Max Bending 603.201 KN- 613.5 KN-m/m 1.68 Moment(-) m/m Max Bending 219.687 KN- 223 KN-m/m 1.48 Moment(+) m/m Area of Steal 2014.835 2067.97 mm2/m 2.56 2 Required mm /m Base Pressure 227 KN/m2 226.67 KN/m2 Negligible

Section 5

5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1

5.1.1 Reference

Notes on ACI318-02 Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete with Design Applications by B.A. Fanella and B. G. Robert, Page 22-7, Example 22.1-22.3.

5.1.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Service dead load = 350 kips, Service live load = 275 kips, Service surcharge = 100 psf, Average weight of soil above footing = 130 pcf, Permissible soil pressure = 4.5 ksf, Column dimension = 30 x 12 in, Strength of concrete (fc) = 3,000 psi, and Strength of steel (fy) = 60,000 psi.

Figure 5-1: Elevation and loads

5.1.3 Solution

Determination of base area of footing: The base area of footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net permissible soil pressure. Total weight of surcharge = (0.130 x 5 + 0.1) = 0.75 ksf Net permissible soil pressure = 4.5 0.75 = 3.75 ksf Required base area of footing = (320 + 275) / 3.75 = 166.667 ft 2 [Clause 15.2.2] Use a 13 x 13 ft square footing (Af = 169 ft 2). Factored loads and soil reaction: To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads are used. [Clause 15.2.1] Pu = 1.2 x 350 + 1.6 x 275 = 860 kips [Eq. 9-2] qu = (Pu/A) = (860/169) = 5.089 ksf

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1

Figure 5-2: Considered sections for two-way (b ) and beam (b ) action

o w

Depth requirement for shear usually controls the footing thickness. Both wide action and two-way action for strength computation need to be investigated to determine the controlling shear criteria for depth. [Clause 11.2] Assume overall footing thickness = 33 in. and average effective thickness d = 28 in. = 2.33 ft.

Wide-beam action

Vu = qs x tributary area Bw = 13 ft = 156 in. Tributary area = 13(6.0 2.33) = 47.71 ft 2 Vu = 5.089 x 47.71 = 242.796 kips V = (2(f'c)bwd) [Eq 11 - 3] = 0.75(2(3000) x 156 x 28)/1000 [Clause 9.3.2.3] = 359 kips > Vu O.K.

Two-way action

Vu = qs x tributary area

= 152.889 ft 2

= Minimum of [Eq 11-33,11-34 & 11-35 respectively] bo = 2(30 + 28) + 2(12 + 28) = 196 in.

= Vc = 0.75 x 3.6 (3000) x 196 x 28/1000 = 812 kips > Vu = 780 kips O.K.

Calculation of Reinforcement

Figure 5-3: Critical section for moment (long projection)

Critical section for moment is at face of column [Clause 15.4.2] Mu = 5.089 x 13 x 6 2/2 = 1190.862 ft-kips Compute required As assuming tension-controlled section ( = 0.9) [Clause 10.3.4, 9.3.2.1] 204 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.1 US General Isolated Foundation 1

Required Rn =

psi

p(gross area) = (d/h) x 0.0022 = (28/33) x 0.0022 = 0.00186 Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 60 reinforcement: [Clause 10.5.4] min = 0.00180 < 0.00186 O.K. [Clause 7.12.2] Required As = bd = 0.0022 x 156 x 28 = 9.61 in. 2 Try 13-No. 8bars (As = 10.27 in. 2) each way

Critical section for development length is same as that for moment (at face of column). [Clause 15.6.3]

Ld =

[Eq. 12-1]

in.

C = minimum of

= 3.5 > 2.5, use 2.5 [Clause 12.2.3] = 1.0 (less than 12 in. of concrete below bars) [Clause 12.2.4] = 1.0 (uncoated reinforcement) = 1.0 < 1.7 = 1.0 (larger than No.7 bars)

Ld = 12.2.1]

Since Ld = 32.9 in. is less than the available embedment length in the short direction (156/2 - 30/2 - 3 = 60 in.), the No.8 bars can be fully developed. Use 13 No.8 each way.

5.1.4 Comparison

Table 5-1: US verification example 1 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Effective Depth 28 in 28 in None Governing Moment 1190.86 ft1190.77 ft-kips Negligible kips Area of Steal 9.61 in2 9.70 in2 0.94 Shear Stress (One- 242.79 kips 242.56 kips Negligible Way) Shear Stress (Two- 778.05 kips 778.01 kips Negligible Way)

5.2.1 Reference 5.2.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 200 Kip, fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2.2 Kip/sqft. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2

Figure 5-4: Elevation and Plan

5.2.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 200/2.2 = 90.9 sqft Assuming 122 inch x122 inch x18 inch footing dimension, Weight of footing = 122 x122 x18 x 0.159/(123)= 24.66 Kip Therefore, total load on the footing = (200+24.66) KN = 224.66 Kip Maximum pressure = 224.66 /(122 x 122) = 0.0151 Ksi=2.17 Kip/sqft <2.2 Kip/sqft (Hence safe) Ultimate pressure =200x1.5/(122x122)= KN/m2 = 0.020156 Ksi

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force = 0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 224.66 = 112.33 Kip Hence OK

Overturning Moment = 0 max resisting Moment = 0.5x 122 x 224.66 = 13704.26 inkip Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force = 0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation= 0.5 x 224.66 = 112.33 Kip Hence OK Overturning Moment = 0 max resisting Moment = 0.5x 122 x 224.66 = 13704.26 inkip Hence OK

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 7.5 inch from the column face. Effective Depth=D-clear cover-1=18-2-1=15 inch Punching Shear Vm = 0.018813 x 122 x 122 - 0.0189 x 27 x 27 = 266.24 Kip Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 108 inch Vm1 = Vmax / (Pm*d)= 164.81 Ksi c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1 bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=108 inch V1 V2 774125.57 lb fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x 108 x 15 = 614746.78 lb fc.bc.d = (40x15/108+2). (4000) x 108 x 15 =

V2 = 4.fc.bc.de=4.(4000) x 108 x 15 = 409831.18 lb Vc = min {V1, V2, V3} =409831.185 lb So, 0.75Vc = 307.374 Kip Vm< 0.75.Vc , Hence safe

Along Z Direction

= 92.24 Kip

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.2 US General Isolated Foundation 2

Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 231.48 Kip 0.75.Vc1=173.61 Kip V < Vc1, Hence Safe So Vumax < Vc1 , Hence Safe

= 2x(4000) x 122 x 15 lb =

Along Z Direction

Vumax = 0.0189 x 122 x Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 231.48 Kip 0.75.Vc1=173.61 Kip V < Vc1, Hence Safe So Vumax < Vc1 , Hence Safe

About X Axis

m = fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60) Bending moment at critical section Mux = 0.0189 x 122 x 55 x 55 / 2 = 3487.55 inkip So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =3875.56 inkip Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1412 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002405 min < < max Hence OK

About Z Axis

m = fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507

max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60) Bending moment at critical section Mux = 0.0189 x 122 x 55 x 55 /2 = 3487.55 inkip So Resisting Moment = Mnz = Muz/ =3875.56 inkip Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1412 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002405 min < < max Hence OK

Along X Direction

x = 0.002405 Therefore, Astx = x *b*d = 4.4 in2

Along Z Direction

z = 0.002405 Therefore, Astz = z*b*d = 4.4 in2

5.2.4 Comparison

Table 5-2: US verification example 2 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Effective Depth 15 inch 15 inch None Bearing Pressure 0.0151 Ksi 0.0151 Ksi None Governing Moment 3487 inkip 3471 inkip Negligible Shear Force(One-Way) Shear Force(Two-Way) Resisting force for sliding Resisting Moment for Overturning 3487 inkip 92.24 Kip 92.24 Kip 266.24 Kip 112.33 Kip 13704.26 inkip 3471 inkip 91.8 Kip Negligible

91.8 Kip 266.29 Kip Negligible 112.33 Kip None 13703.75 inkip Negligible

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3

5.3.1 Reference 5.3.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 250 Kip, fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2Kip/sqft. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 5-5: Elevation and Plan

5.3.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 250/2 = 125 sqft Assuming 160 inch x160 inch x21 inch footing dimension, Weight of footing 160 x160 x21 x 0.159/(123)= 49.47 Kip Weight of soil above footing 160 x160 x32 x 0.159/(123)= 53.57 Kip Therefore, total load on the footing = (250+49.47 +53.57) KN = 353.04 Kip

Maximum pressure = 353.04/(160x160) = 0.0138 Ksi=1.9872 Kip/sqft <2 Kip/sqft Hence safe Ultimate pressure = 200 x 1.5/(122 x 122)= KN/m2 = 0.020156 Ksi

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 353.04 = 176.52 Kip Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5x 160 x 353.04 = 28243.2 inkip Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 353.04 = 176.52 Kip Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5x 160 x 353.04 = 28243.2 inkip Hence OK

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 9 inch from the column face. Effective Depth=D-clear cover-1=21-2-1=18 inch Punching Shear Vm= 0.013673x160x160-0.0137x30x30=337.68 Kip Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 120 inch c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1 bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=120 inch V1 fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x120x18 =819662.37 lb

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.3 US General Isolated Foundation 3

V2

V2= 4 .fc.bc.de=4.(4000) x120x18=546441.58 lb Vc = =546441.58 lb So, 0.75Vc=409.832 Kip Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Along X Direction

Vumax = 0.0137 x 160 x Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 0.75.Vc1 = 273.2 Kip So Vumax < 0.75x Vc1, Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Vumax = 0.0137 x 160 x Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 0.75.Vc1 = 273.2 Kip So Vumax <0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe

About X Axis

m = fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60) Bending moment at critical section Mux = = 0.0137 x 160 x 74 x 74 /2 = 6002 inkip So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =6668.89 inkip

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1287 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002188 min < < max Hence OK

About Z Axis

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60) Bending moment at critical section Mux = = 0.0137 x 160 x 74 x 74 / 2 = 6002 inkip So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =6668.89 inkip Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1287 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002188 min < < max Hence OK

Along X Direction

x = 0.002188 Therefore, Astx = x *b*d = 6.3 in2

Along Z Direction

z = 0.002188 Therefore, Astz = z*b*d = 6.3 in2

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4

5.3.4 Comparison

Table 5-3: US verification example 3 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Effective Depth 18 inch 18 inch None Bearing Pressure 0.0138 Ksi 0.0138 Ksi None Governing Moment 6002 inkip 5989 inkip Negligible 6002 inkip 5989 inkip Shear Force(One-Way) 92.24 Kip 91.8 Kip Negligible Shear Force(Two-Way) Resisting force for sliding Resisting Moment for Overturning 92.24 Kip 337.68 Kip 176.52 Kip 28243.2 inkip 91.8 Kip 337.7 Kip 176.37 Kip 28218.85 inkip None Negligible Negligible

5.4.1 Reference 5.4.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 300 Kip, fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2.1Kip/sqft. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 5-6: Elevation and Plan

5.4.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required =300/2.1 = 142.86 sqft Assuming 158 inch x158 inch x21 inch footing dimension, Weight of footing 158 x158 x21 x 0.159/(123)= 48.24 Kip Weight of soil above footing 158 x158 x25 x 0.159/(123)= 40.82 Kip Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 158 x158 x(25+21-10) x 3.61398x105= 32.479 Kip Therefore, total load on the footing = (300+48.24 +40.82 -32.479) = 356.581 Kip Maximum pressure = 356.581 /(158x158) = 0.0143 Ksi=2.059 Kip/sqft <2.1 Kip/sqft Hence safe Ultimate pressure =200x1.5/(122x122)= KN/m2 = 0.020156 Ksi

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation=0.5 x 356.581 = 178.29 Kip Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5x 158 x 356.581 = 28169.899 inkip Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation=0.5 x 356.581 = 178.29 Kip Hence OK Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5x 158 x 356.581 = 28169.899 inkip Hence OK

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 9 inch from the column face. Effective Depth=D-clear cover-1=21-2-1=18 inch Punching Shear Vm= 0.016825 x 158 x 158 - 0.0169 x 30 x 30 = 404.81 Kip Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 120 inch c = Width of col/depth of col = 12/12=1 bc = 2.(b+d+2.deff) = 120 inch

Figure 5-7: Section considered for two-way shear

V1 V2 lb

V3= 4.fc.bc.de=4.(4000) x120x18=546441.58 lb Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 546441.58 lb So, 0.75Vc=409.832 Kip Vm< 0.75.Vc , Hence safe

Along X Direction

Vumax = 0.0169 x 158 x Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 0.75.Vc1=269.81 Kip So Vumax <0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.4 US General Isolated Foundation 4

Along Z Direction

Vumax = 0.0169 x 158 x Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 0.75.Vc1=269.81 Kip So Vumax < 0.75xVc1 , Hence Safe

Moment About X Axis

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60) Bending moment at critical section Mux = 0.0169 x 158 x 73 x 73 / 2 = 7114.95 inkip So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =7905.56 inkip Rn = Mnx/b.d2 =0.1545 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002637 min < < max Hence OK

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60) Bending moment at critical section Mux = 0.0169 x 158 x 73 x 73 / 2 = 7114.95 inkip So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =7905.56 inkip Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1545 Ksi

2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002637 min < < max Hence OK

Along X Direction

x = 0.002637 Therefore, Astx = x *b*d = 7.45 in2

Along Z Direction

z = 0.002637 Therefore, Astz = z*b*d = 7.45 in2

5.4.4 Comparison

Table 5-4: US verification example 4 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Effective Depth 18 inch 18 inch None Bearing Pressure 0.0143 Ksi 0.0143 Ksi None Governing Moment 7114.95 7082.85 inkip Negligible inkip 7114.95 inkip 146.87 Kip 7082.85 inkip

Shear Force(One-Way)

146.2 Kip

Negligible

146.87 Kip Shear Force(Two-Way) 404.81 Kip Resisting force for sliding 178.29 Kip Resisting Moment for 28169.899 Overturning inkip

146.2 Kip 404.86 Kip None 178.18 Kip Negligible 28152.53 inkip Negligible

5.5.1 Reference 5.5.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 200 Kip,Mx=Mz=240 inkip. fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, and Bearing Capacity of Soil

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5 = 2.2 Kip/sqft. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 5-8: Elevation and Plan

5.5.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 200/2.2 = 90.9 sqft Assuming 130 inch x130 inch x19 inch footing dimension, Weight of footing 130 x130 x19 x 0.159/(123)= 29.55 Kip Therefore, total load on the footing = (200+29.55) KN = 229.55 Kip Zx = 130x1302 = 366166.667 in3 Zz = 130x1302 = 366166.667 in3 Maximum pressure from axial load = 229.55/(130x130) = 0.0136 Ksi Mx/Zx=240/366166.667 =0.0007 Ksi Mz/Zz=240/366166.667 =0.0007 Ksi So stress at four corners

1=P/A-Mx/Zx+Mz/Zz= 0.0136 Ksi 2=P/A-Mx/Zx-Mz/Zz= 0.0122 Ksi 3=P/A+Mx/Zx-Mz/Zz= 0.0136 Ksi 4=P/A+Mx/Zx+Mz/Zz= 0.015 Ksi Max stress = 0.0136 Ksi = 2.16 Ki/sqft <2.2 Kip/sqft (Hence safe)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

For Sliding Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.5 x 229.55 = 114.775 Kip Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force =0 max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation =0.5 x 229.55 = 114.775 Kip Hence OK

For overturning

About X Direction

Overturning Moment =240 inkip max resisting Moment = 0.5x 130 x 229.55 = 14920.75 inkip FOS= 14920.75/240 = 62.17>1.5 Hence OK

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment =240 inkip max resisting Moment = 0.5x 130 x 229.55 = 14920.75 inkip FOS= 14920.75/240 = 62.17>1.5 Hence OK

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 8 inch from the column face. Effective Depth=D-clear cover-1=19-2-1=16 inch Punching Shear Vm= 0.018813x122x122-0.0189x27x27=266.24 Kip Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 108 inch Vm1 = Vmax/(Pm d) = 164.81 Ksi

c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1 bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=108 inch V1 V2 fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x108x15 =614746.78 lb fc.bc.d = (40x15/108+2).(4000) x108x15=774125.57 lb

V2= 4.fc.bc.de=4.(4000) x108x15=409831.18 lb Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 409831.185 lb So, 0.75Vc=307.374 Kip Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Along X Direction

Critical section for moment is at distance d from the face of the column.

Shear at Longitudinal Direction (XAxis) Average Base Pressure along one edge = (0.014733 +0.016569) x0.5 = 0.157 Ksi Average Base Pressure along other edge = (0.016569 +0.018405) x 0.5 = 0.0175 Ksi Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x87/130 = 0.0163 Ksi Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 43/130 = 0.0170 Ksi Hence, the shear force at the critical section: F = (0.0175 + 0.0170) x0.5 x 43 x 130 = 96.43 kip So, max shear force along X axis, Fux = 97 kip Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 0.75.Vc1 = 197.327 Kip So Vumax < 0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe = 2x(4000) x130x16 lb =263.101 Kip

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

Along Z Direction

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (0.014733 +0.016569) x0.5 = 0.157 Ksi Average Base Pressure along other edge = (0.016569 +0.018405) x 0.5 = 0.0175 Ksi Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x87/130 = 0.0163 Ksi Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 43/130 = 0.0170 Ksi Hence, the shear force at the critical section: F = (0.0175 + 0.0170) x0.5 x 43 x 130 = 96.43 kip So, max shear force along Z axis, Fuz = 97 kip Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 0.75.Vc1 = 197.327 Kip So Vumax <0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe = 2x(4000) x122x15 lb =263.101 Kip

About Z Axis

Critical section for moment is at the face of the column.

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (0.014733 + 0.016569) x 0.5 = 0.0157 Ksi (left end) Average Base Pressure along other edge = (0.016569 +0.018405) x 0.5 = 0.0175 Ksi (right end) Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 71/130 = 0.0166 Ksi Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 59/130 = 0.0167 Ksi Hence, the moment at the critical section (right): Mu = F x LA F = (0.0175 + 0.0167) x 0.5 x 59 x 130 = 131.16 Kip LA = (0.0167 +2 x 0.0175) x 59/(3x (0.0167 + 0.0175)) = 29.731 inches Mu(right) = 3899.52 in-kips So, max moment wrt Z axis, Mu(x) = 3900 in-kips m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60) So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =4333.3334 inkip Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1303 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.5 US General Isolated Foundation 5

About X Axis

Critical section for moment is at the face of the column.

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (0.014733 + 0.016569) x 0.5 = 0.0157 Ksi (left end) Average Base Pressure along other edge = (0.016569 +0.018405) x 0.5 = 0.0175 Ksi (right end) Approximate Base Pressure at the left critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 71/130 = 0.0166 Ksi Approximate Base Pressure at the right critical section = 0.0175 +(0.0157 0.0175) x 59/130 = 0.0167 Ksi Hence, the moment at the critical section (right): Mu = F x LA F = (0.0175 + 0.0167) x 0.5 x 59 x 130 = 131.16 Kip LA = (0.0167 +2 x 0.0175) x 59/(3x (0.0167 + 0.0175)) = 29.731 inches Mu(right) = 3899.52 in-kips So, max moment wrt Z axis, Mu(z) = 3900 in-kips m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60) So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =4333.3334 inkip Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.1303 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002215 min < < max Hence OK

Along X Direction

x = 0.002215 Therefore, Astx = x *b*d = 4.61 in2

Along Z Direction

z = 0.002215 Therefore, Astz = z*b*d = 4.61 in2

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6

5.5.4 Comparison

Table 5-5: US verification example 5 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Effective Depth 16 inch 16 inch None Bearing Pressure 0.0136 Ksi 0.0136 Ksi None 0.0122 Ksi 0.0136 Ksi Governing Moment 0.015 Ksi 3899.52 inkip 3899.52 inkip 96.43 Kip 0.0123 Ksi 0.0136 Ksi 0.0149 Ksi 3893.52 inkip 3893.52 inkip Negligible

Shear Force(One-Way)

96.05 Kip 96.05 Kip 267.01 Kip 114.773 Kip 114.773 Kip 14920.466 inkip 14920.466 inkip

96.43 Kip Shear Force(Two-Way) 266.96 Kip Resisting force for sliding 114.775 Kip Resisting Moment for Overturning 114.775 Kip 14920.75 inkip 14920.75 inkip

5.6.1 Reference 5.6.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1000 KN, Concrete grade M25, Steel Grade Fe 415, Pedestal Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm x 500 mm. Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Coefficient of friction =0.4, FOS against sliding =1.4, FOS against overturning =1.4 Soil Depth is 500 mm , depth of GWT from GL is 200 mm and surcharge on foundation is 5 KN/m2. (consider unt wight of soil 18 KN/m2)

Figure 5-9: Elevation and Plan

5.6.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1000/120 = 8.33 m2 Assuming 3140 mm x 3140 mm footing dimension, with 490 mm depth

Punching Shear

Weight of footing = 3.14 x 3.14 x 0.49 x 25 = 120.78 KN Punching Shear Vm = 1400/(3.14 x 3.14) x (3.14 x 3.14-0.665 x 0.665) = 1337.2 KN Critical perimeter Pm = 2 x (b + d + 2 x d) = 2660 mm Vm1 = Vmax/(Pm .d) = 1211.34 KN/m2 c = Width of col/depth of col = 250/250 = 1 bc = 2.(b+d+2.deff) = 2660 mm V1 = (2+4/c)fc.bc.d = 0.083x(2+4/1)x25 x 2660 x 415x 1/1000 = 2748.7 KN V2 = (40.d/b+2)fc.bc.d = 0.083x(40x 415/2660+2)x25 x 2660 x 415x 1/1000 = 3775.17 KN V3 = 4.fc.bc.de =0.083 x 4 x 25 x 2660 x 415x 1/1000 =1832.47 KN Vc =min(V1,V2,V3) =1832.47

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.6 US General Isolated Foundation 6 So, 0.75Vc = 1374.35 KN Vm < 0.75.Vc , Hence safe

Along X Direction

Vumax = 141.993 x 3.14 x ((3.14-0.25)/2-0.415) = 459.23 KN Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2fc.b.d = 0.083x2x25 x 3140 x 415x 1/1000 = 1081.57 KN 0.75.Vc1=811.18 KN V < Vc1, Hence Safe So Vumax < Vc1 , Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Vumax = 141.993 x 3.14 x ((3.14-0.25)/2-0.415) = 459.23 KN Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2fc.b.d =0.083x2x25 x 3140 x 415x 1/1000 = 1081.57 KN 0.75.Vc1=811.18 KN V < Vc1, Hence Safe So Vumax < Vc1 , Hence Safe

About X Axis

m = fy/0.85.fc = 415/(0.85x25) = 19.529 1 = 0.85 ( as fc < 27.6 N/mm2) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87 + fy) = 0.025759 max = 0.75. bal = 0.0193 min = 0.0018 ( as fy = 415 N/mm2) Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 1/2 x 141.993 x 3.14 x [(3.140.25)/2)]2 = 465.48 KNm So Resisting Moment = Mnz = Muz/ = 517.2 KNm Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.956 N/mm2 2m.Rn/fy < 1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002359 min < < max Hence OK

About Z Axis

m = fy/0.85.fc = 415/(0.85x25) = 19.529 1 = 0.85 ( as fc < 27.6 N/mm2) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87 + fy) = 0.025759 max = 0.75. bal = 0.0193 min = 0.0018 ( as fy = 415 N/mm2) Bending moment at critical section, Muz = 1/2 x 141.993 x 3.14 x [(3.140.25)/2)]2 = 465.48 KNm So Resisting Moment = Mnz = Muz/ = 517.2 KNm Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.956 N/mm2 2m.Rn/fy < 1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002359 min < < max Hence OK

Along X Direction

z = 0.002359 Therefore, Astx = z.b.d = 3074 m2m

Along Z Direction

x = 0.002359 Therefore, Astz = x.b.d = 3074 m2m

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

5.6.4 Comparison

Table 5-6: US verification example 6 comparison STAAD FounReference Value of dation Result Result Effective Depth 415 mm 415 mm Bearing Pressure 119.92 KN/m2 119.96 KN/m2 Resisting force for sliding 472.936 KN 472.945 KN Resisting Moment for Overturning Governing Moment Shear Force(One-Way) Shear Resistance (One-Way) Shear Force(Two-Way) Shear Resistance (Two-Way) Reinf X Reinf Z 472.936 KN 1856.23 KNm 1856.23 KNm 465.48 KNm 465.48 KNm 459.23 KN 459.23 KN 811.18 KN 811.18 KN 1337.2 KN 1374.35 KN 3074 m2m 3074 m2m 472.945 KN 1856.276 KNm 1856.276 KNm 465.48 KNm 465.48 KNm 459.4 KN 459.4 KN 810.737 KN 810.737 KN 1337.28 KN 1372.8 KN 3076.9 m2m 3076.9 m2m Percent Difference None None None Negligible None Negligible Negligible None Negligible Negligible Negligible

5.7.1 Reference 5.7.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Load Fy = -1200 KN, Fx=Fz=5 KN, Mx=Mz=10 KNm. fc = 25 N/m2m, fy = 415 N/m2m, Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm, and Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2. Assume 500 mm soil depth above footing and depth of GWT 200 mm. Assume unit weight of concrete & soil are 25 & 18 KN/cum respectively. Coefficient of friction =0.4, FOS against sliding =1.4, FOS against overturning =1.4

Figure 5-10: Elevation and Plan

5.7.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 1200/120 = 10 m2 Assuming 3500 mm x 3500 mm x 540 mm footing dimension, Weight of footing = 3.5 x 3.5 x 0.54 x 25 = 165.38 KN Weight of soil = (3.5 x 3.5- 0.25 x 0.25) x 0.5 x 18 = 109.69 KN Weight reduction for Buoyancy = 3.5 x 3.5 x (0.54 + 0.5 0.2) x 9.81 = 100.95 KN Surcharge Load = (3.5 x 3.5 0.25 x 0.25) x 5 = 60.94 KN Therefore, total Axial load on the footing = 1435.063 KN Total Moment on the footingMx = 10 + 5x 0.54 = 12.7 KNm Mz = 10 - 5x 0.54 = 7.3 KNm Zx = 3.5x3.52 /6 = 7.1458 cum Zz = 3.5x3.52 /6 = 7.1458 cum Maximum pressure from axial load = 1435.063 /(3.5 x 3.5) = 117.15 KN/m2 Mx/Zx = 12.7 /7.1458 = 1.78 KN/m2 Mz/Zz = 7.3 /7.1458 = 1.03 KN/m2 234 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7 So stress at four corners 1 = P/A-Mx/Zx+Mz/Zz= 116.39 KN/m2 2 = P/A-Mx/Zx-Mz/Zz= 114.35 KN/m2 3 = P/A+Mx/Zx-Mz/Zz = 117.09 KN/m2 4 = P/A+Mx/Zx+Mz/Zz= 119.94 KN/m2 Max stress = 119.94 KN/m2 < 120 KN/m2 (Hence safe)

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning and sliding

Along X Direction

For Sliding Sliding force = 5 KN max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.4 x 1435.063 = 574 KN Hence OK

Along Z Direction

Sliding force = 5 KN max Resisting force = x Total Service load on foundation = 0.4 x 1435.063 = 574 KN Hence OK

For Overturning

About X Direction

Overturning Moment = 12.7 KNm max resisting Moment = 0.5x 3.5 x 1435.063 = 2511.36 KNm FOS= 2511.36/12.7 = 197.75 > 1.4 Hence OK

About Z Direction

Overturning Moment = 7.3 KNm max resisting Moment = 0.5x 3.5 x 1435.063 = 2511.36 KNm FOS= 2511.36/7.3 = 344 > 1.4 Hence OK

Section Design

Fy = -1.4 x 1200 KN = -1680 KN Fx = 1.4 x 5 KN = 7 KN Fz = 1.4 x 5 KN = 7 KN Mx = 1.4 x 10 KNm = 14 KNm Mz = 1.4 x 10 KNm = 14 KNm Modifying Moments due to lateral forces: Mx= 17.78 KNm & Mz= 10.22 KNm D= 540 mm, So deff = 650- 50-25 = 465 mm

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 232.5 from the column face. Effective Depth= 465 mm Punching Shear bc = 1609.9 KN = 1610 KN

Figure 5-11: Corner pressure values on plan for punching shear

Critical perimeter Pm = 2 X ( b + h + 2 x d) = 2860 mm Vm1 = Vmax/(bc .d) = 1.21 N/m2m c = Width of col/depth of col=250/250=1 V1 = (2+4/c)fc.bc.d = 3311.45 KN V2 = (40.d/b+2)fc.bc.d = 4693.15 KN V3 = 4.fc.bc.de=2207.63 KN

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

Along X Direction

Critical Section for shear is at d distance from face of column Average Base pressure at left edge = 134.66 KN/m2 Average Base pressure at right edge = 139.64 KN/m2 Approximate Base pressure at left critical section = 136.311 KN/m2 Approximate Base pressure at right critical section = 137.99 KN/m2

Hence Maximum Shear Force at critical section = 563.589 KN Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 2fc.b.d= 1350.825 KN 0.75.Vc1 = 1013.12 KN So Vumax < 0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe

Along Z Direction

Critical Section for shear is at d distance from face of column Average Base pressure at left edge = 138.59 KN/m2 Average Base pressure at right edge = 135.71 KN/m2 Approximate Base pressure at left critical section = 137.636 KN/m2 Approximate Base pressure at right critical section = 136.665 KN/m2

Figure 5-13: One-way shear pressure values along z-direction

Hence Maximum Shear Force at critical section = 561 KN Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 2fc.b.d = 1350.825 KN 0.75.Vc1 = 1013.12 KN So Vumax < 0.75x Vc1 , Hence Safe

Critical Section for Moment is at the face of column m = fy/0.85.fc = 19.5295 1 = 0.85 (as fc=M 25) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.025729 max = 0.75. bal = 0.019297 min = 0.0018

About Z Axis

Average Base pressure at left edge = 138.59 KN/m2 Average Base pressure at right edge = 135.71 KN/m2 Approximate Base pressure at left critical section = 137.26 KN/m2 Approximate Base pressure at right critical section = 137.05 KN/m2

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.7 US General Isolated Foundation 7

Figure 5-14: Bending pressure about Z axis

So Maximum Bending Moment at Critical Section = 638.54 KNm So Resisting Moment = Mnz = Muz/ = 710 KNm Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.93822 N/m2m 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002313 min < < max Hence OK

About X Axis

Average Base pressure at left edge = 134.66 KN/m2 Average Base pressure at right edge = 139.64 KN/m2 Approximate Base pressure at left critical section = 136.98 KN/m2 Approximate Base pressure at right critical section = 137.33 KN/m2

Figure 5-15: Bending pressure about X axis

So Maximum Bending Moment at Critical Section = 641.93 KNm So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ = 642 KNm

Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.9426 N/m2m 2m.Rn/fy < 1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002325 min < < max Hence OK

Along X Direction

z = 0.002313 Therefore, Astx = z.b.d = 3765 m2m

Along Z Direction

x = 0.002325 Therefore, Astz = x.b.d = 3784 m2m

5.7.4 Comparison

Table 5-7: US Verification problem 9 comparison STAAD FounValue of Reference Result dation Result Effective Depth 540 mm 540 mm Bearing Pressure 116.39 KN/m2 116.397 KN/m2 114.35 KN/m2 117.9 KN/m2 Resisting force for sliding Resisting Moment for Overturning 114.35 KN/m2 117.91 KN/m2 None None Percent Difference None None

119.95 KN/m2 119.95 KN/m2 574.05 KN (Xdir) 574.05 KN (Xdir) 574.05 KN (Zdir 2511 KNm (WRT Z) 2511 KNm (WRT X) 639 KNm 642 KNm 564 KN 561 KN 1610 KN 574.05 KN (Zdir) 2511 KNm (WRT Z) 2511 KNm (WRT X) 638 KNm 642 KNm 564 KN 561 KN 1610 KN

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

5.8.1 Reference 5.8.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 60 Kip each column., fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, Pedestal height-20 inch. and C/C column distance=195 inch . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2 Kip/sqft. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5 Ht of soil =24 inch. Depth of GWT=10 inch

5.8.3 Solution

Figure 5-16: Elevation and Plan

Approximate area of footing required = 2x60/2 sqft = 60 sqft Assuming 275 inch x40 inch x 24 inch footing dimension, ( left overhang=right overhang = 40 inch) Weight of footing = 275 x 40 x 24 x 0.159/123 = 24.3Kip

Weight of pedestal=2 x 12 x 12 x 20 x 0.159 /123 = 0.530 kip Weight of soil above footing = (275 x 40-2x12x12) x 24 x 0.127/123 = 18.9 Kip Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 275 x 40 x (24 +24-10) x 3.61398x10-5 = 15.1Kip Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x60+24.3+18.9- 15.1) = 148.624 Kip Maximum pressure= 148.624 /(275x40) = 0.0136 Ksi = 1.9584 Kip/sqft < 2 Kip/sqft Hence safe Ultimate pressure = 1.4x2x60/(275x40) = 0.015273 Ksi

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

With Respect to Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 275x 148.624 = 20435.8 inkip Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 40x 148.624 = 2972.48 inkip Hence OK

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

Figure 5-17: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Punching Shear

For Column 1

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 10.5 inch from the column face. deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch 2 way shear Vm = 67.37 Kip c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1

bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=132 inch V1 V2 lb fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x132x21 = 1051900 lb fc.bc.d = (40x21/132+2).(4000) x132x21 = 1466284.9

V3= 4.fc.bc.de = 4.(4000) x132x21 = 701266.694 lb Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 701266.694 lb So, 0.75Vc=525.95 Kip Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

For Column 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 10.5 inch from the column face. deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch 2 way shear Vm = 67.37 Kip c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1 bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=132 inch V1 V2 lb fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x132x21 = 1051900 lb fc.bc.d = (40x21/132+2).(4000) x132x21 = 1466284.9

V3 = 4.fc.bc.de = 4.(4000) x132x21 = 701266.694 lb Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 701266.694 lb So, 0.75Vc=525.95 Kip Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Vumax = 43.072 Kip Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 0.75.Vc1=79.69 Kip So Vumax < 0.75xVc1 , Hence Safe = 2x(4000) x40x21 lb =106.252 Kip

About Z Axis (Sagging)

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.8 US General Combined Foundation 1

1 = 0.85 (as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60) Bending moment at critical section Mux = 488.74 inkip deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =543.04 inkip Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.0308 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000516 Hence OK

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 (as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60 Bending moment at critical section Mux = 2414.897 inkip deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =2683.219 inkip Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.1522 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.002597 max Hence OK

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 (as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.021381 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60

Cantilever length=(40-12)/2 = 14 inch Bending moment at critical section Mux = 411.608 inkip deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =457.34 inkip Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.0038 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000064 Hence OK

Reinforcement Calculation

z (top) = 0.002597 z (bot) = 0.0018 x = 0.0018 Therefore, Ast =*b*d Area of Steel Required along X dir ( bot) = 1.512 in2 Area of Steel Required along X dir (top) = 2.18 in2 Area of Steel Required along Z dir ( bot) = 10.395 in2

5.8.4 Comparison

Table 5-8: US verification example 7 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 0.0136 Ksi 0.0135 Ksi Negligible Governing Moment 488.736 461.95 inkip Negligible inkip 2414.41 inkip 2414.897 411 inkip inkip 411.608 inkip 42.73 Kip 66.8 Kip 66.8 Kip 2972.44 inkip 20435.52 inkip 246 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Negligible Negligible

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

5.9.1 Reference 5.9.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 60 Kip, Mz=360 inkip for each column., fc = 4 Ksi, fy = 60 Ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inch x 12 inch, Pedestal height20 inch. and C/C column distance=195 inch . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 2 Kip/sqft. Coefficient of friction =0.5, FOS against sliding =1.5, FOS against overturning =1.5

Figure 5-18: Elevation and Plan

5.9.3 Solution

Approximate area of footing required = 2x60/2 sqft = 60 sqft Assuming 275 inch x44 inch x 24 inch footing dimension, ( left overhang=right overhang = 40 inch) Weight of footing = 275 x 44 x 24 x 0.159/123 = 26.73 Kip Weight of pedestal=2x12x12x20x0.159/123 = 0.530 kip Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x60+26.73 +0.530) Kip = 147.26 Kip Maximum pressure from axial load= P/A = 147.26 /(275x44) = 0.0122 Ksi Mz=360+360=720 Kip Mz=0

Zz= 44x2752/6 = 554583.334 inch3 Mz/Zz = 720/554583.334 =0.0013 Ksi So, stress at left end 1 = P/A + Mz/Zz = 0.0135 Ksi stress at right end 1 = P/A - Mz/Zz = 0.0109 Ksi So maximum stress= 0.0135 Ksi= 1.944 Kip/sqft < 2 Kip/sqft Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

wrt Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 275x 147.26 = 20248.25 inkip Hence OK

Wrt X Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 44x 147.26 = 3239.72 inkip Hence OK

Punching Shear

For Column One

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 10.5 inch from the column face. deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch 2 way shear Vm = 67.48 Kip c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1 bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=132 inch V1 V2 lb fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x132x21 = 1051900 lb fc.bc.d = (40x21/132+2).(4000) x132x21 = 1466284.9

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 701266.694 lb So, 0.75Vc=525.95 Kip Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 10.5 inch from the column face. deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch 2 way shear Vm = 70.28 Kip c=Width of col/depth of col=12/12=1 bc=2.(b+d+2.deff)=132 inch V1 V2 fc.bc.d = (2+4/1).(4000) x132x21 = 1051900 lb fc.bc.d = (40x21/132+2).(4000) x132x21 = 1466284.9 lb

V3 = 4.fc.bc.de = 4.(4000) x132x21 = 701266.694 lb Vc= min{V1, V2, V3} = 701266.694 lb So, 0.75Vc=525.95 Kip Vm< 0.75xVc , Hence safe

Vumax = 47.126 Kip Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 0.75.Vc1=87.66 Kip So Vumax < 0.75xVc1 , Hence Safe = 2x(4000) x44x21 lb =116.877 Kip

About Z Axis (sagging)

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 (as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.0214 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60) Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 791 inkip deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =879 inkip

Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.0453 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000761 Hence OK

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 (as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.0214 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60 Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 2440 inkip deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch = 0.9 So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =2711.1967 inkip Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.1398 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.00238 max Hence OK

About X Axis

m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 (as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.0214 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60 Cantilever length=(40-12)/2 = 14 inch Bending moment at critical section, Mux = 0.013885x275x16 2/2 =552.82 inkip deff = (24-2-1) inch = 21 inch So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =614.24 inkip Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.0051 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000086 Hence OK

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.9 US General Combined Foundation 2

Reinforcement Calculation

z (bot) = 0.0018 z (top) = 0.00238 x(bot) = 0.0018 Therefore, Ast = *b*d

Area of Steel Required along X dir ( bot)= 1.7 in2 Area of Steel Required along X dir (top) = 2.2 in2 Area of Steel Required along Z dir ( bot) = 10.4 in2

Figure 5-19: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

5.9.4 Comparison

Table 5-9: US verification example 8 comparison STAAD Percent DifValue of Reference Result Foundation ference Result Bearing Pressure 0.0135 Ksi 0.0135 Ksi None Governing Moment 0.0109 Ksi 791 inkip 2440 inkip 552.82 inkip Shear Force(One-Way) 47.126 Kip Shear Force(Two-Way) 67.48 Kip Resisting Moment for Overturning 70.28 Kip 3239.72 inkip 20248.25 inkip 0.0109 Ksi 830 inkip 2439.66 inkip 534 inkip 46.8 Kip 66.91 Kip 69.81 Kip 3239.518 inkip 20246.985 inkip Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible

5.10.1 Reference 5.10.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = 1500 KN on each column., Concrete Grade = M 25, Steel Grade Fe 415, Column Dimension = 250 mm x250 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm each. and C/C column distance=5000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2., FOS against overturning =1.4 Ht of soil =500 mm. Depth of GWT=200 mm

5.10.3 Solution

Figure 5-20: Elevation and Plan

Approximate area of footing required = 2x1500/120 = 25 m2 Assuming 7000 mm 4500 mm x 840 mm footing dimension, ( left overhang=right overhang = 1000 mm) Weight of footing = 7 x 4.5 x 0.84 x 25 = 661.5 KN Weight of pedestal=2 x 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 = 1.5625 KN Weight of soil above footing = (7 x 4.5- 0.25 x0.25 x 2) x 0.5 x 18 = 282.375 KN Reduction of Weight due to buoyancy = 7 x 4.5 x (0.84+0.5-0.2) x 9.81 = 352.277 KN Surcharge = (7 x 4.5 -0.25 x0.25 x2) x 5 = 156.875 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x1500+661.5 +1.5625 - 352.277 +156.875) = 3750.04 KN Maximum pressure= 3750.04 /(7 x 4.5) = 119.05 KN/m 2 =119.05 KN/m 2 120 KN/m 2 Hence safe

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

With Respect to Z Direction

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 7x 3750 = 13125 KNm Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 4.5 x 3750 = 8437.5 KNm Hence OK

Ultimate design

Ultimate pressure = 1.4 x 2 x1500/(7 x 4.5) = 133.33 KN/m2 Deff = 784 mm

Figure 5-21: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Punching Shear

For Column 1

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 392 mm from the column face. Verification Manual 255

c

b = 2(b + d + 2d ) = 4136 mm

c eff

1 c c c

2 3

c

V = min(V , V , V ) = 5382.76 KN

c 1 2 3

c

For Column 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 392 mm from the column face. 2 way shear Vm = 1957.5 KN = Width of col/depth of col=250/250 = 1

c

b = 2(b + d + 2d ) = 4136 mm

c eff

1 c c c

2 3 c

V = 4f b d = 5382.76 KN

c c e 1

V = min(V , V , V ) = 5382.76 KN

c 2 3

c

Vumax = 954 KN Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 2 fcbd = 2928 KN 0.75Vc1 = 2196 KN So Vumax < 0.75Vc1 , Hence Safe

m=fy/0.85.fc=415/(0.85x25) = 19.5295 1 = 0.85 (as fc=25 N/m2m) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.025729 max = 0.75. bal = 0.019297 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=415 N/m2m)

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.10 US General Combined Foundation 3

Bending moment at critical section Muz = 300.54 KNm So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =333.93 KNm Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.1208 N/m2m 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.000292 <max Hence OK Take = min = 0.0018 Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section Muz = 1574.8 KNm So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =1749.8 KNm Rn = Mnz/b.d2 = 0.6327 N/m 2m 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.001548 <max Hence OK Take = min = 0.0018 Hence OK

Cantilever length = (4500 - 250)/2 = 2125 mm Bending moment at critical section Mux = 2107.4 KNm So Resisting Moment =Mnx= Mux/ =2341.55 KNm Rn = Mnx/b.d2 = 0.762 N/m 2m 2m.Rn/fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.001871 < max Hence OK

Reinforcement Calculation

z (top) = 0.0018 z (bot) = 0.0018 x = 0.001871

Chapter 5 5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4 Therefore, Ast =bd Area of Steel Required along X dir ( bot) = 6350 mm2 Area of Steel Required along X dir (top) = 6350 mm2 Area of Steel Required along Z dir ( bot) = 10268 mm2

5.10.4 Comparison

Table 5-10: US verification example 7 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 119.05 119.05 None (KN/m2) Governing Moment 300.54 293.97 Negligible (KNm) 1574.82 1574.60 Shear Force, OneWay (KN) Shear Force, TwoWay (KN) 2107.4 954.8 1957.4 1957.4 2107.4 43.07 Kip 1957.4 1957.4 Negligible None

5.11.1 Reference 5.11.2 Problem

Design a combined footing with the given data: Load Fy = -1200 KN & Fx= 10 KN on each column., Concrete Grade = M 25, Steel Grade Fe 415, Column Dimension = 250 mm x250 mm, Pedestal height-500 mm each. and C/C column distance=5000 mm . Bearing Capacity of Soil = 120 KN/m2., FOS against overturning =1.4

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

5.11.3 Solution

Figure 5-22: Elevation and Plan

Approximate area of footing required = 2x1200/120 = 20 m2 Assuming 7000 mm 3250 mm x 530 mm footing dimension, ( left overhang=right overhang = 1000 mm) Weight of footing = 7 x 3.25 x 0.53 x 25 = 301.44 KN Weight of pedestal=2 x 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 = 1.5625 KN Therefore, total load on the footing = (2x1200+301.44 +1.5625) = 2703 KN Mz1 = -10 x (0.5+0.53) = -10.3 KNm Mz2 = -10 x (0.5+0.53) = -10.3 KNm Maximum pressure from axial load= 2703/(7 x3.25) = 118.813 KN/ m2 Total Moment = -10.3 + -10.3 = -20.6 KNm CG of load= 3.5085 m CG of raft = 3.5 m Eccentricity =-8.5833 mm

So Moment= P x Eccentricity = -20.6 KNm Hence OK Zz= 3.25 x 72/6 = 26.542 m3 So M/Z = -0.78 KN/m2 So stress at left end= P/A - M/Z= 118.04 KN/m2 So stress at right end= P/A + M/Z= 119.6 KN/m2 Maximum pressure =119.6 KN/m2 120 KN/m2 Hence safe

Critical load case and the governing factor of safety for overturning

With Respect to Z Direction

Overturning Moment =20.6 KNm max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 7x 2703 = 9460 KNm So FOS= 9460/20.6 = 459.25 >1.4 Hence OK

Overturning Moment =0 max resisting Moment = 0.5 x 3.25x 2703 = 4392.4 KNm Hence OK

Ultimate design

Ultimate pressure from axial load = 1.4 x 2 x1200/(7 x 3.25) = 147.692 KN/m2 Mz1 = 1.4x-10 x90.5+0.53) = -14.42 KNm Mz2 = 1.4x-10 x90.5+0.53) = -14.42 KNm Total Moment = -14.42 + -14.42 = -28.84 KNm CG of load= 3.5085 m CG of raft = 3.5 m Eccentricity =-8.5833 mm So Moment= P x Eccentricity = -28.84 KNm (Hence OK) Zz= 3.25 x 72/6 = 26.542 m3 So M/Z = -1.09 KN/m2 So stress at left end= P/A - M/Z= 146.61 KN/m2

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

Figure 5-23: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams

Punching Shear

For Column 1

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 392 mm from the column face. Two way shear, V

m

= 1602.987 KN

c

b = 2(b + d + 2d ) = 2896 mm

c eff

1 c c c

2 3 c c

V = 4.(f )b d = 2278.69 KN

c c e 2

V = min(V , V , V ) = 2278.69 KN

c 1 3

c

For Column 2

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d = 392 mm from the column face. Two way shear, V

c m

= 1602.17 KN

c eff

1 c c c

2 3 c c

V = 4.(f )b d = 2278.69 KN

c c e 2

V = min(V , V , V ) = 2278.69 KN

c 1 3

c

Vumax = 916.99 KN Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 2 (fc)bd = 1278 KN 0.75Vc1 = 958.96 KN So Vumax < 0.75Vc1 , Hence Safe

m = fy/0.85fc=415/(0.85x25) = 19.53 1 = 0.85 (as fc = 25 N/mm2) bal = 0.851fc87/fy(87 + fy) = 0.025729 max = 0.75bal = 0.0193 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=415 N/mm2)

Bending moment at critical section 262 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.11 US General Combined Foundation 4

uz

= 238.94 KNm

So Resisting Moment = Mnz= Muz/ = 265.5 KNm Rn = Mnz/bd2 =0.3636 N/mm2 2mRn /fy <1 , Hence OK = 1/m (1-1-2mRn /fy) = 0.000884 <max Hence OK Take = min = 0.0018 Hence OK

Bending moment at critical section M

uz

= 1259.84KNm

n nz

n y

min

max

= 0.0018

Cantilever length = (3250-250)/2 = 1500 mm Bending moment at critical section M

ux

= 1163 KNm

n nz

n y

max

Reinforcement Calculation

z (top) = 0.0018 z (bot) = 0.0018 x = 0.004 Therefore, Ast =bd

Area of Steel Required along X dir ( bot) = 2773 mm2 Area of Steel Required along X dir (top) = 7472 mm2 Area of Steel Required along Z dir ( bot) = 13256 mm2

5.11.4 Comparison

Table 5-11: US verification example 7 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Bearing Pressure 119.6 119.6 None (KN/m2) 118.04 118.04 Governing Moment 239 237 Negligible (KNm) 1260 1260 Shear Force, OneWay (KN) Shear Force, TwoWay (KN) 1163 917 1602.99 1602.17 1169 917 1602.99 1602.18 None None

5.12.1 Reference 5.12.2 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 330 kip, fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, Column Dimension = 12 in x 12 in. Pedestal ht= 20 in. Dia of pile= 18 in Vertical capacity = 65 kip Horizontal capacity = 20 kip Uplift capacity = 15 kip

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Figure 5-24: Elevation and Plan

5.12.3 Solution

Depth of pilecap= 1.5 x pile diameter, D = 27 in. Take D = 31 in. c/c pile distance = 3 x pile diameter =54 mm Edge distance =18 inch Assuming 6 pile combination, coordinates of piles(considering pedestal at 0,0,0):

Chapter 5 5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1 Table 5-12: Pile Coordinates in Plan Pile X CoorZ CoorNo dinate (in) dinate (in) 1 -54 -27 2 -54 27 3 0 -27 4 0 27 5 54 -27 6 54 27 Pilecap Length = 2(54)+2(18) = 144 inch Pilecap Width = 54+2(18) = 90 inch pilecap dimension is 144 inch x90 inch x 31 inch Weight of footing = 144 x 90 x 31 x 0.16/123 = 37.2 kip Weight of pedestal = 12 x 12 x 20 x 0.16 /123 = 0.267 kip Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (330+37.2 +0.267) =367.467 kip So Pile reaction = 367.467 /6= 61.244 kip < 65 kip Hence OK As there is no lateral load , moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift capacity.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken = 1 Load factor for axial load is taken = 1.4 So, Load on pilecap = 1.4(330) + 1(37.2)+0 1(.267) = 499.467 Load on each pile =499.467/6=83.245 kip

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Punching Shear

Figure 5-25: Section considered for punching shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =13inch from the column face. Contribution from pile 1 = from pile2 = from pile5 = from pile 6 = 83.245 kip Contribution from pile 3 = from pile4 = 0.944 x 83.245 = 78.58 kip So total punching shear Vm= 490.14 kip Pm = 4(12+13+13) =152 inch = L/B =12/12 =1 V1= (2 +4/ c)(fc)bcd = (2+4/1)(4000)15226 =1499.6(10)3 lb V2 = (40d/b +2)(fc)bcd = (4026/152 + 2)(4000)15226 = 2210(10)3 lb V3= 4.(fc)bcde = 4(4000)15226= 999.78(10)3 lb Vc = min(V1, V2, V3) = 999.78 kip So, 0.75Vc = 749.8 kip Vm< 0.75Vc , Hence safe

Corner piles are 1,2,5,6

Chapter 5 5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1 Each pile is taking reaction 83.245 kip d critical = 5.486 inch Effective depth = 26 inch d critical< Effective depth, Hence Safe

Calculation of Shear

Parallel to X Axis

For shear wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1 =pile2=83.245 Kip Contribution from pile 3,4,5,6 =0 Kip So Total V X1X1 = 166.49 Kip For shear wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile 5 =pile6=83.245 Kip Contribution from pile 1,2,3,4 =0 Kip So Total V X2X2 = 166.49 Kip So V parallel to X direction = 166.49 Kip Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc)bcd =2(4000)9026 lb =295.99(10)3 lb 0.75Vc1=222 Kip V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Parallel to Z Axis

For shear wrt Z1Z1 Contribution from pile 1 =pile 6 =pile 7 =83.245 x0.222=18.498 Kip Contribution from pile 2 =pile 4 =pile 6 =0 Kip So Total V Z1Z1 = 55.5 Kip For shear wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2 =pile 4 =pile 6 =83.245 x0.167=18.498 Kip Contribution from pile 1 =pile 3 =pile 5 =0 Kip So Total V Z2Z2 = 55.5 Kip So V parallel to Z direction = 55.5 Kip Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc)bcd =2(4000)9026 lb =295.99(10)3 lb 0.75Vc1 = 222 Kip V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.12 US Pilecap Foundation 1

Calculation of Moment

For either direction: m = f /0.85f = 60/(0.854) = 17.65

y c

= 0.85 (as f = 4)

1 c

bal

1 c y y

max min

= 0.75

bal

= 0.02138

y

= 0.0018 ( as f = 60 Ksi)

Calculation of MzFor moment wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1=from pile2=83.245 x 48=3995.76 inkip Contribution from pile 3=from pile 4=12 inkip Contribution from pile 5,6=0 inkip So Total Mz X1X1 = 8014 inkip = 670 ftkip For moment wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile 5=from pile6=83.245 x 48=3995.76 inkip Contribution from pile 3=from pile 4=12 inkip

Contribution from pile 5,6=0 inkip So Total Mz X2X2 = 8014 inkip = 670 ftkip So Resisting Moment = Mnz= Muz/ = 744.44 ftkip Rn = Mnz/bd2 = 0.147 Ksi 2mRn /fy = 0.0864 <1 , Hence OK = 1/m (1-1-2mRn /fy) = 0.0025 min < < max , Hence OK

Calculation of MxFor moment wrt Z1Z1 Contribution from pile 1=from pile 3=from pile 5= 83.245 x 21=1748.145 inkip So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 437 ftkip For moment wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2=from pile 4=from pile 6= 83.245 x 21=1748.145 inkip So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 437 ftkip So Max value of MX = 437 ftkip So Resisting Moment = Mnx = Mxux / = 485.55 ftkip Rn = Mnz/bd2 = 0.06 Ksi 2mRn /fy = 0.035 <1 , Hence OK = 1/m (1-1-2mRn /fy) = 0.001 So = min =0.0018 < max ,Hence OK

Along X Direction

= 0.0025 b = 90 in, d=26 in Therefore, Astx = 5.85 in2

Along Z Direction

= 0.0018

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

5.12.4 Comparison

Table 5-13: US verification example 10 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Pile Reaction (kip) 83.245 83.244 None Governing Moment 670 718 15% (ftkip) 437 502.6 Shear Force, One-Way 166.49 166.49 None (kip) 55.5 55.5 Shear Force, Two-Way 490.14 490.217 Negligible (kip)

5.13.1 Reference 5.13.2 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 150 kip, Mx= 50 ftkip. fc = 4 ksi, fy = 60 ksi, Column Dimension = 12 inchx12 inch. Pedestal ht= 20 inch Pile Data- Dia of pile= 18 inch Vertical capacity = 65 kip, Horizontal capacity = 20 kip Uplift capacity = 15 kip

Figure 5-26: Elevation and Plan

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

5.13.3 Solution

depth of pilecap= 1.5xpiledia, D=27 inch Take D=27 inch c/c pile diatance = 3xpile dia =54 mm. Edge diatance =18 inch Assume a 4 pile combination. Coordinates of piles; considering pedestal at 0,0,0 Table 5-14: Pile Coordinates in Plan Pile X CoorZCoordinate No dinate (in) (in) 1 -27 -27 2 -27 27 3 27 27 4 27 -27 Pilecap Length = 54+2x18 = 90 inch Pilecap Width = 54+2x18 = 90 inch pilecap dimension is 90 inch x90 inch x 27 inch Weight of footing = 90 x 90 x 27 x 0.16/123 = 20.25 kip Weight of pedestal = 12 x 12 x 20 x 0.16 /123 = 0.267 kip Therefore, total load on the pilecap = (150+20.25 +0.267) =170.517 kip So Pile reaction from axial load = 170.517 /4= 42.629 kip Moment Mx ( from input) = 50 ftkip =600 inkip Using Rivet theoryReaction from moment= +/- 600x0.27/(4x272) = +/-5.55 Kip So, Reaction at Pile 2= reaction at pile 3 = 42.629 +5.55 = 48.185 Kip Reaction at Pile 1= reaction at pile 4 = 42.629 -5.55 = 37.085Kip So Critical vertical reaction= 48.185 Kip < 65 kip As there is no net uplift/lateral load, so each pile is safe in uplift & lateral capacity.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken =1 Load factor for axial load is taken 1.4 So, Axial Load on pilecap = 1.4x150+20.25 x1+0.267x1= 230.517 Kip Moment on pilecap = 1.4x50 ftkip = 840 inkip Load on each pile from axial reaction =230.517 /4=57.629 Kip Reaction from moment= +/- 840x27/(4x272) = +/-7.78 Kip Verification Manual 273

Chapter 5 5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2 So, Reaction at Pile 2= reaction at pile 3 = 57.629 +7.78 = 65.409 Kip Reaction at Pile 1= reaction at pile 4 = 57.629 -7.78 = 49.849 Kip

Punching Shear

Figure 5-27: Section considered for two-way shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =11.5 inch from the column face. Contribution from pile 1=from pile 4= 49.849 Kip Contribution from pile 2=from pile 3= 65.409 Kip So total punching shear Vm= 230.516 kip Pm = 4x(12+11+11) =136 inch =L/B =12/12 =1

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

V1

V2 = 1602.9 x 1000 lb

V3 = 4.fc.bc.de = 4.(4000) x 136 x 22= 756.9 x 1000 lb Vc = min{V1, V2, V3} = 756.9 kip So, 0.75Vc = 567.7 Kip Vm< 0.75.Vc , Hence safe

Corner piles are 1,2,3,4 Pile 1/4 are taking reaction 49.849 Kip & Pile 2/3 are taking reaction 65.409 Kip d critical = 4.46 inch Effective depth = 22 inch d critical< Effective depth, Hence Safe

Calculation of Shear

Figure 5-28: Section considered for one-way shear

Parallel to X Axis

For shear wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1 =49.849 x 0.444=22.155 Kip Contribution from pile 2 =65.409 x 0.444=29.04 Kip Contribution from pile 3,4 =0 KN So Total V X1X1 = 51.195 Kip For shear wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile 4 =49.849 x 0.444=22.155 Kip Contribution from pile 3 =65.409 x 0.444=29.04 Kip Contribution from pile 1,2 =0 KN So Total V X2X2 = 51.195 Kip

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2

So V parallel to X direction = 51.195 Kip Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 1000 lb 0.75.Vc1=187.84 Kip V < Vc1, Hence Safe = 2x(4000) x 90 x 22 lb = 250.4 x

Parallel to Z Axis

For shear wrt Z1Z1 Contribution from pile 1 =49.849 x 0.444=22.155 Kip Contribution from pile 4 =49.849 x 0.444=22.155 Kip Contribution from pile 2,3 =0 KN So Total V Z1Z1 = 44.31 Kip For shear wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2 =65.409 x 0.444=29.04 Kip Contribution from pile 3 =65.409 x 0.444=29.04 Kip Contribution from pile 1,4 =0 KN So Total V Z2Z2 = 58.08 Kip So V parallel to Z direction = 58.08 kip Now allowable shear = Vc1 = 1000 lb 0.75.Vc1 = 187.8 Kip V < Vc1, Hence Safe = 2x(4000) x 90 x 22 lb = 250.4 x

Calculation of Moment

Figure 5-29: Section considered for bending

About Z Axis

Calculation of MzFor moment wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1=49.849 x21/12=87.24 ftkip Contribution from pile 4=65.409 x21/12=114.46 ftkip Contribution from pile 3,4=0 inkip So Total Mz X1X1 = 207.1 ftkip For moment wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile 4=49.849 x21/12=87.24 ftkip

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.13 US Pilecap Foundation 2 Contribution from pile 3=65.409 x21/12=114.46 ftkip Contribution from pile 1,2=0 inkip So Total Mz X2X2 = 207.1 ftkip So max Mz = 207.1 ftkip So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =224.11 ftkip m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60) Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.0617 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy = 0.0363 <1 , Hence OK = 1/m. (1-1-2m.Rn/fy) = 0.001 So, =min = 0.0018 < max Hence OK

About X Axis

Calculation of MxFor moment wrt Z1Z1 Contribution from pile 1=from pile 4=49.849 x 21/12=87.24 ftkip Contribution from pile 2=from pile 3=0 ftkip So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 174.47 ftkip For moment wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2=from pile 3=65.409 x 21/12=114.465 ftkip Contribution from pile 1=from pile 4=0 ftkip So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 228.93 ftkip So Max value of MX = 228.93 ftkip So Resisting Moment =Mnz= Muz/ =254.37 ftkip m=fy/0.85.fc=60/(0.85x4) = 17.6471 1 = 0.85 ( as fc=4) bal = 0.85.1.fc.87/fy.(87+fy) = 0.028507 max = 0.75. bal = 0.02138 min = 0.0018 ( as fy=60 Rn = Mnz/b.d2 =0.07 Ksi 2m.Rn/fy = 0.0412 <1 , Hence OK

Along X Direction

= 0.0018 b= 90 inch , d=22 inch Therefore, Astx = 3.6 in2

Along Z Direction

= 0.0018 b= 90 inch , d=22 inch Therefore, AstZ = 3.6 in2

5.13.4 Comparison

Table 5-15: US verification example 11 comparison STAAD FounPercent DifValue of Reference Result dation ference Result Pile Reaction 49.849 Kip 49.851 Kip None 65.409 Kip 65.407 Kip Governing 207.1 ftkip 228.93 219.654 ftkip Moment ftkip 294.254 ftkip Shear Force(One- 51.195 Kip 58.08 51.226 Kip Way) Kip 58.14 Kip Shear Force(Two- 230.516 kip 230.517 kip Way) Negligible None None

5.14.1 Reference 5.14.2 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = 1000 KN, fc = M 25, fy = Fe 415 Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm, Pedestal ht= 500 mm

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

Dia of pile= 300 mm Vertical capacity = 250 KN Horizontal capacity = 50 KN Uplift capacity = 100 KN

Figure 5-30: Elevation and Plan

5.14.3 Solution

Depth of pilecap= 1.5 x pile diameter, D = 450 mm Take D = 655 mm c/c pile distance = 3 x pile diameter =1200 mm Edge distance =350 mm Assuming five pile combination, coordinates of piles(considering pedestal at 0,0,0): Table 5-16: Pile Coordinates in Plan Pile X Coordinate Z Coordinate No (mm) (mm) 1 -848.528 -848.528 2 -848.528 848.528 3 0 0 4 848.528 -848.528 5 848.528 848.528

Pilecap Length = 2(850)+2(350) = 2400 mm Pilecap Width = 2(850)+2(350) = 2400 mm pilecap dimension is 2400 mm x 2400 mm x 740 mm Weight of footing = 2.4 x 2.4 x 0.74 x 25 = 106.56 KN Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 = 0.78 KN Therefore, total load on the pilecap= (1000+106.56 +0.78) =1107.34 KN So Pile reaction = 1107.34 /5 = 221.47 KN < 250 KN Hence OK As there is no lateral load , moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift capacity.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken = 1 Load factor for axial load is taken = 1.4 So, Load on pilecap = 1.4(1000) + 1(106.56)+0 1(0.78) = 1507.34 KN Load on each pile = 1507.34/5 = 301.468 KN deff = 740 - 50 - 50 - 25 = 615 mm

Punching Shear

Figure 5-31: Section considered for punching shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =307.5 mm from the column face. Contribution from pile 1 = from pile2 = from pile4 = from pile 5 = 301.468 KN Contribution from pile 3 = 0 KN So total punching shear Vm= 1205.9 KN Pm = 4(250 + 307.5 + 307.5) =3460 mm = L/B = 250/250 = 1

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

V1= (2 +4/ c)(fc)bcd = 5298.5 KN V2 = (40d/b +2)(fc)bcd = 5530.9 KN V3= 4.(fc)bcde = 3532 KN Vc = min(V1, V2, V3) = 3532 KN So, 0.75Vc =2649 KN Vm< 0.75Vc , Hence safe

Corner piles are 1, 2, 4, & 5 Each pile is taking reaction 301.47 KN B1 = 1418.27 mm & B2 =2025 mm d1 = 151 mm d2 = 211 mm d critical =212 mm Effective depth = 615 mm d critical < Effective depth, Hence Safe

Calculation of Shear

Figure 5-32: Section considered for one-way shear

Parallel to X Axis

Shear Plane is at a distance d (615 mm from face of column) For shear wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 0.8667 x 301.47 = 261.27 KN Contribution from pile 3,4,5 =0 KN So Total V X1X1 = 522.548 KN Verification Manual 283

Chapter 5 5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3 For shear wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile 4 = pile 5 = 0.8667 x 301.47=261.27 KN Contribution from pile 3,2,1 =0 KN So, Total V X2X2 = 522.548 KN Shear, V, parallel to X direction = 522.548 KN Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc)bcd = 1225 KN 0.75Vc1= 918.8 KN V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Parallel to Z Axis

For shear wrt Z1Z1 Contribution from pile 1 =pile 4 = 0.8667 x 301.47 = 261.27 KN Contribution from pile 2 = pile 3 = pile 5 = 0 KN So Total V Z1Z1 = 522.548 KN For shear wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2 = pile 5 = 0.8667 x 301.47 = 261.27 KN Contribution from pile 1 = pile 3 = pile 4 =0 KN So Total V Z2Z2 = 522.548 KN Shear, V, parallel to Z direction = 522.548 KN Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc)bcd = 1225 KN 0.75Vc1= 918.8 KN V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Calculation of Moment

For either direction: m = f /0.85f = 415/(0.8525) = 19.529

y c

1 c

bal

1 c y y

max min

= 0.75

bal

= 0.019297

y

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.14 US Pilecap Foundation 3

Figure 5-33: Section considered for moment

Calculation of MzFor moment wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 301.47 x 0.725 = 218.56 KNm Contribution from pile 3 = 0.083 x 301.47 x 0.0083 = 0.21 KNm Contribution from pile 4= pile 5 = 0 KNm So Total Mz X1X1 = 437.34 KNm = 440 KNm For moment wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile 4 = pile 5 = 301.47 x 0.725 = 218.56 KNm Contribution from pile 3 = 0.083 x 301.47 x 0.0083 = 0.21 KNm Contribution from pile 4 = pile 5 =0 KNm So Total Mz X2X2 = 437.34 KNm = 440 KNm So Resisting Moment = Mnz= Muz/ = 488.89 KNm = 490 KNm Rn = Mnz/bd2 = 0.5398 N/mm2 2mRn /fy = 0.0508 <1 , Hence OK = 1/m (1-1-2mRn /fy) =0.00132 = min =0.0018 < max , Hence OK

Calculation of MxFor moment wrt Z1Z1 Contribution from pile 1= pile 4 = 301.47 x 0.725 = 218.56 KNm Contribution from pile 3=0.083 x 301.47 x 0.0083 = 0.21 KNm Verification Manual 285

Contribution from pile 2 = pile 5 = 0 KNm So Total Mx Z1Z1 = 437.34 KNm = 440 KNm For moment wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2= pile 5 = 301.47 x 0.725 = 218.56 KNm Contribution from pile 3 = 0.083 x 301.47 x 0.0083 = 0.21 KNm Contribution from pile 1 = pile 4 = 0 KNm So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 437.34 KNm = 440 KNm So Max value of MX = 440 KNm So Resisting Moment = Mnx = Mxux / = 488.89 KNm =490 KNm Rn = Mnz/bd2 = 0.5398 N/mm2 2mRn /fy = 0.0508 <1 , Hence OK = 1/m (1-1-2mRn /fy) = 0.00132 So = min =0.0018 < max ,Hence OK

Along X Direction

= 0.0018 b = 2400 mm, d = 615 mm Therefore, Astx = 2657 mm2

Along Z Direction

= 0.0018 b = 2400 mm, d = 615 mm Therefore, Astz = 2657 mm2

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

5.14.4 Comparison

Table 5-17: US verification example 11 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Pile Reaction, Service 221.5 221.4 Negligible (KN) Pile Reaction, Ulti301.5 301.4 Negligible mate (KN) Governing Moment 489 485 Negligible (KNm) 489 485 Shear Force, One-Way 523 520 Negligible (KN) 523 520 Shear Force, Two-Way 1206 1206 None (KN)

5.15.1 Reference 5.15.2 Problem

Design pilecap foundation with the given data: Load Fy = -1200 KN &Mz = 100 KNm, fc = M 25, fy = Fe 415 Column Dimension = 250 mm x 250 mm, Pedestal ht= 500 mm Dia of pile= 300 mm Vertical capacity = 250 KN Horizontal capacity = 50 KN Uplift capacity = 50 KN

Figure 5-34: Elevation and Plan

5.15.3 Solution

Depth of pilecap= 1.5 x pile diameter, D = 450 mm Take D = 780 mm c/c pile distance = 3 x pile diameter = 900 mm Edge distance =350 mm Assuming six pile combination, coordinates of piles(considering pedestal at 0,0,0):

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4 Table 5-18: Pile Coordinates in Plan Pile X Coordinate Z Coordinate No (mm) (mm) 1 -900 -450 2 -900 450 3 0 -450 4 0 450 5 900 -450 6 900 450 Pilecap Length =2(900) + 2(350) = 2500 mm Pilecap Width = 900 + 2(350) = 1600 mm pilecap dimension is 2500 mm x 1600 mm x 780 mm Weight of footing = 2.5 x 1.6 x 0.78 x 25 = 78 KN Weight of pedestal = 0.25 x 0.25 x 0.5 x 25 = 0.78 KN Therefore, total load on the pilecap = 1200 + 78 + 0.78 = 1278.78 KN So Pile reaction from axial load = 1278.78/6= 213.13 KN So Pile reaction at Pile1 /Pile 2 = 213.13 +1000.9/(40.90.9) = 240.91 KN So Pile reaction at Pile3 /Pile 4 = 213.13 KN So Pile reaction at Pile5 /Pile 6 = 213.13 - 1000.9/(40.90.9) = 185.35 KN So Critical Pile reaction = 240.91 KN < 250 KN Hence OK As there is no lateral load , moment or uplift force, so each pile is safe in lateral & uplift capacity. Similarly, as there is no tension pile case so each pile is safe again uplift.

Factored Design

Load factor for self wt is taken = 1 Load factor for axial load is taken = 1.4 So, Load on pilecap = 1.4(1200) + 1(78) + 1(0.78) = 1758.78 KN So Pile reaction from axial load = 1758.78/6 = 293.13 KN Moment (Mz) = 1.4(100) = 140 KNm So Pile reaction at Pile 1 /Pile 2 = 293.13 + 1400.9/(40.90.9) = 332.02 KN So Pile reaction at Pile 3 /Pile 4 = 293.13 KN So Pile reaction at Pile 5 /Pile 6 = 293.13 -1400.9/(40.90.9) = 254.24 KN deff = 780 - 50 - 50 - 25 = 655 mm

Punching Shear

Punching shear is checked on a perimeter 0.5d =327.5 mm from the column face.

Figure 5-35: Section considered for punching shear

Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 1(332.02) =332.02 KN Contribution from pile 3 = pile 4= 0.492(293.13) = 144.22 KN Contribution from pile 5 = pile 6 = 1(254.24) = 254.24 KN So total punching shear Vm= 2(333.02 + 144.22 + 254.24) = 1462.96 KN Pm = 4(250 + 327.5 + 327.5) = 3620 mm = L/B = 250/250 = 1 V1= (2 +4/ c)(fc)bcd = 5904 KN V2 = (40d/b +2)(fc)bcd = 9090 KN V3= 4.(fc)bcde = 3936 KN Vc = min(V1, V2, V3) = 3936 KN So, 0.75Vc = 2952 KN Vm< 0.75Vc , Hence safe

Corner piles are 1, 2, 5, & 6 Critical Pile 1 & 2 with axial Reaction 333.02 KN B1 = 1450 mm & B2 =2105 mm d1 = 163 mm d2 = 225 mm d critical =225 mm

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

Calculation of Shear

Figure 5-36: Section considered for one-way shear

Parallel to X Axis

Shear Plane is at a distance d (655 mm from face of column) For shear wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 =0.9x 333.03 = 299.72 KN Contribution from piles 3, 4, 5, &6 =0 KN So Total V X1X1 = = 2(299.72) KN= 599.4 KN For shear wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile 5 = pile 6 = 0.9(254.24) = 228.82 KN Contribution from piles 1, 2, 3, &4 = 0 KN So, Total V X2X2 = 2(228.82) = 457.63 KN Shear, V, parallel to X direction = 599.4 KN

Now allowable shear = Vc1 =2(fc)bcd = 869.8 KN 0.75Vc1= 652 KN V < Vc1, Hence Safe

Parallel to Z Axis

For shear wrt Z1Z1 Contribution from all piles = 0 KN So Total V Z1Z1 = 0 KN For shear wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from all piles =0 KN So Total V Z2Z2 = 0 KN Shear, V, parallel to Z direction = 0 KN No shear parallel to the Z axis, Hence Safe

Calculation of Moment

For either direction: m = f /0.85f = 415/(0.8525) = 19.529

y c

1 c

bal

1 c y y

max min

= 0.75

bal

= 0.019297

y

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.15 US Pilecap Foundation 4

Figure 5-37: Section considered for moment

Calculation of Mz For moment wrt X1X1 Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 = 333.02(0.775)= 258.1 KNm Contribution from pile 3 = pile 4 = 0.083(293.130.0083) = 0.2 KNm Contribution from pile 5 = pile 6 = 0 KNm So Total Mz X1X1 = 516.6 KNm = 520 KNm For moment wrt X2X2 Contribution from pile 5 = pile 6 = 254.24(0.775) = 197 KNm Contribution from pile 3 = pile 4 = 0.083(293.130.0083) = 0.2 KNm Contribution from pile 1 = pile 2 =0 KNm So Total Mz X2X2 = 394.4 KNm = 395 KNm So Critical value of Mz =520 KNm So Resisting Moment = Mnz= Muz/ = 577.78 KNm = 580 KNm Rn = Mnz/bd2 = 0.845 N/mm2 2mRn /fy = 0.0795 <1 , Hence OK = 1/m (1-1-2mRn /fy) = 0.002 = min =0.0018 min < < max , Hence OK

Calculation of Mx For moment wrt Z1Z1 Contribution from pile 1 = 332.02(0.325) = 107.9 KNm Contribution from pile 3 = 293.13(0.325) = 95.27 KNm Contribution from pile 5 = 254.24(0.325) = 82.63 KNm Contribution from piles 2, 4, &6 = 0 KNm So Total Mx Z1Z1 =285.8 KNm = 286 KNm For moment wrt Z2Z2 Contribution from pile 2 = 332.02(0.325) = 107.9 KNm Contribution from pile 4 = 293.13(0.325) = 95.27 KNm Contribution from pile 6 = 254.24(0.325)= 82.63 KNm Contribution from piles 1, 3, & 5 = 0 KNm So Total Mx Z2Z2 = 285.8 KNm = 286 KNm So Max value of Mx = 286 KNm So Resisting Moment = Mnx = Mxux / = 317.78 KNm =318 KNm Rn = Mnz/bd2 = 0.2964 N/mm2 2mRn /fy = 0.0279 <1 , Hence OK = 1/m (1-1-2mRn /fy) = 0.00072 So = min =0.0018 < max ,Hence OK

Along X Direction

= 0.0020 b = 1600 mm, d = 655 mm Therefore, Astx = 2096 mm2

Along Z Direction

= 0.0018 b = 2500 mm, d = 655 mm Therefore, Astz = 2948 mm2

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

5.15.4 Comparison

Table 5-19: US verification example 13 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Pile Reaction, Service 241 241 Negligible (KN) 241 241 213 213 185 Pile Reaction, Ultimate (KN) 185 332 332 293 293 254 Governing Moment (KNm) Shear Force, One-Way (KN) Shear Force, Two-Way (KN) 254 578 318 600 0 1463 213 213 185 185 332 332 293 293 254 254 572 318 599 0 1462 Negligible Negligible Negligible None

5.16.1 Reference

Foundation Analysis and Design Fifth Edition by J.E. Bowles, Page 475-481, Example 9-1.

5.16.2 Problem

Design a rectangular combined footing using the conventional method given. fc = 3000psi (column and footing), fy = 60000 psi, qa = 2 ksf.

Figure 5-38: Elevation and dimensions

5.16.3 Solution

Step 1- Find out ultimate soil pressure

Pu 1 = 1.2 x 60 + 1.6 x 60 = 168 kips Pu 2 = 1.2 x 110 + 1.6 x 90 = 276 kips Pw= P1 + P2 = 60 + 60 + 110 + 90 = 320 kips Ultimate ratio UR=(168 + 276) / 320 = 1.3875 qult = qa x UR= 2 x 1.3875 = 2.775 ksf This is necessary so that eccentricity is not introduced in finding L using working loads and then switching to ultimate values.

Step 2 - Find footing dimensions L and B; first locate load resultant from center of column 1

Mcol1= R where R = Pu = 168 + 276 = 444 KN 444 = 15 x 276

= 9.324 ft To make the resultant 444 kips (factored loads) fall at L/2: L = (9.324 + 0.5) x 2 = 19.648 ft We will use 19.75 ft.

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

Step 3 - Find B

BLq = 444

= 8.143 ft

Uniformly distributed upward load = (Pu 1 + Pu 2) / 19.75 = 22.48 kip / ft Shear between column 1 and 2 using integration (set integration constant by inspection):

dV = V = 22.48 x 168

V = 0 at x =

dM =

M=

168 (x 0.5)

M=

These values are Mu values and can be directly used to compute steel quantities.

Figure 5-39: Forces on foundation

Maximum positive bending moment is at the face of column 2 = 22.48 x (3.625)2 / 2 = 147.7 ft-kips Maximum shear force at the face of column 2 = 22.48 x 14.875 168 = 166.39 kips

Figure 5-40: Shear and Bending diagrams

Step 5 - Select depth based on analysis for both widebeam and diagonal tension

a. Critical location for wide-beam is readily obtained. b. Diagonal tension may have to be investigated for three conditions: i. three-side zone, column 1 ii. four-side zone, column 2 iii. three-side zone, column 2 Check wide beam first (slope of shear diagram = constant) using V diagram: B vc d = 166.39 22.48 d vc = 11.825 ksf(allowable = 8.17 x 11.825 d = 166.39 22.48 d )

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

d=

Checking diagonal tension at column 1 using d just obtained for a three-side zone and vc = = 164.317 psi = 23.66 ksf

Perim. = (12 + 8.38) x 2 + 12 + 16.765 = 69.525 in = 5.794 ft The net shear is column load upward soil force in diagonal tension zone:

A=

= 4.07 ft 2

= 156.8 kips

A = And

= 7.01 ft 2

V = 276 7.01 x

= 256.74 kips

= 10.59 ft

v =

For fy = 60 and fc = 3 ksi and b = 12 in, obtain a = 1.96As:

p= steel

= 0.00467 >

Use 12 No. 8 bars at 8.2 in spacing across top of footing: As = 12(0.79) = 9.48 > 7.68 in2 Run 1/3 of bars full length of footing (less 3 in end cover): Ld is O.K.

B = 12 + 16.765 x 0.75 = 24.574 in = 2.05 ft

L =

= 3.585 ft

q=

= 10.03ksf (conservative)

M=

x 12 = 773.45 in-kips

= 14.323

p is O.K. from previous calculation. Use 4 No. 7 bars at 6 in: Ld = 0.04 x 0.60 x 60000 x or Ld = 0.004 x 0.875 x 60000 = 21 in Ld furnished = 3.585 x 12 3 = 40 in Compute short direction steel at column 2; use d= 15 in: B = 15 + 16 x 1.5 = 39 in = 3.25 ft = 26.3 in

L =

= 3.46 ft

q=

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.16 US Mat Combined Foundation 1

M=

x 12 = 746.6 in-kips

= 14.379

At column 1 the supporting area is not on all sides; therefore the bearing stress is limited to: fc = 0.75 x0.7 x fc = 1.575 ksi p = 12 x12 x 1.575 = 226.8 > 168 kips (dowels not required for load transfer) Use 4 dowels to provide at least 0.05Ag: As = 0.005 x 144 = 0.72 in2 Use 4 No. 6 for 4 x (0.44) = 1.76 in2 at column 2 with concrete all around

> 2 Use 2 fc = 0.75 x 0.7 fc x 2 = 3.15 ksi P = 15 x 15 x 3.15 = 708.75 >> 276 Use four dowels same size as column 1.

Step 9 - Conclusion

Steel in cantilever portion is found to be 0.28 for moment and 0.67 in2 / ft for minimum requirement of 200 / fy (could use 0.28 x 1.33 >= T and S alternatively but would require increasing other steel by 1 / 3 also) Use 10 No. 7 bars Run five bars full length to use as chairs for short direction steel.

5.16.4 Comparison

Table 5-20: US verification example 12 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Average Base Pressure 0.01911 0.02 kip/in2 4.657 2 kip/in Maximum Negative 543.76 ft529.064 ft2.70 Bending Moment kips kips Maximum Positive 147.7 ft-kips 149.12 ft-kips 0.96 Bending Moment Required Area of 0.94 in2/ft 0.909 in2/ft 3.3 Reinforcement

5.17.1 Reference 5.17.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Density of soil =14 KN/cum Depth of Soil = 0.5m Density of Concrete = 25 KN/cum Coefficient of Friction (m) = 0.5 Safe Bearing Capacity of the Soil (s) = 120 KN/m2 Factor of Safety against Overturning =1.5 Factor of Safety against Sliding = 1.5 Permissible soil pressure = Column dimension = 0.3m x 0.3m, Strength of concrete (fc) = M-30 = 4349.39 Psi Strength of steel (fy) = Fe-415 Loads: Fx =-300 KN Fy =-500 KN Fz=-200 KN Mz= -10.32KNm

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

Mx=45.89 KNm Note: Self weight of footing, wt of soil and surcharge are not included for shear and moment computations.

Figure 5-41: Plan and Elevation

5.17.3 Solution

Design started with trial dimensions of 3.75m X 3.75m X 1.0m

The base area of footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net permissible soil pressure.

Net permissible soil pressure = 120 KN/ m2 Required base area of footing = [500 + 0.10(500)]/120 = 4.5833 m2 3.75m square footing (Af =14.0625 m2). Using a depth of 1m; Use a 3.75m Self-wt. of Footing =(3.75*3.75*1*25) = 351.562 KN

Serviceability Check

The net moments are given by:Mz = -10.32 (-300*1) = 289.68 KNm Mx= +45.89 +(-200*1) = -154.11 KNm The pressure at the four corners are given by:s1=((500+351.562)/14.0625)+(6*154.11/3.753)-(6*289.68/3.753)=75.980KN/m

2 2 2 2

Stability Check

Calculation for Overturning and Sliding

For Sliding

Along X- Direction: Disturbing force = -300 KN Restoring Force = *(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 474.6848 KN Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (474.6848/300) =1.5823 > 1.5 Hence Safe Along Z- Direction: Disturbing force = -200 KN Restoring Force = *(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 474.6848 KN Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (474.6848/200) =2.373 > 1.5 Hence Safe

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

For Overturning

About X- Direction: Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) = 45.89 200* (0 +1) = -154.11 KN-m Restoring Moment = (Fy + Wt of Soil + Wt of Footing) *Width of Footing*0.5 = 1780.068 KN-m Hence, Factor of Safety against Overturning = (1780.068/154.11) =11.5506 > 1.5 Hence Safe About Z- Direction: Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) =-10.32 + 300* (0 +1) = 289.68 KN-m Restoring Moment = (Fy + Wt of Soil + Wt of Footing) *Width of Footing*0.5 = 1780.068 KN-m Hence, Factor of Safety against Overturning = (1780.068/289.68) =6.1449 > 1.5 Hence Safe

Factored loads and soil reaction: To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads are used. For this problem, the factors used are all 1.0 The pressure at the four corners are given by:s1=(500/14.0625)+(6*154.11/3.753)-(6*289.68/3.753)=50.9804KN/m2 s2=(500/14.0625)-(6*154.11/3.753)-(6*289.68/3.753)=-14.9378KN/m2 s3=(500/14.0625)-(6*154.11/3.753)+(6*289.68/3.753)=20.1307KN/m2 s4=(500/14.0625)+(6*154.11/3.753)+(6*289.68/3.753)=86.049KN/m2 Average pressure:qu = (s1+s2+s3+s4)/4 = 35.555 KN/ m2

Figure 5-42: Critical section for punching shear is at d/2

Chapter 5 5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning Depth requirement for shear usually controls the footing thickness. Both wide action and two-way action (punching shear) for strength computation need to be investigated to determine the controlling shear criteria for depth. Assume overall footing thickness = 1.0m and average effective thickness d = 0.92m (36.22 in)

Along Z-Z axis: Vu = qs tributary area Bw = 3.75m = 147.6378 in qs is given by:Average Base Pressure along one edge = (50.98041-14.9379)/2 =18.02126 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge = (20.1307+86.049)/2 = 53.0899 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 53.0899- {(53.0899 18.02126)/3.75*0.805} =45.56183 KN/ m2 [0.805=3.75-(3.75/2+0.92+0.15)] Hence, the one- way shear at the critical section Vux =3.75*{45.56183*0.805+0.5*(53.0899-45.56183)*0.805}= 148.9025 KN Along X-X axis:Vu = qs qs is given by:Average Base Pressure along one edge = (86.049+50.98041)/2 =68.5147 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge = (20.1307-14.9379)/2 = 2.5964 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 68.5147- {(68.51472.5964)/3.75*0.805} =54.36424 KN/ m2[0.805=(3.75/20.920.15)] Hence, the one-way shear at the critical section Vuz =3.75*{54.36424*0.805+0.5*(68.5147-54.36424)*0.805}= 185.47 KN Vu = (2(f'c)bwd) = 0.75(2(4349.39) 147.6378 529.0018 kips = 2354.06 KN > Vux and Vuz Hence O.K. 36.22)/1000 = tributary area

Bw = 3.75m = 147.6378 in

Vu = qs tributary area

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.17 US General Isolated Foundation with Sliding & Overturning

V u

= 35.555

= Minimum of

= 5.304348

Figure 5-43: Critical section for moment is at the face of column

About X Axis

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (50.98041-14.9379)/2 =18.02126 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge = (20.1307+86.049)/2 = 53.0899 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 53.0899- {(53.0899 18.02126)/3.75*1.725} =36.958 KN/ m2 [1.725= 3.75-(3.75/2+0.15)] Hence, the moment at the critical section Mu =3.75*{36.958*1.725*1.725*0.5+0.5*(53.0899-36.958)*1.725*1.725*2/3}= 266.2033 KNm

Required Rn = psi

KN/m2 =13.5105

0.00022 = (0.92/1.0)

0.00027 = 0.000207

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 415 reinforcement:

min

= 0.00180

min,

Since

is <

so

min

=0.00180

Required As =

About Z Axis

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (86.049+50.98041)/2 =68.5147 KN/m2

Average Base Pressure along other edge = (20.1307-14.9379)/2 = 2.5964 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 68.5147- {(68.51472.5964)/3.75*1.725} =38.1923 KN/ m2 [1.725=(3.75/2-0.15)] Hence, the moment at the critical section Mu =3.75*{38.1923*1.725*1.725*0.5+0.5*(68.5147-38.1923)*1.725*1.725*2/3}= 325.87126 KNm Compute required As assuming tension-controlled section ( = 0.9)

Required Rn = psi

KN/m2 =8.44355

0.00014 = (0.92/1.0)

0.00014 = 0.000129

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 415 reinforcement:

min

= 0.00180

min,

Since

is <

so

min

=0.00180

Required As = bd= 0.00180 3.75 0.92 = 0.00621 m2 = 6210 m2m Try with 16mm bars (Af =201.06 m2m) So, no. of bars reqd = 6210/ 201.06 =31 bars

Critical section for development length is same as that for moment (at face of column). As per ACI- 12.2.2 and T-1.12.2 of Reinforced Concrete Design by Salmon-Wang; For # 35M bars and smaller:

Ld = 0.02 Ab = 0.02* 201.06*(415/300.5)= 304.68 mm Available development length of the bars = 0.5*(L-Dcol) C cover = 1675 mm > 304.68 mm. Hence OK Clear cover (bottom and side) = 50 mm Center-to-center bar spacing = {3750-2*(50+8)}/30 = 121.13 mm This is to be checked with the minimum and maximum spacing permissible.

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

5.17.4 Comparison

Table 5-21: US verification example 14 comparison STAAD Reference Difference (Reasons Value of Foundation Result there-of) Result* Moment about X 266.2033 269.53 Error due to (KNm) approximation in base pressure interpolation Moment about Z 325.87126 328.41 m Error due to (KNm) approximation in base pressure interpolation Area of steel about 6210 6106.05 Error due to 2 X-X (mm ) approximation in base pressure interpolation Area of steel about 6210 6241.05 Error due to 2 Z-Z (mm ) approximation in base pressure interpolation Shear force 185.47 186.09 Error due to approximation in base (One way) along X pressure interpolation (KN) Shear force 148.9025 144.21 Error due to approximation in base (One way) along Z pressure interpolation (KN) Shear force 447.079 447.38 Negligible (Two way) (KN) Factor of Safety against Sliding (X) Factor of Safety against Sliding (Z) Factor of Safety against Overturning (X) Factor of Safety against Overturning (Z) 1.582 2.373 11.5506 1.582 2.373 11.550 Negligible Negligible Negligible

6.1449

6.145

Negligible

5.18.1 Reference 5.18.2 Problem

Design an isolated footing with the given data: Verification Manual 311

Offset of column in X-direction (Oxd) =300 mm Offset of column in Z-direction (Ozd) =300 mm Density of soil =14 KN/m3 Depth of Soil = 0.5m Density of Concrete = 25 KN/m3 Coefficient of Friction (m) = 0.5 Safe Bearing Capacity of the Soil (s) = 120 KN/m2 Factor of Safety against Overturning =1.5 Factor of Safety against Sliding = 1.5 Permissible soil pressure = Column dimension = 0.3m x 0.3m, Strength of concrete (fc) = M-30 = 4349.39 Psi Strength of steel (fy) = Fe-415 Loads: Fx =-300 KN Fy =-500 KN Fz=-200 KN Mz= 45.89 KNm Mx=-98.32 KNm Note: Self weight of footing, wt of soil and surcharge are not included for shear and moment computations.

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

Figure 5-44: Plan and Elevation

5.18.3 Solution

Design started with trial dimensions of 5.0m X 5.0m X 1.0m Determination of base area of footing: The base area of footing is determined using service (unfactored) loads with the net permissible soil pressure. Net permissible soil pressure = 120 KN/ m2 Required base area of footing = [500 + 0.10(500)]/120 = 4.5833 m2 5.0m square footing (Af =25 m2). Using a depth of 1m; Use a 5 .0m

Serviceability Check

The net moments are given by: Mz =+45.89 (-300*1) +(-500*0.3) = 195.89 KNm Mx= - 98.32 +(-200*1) (-500*0.3) = -148.32 KNm The pressure at the four corners are given by: 1=((500+625)/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)=47.28336KN/m2 2=((500+625)/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)=28.478KN/m2 3=((500+625)/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=42.7167KN/m2 4=((500+625)/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=61.522KN/m2 which is < 120 KN/m2. Hence OK

Stability Check

Calculation for Overturning and Sliding

For Sliding

Along X- Direction: Disturbing force = -300 KN Restoring Force = m*(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 649.685 KN Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (649.685/300) =2.1656 > 1.5 Hence Safe Along Z- Direction: Disturbing force = -200 KN Restoring Force = m*(Wt of Footing + Fy + Wt of Soil) = 649.685 KN Hence, Factor of Safety against Sliding = (649.685/200) =3.2484 > 1.5 Hence Safe

For Overturning

About X- Direction: Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing)= 98.32 200* (0 +1) = -298.32 KN-m

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

Restoring Moment = Fy * (Width of Footing *0.5 Ozd)+ (Wt of Soil + Wt of Footing) * Width of Footing*0.5 = 3098.425 KN-m Factor of Safety against Overturning = (3098.425/298.32) =10.386 > 1.5 Hence Safe About Z- Direction: Overturning Moment = Mx + Fz* (Ht of Pedestal + Depth of Footing) =45.89 + 300* (0 +1) = 345.89 KN-m Restoring Moment = Fy * (Width of Footing *0.5 Ozd)+ (Wt of Soil + Wt of Footing) * Width of Footing*0.5 = 3398.425 KN-m Factor of Safety against Overturning = (3398.425/345.89) =9.82516 > 1.5 Hence Safe

Factored Loads and Soil Reaction

To proportion the footing for strength (depth and required reinforcement) factored loads are used. For this problem, the factors used are all 1.0 The pressure at the four corners are given by: 1=(500/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)=22.2834KN/m2 2=(500/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)-(6*148.32 /5.03)=3.47792KN/m2 3=(500/25)-(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=17.7167KN/m2 4=(500/25)+(6*195.89 /5.03)+(6*148.32 /5.03)=36.52208KN/m2 Average pressure: qu = (1+2+3+4)/4 = 20.000 KN/ m2

Figure 5-45: Critical section for punching shear at d/2

Depth requirement for shear usually controls the footing thickness. Both wide action and two-way action (punching shear) for strength computation need to be investigated to determine the controlling shear criteria for depth. Assume overall footing thickness = 1.0m and average effective thickness d = 0.92m (36.22 in)

Along Z-Z axis: Vu = qs qs is given by: Average Base Pressure along one edge =(22.2834+3.47792)/2 =12.8806 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge =(17.7167+36.5221)/2 = 27.1194 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 27.1194- {(27.1194 12.8806)/5.0*1.13} =23.9014 KN/ m2 [1.13=5 -(5/2 +0.3 +0.92 +0.15)] Hence, the one- way shear at the critical section Vux =5.0*{23.9014*1.13+0.5*(27.1194-23.9014)*1.13}= 144.134 KN Along X-X axis: Vu = qs qs is given by: Average Base Pressure along one edge =(36.5221+22.2834)/2 =29.4027 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge =(17.7167+3.47792)/2 = 10.5973 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 29.4027- {(29.4027-10.5973)/5.0*1.73} =22.89603 KN/ m2 [ 1.73=(5/2 +0.3 0.92 0.15)] Hence, the one-way shear at the critical section Vuz =5.0*{22.89603*1.73+0.5*(29.4027-22.89603)*1.73}= 226.1924 KN Vu = (2(f'c)bwd) = 0.75(2(4349.39) 196.8504 705.3265 kips = 3138.703 KN > Vux and Vuz Hence O.K. 36.22)/1000 = tributary area tributary area

Bw = 5.00m = 196.8504 in

Bw = 5.00m = 196.8504 in

Vu = qs

V u

tributary area

Tributary area = [25.000 - (0.3 +0.92)x(0.3 + 0.92)] = 23.5116 m2 = 20.000 x 23.5116 = 470.232 KN = 105.6701 Kip.

Section 5 United States Code (ACI 318 -2005) 5.18 US General Isolated Foundation with Eccentric Loading

= 5.304348

Critical section for moment is at the face of column

About X-Axis

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (22.2834+3.47792)/2 =12.8806 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge = (17.7167+36.5221)/2 = 27.1194 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 27.1194- {(27.1194 12.8806)/5.0*2.05} =21.2815 KN/ m2 [2.05 =5-(5/2+0.3+0.15)] Hence, the moment at the critical section Mu = 5.0*{21.2815 *2.05*2.05*0.5+0.5*(27.1194-21.2815)* 2.05*2.05*2/3}= 264.48 KNm

Required Rn =

0.0001675 = (0.92/1.0)

0.0001675 = 0.0001541

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 415 reinforcement: min = 0.00180 Since is < min , = min =0.00180 Required As = bd= 0.00180 5.0 0.92 = 0.00828 m2 = 8280 mm2

About Z- axis:

Average Base Pressure along one edge = (36.5221+22.2834)/2 =29.4027 KN/m2 Average Base Pressure along other edge = (17.7167+3.47792)/2 = 10.5973 KN/m2 Approximate Base Pressure at the critical section = 29.4027- {(29.402710.5973)/5.0*2.65} =19.4358 KN/ m2 [2.65 =(5/2+0.3-0.15)] Hence, the moment at the critical section Mu =5.0*{19.4358 *2.65*2.65*0.5+0.5*(29.4027 19.4358)*2.65*2.65*2/3}= 457.874 KNm Compute required As assuming tension-controlled section ( = 0.9)

Required Rn =

0.00029 = (0.92/1.0)

0.00029 = 0.000267

Check minimum As required for footings of uniform thickness; for grade 415 reinforcement: min = 0.00180 Since is < min , = min =0.00180 Required As = bd = 0.00180 5.0 0.92 = 0.00828 m2 = 8280 mm2 Try with 20 mm bars (Af =314.16 mm2) So, no. of bars required = 8280/ 314.16 =27 bars

Critical section for development length is same as that for moment (at face of column). As per ACI- 12.2.2 and T-1.12.2 of Reinforced Concrete Design by Salmon-Wang:

Ld = 0.02 Ab (For # 35M bars and smaller) = 0.02* 314.16*(415/300.5)= 476.0625m Available development length of the bars= 0.5*(L-Dcol) C cover = 2375 mm > 476.0625 mm. Hence OK Clear cover (bottom and side) = 50mm Center-to-center bar spacing = {5000-2*(50+10)}/26 = 187.6923 mm This is to be checked with the minimum and maximum spacing permissible.

5.18.4 Comparison

Table 5-22: US verification example 15 comparison STAAD Reference Difference (Reasons Value of Foundation Result there-of) Result* Moment about X 264.48 264.53 Negligible KNm KNm Moment about Z 457.874 457.83 Negligible KNm KNm Area of steel about 8280 8906.40 Error due to X-X mm2 mm2 approximation in base pressure interpolation Area of steel about 8280 8321.40 Error due to Z-Z mm2 mm2 approximation in base pressure interpolation Shear force 226.1924 225.67 KN Error due to KN approximation in base (One way) along X pressure interpolation Shear force 144.134 143.58 KN Negligible KN (One way) along Z Shear force 470.232 470.01 KN Negligible KN (Two way) Factor of Safety 2.1656 2.166 Negligible against Sliding (X) Factor of Safety 3.2484 3.248 Negligible against Sliding (Z) Factor of Safety 10.386 10.386 Negligible against Overturning (X) Factor of Safety 9.82516 9.825 Negligible against Overturning (Z)

Section 6

6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

6.1.1 Reference

380 ft Brenham (Wesley), TX guyed tower Design Project

6.1.2 Problem

Design an anchor block for a guy rod supporting the following load condition Axial Tension = 83.815 Kip Slope with Horizontal = 54.231 degree Min area required for guy rod =1.677 sq.inch, i.e if single guy rod is used,min dia of rod required = 1.5 inch Necessary Factors of Safety are as follows FOS against Uplift = 1.5 FOS against sliding = 2 Ultimate Load Factor = 1.3 Material SpecificationAssume Strength of Concrete = 4 Ksi Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

Strength of Gye Rod steel = 50 Ksi unit weight of Concrete = 150 lb/cu.ft unit weight of Soil = 62.4 lb/cu.ft Soil & GWT conditionTable 6-1: Soil Test Report Summary Layer Layer Depth of Cohesion Angle of Index No Type Layer (psf) Friction 1 Sand (0-2) 0 20 2 Sand (2-15) 0 30 3 Sand (15-below) 0 30 Assume depth of Ground Water Table from GL = 8 ft Assume soil cone angle of uplift = 30 degree Dry Density (pcf) 115 115 115

6.1.3 Solution

First let us calculate the Horizontal & Vertical components of Axial Tension at guy rod Horizontal component of load (H) = P.cos = 83.815 x Cos 54.231 = 48.9656 Kip Vertical component of load (V)= P.sin = 83.815 x Sin 54.231 = 68.0245 Kip Properties of soil (divided into relevant small strips each max 1/2 ft thick)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Kp=tan2 (450+ /2) Kp=tan2 (450- /2) Note: is in degrees Pa = .h.Kp So Pa or a particular layer = Pa of previous layer + .h.Ka Where: Ka= Active EP coeff of the present layer = Soil density of Soil at present layer h= Thickness of present layer)

Chapter 6 6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1 Thus Pp= .h.Kp + 2C.Kp So Pp or a particular layer = Pp of previous layer + .h.Kp Where: Kp= Passive EP coeff of the present layer = Soil density of Soil at present layer h= Thickness of present layer C= Cohesion of Present layer) Note: Here, = Density of soil which is used when soil layer is above GWT If Soil layer is below GWT then submerged density of soil (-soil) is used Adhesion factor = 0.31 + 0.34/C

Figure 6-1: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Figure 6-2: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram

Soil Depth upper lvl of layer(ft) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12

Soil Depth lower lvl of layer(ft) 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5

avg Pp effective on block surface (psf) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2167.1918 2340.028 2512.8643 2638.8093 2717.8631 2796.9169 2875.9707 0 0 0 0 0

weighted avg Pp (lb/ft) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1083.596 1170.014 1256.432 1319.405 1358.932 1398.458 1437.985 0 0 0 0 0

Tot Passive resistance per unit length = 9024.823 lb/ft Length = 11.5 ft Tot Passive resistance = 9024.823 x 11.5 /1000 = 103.786 kip Allowable Horizontal Load on Anchor = 48.9656 Kip Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 103.786 / 48.9656 = 2.12 FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

given value of dispersion angle = 30 degree Let us consider wedge at all sides with dimension of 0.5 ft As wedge is present so dispersion is to be started from bottom of block

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Height of soil above top level of block = 6.5 ft Height of water effecting the weight of concrete = 10 - 8 = 2 ft Weight of Concre Block = LxBxHx unit wt of concrete = 11.5 x 4 x 3.5 x 0.15 = 24.15 kip reduction of concrete weight due to buoyancy = 2 x 4 x 11.5 x 62.4/1000 = 5.7408 kip So, total buoyant weight of concrete = 24.15-5.7408 = 18.4092Kip Weight of soil over top of anchor in a truncated pyramid = 215.93 Kip Uplift Resistance due to Soil/Concrete Adhesion = 0 Kip Therefore, Total resistance against uplift = 18.4092 + 215.93 + 0 = 234.34 Kip Allowable anchor uplift resistance = V = 68.0245 Kip Net Safety factor = 234.34 / 68.0245 = 3.445 Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 1.5 FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Top Rebar Design Check

Figure 6-4: Top rebar force diagram

Vertical Force (V)= 68.0245 Kip Length (L)= 11.5 Kip Force/Length = w=V/L = 5.91517391304348 Kip Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 97.786 ftkip Factored Moment M = 97.786 x 1.3 = 127.1218 ftkip Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

Figure 6-5: Bending moment diagram - top

= 0.9 = 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4) 0.85>= >=0.65 = 0.85 width (B) = 4 ft Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia Hence, deff = 38.19 inch Area of each top rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch Total area of Top Rebar = As = 2.4040625 Ksi a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.883847 inch

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.1 Deadman Guy Anchor US 1

Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) =408.37 ftkip ratio = 408.37 / 127.1218 = 3.213 >1, Hence OK Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Vertical Force (V)= 48.9656 Kip Length (L) = 11.5 ft Force/Length = w=V/L = 4.25787826086957 Kip/ft Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 70.389 ftkip Factored Moment M = 91.5057 ftkip Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi

Figure 6-6: Bending moment diagram - front face

Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi = 0.9 = 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4) 0.85>= >=0.65 = 0.85 width (B) = 3.5 ft Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia Hence, deff = 44.19 inch Area of each front rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch Total area of Front Rebar = As = 1.803046875 sq.inch a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.757583 inch Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 355.47 ftkip ratio = 355.472 / 91.5057 = 3.885 >1, Hence OK Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

6.1.4 Comparison

Table 6-2: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 1 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Sliding Resistance (kips) 103.786 103.71 Negligible Uplift Resistance (kips) 234.34 234.495 Negligible Horizontal FOS 2.12 2.117 Negligible Vertical FOS 3.445 3.448 Negligible Factored moment resisted by top rebar 127.122 127.086 Negligible (ft-kip) Max. moment capacity (vertically hog408.37 407.66 Negligible ging) (ft-kip) Factored moment resisted by front rebar 91.506 91.553 Negligible (ft-kip) Max. moment capacity (horizontally 355.472 354.856 Negligible hogging) (ft-kip)

6.2.1 Reference

380 ft Brenham (Wesley), TX guyed tower Design Project

6.2.2 Problem

Design an anchor block for a guy rod supporting the following load conditionAxial Tension = 75.926 Kip Slope with Horizontal = 49.816 degree Min area required for guy rod =1.519 sq.inch, i.e if single rod is used,min dia of rod required = 1.4 inch

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

Figure 6-7: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

Necessary FOS are as followsFOS against Uplift = 1.5 FOS against sliding = 2 Ultimate Load Factor = 1.3 Material SpecificationAssume Strength of Concrete = 4 Ksi Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi Strength of Gye Rod steel = 50 Ksi unit weight of Concrete = 150 lb/cu.ft unit weight of Soil = 62.4 lb/cu.ft Soil & GWT condition Layer Index No 1 2 3 Table 6-3: Soil Layer Depth of Type Layer clay (0-2) clay (2-15) clay (15-below) test report summary Cohesion Angle of (psf) Friction 0 0 800 0 800 0 Dry Density (pcf) 106 106 106

Assume depth of Ground Water Table from GL = 8 ft Assume soil cone angle of uplift = 0 degree

6.2.3 Solution

First let us calculate the Horizontal & Vertical components of Axial Tension at gyerod

Horizontal component of load (H) = P.cos = 75.926 x Cos 49.816 = 48.9706 Kip Vertical component of load (V)= P.sin = 75.926 x Sin 49.816 = 58.0229 Kip Properties of soil (divided into relevant small strips each max 1/2 ft thick)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2 So Pa or a particular layer = Pa of previous layer + .h.Ka Where: Ka= Active EP coeff of the present layer = Soil density of Soil at present layer h= Thickness of present layer Thus Pp= .h.Kp + 2C.Kp So Pp or a particular layer = Pp of previous layer + .h.Kp Where: Kp= Passive EP coeff of the present layer = Soil density of Soil at present layer h= Thickness of present layer C= Cohesion of Present layer Note: Here = Density of soil which is used when soil layer is above GWT If Soil layer is below GWT then submerged density of soil (-soil) is used Adhesion factor = 0.31 + 0.34/C <=1 C= Cohesion in Kip/ft 2 unit

Figure 6-8: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift

Chapter 6 6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2 Table 6-4: Soil layers Soil Depth avg Pp effective on lower lvl of block surface (psf) layer(ft) 0.5 0 1 0 1.5 0 2 0 2.5 0 3 0 3.5 0 4 0 4.5 0 5 0 5.5 0 6 0 6.5 0 7 2317.4172 7.5 2370.4843 8 2423.5513 8.5 2460.9987 9 2482.8262 9.5 2504.6538 10 2526.4814 10.5 0 11 0 11.5 0 12 0 12.5 0 13 0 13.5 0 14 0 14.5 0 15 0

Soil Depth upper lvl of layer(ft) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5 12 12.5 13 13.5 14 14.5

weighted avg Pp (lb/ft) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1158.709 1185.242 1211.776 1230.499 1241.413 1252.327 1263.241 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Tot Passive resistance per unit length = 8543.207 lb/ft Length = 14 ft Tot Passive resistance = 8543.207 x 14 /1000 = 119.605 kip Allowable Horizontal Load on Anchor = 48.9706 Kip Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 119.605 / 48.9706 = 2.443 FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

given value of dispersion angle = 0 degree Let us consider no wedge to support uplift load As wedge is not present so dispersion is to be started from top of block

Height of soil above top level of block = 6.5 ft Height of water effecting the weight of concrete = 10 - 8 = 2 ft Weight of Concrete Block = LxBxHx unit wt of concrete = 14 x 4 x 3.5 x 0.15 = 29.4 kip reduction of concrete weight due to buoyancy = 2 x 4 x 14 x 62.4/1000 = 6.9888 kip So, total buoyant weight of concrete = 29.4-6.9888 = 22.4112Kip Weight of soil over top of anchor in a truncated pyramid = 38.58 Kip Uplift Resistance due to Soil/Concrete Adhesion = 74.08 Kip Therefore, Total resistance against uplift = 22.4112 + 38.58 + 74.08 = 135.072 Kip Allowable anchor uplift resistance = V = 58.0229 Kip Net Safety factor = 135.072 / 58.0229 = 2.328 Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 1.5 FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK Verification Manual 335

Top Rebar Design Check

Vertical Force (V)= 58.0229 Kip Length (L)= 14 Kip

Figure 6-9: Top rebar force diagram

Force/Length = w=V/L = 4.14449285714286 Kip Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 101.541 ftkip Factored Moment M = 101.541 x 1.3 = 132.0033 ftkip Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi = 0.9 = 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4) 0.85>= >=0.65 = 0.85 width (B) = 4 ft Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

Figure 6-10: Bending moment diagram - top

Hence, deff =38.19 inch Area of each top rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch Total area of Top Rebars = As = 2.4040625 Ksi a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.883847 inch 336 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.2 Deadman Guy Anchor US 2

Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 408.37 ftkip ratio = 408.37 / 132.0033 = 3.094 >1, Hence OK Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Vertical Force (V)= 48.9706 Kip Length (L) = 14 ft Force/Length = w=V/L = 3.4979 Kip/ft Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 85.699 ftkip Factored Moment M = 111.4087 ftkip

Figure 6-11: Bending moment diagram - front face

Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi = 0.9 = 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4) 0.85>= >=0.65 = 0.85 width (B) = 3.5 ft Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia Hence, deff = 44.19 inch Area of each front rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch Total area of Front Rebar = As = 1.803046875 sq.inch a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.757583 inch Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 355.47 ftkip ratio = 355.472 / 111.4087 = 3.191 >1, Hence OK Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

6.2.4 Comparison

Table 6-5: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 2 comparison STAAD Reference Percent DifValue of Foundation Result ference Result Sliding Resistance (Kip) 119.605 119.542 negligible Uplift Resistance (Kip) 135.072 135.123 negligible Horizontal FOS 2.443 2.44 negligible Vertical FOS 2.328 2.329 negligible factored moment resisted by top 132.0033 131.963 negligible rebar ( ftkip) Max moment capacity 408.37 407.66 negligible (vertically hogging) (ftkip) factored moment resisted by 111.4087 111.454 negligible front rebar (ftkip) Max moment capacity 355.472 354.865 negligible (horizontally hogging) (ftkip)

6.3.1 Reference

380 ft Brenham (Wesley), TX guyed tower Design Project

6.3.2 Problem

Design an anchor block for a guy rod supporting the following load condition Axial Tension = 92.435 Kip Slope with Horizontal = 31.289 degree Min area required for guy rod =1.849 sq.inch, i.e if single rod is used,min dia of rod required = 1.6 inch Necessary FOS are as follows FOS against Uplift = 1.5 FOS against sliding = 2 Ultimate Load Factor = 1.3 Material Specification Assume Strength of Concrete = 4 Ksi Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi Strength of Gye Rod steel = 50 Ksi unit weight of Concrete = 150 lb/cu.ft unit weight of Soil = 62.4 lb/cu.ft

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3 Soil & GWT condition Layer Index No 1 2 3 Table 6-6: Soil Layer Depth of Type Layer silt (0-2) silt (2-15) silt (15below) test report summary Cohesion Angle of (psf) Friction 500 20 500 20 500 20 Dry Density (pcf) 105 105 105

Assume depth of Ground Water Table from GL = 8 ft Assume soil cone angle of uplift = 20 degree

6.3.3 Solution

First let us calculate the Horizontal & Vertical components of Axial Tension at gyerod Horizontal component of load (H) = P.cos = 92.435 x Cos 31.289 = 78.9806 Kip Vertical component of load (V)= P.sin = 92.435 x Sin 31.289 = 48.024 Kip Properties of soil (divided into relevant small strips each max 1/2 ft thick)

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Figure 6-12: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

So Pa or a particular layer = Pa of previous layer + .h.Ka Where: Ka= Active EP coeff of the present layer = Soil density of Soil at present layer

h= Thickness of present layer Pp= .h.Kp + 2C.Kp So Pp or a particular layer = Pp of previous layer + .h.Kp Where: Kp= Passive EP coeff of the present layer = Soil density of Soil at present layer

C= Cohesion of Present layer Note: Here = Density of soil which is used when soil layer is above GWT If Soil layer is below GWT then submerged density of soil (-soil) is used Adhesion factor = 0.31 + 0.34/C <=1 C= Cohesion in Kip/ft 2 unit

Figure 6-13: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram

Soil Depth upper lvl of layer(ft) 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 5 5.5 6 6.5 7 7.5 8 8.5 9 9.5 10 10.5 11 11.5

Table 6-7: Soil layers Soil Depth avg Pp effective on lower lvl of block surface (psf) layer(ft) 0.5 0 1 0 1.5 0 2 0 2.5 0 3 0 3.5 0 4 0 4.5 0 5 0 5.5 0 6 0 6.5 0 7 0 7.5 2984.5298 8 3091.7854 8.5 3167.1708 9 3210.6859 9.5 3254.2011 10 3297.7162 10.5 3341.2313 11 3384.7465 11.5 3428.2616 12 3471.7768

weighted avg Pp (lb/ft) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1492.265 1545.893 1583.585 1605.343 1627.101 1648.858 1670.616 1692.373 1714.131 1735.888

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Tot Passive resistance per unit length = 16316.053 lb/ft Length = 10 ft Tot Passive resistance = 16316.053 x 10 /1000 = 163.161 kip Allowable Horizontal Load on Anchor = 78.9806 Kip Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 163.161 / 78.9806 = 2.066 FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

given value of dispersion angle = 20 degree Let us consider no wedge to support uplift load As wedge is not present so dispersion is to be started from top of block

Height of soil above top level of block = 7 ft Height of water effecting the weight of concrete = 12 - 8 = 4 ft Weight of Concre Block = LxBxHx unit wt of concrete = 10 x 4 x 5 x 0.15 = 30 kip reduction of concrete weight due to buoyancy = 4 x 4 x 10 x 62.4/1000 = 9.984 kip So, total buoyant weight of concrete = 30-9.984 = 20.016Kip Weight of soil over top of anchor in a truncated pyramid = 61.98 Kip Uplift Resistance due to Soil/Concrete Adhesion = 69.3 Kip

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.3 Deadman Guy Anchor US 3

Therefore, Total resistance against uplift = 20.016 + 61.98 + 69.3 = 151.296 Kip Allowable anchor uplift resistance = V = 48.024 Kip Net Safety factor = 151.296 / 48.024 = 3.151 Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 1.5 FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Now Design check for the top & front face rebar are to be done

Top Rebar Design Check

Vertical Force (V)= 48.024 Kip

Figure 6-15: Top rebar force diagram

Length (L)= 10 Kip Force/Length = w=V/L = 4.8024 Kip Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 60.03 ftkip Factored Moment M = 60.03 x 1.3 = 78.039 ftkip Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi = 0.9 = 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4) 0.85>= >=0.65 = 0.85 width (B) = 4 ft Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

Figure 6-16: Bending moment diagram - top

Hence, deff = 56.19 inch Area of each top rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch Total area of Top Rebars = As = 2.4040625 Ksi a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.883847 inch Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 603.1 ftkip ratio = 603.099 / 78.039 = 7.729 >1, Hence OK Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Vertical Force (V)= 78.9806 Kip Length (L) = 10 ft Force/Length = w=V/L = 7.89806 Kip/ft Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 98.726 ftkip Factored Moment M = 128.3438 ftkip

Figure 6-17: Bending moment diagram - front face

Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi = 0.9 = 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4) 0.85>= >=0.65 = 0.85 width (B) = 5 ft Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Hence, deff = 44.19 inch Area of each front rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch Total area of Front Rebar = As = 1.803046875 sq.inch a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.530308 inch Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 356.39 ftkip ratio = 356.394 / 128.3438 = 2.777 >1, Hence OK Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

6.3.4 Comparison

Table 6-8: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 3 comparison STAAD Reference Percent DifValue of Foundation Result ference Result Sliding Resistance (Kip) 163.161 163.306 Negligible Uplift Resistance (Kip) 151.296 151.355 Negligible Horizontal FOS 2.066 2.064 Negligible Vertical FOS 3.151 3.153 Negligible factored moment resisted by top 78.039 78.011 Negligible rebar ( ftkip) Max moment capacity (vertically 603.099 602.06 Negligible hogging) (ftkip) factored moment resisted by 128.3438 128.361 Negligible front rebar (ftkip) Max moment capacity 356.394 355.775 Negligible (horizontally hogging) (ftkip)

6.4.1 Reference 6.4.2 Problem

Design an anchor block for a guy rod supporting the following load conditionAxial Tension = 250 Kip Slope with Horizontal = 50 degree Min area required for guy rod =4.167 sq.inch, (i.e if single rod is used, then min dia of rod required = 2.4 inch).

Figure 6-18: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section

Necessary FOS are as followsFOS against Uplift = 1.5 FOS against sliding = 2 Ultimate Load Factor = 1.3 Material SpecificationAssume Strength of Concrete = 4 Ksi Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi Strength of Gye Rod steel = 60 Ksi unit weight of Concrete = 150 lb/cu.ft unit weight of Soil = 62.4 lb/cu.ft Soil & GWT condition Layer Index No 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 Layer Type sand silt silt silt silt silt silt Table 6-9: Soil layers Depth of Cohesion Angle of Layer (psf) Friction (0-3) 0 20 (3-5) 500 22 (5-8) 800 15 (8-10) 800 20 (10-12) 850 15 (12-20) 850 15 (20-below) 850 15 Dry Density (pcf) 104 105 105 106 106 106 106

Assume depth of Ground Water Table from GL = 9 ft Assume soil cone angle of uplift = 28 degree

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

6.4.3 Solution

First let us calculate the Horizontal & Vertical components of Axial Tension at guy rod Horizontal component of load (H) = P.cos = 250 x Cos 50 = 160.6297 Kip

Vertical component of load (V)= P.sin = 250 x Sin 50 = 191.5676 Kip Properties of soil (divided into relevant small strips each max 1/2 ft thick) Kp=tan2 (450+/2) Kp=tan2 (450-/2) Note: is in degree Pa = .h.Kp So Pa or a particular layer = Pa of previous layer + .h.Ka Where: Ka= Active EP coeff of the present layer = Soil density of Soil at present layer h= Thickness of present layer) Pp= .h.Kp + 2C.Kp So Pp or a particular layer = Pp of previous layer + .h.Kp Where Kp= Passive EP coeff of the present layer = Soil density of Soil at present layer h= Thickness of present layer C= Cohesion of Present layer Note: Here = Density of soil which is used when soil layer is above GWT If Soil layer is below GWT then submerged density of soil (-soil) is used Adhesion factor = 0.31 + 0.34/C <=1 C= Cohesion in Kip/ft 2 unit

Figure 6-19: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Tot Passive resistance per unit length = 34451.907 lb/ft Length = 12 ft Verification Manual 351

Tot Passive resistance = 34451.907 x 12 /1000 = 413.423 kip Allowable Horizontal Load on Anchor = 160.6297 Kip Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 413.423 / 160.6297 = 2.574 FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

given value of dispersion angle = 28 degree Let us consider wedge at all sides with dimension of 0.5 ft As wedge is present so dispersion is to be started from bottom of block

Height of soil above top level of block = 8 ft Height of water effecting the weight of concrete = 16 - 9 = 7 ft Weight of Concrete Block = LxBxHx unit wt of concrete = 12 x 6 x 8 x 0.15 = 86.4 kip

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

reduction of concrete weight due to buoyancy = 7 x 6 x 12 x 62.4/1000 = 31.4496 kip So, total buoyant weight of concrete = 86.4-31.4496 = 54.9504Kip Weight of soil over top of anchor in a truncated pyramid = 491.29 Kip Uplift Resistance due to Soil/Concrete Adhesion = 172.97 Kip Therefore, Total resistance against uplift = 54.9504 + 491.29 + 172.97 = 719.211 Kip Allowable anchor uplift resistance = V = 191.5676 Kip Net Safety factor = 719.211 / 191.5676 = 3.755 Safety Factor against Horizontal Load = 1.5 FOS is greater than min required FOS, Hence OK

Top Rebar Design Check

Figure 6-20: Top rebar force diagram

Vertical Force (V)= 191.5676 Kip Length (L)= 12 Kip Force/Length = w=V/L = 15.9639666666667 Kip Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 287.352 ftkip Factored Moment M = 287.352 x 1.3 = 373.55 ftkip Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi Strength of Steel = 60 Ksi

Figure 6-21: Bending moment diagram - top

= 0.9 = 0.85 - 0.05x (fc-4) 0.85>= >=0.65 = 0.85 width (B) = 6 ft Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia Hence, deff = 92.19 inch Area of each top rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch Total area of Top Rebar = As = 3.60609375 Ksi a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.883847 inch Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 1488.8 ftkip ratio = 1488.835 / 373.5576 = 3.986 >1, Hence OK Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

Vertical Force (V)= 160.6297 Kip Length (L) = 12 ft Force/Length = w=V/L = 13.3858083333333 Kip/ft Bending Moment = w.L2/8 = 240.945 ftkip Factored Moment M = 313.2285 ftkip Strength of concrete = 4 Ksi

Figure 6-22: Bending moment diagram - front face

Section 6 Deadman Anchors (ACI 318 -2005) 6.4 Deadman Guy Anchor US 4

Effective Depth = Deff = D-clear cover-Tie bar dia -0.5xtop rebar dia Hence, deff = 68.19 inch Area of each front rebar = 0.601015625 sq.inch Total area of Front Rebar = As = 3.60609375 sq.inch a = As.fy/(.fck.B) = 0.662885 inch Resisting Moment = M1 = .As.fy.(deff-a/2) = 1101.2 ftkip ratio = 1101.17 / 313.2285 = 3.516 >1, Hence OK Resisting Moment is greater than Factored Moment, Hence Safe

6.4.4 Comparison

Table 6-10: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 4 comparison STAAD Reference Percent DifValue of Foundation Result ference Result Sliding Resistance (Kip) 413.423 413.174 negligible Uplift Resistance (Kip) 719.211 719.281 negligible Horizontal FOS 2.574 2.571 negligible Vertical FOS 3.755 3.756 negligible factored moment resisted by top 373.5576 373.447 negligible rebar ( ftkip) Max moment capacity (vertically 1488.835 1486.29 negligible hogging) (ftkip) factored moment resisted by 313.2285 313.359 negligible front rebar (ftkip) Max moment capacity (hor1101.17 1099.277 negligible izontally hogging) (ftkip)

Section 7

7.1 Drilled Pier Foundation 1 API

7.1.1 Reference

API RP 2A-WSD

7.1.2 Problem

Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method: API Load Fy= 100 kip, fc= 4 ksi, fy= 60 ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 2 ft, pier height= 30 ft, water level at 40 ft. Soil Profile by Layer 1. Sand, 8 ft deep, angle of friction 30 deg, Avg Density 108 lb/ft 3, Density- Loose 2. Sand, 13 ft deep, angle of friction 34 deg, Avg Density 110 lb/ft 3, Density- Medium 3. Clay - , 9 ft deep, cohesion 2 kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110 lb/ft 3, Density- Dense Elasticity of Soil 0.3 ksi

Figure 7-1: Pier Elevation

Factor of safety End bearing - 3 Skin Friction - 3 % of Capacity Used End bearing - 100% Skin Friction - 100% Neglected zone for skin friction Top - 5ft Bottom - Pier Dia = 2ft Concrete Properties fc= 4ksi Ec= 3605ksi

7.1.3 Solution

Critical Depth

Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer) Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po Effective Overburden Pressure (lb/ft2) Layer1 432 Layer2 1579 Layer3 2789 Layer

Skin Friction

Factor from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 = Cohesion / Effective Overburden Pressure Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Factor from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 = 0.5 x -0.5 <=1.0 = 0.5 x -0.25 >1.0 Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 0 0 0.59045 0 0 0.7171

Chapter 7 7.1 Drilled Pier Foundation 1 API K Coefficient of lateral earth pressure from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.3 K=0.8 (for straight pier) Friction angle between soil and pier Calculated based on API RP 2A-WSD Table 6.4.3-1 Shaft friction (f), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 & 6.4.3 For cohesive soil layerf = x c For cohesionless soil layerf = K xPo x tan Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Shaft Friction (psf) 125.788 589.040 1180.889

Skin Friction Resistance (Qf), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.1 Qf = f x As Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Total Skin Friction Qf (kip) 6.3228 48.1136 66.7777 121.214

Modified Skin Friction Based on Neglected Zones for Skin Friction Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Total Modified Skin Friction Qf_modified (kip) 2.3711 48.1136 51.9382 102.423

Base Resistance

Unit end bearing (q), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 & 6.4.3 For cohesive soil layer q = 9 x c For cohesionless soil layer q =po x Nq Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 q (kip) 5.184 31.58 18.0

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.1 Qp = q x Ap

Unfactored Capacity

Factored Capacity

7.1.4 Comparison

Table 7-1: Drilled Pier (API) verification STAAD FounValue of dation Result UnfactoredTip Resistance 56.571 kip Unfactored Skin 102.487 kip Resistance Unfactored Total Axial 144.916 kip Capacity FactoredTip Resistance 18.857 kip Factored Skin Resistance 34.162 kip Factored Total Axial 48.305 kip Capacity example 1 comparison Reference Result 56.549 kip 102.423 kip 144.834 kip 18.849 kip 34.141 kip 48.278 kip Difference Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible

7.2.1 Reference

API RP 2A-WSD

7.2.2 Problem

Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method:API Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 4ft, pier height= 39ft, water level at 50ft.

Chapter 7 7.2 Drilled Pier Foundation 2 API Soil Profile by Layer 1. Clay - , 6ft deep, cohesion 1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 105lb/ft 3, Density- Very Loose 2. Clay - , 13ft deep, cohesion 1.1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, Density- Medium 3. Clay - , 8ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 111lb/ft 3, Density- Dense 4. Clay - , 12ft deep, cohesion 3kip/ft 2, Avg Density 113lb/ft 3, Density- Very Dense Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi K = 0.8 Factor of safety End bearing - 3 Skin Friction - 3 % of Capacity Used End bearing - 100% Skin Friction - 100% Neglected zone for skin friction Top - 5ft Bottom - Pier Dia = 4ft Concrete Properties fc= 4ksi Ec= 3605ksi Density= 150lb/ft 3 Rebar Properties fy= 60ksi Es= 29000ksi

Figure 7-2: Pier Elevation

7.2.3 Solution

Critical Depth

Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer) Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

Skin Friction

Factor from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 = Cohesion / Effective Overburden Pressure Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Layer4 Factor Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Layer4 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55 3.1746 0.8178 1.0672 1.9157

K Coefficient of lateral earth pressure from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.3 K=0.8 (for straight pier) Friction angle between soil and pier Calculated based on API RP 2A-WSD Table 6.4.3-1 Shaft friction (f), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 & 6.4.3 For cohesive soil layerf = x c For cohesionless soil layerf = K xPo x tan Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Layer4 Shaft Friction (psf) 550 605 1100 1650

Skin Friction Resistance (Qf), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.1 Qf = f x As Layer Layer1 Layer2 Qf (psf) 41.469 98.835

Modified Skin Friction Based on Neglected Zones for Skin Friction Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Layer4 Total Skin Friction Qf_modified (psf) 6.9115 98.835 110.584 165.876 382.206

Base Resistance

Unit end bearing (q), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.2 & 6.4.3 For cohesive soil layerq = 9 x c For cohesionless soil layerq =po x Nq Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Layer4 q (psf) 9000 9900 18000 27000

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from API RP 2A-WSD 6.4.1 Qp = q x Ap Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Layer4 End Bearing for bottom Layer Q

p_bott

= 339.292 kip

Unfactored Capacity

Factored Capacity

7.2.4 Comparison

Table 7-2: Drilled Pier (API) verification STAAD FounValue of dation Result UnfactoredTip Resistance 339.429 kip Unfactored Skin 382.486 kip Resistance Unfactored Total Axial 648.371 kip Capacity FactoredTip Resistance 113.143 kip Factored Skin Resistance 127.495 kip Factored Total Axial 216.124 kip Capacity example 2 comparison Reference Result 339.292 kip 382.206 kip 647.985 kip 113.097 kip 127.402 kip 215.995 kip Difference Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible

7.3.1 Reference

FHWA-IF-99-025

7.3.2 Problem

Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method:FHWA Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 2ft, pier height= 30ft, water level at 40ft. Soil Profile 1. Sand, 8ft deep, angle of friction 30deg, Avg Density 108lb/ft 3, N60- 11 2. Sand, 13ft deep, angle of friction 34deg, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, N60- 14 3. Clay - , 9ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, N60- 16 Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi Factor of safety 366 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

End bearing - 3 Skin Friction - 3 % of Capacity Used End bearing - 100% Skin Friction - 100% Neglected zone for skin friction Top - 5ft Bottom - Pier Dia = 2ft Concrete Properties fc= 4ksi Ec= 3605ksi Density= 150lb/ft 3 Rebar Properties fy= 60ksi Es= 29000ksi

Figure 7-3: Pier Elevation

7.3.3 Solution

Critical Depth

Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer) Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

Effective Overburden Pressure (lb/ft2) Layer1 432 Layer2 1579 Layer3 1925 Layer

Skin Friction

Factor from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.6 = 0.55 Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 0 0 0.55

Dimensionless correlation factor from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.18 Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Friction angle between soil and pier Assumed to be same as soil friction angle Shaft friction (f), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.16 & 11.17 For cohesive soil layerf = x su For cohesionless soil layerf = x vi Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Shaft Friction (psf) 389.50 1347.86 1100.0 0.9017 0.8536 0

Skin Friction Resistance (Qf), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2 Rs = f x As Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 Total Skin Friction Rs (kip) 19.578 110.095 62.204 191.877

Modified Skin Friction Based on Neglected Zones for Skin Friction Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer

Base Resistance

Unit end bearing (q), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.1, 11.2 & 11.4a For cohesive soil layerq = 9 x c For cohesionless soil layerq =po x Nq Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 q (kip) 13.2 15.6 5.611

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2 RB = q x Ap Layer Layer1 Layer2 Layer3 RB (kip) 41.469 49.009 17.628

Un-factored Capacity

Factored Capacity

7.3.4 Comparison

Table 7-3: Drilled Pier (FHWA) verification example 3 comparison STAAD FounReference Value of dation Difference Result Result UnfactoredTip Resistance 17.635 kip 17.628 kip Negligible Unfactored Skin 165.884 kip 165.817 kip Negligible Resistance Unfactored Total Axial 169.376 kip 169.308 kip Negligible Capacity FactoredTip Resistance 5.878 kip 5.876 kip Negligible Factored Skin Resistance 55.295 kip 55.272 kip Negligible Factored Total Axial 56.459 kip 56.436 kip Negligible Capacity

7.4.1 Reference

FHWA-IF-99-025

7.4.2 Problem

Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method:FHWA Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 4ft, pier height= 39ft, water level at 50ft. Soil Profile 1. Clay - , 6ft deep, cohesion 1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 105lb/ft 3, N60 10 2. Clay - , 13ft deep, cohesion 1.1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, N60 12 3. Clay - , 8ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 111lb/ft 3, N60 14 4. Clay - , 12ft deep, cohesion 3kip/ft 2, Avg Density 113lb/ft 3, N60 15 Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi Factor of safety End bearing - 3 Skin Friction - 3 % of Capacity Used End bearing - 100% Skin Friction - 100% Neglected zone for skin frictionTop - 5ft Bottom - Pier Dia = 4ft Verification Manual 371

Chapter 7 7.4 Drilled Pier Foundation 4 FHWA Concrete Properties fc= 4ksi Ec= 3605ksi Density= 150lb/ft 3 Rebar Properties fy= 60ksi Es= 29000ksi

Figure 7-4: Pier Elevation

7.4.3 Solution

Critical Depth

Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer) Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po Layer 1 2 3 4 Effective Overburden Pressure (lb/ft2) 315 1345 1874 1380

Skin Friction

Factor from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.6 = 0.55 (for all layers) Layer 1 2 3 4 0.55 0.55 0.55 0.55

Dimensionless correlation factor from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.18 = 0 (for all layers) Friction angle between soil and pier Assumed to be same as soil friction angle Shaft friction (f), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.16 & 11.17 For cohesive soil layerf = x su For cohesionless soil layerf = x vi Layer 1 2 3 4 Shaft Friction (psf) 550 605 1100 1650

Modified Skin Friction Based on Neglected Zones for Skin Friction Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer Layer 1 2 3 4 (Total Modified Skin Friction) Rs_modified (kip) 6.912 98.835 110.584 165.876 382.206

Base Resistance

Unit end bearing (q), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.1, 11.2 & 11.4a For cohesive soil layerq = 9 x c For cohesionless soil layerq =po x Nq Layer 1 2 3 4 q (kip) 3.646 3.880 5.611 27

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2 RB = q x Ap Layer 1 2 3 4 RB (kip) 45.815 48.759 70.510 339.292

Un-factored Capacity

Factored Capacity

7.4.4 Comparison

Table 7-4: Drilled Pier (FHWA) verification example 4 comparison STAAD FounReference Value of dation Difference Result Result Unfactored Tip Resistance 339.429 kip 339.292 kip Negligible Unfactored Skin 382.360 kip 382.206 kip Negligible Resistance Unfactored Total Axial 648.246 kip 647.985 kip Negligible Capacity FactoredTip Resistance 113.143 kip 113.097 kip Negligible Factored Skin Resistance 127.453 kip 127.453 kip Negligible Factored Total Axial 216.082 kip 213.658 kip Negligible Capacity

7.5.1 Reference

Alternate Vesic Method

7.5.2 Problem

Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method: Alternate Vesic Method Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 2ft, pier height= 30ft, water level at 40ft. Soil Profile 1. Sand, 8ft deep, angle of friction 30deg, Avg Density 108lb/ft 3, 2. Sand, 13ft deep, angle of friction 34deg, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, 3. Clay, 9ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3,

Chapter 7 7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi Factor of safety End bearing - 3 Skin Friction - 3 % of Capacity Used End bearing - 100% Skin Friction - 100% Neglected zone for skin friction Top - 5ft Bottom - Pier Dia = 2ft Concrete Properties fc= 4ksi Ec= 3605ksi Density= 150lb/ft 3 Rebar Properties fy= 60ksi Es= 29000ksi

Figure 7-5: Pier Elevation

7.5.3 Solution

Critical Depth

Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer) Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po

Layer 1 2 3

Skin Friction

Adhesion Factor for Drilled Pier in Cohesive Soil = 0.55 Layer 1 2 3 K Coefficient of lateral earth pressure K=0.8 (for straight pier) Lateral Earth Pressure and Friction Angle Factor Layer 1 2 3 Friction angle between soil and pier Assumed to be same as soil friction angle Shaft friction (f), from Alpha or Beta Method For cohesive soil layerf = x c For cohesionless soil layerf = K xPo x tan Layer 1 2 3 tan(1) = 0.675 Skin Friction Resistance (Qf), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2 Rs = f x As Layer 1 2 3 (Total Skin Friction) Rs (kip) 10.030 69.596 62.204 141.829 Shaft Friction (psf) 199.532 852.039 1100 0.462 0.540 0 0 0 0.55

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations 7.5 Drilled Pier Foundation 5 VESIC Qf (modified) is calculated by considering top and bottom neglect layer Rs_modified (kip) 1 3.761 2 69.596 3 48.381 (Total Modified Skin 121.737 Friction) Layer

Base Resistance

Cohesive Soil (Bottom Layer) Factor F = 1

r

Factor N

cp

=9

qp

=0

Unit end bearing (q), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 11.1, 11.2 & 11.4a For cohesive soil layer q = Fr x Nqp x c For cohesionless soil layer q =po x Nqp Layer 1 2 3 q (psf) 0 0 18000

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2 RB = q x Ap Layer 1 2 3 RB (kip) 0 0 56.549

Un-factored Capacity

Factored Capacity

7.5.4 Comparison

Table 7-5: Drilled Pier (Vesic) verification STAAD FounValue of dation Result UnfactoredTip Resistance 56.571 kip Unfactored Skin 121.824 kip Resistance Unfactored Total Axial 164.253 kip Capacity FactoredTip Resistance 18.857 kip Factored Skin Resistance 40.608kip Factored Total Axial 54.751 kip Capacity example 5 comparison Reference Result 16.549 kip 121.737 kip 164.149 kip 5.516 kip 40.579 kip 54.716 kip Difference Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible

7.6.1 Reference

Alternate Vesic Method

7.6.2 Problem

Design axial capacity for drilled pier with the given data: Design Method: Alternate Vesic Method Load Fy= 100kip, fc= 4ksi, fy= 60ksi, Straight pier, pier diameter= 4ft, pier height= 39ft, water level at 50ft. Soil Profile 1. Clay - , 6ft deep, cohesion 1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 105lb/ft 3, Density- Very Loose 2. Clay - , 13ft deep, cohesion 1.1kip/ft 2, Avg Density 110lb/ft 3, Density- Medium 3. Clay - , 8ft deep, cohesion 2kip/ft 2, Avg Density 111lb/ft 3, Density- Dense 4. Clay - , 12ft deep, cohesion 3kip/ft 2, Avg Density 113lb/ft 3, Density- Very Dense Elasticity of Soil 0.3ksi Factor of safety End bearing - 3 Skin Friction - 3 % of Capacity Used 380 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

End bearing - 100% Skin Friction - 100% Neglected zone for skin friction Top - 5ft Bottom - Pier Dia = 4ft Concrete Properties fc= 4ksi Ec= 3605ksi Density= 150lb/ft 3 Rebar Properties fy= 60ksi Es= 29000ksi

Figure 7-6: Pier Elevation

7.6.3 Solution

Critical Depth

Critical depth is set to be calculated by program

Po= (Soil Density of respective layer x Depth to the center of the layer) Effects of water and critical depth are also considered calculating Po Layer 1 2 3 Effective Overburden Pressure (psf) 315 1345 1874

Skin Friction

Adhesion Factor for Drilled Pier in Cohesive Soil = 0.55 (All layers)

K Coefficient of lateral earth pressure K=0.8 (for straight pier) Lateral Earth Pressure and Friction Angle Factor, = 0 (All layers) Friction angle between soil and pier Assumed to be same as soil friction angle Shaft friction (f), from Alpha or Beta Method For cohesive soil layerf = x c For cohesionless soil layerf = K xPo x tan Layer 1 2 3 4 tan( ) = 0

1

Section 7 Drilled Pier Foundations 7.6 Drilled Pier Foundation 6 Vesic Skin Friction Resistance (Qf), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2 Rs = f x As Layer 1 2 3 4 (Total Skin Friction) Rs (kip) 41.469 98.835 110.584 248.814 499.702

End Bearing for each layer (Qp), from FHWA-IF-99-025 Eqn 10.2 RB = q x Ap Layer 1 2 3 4 RB (kip) 0 0 0 339.292

Un-factored Capacity

Factored Capacity

7.6.4 Comparison

Table 7-6: Drilled Pier (Vesic) verification STAAD FounValue of dation Result UnfactoredTip Resistance 339.429 kip Unfactored Skin 382.360 kip Resistance Unfactored Total Axial 648.246 kip Capacity FactoredTip Resistance 113.143 kip Factored Skin Resistance 127.453 kip Factored Total Axial 216.082 kip Capacity example 6 comparison Reference Result 339.292 kip 382.206 kip 164.149 kip 113.097 kip 127.402 kip 54.716 kip Difference Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible

Section 8

Plant Foundation

8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1

8.1.1 Input Parameters

Geometric Description

Vessel Geometry

Effective Height, Hve = 10ft Effective Diameter, Dve = 4ft Center of Gravity, CG = 10 ft

Pedestal Geometry

Height, Tp = 1 ft Diameter, Dp = 5 ft

Footing Geometry

Minimum Footing Diameter = 10 ft Maximum Footing Diameter = 10 ft Minimum Footing Depth = 2 ft Maximum Footing Depth = 2 ft

Figure 8-1: Tank and foundation elevation

Figure 8-2: Anchor bolt plan

Bolt Circle Diameter, BCD = 14.875 ft Bolt Diameter, BD = 1.5 in. Sleeve Diameter, SD = 2 in Number of Anchor Bolts, Nb = 16 Effective Embedment Depth, heff = 1.5 ft

Design Parameters

Soil

Soil Depth, Ts = 0 ft Soil Density, Vsoil = 110 pcf Allowable Soil Bearing Pressure, SBC = 3.8 ksf

Concrete

Cover, cc = 0.25 ft Concrete Density, Vc = 15o pcf Concrete strength, f'c = 4 ksi

Reinforcement

fy = 60 ksi Bar Type : Imperial Minimum Bar Diameter = 4 Maximum Bar Diameter = 11

Stability

Minimum Stability Ratio = 1.5

Table 8-1: Primary load description Axial Force Base Moment Load Types (kip) (ftkip) Empty Load (De) 10 0 Operating Load 20 0 (Do) Test Load (Dt) 0 0 Erection Load 0 0 (Dr) Live Load (Dl) 0 0 Base Shear (kip) 0 0 0 0 0

8.1.2 Solution

Wind Load

Wind Load Calculation per ASCE 7-05 Partial Wind Case: Percentage of wind = 50% Verification Manual 387

Chapter 8 8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1 Wind Speed, V = 0 mph Exposure category D, Case 2 Wind Directionality Factor, Kd = 0.95 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-4 Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-4 Importance factor, IW = 1.15 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1 Gust Effect Factor, G = 0.85 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6.5.8 Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.9 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Gig. 6-20 & Fig. 6-21 Table 8-2: Wind loads Elevation Kz Pressure Width Area Shear Moment 1 1.03023 0 4 4 0 0 11 1.03023 0 4 40 0 0 Total Wind Shear = 0 kip Total Wind Moment = 0 kip-ft

Seismic Load

Importance Factor, I = 1 Fundamental Period, T = 6 s Long Period, TL = 12 s Site Class C Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at Short Period, Ss = 0 Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 Sec, S1 = 0 Short Period Site Coefficient at 0.2s Period, Fa = 1.2 Long Period Site Coefficient at 1.0s Period, Fv = 1.7 Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter st Short Period, SDS = 0 Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 sec, SD1 = 0 Response Modification Factor, R = 2

Cs = 0 Empty Seismic = C s x De = 0 kip Operating Seismic = C s x Do = 0 kip Test Seismic = C s x Dt = 0 kip

Table 8-3: Applied Load Combinations - Allowable Stress Level Load Erection Live User User User Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test Load Load Load Case Load Load 1 2 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0.9 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0.9 0 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0.83 0 0.83 0 0 0 0 0 Table 8-4: Applied Load Combinations - Strength Level Load Erection Live User User User Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test Load Load Load Case Load Load 1 2 3 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 8-5: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level Load Axial Shear Moment Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (kips) 20 2o 20 10 18 9 0 0 (kips) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (kip-ft) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Governing Loads

Axial = 20 kip Shear = 0 kip

Chapter 8 8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1 Moment = 0 ft-kip Table 8-6: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Strength Level Load Axial Shear Moment Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (kips) 10 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 (kips) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (kip-ft) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0

Governing Loads

Axial = 10 kip Shear = 0 kip Moment = 0 kip

Pedestal Design

Fu = 56.64 kip Check for minimum pedestal dimension is done in accordance with PIP STE 03350 Sect. 4.5.1 Minimum Pedestal Dimension = 15.625 ft Factored O.T.M. At Base Of Pedestal = 0 kip-ft Seismic Load Governing, hence use Vessel Operating Weight Nominal Axial Load (Empty/Operating), Du = 56.64 kip Weight of Pedestal = 3.1066 kip Dowel Circle Diameter, Dc = BCD Number of Dowels, Nd = 32 Tensile Force In Each Dowel Per PIP STC03350 4.5.4 F = 4M

u uped

/(N D ) - 0.9(D +W

d c u

ped

d

s_ped_req

u y

Minimum Dowel Reinforcement per PIP STC03350 4.5.5 : #5 - 32 Dowel Bar Size Provided = 5 Area of Steel Provided = -0.00819 in2 Area of steel required in pedestal, As, req = (dd)2 x pi/4 = 0.307 in2 Potential Conc. Failure Area per PIP STC03350 Fig. A, An = 5.5086 ft 2 390 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 8 Plant Foundation 8.1 Vertical Vessel Foundation 1 Compressive Force In Each Dowel Based on PIP STC03350 4.6.2 P =M

u b uped

/D +0.9 (D +W

c u

ped

) = 11.769 kip

c u n

Design Results

Stability Ratio is calculated based on PIP STE03350 Eqn. 15 Table 8-7: Stability Ratio Load Stability Eccentricity Case Ratio 1 0 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 0 6 0 7 0 8 0 Soil bearing calculations are per PIP STE03350 4.7.2 Table 8-8: Soil Bearing Check Load Max Soil Min Soil Case Bearing (ksf) Bearing (ksf) 1 0.2414 0.2414 2 0.2414 0.2414 3 0.2414 0.2414 4 0.4582 0.4582 5 0.2173 0.2173 6 0.4123 0.4123 7 0 0 8 0 0 Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fdia = 0.4582 ksf Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fflat = 0.4233 ksf

Concrete Design

One Way Shear

Figure 8-3: One-way shear dimensions

Location of Pedestal Face from Face of Footing, X1 = 2.7246 ft Location of Shear check from Face of Footing, X2 = 1.0006 ft Shear Stress, Vu = 0.266 ksf Factored Shear Stress Capacity per ACI318-05 Eqn. 11-3, VC = 13.66 ksf

Figure 8-4: Two-way shear check

Octagonal Perimeter, bo = 21.65 ft Punching Shear Force, Vu = 6.463 kip Factored Shear Capacity, Vc = 1019.8 kip

Reinforcement Calculations

Required development length for bars

Available development length for bars (From face of Pedestal to face of Footing) = 2.724551 ft

m = f / (0.85 f ) = 17.647

y c

2mR / f = 2.597(10)-3

n y

Area of Steel Required Ast,req = d1ft = 0.018 in2 min = 0.0018 Minimum Area of Steel Required Ast,min = min d 1 ft = 0.447 in2 Spacing Required, s = 8 in. Area of Steel Provided A

st_prov

b

Bar Size = 5

Final Dimensions

Footing Diameter, Df = 10 ft Footing Thickness, Tf = 2 ft

8.1.3 Comparison

Table 8-9: Vertical Vessel verification example 1 comparison STAAD FounHand CalPercent Difdation culations ference Result Footing Diagonal 10 10 none Footing Thickness 2 2 none Footing Soil Bear0.458 0.496 8% ing Stability Check 0 0 n/a One Way Shear 0.266 0.266 0% Check Punching Shear 6.463 6.564 2% Check Reinforcement Pro0.460 0.447 3% vided Note: Soil Bearing values are generated from graph; %diff also contains human errors.

8.2.1 Input Parameters

Geometrical Description

Vessel Geometry

Effective Height, Hve = 50 ft Effective Diameter, Dve = 13 ft Center of Gravity, CG = 8 ft

Pedestal Geometry

Height, Tp = 4 ft Diameter, Dp = 14 ft

Footing Geometry

Minimum Footing Diameter = 16 ft Maximum Footing Diameter = 24 ft Minimum Footing Depth = 1 ft Maximum Footing Depth = 16 ft

Figure 8-5: Tank and foundation elevation

Figure 8-6: Anchor bolt plan

Bolt Circle Diameter, BCD = 1.333 ft Bolt Diameter, BD = 168 in. Sleeve Diameter, SD = 1.5 in Number of Anchor Bolts, Nb = 14 Effective Embedment Depth, heff = 0.167 ft

Design Parameters

Soil

Soil Depth, Ts = 2 ft Soil Density, Vsoil = 110 pcf Allowable Soil Bearing Pressure, SBC = 4 ksf

Concrete

Cover, cc = 0.25 ft Concrete Density, Vc = 15o pcf Concrete strength, f'c = 4 ksi

Reinforcement

fy = 60 ksi Bar Type : Imperial Minimum Bar Diameter = 4 Maximum Bar Diameter = 11

Stability

Minimum Stability Ratio = 1.5

Table 8-10: Primary load description Axial Force Base Moment (ftLoad Types (kip) kip) Empty Load (De) -28 0 Operating Load -66 0 (Do) Test Load (Dt) -73 0 Erection Load -70 0 (Dr) Live Load (Dl) 0 0 Base Shear (kip) 0 0 0 0 0

Wind Load

Wind Load Calculation per ASCE 7-05 Partial Wind Case: Percentage of wind = 50%

Wind Speed, V = 110 mph Exposure category C, Case 2 Wind Directionality Factor, Kd = 0.95 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-4 Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-4 Importance factor, IW = 1.15 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1 Gust Effect Factor, G = 0.85 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6.5.8 Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Gig. 6-20 & Fig. 6-21 Table 8-11: Wind loads Elevation Kz Pressure Width Area 2 0.848884 0.028727 13 26 15 0.848884 0.028727 13 169 20 0.901885 0.030521 13 65 25 0.945265 0.031989 13 65 30 0.982253 0.033241 13 65 40 1.043581 0.035316 13 130 50 1.093775 0.037015 13 130 52 1.102844 0.037322 13 26 Total Wind Shear = 15.095 kip Total Wind Moment = 414.449 ft-kip Shear Moment 0.507899 0.507899 3.301344 28.06143 1.349026 23.60796 1.413912 31.81303 1.469238 40.40405 3.121944 109.268 3.272105 147.2447 0.659847 33.65219

Seismic Load

Importance Factor, I = 1 Fundamental Period, T = 4.1 s Long Period, TL = 12 s Site Class C Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at Short Period, Ss = 0.105 Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 Sec, S1 = 0.043 Short Period Site Coefficient at 0.2s Period, Fa = 1.2 Long Period Site Coefficient at 1.0s Period, Fv = 1.7 Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter st Short Period, SDS = 0.084 Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 sec, SD1 = 0.049 Response Modification Factor, R = 2

C s = 5.973x10-3

Empty Seismic = C s x De = 0.167 kip Operating Seismic = C s x Do = 0.394 kip Test Seismic = C s x Dt = 0.436 kip

Table 8-12: Applied Load Combination - Allowable Stress Level Load Erection Live User User User Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test Load Load Load Case Load Load 1 2 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0.9 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0.9 0 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0.83 0 0.83 0 0 0 0 0 Table 8-13: Applied Load Combination - Strength Level Load Erection Live User User User Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test Load Load Load Case Load Load 1 2 3 1 0 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 0 3 0 1.2 1.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 1.2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0.9 0 1.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0.9 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0.9 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 1.6 0 0 0.9 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 8-14: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level Load Axial Shear Moment (kip-ft) Case (kips) (kips) 1 66 0 0 2 66 15.09532 414.5593 3 66 0.275945 2.207563 4 28 15.09532 414.4493 5 59.4 0.275945 2.207563 6 25.2 0.117068 0.936542 7 70 7.547658 207.2797 8 60.59 6.264556 172.0421 398 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Governing Loads

Axial = 70 kip Shear = 15.09532 kip Moment = 414.5593 ft-kip Table 8-15: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Strength Level Load Axial Shear Moment (kips) (kip-ft) Case (kips) 1 92.4 0 0 2 79.2 0 0 3 79.2 24.15251 663.2949 4 79.2 0.394208 3.153661 5 25.2 24.15251 663.2949 6 59.4 0.394208 3.153661 7 25.2 0.16724 1.337917 8 63 12.07625 331.6474

Governing Loads

Axial = 92.4 kip Shear = 24.15251 kip Moment = 663.2949 kip

Pedestal Design

Fu = 56.64 kip Check for minimum pedestal dimension is done in accordance with PIP STE 03350 Sect. 4.5.1 Minimum Pedestal Dimension = 2.0833 ft Factored O.T.M. At Base Of Pedestal = 759.9049 kip-ft Seismic Load Governing, hence use Vessel Operating Weight Nominal Axial Load (Empty/Operating), Du = 56.64 kip Weight of Pedestal = 97.42292 kip Dowel Circle Diameter, Dc = BCD = 1.333 ft Number of Dowels, Nd = 32 Tensile Force In Each Dowel Per PIP STC03350 4.5.4 F = 4M

u uped

/(N D ) - 0.9(D +W

d c u

ped

d

s_ped_req

u y

Chapter 8 8.2 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Minimum Dowel Reinforcement per PIP STC03350 4.5.5 : #5 - 32 Dowel Bar Size Provided = 5 Area of Steel Provided = 1.472746 in. 2 Potential Conc. Failure Area per PIP STC03350 Fig. An = 0.060107 Compressive Force In Each Dowel Based on PIP STC03350 4.6.2 P =M

u c uped n

/D +0.9 (D +W

c u

ped

) = 728.889 kip

F = P /A = 84.211 ksi

u

Design Results

Stability Ratio is calculated based on PIP STE03350 Eqn. 15 Table 8-16: Stability Ratio Load Stability Eccentricity Case Ratio 1 0 0 2 2.376857 3.36579 3 0.017400 459.778 4 2.913937 2.74543 5 0.017975 445.060 6 0.009203 869.292 7 1.165810 6.86219 8 1.012977 7.89752 Soil bearing calculations are per PIP STE03350 4.7.2 Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fdia = 2.10298 ksf Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fflat = 1.94299 ksf

Concrete Design

One Way Shear

Figure 8-7: One-way shear dimensions

Location of Pedestal Face from Face of Footing (X1) = 1.62742 ft Location of Shear check from Face of Footing (X2) = 0.904783 ft Shear Stress, Vu = 4.185682 ksf Factored Shear Stress Capacity VC per ACI318-05 Eqn. 11-3 = 13.66104 ksf

Figure 8-8: Two-way shear check

Octagonal Perimeter, bo = 52.41798 ft Punching Shear Force, Vu = 17.5799 kip Factored Shear Capacity, Vc = 661.6144 kip

Reinforcement Calculations

Required development length for bars

Available development length for bars (From face of Pedestal to face of Footing) = 1.628742 ft Rn = Mu / (0.91ftd2) = 0.079 ksi m = fy / (0.85 fc) = 17.647 2mRn / fy = 0.047

st_req

min

st_min

=p

min

st_prov

b

Bar Size = 5

Final Dimensions

Footing Diameter = 16 ft Footing Thickness = 1 ft

8.2.2 Comparison

Table 8-17: Vertical Vessel verification example 2 comparison STAAD FounHand CalPercent Difdation culations ference Result Footing Diagonal 16 16 0 Footing Thickness 1 1 0 Footing Soil Bear2.1030 2.102 0 ing Stability Check 2.7454 2.748 0 One Way Shear 4.1857 4.193 0 Check Punching Shear 17.58 17.951 2 Check Reinforcement Pro0.20453 0.18765 9 vided

8.3.1 Input Parameters

Geometric Description

Vessel Geometry

Effective Height, Hve = 30 ft Effective Diameter, Dve - 10 ft Center of Gravity, CG = 8 ft

Pedestal Geometry

Height = 2 ft Diameter = 12 ft

Footing Geometry

Minimum Footing Diameter = 14 ft Maximum Footing Diameter = 16 ft Minimum Footing Depth = 1 ft Maximum Footing Depth = 2 ft

Figure 8-9: Tank and foundation elevation

Figure 8-10: Anchor bolt plan

Bolt Circle Diameter, BCD = 1.333 ft Bolt Diameter, BD = 132 in. Sleeve Diameter, SD= 1.5 in. Number of Anchor Bolts, Nb = 11 Effective Embedment Depth, heff = 0.167 fyt

Design Parameters

Soil

Soil Depth, Ts = 2 ft Soil Density, Vsoil = 110 pcf Allowable Soil Bearing Pressure, SBC = 4 ksf

Concrete

Cover, cc = 0.25 ft Concrete Density, Vc = 15o pcf Concrete strength, f'c = 4 ksi

Reinforcement

fy = 60 ksi Bar Type : Imperial Minimum Bar Diameter = 4 Maximum Bar Diameter = 11

Stability

Minimum Stability Ratio = 1.5

Table 8-18: Primary load description Axial Force Base Moment (ftLoad Types (kip) kip) Empty Load (De) -20 0 Operating Load -40 0 (Do) Test Load (Dt) -60 0 Erection Load -30 0 (Dr) Live Load (Dl) 0 0 Base Shear (kip) 0 0 0 0 0

8.3.2 Solution

Wind Load

Wind Load Calculation per ASCE 7-05 Partial Wind Case: Percentage of wind = 50%

Chapter 8 8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Wind Speed, V = 90 mph Exposure category B, Case 2 Wind Directionality Factor, Kd = 0.95 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-4 Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-4 Importance factor, IW = 1.15 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6-1 Gust Effect Factor, G = 0.85 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Table 6.5.8 Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8 ................................per ASCE 7-05 Gig. 6-20 & Fig. 6-21 Table 8-19: Wind loads Elevation Kz Pressure Width Area Shear Moment 1 0.57472 0.01302 10 10 0.088534 0.044267 15 0.57472 0.01302 10 140 1.23948 9.915838 20 0.623954 0.014135 10 50 0.480594 8.410392 25 0.66503 0.015066 10 50 0.512232 11.52522 30 0.700591 0.015871 10 50 0.539622 14.83962 Total Wind Shear = 2.86 kip Total Wind Moment = 44.735 ft-kip

Seismic Load

Importance Factor, I = 1 Fundamental Period, T = 4.1 s Long Period, TL = 12 s Site Class C Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at Short Period, Ss = 1.997 Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 Sec, S1 = 0.805 Short Period Site Coefficient at 0.2s Period, Fa = 1 Long Period Site Coefficient at 1.0s Period, Fv = 1.3 Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter st Short Period, SDS = 1.332 Design Spectral Response Acc. Parameter at 1 sec, SD1 = 0.697 Response Modification Factor, R = 2

C s = 0.805 Empty Seismic = C s x De = 1.701 kip Operating Seismic = C s x Do = 3.402 kip Test Seismic = C s x Dt = 5.103 kip

Table 8-20: Applied Load Combination - Allowable Stress Level Load Erection Live User User User Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test Load Load Load Case Load Load 1 2 3 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 2 0 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3 0 1 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0 0.9 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0.9 0 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 0.83 0 0.83 0 0 0 0 0 Table 8-21: Applied Load Combination - Strength Level Load Erection Live User User User Empty Operating Wind Seismic Test Load Load Load Case Load Load 1 2 3 1 0 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 0 3 0 1.2 1.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 4 0 1.2 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 0.9 0 1.6 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 0.9 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7 0.9 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 8 0 0 1.6 0 0 0.9 0 0 0 0 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 8-22: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level Load Axial Shear Moment Case 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (kips) 40 40 40 20 36 18 30 49.8 (kips) 0 2.8605 2.3816 2.8605 2.3816 1.1908 1.4302 1.1871 (kip-ft) 0 44.735 19.053 44.735 19.053 9.5264 22.368 18.565

Governing Loads

Axial = 49.8 kip Shear = 2.86046 kip Moment = 44.73534 kip-ft Table 8-23: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Strength Level Load Axial Shear Moment Case (kips) (kips) (kip-ft) 1 56 0 0 2 48 0 0 3 48 4.5767 71.577 4 48 3.4023 27.218 5 18 4.5767 71.577 6 36 3.4023 27.218 7 18 1.7011 13.609 8 27 2.2884 35.788

Governing Loads

Axial = 56 kips Shear 4.57674 kips Moment = 71.5765 ft-kip

Pedestal Design

Fu = 56.64 kip Check for minimum pedestal dimension is done in accordance with PIP STE 03350 Sect. 4.5.1 Minimum Pedestal Dimension = 2.08333 ft Factored O.T.M. At Base Of Pedestal = 80.730 kip-ft Seismic Load Governing, hence use Vessel Operating Weight Nominal Axial Load (Empty/Operating), Du = 56.64 kip Weight of Pedestal = 35.788 kip Dowel Circle Diameter, Dc = BCD = 1.333 ft Number of Dowels, Nd = 32 Tensile Force In Each Dowel Per PIP STC03350 4.5.4 F = 4M

u uped

/(N D ) - 0.9(D +W

d c u

ped

d

s_ped_req

u y

Section 8 Plant Foundation 8.3 Vertical Vessel Foundation Design Minimum Dowel Reinforcement per PIP STC03350 4.5.5 : #5 - 32 Dowel Bar Size Provided = 5 Area of Steel Provided = 0.11582 in2 Area of steel required in pedestal, As, req = (dd)2 x pi/4 = 0.307 in2 Potential Conc. Failure Area per PIP STC03350 Fig. A, An = 0.075956ft 2 Compressive Force In Each Dowel Based on PIP STC03350 4.6.2 P =M

u b uped

/D +0.9 (D +W

c u

ped

) = 135.957 kip

c u n

soil

= 9.477 kip

Design Results

Stability Ratio is calculated based on PIP STE03350 Eqn. 15 Table 8-24: Stability Ratio Load Stability Eccentricity Case Ratio 1 0 0 2 0.4864 14.392 3 0.2390 29.291 4 0.5949 11.766 5 0.2480 28.222 6 0.1495 46.825 7 0.2676 26.159 8 0.1853 37.780 Soil bearing calculations are per PIP STE03350 4.7.2 Table 8-25: Soil Bearing Check Load Max Soil Min Soil Case Bearing (ksf) Bearing (ksf) 1 0.6751 0.2453 2 0.8672 0.3164 3 0.7695 0.2808 4 0.7440 0.7440 5 0.7449 0.2539 6 0.5402 0.5402 7 0.7100 0.2137 8 0.8152 0.3399 Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fdia = 0.8672 ksf Max Diagonal Soil Bearing Pressure, fflat = 0.8012 ksf

Concrete Design

One Way Shear

Figure 8-11: One-way shear dimensions

Location of Pedestal Face from Face of Footing, X1 = 1.538921 ft Location of Shear check from Face of Footing, X2 = 0.814963 ft Shear Stress, Vu = 0.90518 ksf Factored Shear Stress Capacity per ACI318-05 Eqn. 11-3, VC = 13.66104 ksf

Figure 8-12: Two-way shear check

Octagonal Perimeter, bo = 45.137 ft Punching Shear Force, Vu = 12.085 kip Factored Shear Capacity, Vc = 589.61 kip

Reinforcement Calculations

Required development length for bars

Available development length for bars (From face of Pedestal to face of Footing) = 1.538921 ft Rn = Mu / (0.91ftd2) = 0.014 ksi m = fy / (0.85 fc) = 17.647 2mRn / fy = 7.944(10)-3

st,req

min

st,min

min

st_prov

b

Bar Size = 5

Final Dimensions

Footing Diameter = 14 ft Footing Thickness = 1 ft

8.3.3 Comparison

Table 8-26: Vertical Vessel verification example 3 comparison STAAD FounHand CalPercent Difdation culations ference Result Footing Diagonal 14 14 none Footing Thickness 1 1 none Footing Soil Bear0.8672 0.835 4% ing Stability Check 11.766 12.898 9% One Way Shear 0.9052 1.13 20% Check Punching Shear 12.085 12.338 2% Check Reinforcement Pro0.2045 0.1878 9% vided

Location Santa Ana California S1 = 0.5312, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1 Ss = 1.378, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1 Site Class = A, Based On Soil Prorperties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20 R = 2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2 I = 1.25, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1 T = 3 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Perios per ASCE 7 12.8.2 Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kips Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kips Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal (CG) = 120 in. Fa = 0.8 Short-Period Site Coeffiecient per ASCE 7 11.4.3 Fv = 0.8 Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3 SDS = 0.735, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7 11.4.4 SD1 = 0.283, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7 11.4.4 C s = 0.059, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1 Empty Load Case Base Shear = 5.902 kip 412 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 8 Plant Foundation 8.5 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 2 Operating Load Case Base Shear = 11.804 kip Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment = 59.021 kip ft Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment = 118.043 kip ft

Comparison

Table 8-27: Vertical Vessel verification example 4 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Base Shear Empty Case 5.902132222 5.902 0.0022403 (kip) Base Shear Operating Case 11.80426444 11.804 0.0022403 (kip) Base Moment Empty Case 59.02132222 59.021 0.00054595 (kip ft) Base Moment Operating 118.0426444 118.043 0.00030121 Case (kip ft)

Location Yorba Linda California Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1, S1 = 0.857367 Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1, SS = 2.09511 Site Class = B, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20 Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2, R = 2 Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1, I = 1.0 Fundamental Period of Vessel, T = 6 sec. Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2, TL = 5 sec. Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kip Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kip Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 10 ft Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FA = 1 Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FV = 1 SDS = 1.397, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7 11.4.4 SD1 = 0.572, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7 11.4.4 C S = 0.04, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1 Verification Manual 413

Chapter 8 8.6 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 3 Empty Load Case Base Shear Shearempty = C S x Empty wt = 3.969 kips Operating Load Case Base Shear Shearoperating = C S x Operatingwt = 7.939 kips Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment Moment empty = Shearempty x CG = 39.693 kip*ft Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment Moment operating = Shearoperating x CG = 79.386 kip*ft

Comparison

Table 8-28: Vertical Vessel verification example 5 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Base Shear Empty Case 3.9693 3.969 0.007 (kip) Base Shear Operating Case 7.9386 7.939 0.005 (kip) Base Moment Empty Case 39.693 39.69 0.007 (kip ft) Base Moment Operating 79.3858 79.39 0.005 Case (kip ft)

Location San Antonio, Texas Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1, S1 = 0.034656 Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1, SS = 0.12141 Site Class = C, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20 Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2, R = 3 Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1, I= 1.5 Fundamental Period of Vessel,T = 4 sec. Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2, TL = 12 sec. Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kips Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kips Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 10 ft Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FA = 1.2 414 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 8 Plant Foundation 8.7 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 4 Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FV = 1.7 SDS = 0.097, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7 11.4.4 SD1 = 0.039, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7 11.4.4 C S = 4.91x10-3, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1 Empty Load Case Base Shear Shearempty = C S x Empty wt = 0.491 kips Operating Load Case Base Shear Shearoperating = C S x Operatingwt = 0.982 kips Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment Moment empty = Shearempty x CG =4.91 kip*ft Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment Moment operating = Shearoperating x CG = 9.819 kip*ft

Comparison

Table 8-29: Vertical Vessel verification example 6 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Base Shear Empty Case 0.49096 0.491 0.0081 (kip) Base Shear Operating Case 0.98192 0.982 0.0081 (kip) Base Moment Empty Case 4.9096 4.91 0.0081 (kip ft) Base Moment Operating 9.8192 9.82 0.0081 Case (kip ft)

Location New York, New York Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1, S1 = 0.0937194 Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1, SS = 0.42416 Site Class = D Site Class Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20 Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2, R = 3

Chapter 8 8.8 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 5 Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1, I= 1.0 Fundamental Period of Vessel,T = 4 sec. Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2, TL = 12 sec. Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kips Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kips Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 10 ft Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FA = 1.461 Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FV = 2.4 SDS = 0.413, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7 11.4.4 SD1 = 0.15 Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7 11.4.4 C S = 0.012, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1 Empty Load Case Base Shear Shearempty = C S x Empty wt = 1.25 kips Operating Load Case Base Shear Shearoperating = C S x Operatingwt = 2.499 kips Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment Moment empty = Shearempty x CG = 12.496 kip*ft Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment Moment operating = Shearoperating x CG =24.992 kip*ft

Comparison

Table 8-30: Vertical Vessel verification example 7 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Base Shear Empty Case 1.249592 1.25 0.03264 (kip) Base Shear Operating Case 2.499184 2.499 0.00736295 (kip) Base Moment Empty Case 12.49592 12.496 0.0006402 (kip ft) Base Moment Operating 24.99184 24.992 0.0006402 Case (kip ft)

Location Nashville, Tennessee 416 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 8 Plant Foundation 8.8 Vertical Vessel Seismic Load Generation 5 Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1, S1 = 0.145056 Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1, SS = 0.32156 Site Class = E, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20 Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2, R = 2 Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1, I= 1.0 Fundamental Period of Vessel,T = 12 sec. Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2, TL = 8 sec. Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kips Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kips Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 10 ft Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FA = 2.271 Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3, FV = 3.365 SDS = 0.487, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7 11.4.4 SD1 = 0.325, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7 11.4.4 C S = 9.039x10-3, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1 Empty Load Case Base Shear Shearempty = C S x Empty wt = 0.904 kips Operating Load Case Base Shear Shearoperating = C S x Operatingwt = 1.808 kips Empty Load Case Earthquake Moment Moment empty = Shearempty x CG = 9.039 kip*ft Operating Load Case Earthquake Moment Moment operating = Shearoperating x CG =18.077 kip*ft

Comparison

Table 8-31: Vertical Vessel verification example 8 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Base Shear Empty Case 0.903868649 0.904 0.01452995 (kip) Base Shear Operating Case 1.807737298 1.808 0.01452995 (kip) Base Moment Empty Case 9.038686492 9.039 0.00346839 (kip ft) Base Moment Operating 18.07737298 18.077 0.00206331 Case (kip ft)

Location Santa Ana California S1 = 0.5312, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1 Ss = 1.378, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1 Site Class = A; Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20 R = 2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2 I = 1.0, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1 TL = 12 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2 Empty Weight Of Vessel, Ewt = 100 kip Operating Weight of Vessel, Operatingwt = 200 kip Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 9 ft Fa = 0.9, Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3 Fv =0.8, Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3 SDS = 0.735, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7 11.4.4 SD1 = 0.283, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7 11.4.4 C S = 0.024, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1 Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition V = CsOperating

wt

= 4.722 kip

Comparison

Table 8-32: Vertical Vessel verification example 9 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Seismic Response Coef0.02361 0.024 1.631 ficient (C s) Base Shear Operating 4.722 4.722 0.006 Case (kip)

Location Yorba Linda California 92887 S1, 0.8574, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1 SS = 2.0951, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1 Site Class = B, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20 R = 2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2 I = 1.0, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1 T = 4 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2 Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kip Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kip Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 2.5 ft Fa = 1, Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3 Fv = 1, Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3 SDS = 1.397, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7 11.4.4 SD1 = 0.572, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7 11.4.4 C S = 0.071, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1 Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition V = CsOperating

wt

= 14.289 kip

Comparison

Table 8-33: Vertical Vessel verification example 10 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Seismic Response Coef0.0715 0.071 0.63 ficient (C s) Base Shear Operating 14.289 14.289 0.002 Case (kip)

Location Mountain Valley 73062 S1 = 0.0884, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1 SS = 0.329, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1 Site Class = C, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20 R = 2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2 I = 1.0, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1 T = 3 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2 Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kip Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kip Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 2.5 ft Fa = 1.2, Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3 Fv = 1.7, Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3 SDS 0.263, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7 11.4.4 SD1 = 0.1, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7 11.4.4 C S = 0.017, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1 Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition V = CsOperating

wt

=3.339 kip

Comparison

Table 8-34: Vertical Vessel verification example 11 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Seismic Response Coef0.0167 0.017 1.787 ficient (C s) Base Shear Operating 3.339 3.339 0.007 Case (kip)

Location San Bernadino 92411 S1 = 1.415, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1 SS = 2.984, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1 Site Class = D, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20 R =2, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2 I = 1.0, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1 T = 3.5 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Period per ASCE 7 12.8.2 Empty Weight Of Vessel = 100 kip Operating Weight of Vessel = 200 kip Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal, CG = 9 ft Fa = 1, Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3 Fv = 1.5, Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3 SDS = 1.989, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7 11.4.4 SD1 = 1.415, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7 11.4.4 C s = 0.202, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1 Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition V = CsOperating

wt

= 40.429 kip

Comparison

Table 8-35: Vertical Vessel verification example 12 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Seismic Response Coef0.2021 0.202 none ficient (C s) Base Shear Operating 40.429 40.429 none Case (kip)

Vessel Data

Height of Vessel, H = 60 ft Diameter of Vessel, D = 15 ft Vessel Time Period, t = 5 sec. Pedestal height Above Ground = 1 ft Vessel Frequency, f = 1/t = 0.2 Hz

Wind Parameters

Wind Speed = 80 mph Wind Directional Factor, Kd = 0.95, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6 Wind Exposure = C Exposure Case = 2 Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1.0, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.7.2 Importance factor, I = 1.15, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.5 Gust Wind Effect Factor, G = 0.85, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.8 Net Force Coefficient, C f = 1, per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-20 & 6-21

Velocity Pressure

Exposure Coefficient, Kz, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6 Design Wind Pressure per ASCE 7-05 6.5.10 q = 0.00256K K VIGC

z d z f

z f

qz (psf) 15.195 15.195 16.143 16.920 17.582 18.680 19.578 20.344 20.415

F (kip) 0.194 2.712 1.029 1.079 1.121 2.382 2.496 2.594 0.260 13.867

M (ftkip) 0.097 21.698 18.010 24.269 30.823 83.823 112.329 142.663 15.748 448.995

Total Shear Force at Top of Pier = 13.867 kip Total Moment at Top of Pier = 448.995 ftkip

Comparison

Table 8-36: Vertical Vessel verification example 13 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Wind Shear on Top of Pier 13.867 13.867 none (kip) Wind Moment of Top of 448.995 448.898 negligible Pier (ftkip)

Vessel Data

Height of Vessel, h = 74 ft Diameter of Vessel, D = 20 ft Vessel Time Period, t = 5 sec. Pedestal height Above Ground = 3 ft Vessel Frequency, f = 1/t = 0.2 Hz

Wind Parameters

Wind Speed = 90 mph Wind Directional Factor, Kd = 0.95, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6 Wind Exposure = D Exposure Case = 2 Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1.0, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.7.2 Importance factor, I = 1.15, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.5 Verification Manual 423

Chapter 8 8.15 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 3 Gust Wind Effect Factor, G = 0.85, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.8 Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8, per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-20 & 6-21

Velocity Pressure

Exposure Coefficient, Kz, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6 Design Wind Pressure per ASCE 7-05 6.5.10 q = 0.00256K K VIGC

z d z f

z f

Moment on Top of Pier M = F x Moment Arm Kz 1.030 1.030 1.083 1.126 1.162 1.222 1.270 1.311 1.347 1.369 qz (psf) 23.339 23.339 24.536 25.507 26.329 27.680 28.775 29.702 30.509 31.019 A (ft2) 20 280 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 140 F (kip) 0.317 4.444 1.668 1.734 1.790 3.764 3.913 4.039 4.149 2.953 28.77 M (ftkip) 0.159 35.550 29.198 39.026 49.235 131.756 176.103 222.171 269.700 217.046 1169.945

Total Shear Force at Top of Pier = 28.774 kip Total Moment at Top of Pier = 1169.945 ftkip

Comparison

Table 8-37: Vertical Vessel verification example 14 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Wind Shear on Top of 28.774 28.774 none Pier (kip) Wind Moment of Top of 1169.945 1168.516 0.12 Pier (ftkip)

Vessel Data

Height of Vessel = 74 ft 424 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 8 Plant Foundation 8.15 Vertical Vessel Wind Load Generation 3 Diameter of Vessel = 20 ft Vessel Time Period, t = 5 sec. Pedestal height Above Ground = 3 ft Vessel Frequency, f = 1/t = 0.2 Hz

Wind Parameters

Wind Speed = 110 mph Wind Directional Factor, Kd = 0.95, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6 Wind Exposure = B Exposure Case = 2 Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1.0, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.7.2 Importance factor, I = 1.15, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.5 Gust Wind Effect Factor, G = 0.85, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.8 Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8, per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-20 & 6-21

Velocity Pressure

Exposure Coefficient, Kz, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6 Design Wind Pressure per ASCE 7-05 6.5.10 q = 0.00256K K VIGC

z d z f

z f

Moment on Top of Pier M = F x Moment Arm Kz 0.575 0.575 0.624 0.665 0.701 0.761 0.811 0.854 0.892 0.917 qz (psf) 19.449 19.449 21.115 22.505 23.709 25.740 27.434 28.901 30.203 31.037 A (ft2) 20 280 100 100 100 200 200 200 200 140 F (kip) 0.265 3.703 1.436 1.530 1.612 3.501 3.731 3.931 4.108 2.955 26.771 M (ftkip) 0.132 29.625 25.127 34.433 44.336 122.522 167.899 216.183 266.993 217.169 1124.42

Total Shear Force at Top of Pier 26.771 kip Total Moment at Top of Pier = 1124.42 ftkip

Comparison

Table 8-38: Vertical Vessel verification example 15 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Wind Shear on Top of 26.771 26.771 none Pier (kip) Wind Moment of Top of 1124.42 1123.23 0.11 Pier (ftkip)

Vessel Data

Height of Vessel = 22 ft Diameter of Vessel = 6 ft Vessel Time Period, t = 5 sec. Pedestal height Above Ground = 2 ft Vessel Frequency, f = 1/t = 0.2 Hz

Wind Parameters

Wind Speed = 110 mph Wind Directional Factor, Kd = 0.95, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6 Wind Exposure = B Exposure Case = 2 Topographic Factor, Kzt = 1.0, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.7.2 Importance factor, I = 1.15, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.5 Gust Wind Effect Factor, G = 0.85, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.8 Net Force Coefficient, C f = 0.8, per ASCE 7-05 Fig. 6-20 & 6-21

Exposure Coefficient, Kz, per ASCE 7-05 6.5.6.6 Design Wind Pressure per ASCE 7-05 6.5.10 q = 0.00256K K VIGC

z d z f

z f

Total Shear Force at Top of Pier = 1.984 kip Total Moment at Top of Pier = 24.452 ftkip

Comparison

Table 8-39: Vertical Vessel verification example 16 comparison STAAD FounReference Percent DifValue of dation Result ference Result Wind Shear on Top of Pier 1.984 1.984 none (kip) Wind Moment of Top of 24.452 24.293 negligible Pier (ftkip)

Pier Design Philosophy

Vessel Loads

You are provided an option of making both piers identical, engineering and installation errors can be avoided by doing so. If making them identical does not lead to economical solution, then check applied load distribution, follow PIP 4.3 Operating Load = 106 kip Empty Load = 92 kip Test Load = 118 kip A major difference between pier loads is caused by longitudinal seismic load (i.e., when vessel is located in higher seismic area). Thermal load and bundle pull force also contribute towards the difference. Thermal Load = 0 kip Live Load = 0 kip Erection Load = 110 kip

Anchor bold dia., Db = 1 in BP = 0 kip

Chapter 8 8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1 Bolt spacing = 9 in Bolt edge dist. = 6 in center-to-center = 2 in

Vessel CG from Top of Pier = 7 ft - 5ft/2 = 4.5 ft Tan to Tan Length, L = 23.5 ft CL to CL of AB, Lab = 11 ft

Vessel Outer Dim including Insulation = 42 in % Distribution For Vertical Loads At Fixed End = 40% % Distribution For Vertical Loads At Sliding End = 60% CG to Bott of Baseplate = 10 ft Empty Load at fixed end = 36.8 kip Operating Load at fixed end = 42.4 kip

Earthquake Loads

Transverse Earthquake Load Operating Condition Bottom of the Base Plate to HPFS (est) = 10 kip Longitudinal Earthquake Load Operating Condition = 15 kip Transverse Earthquake Load Empty Condition = 9 kip Longitudinal Earthquake Load Empty Condition= 10 kip X = long Z = trans

Wind Loads

= 0.4 Transverse Wind Load on Vessel = 10 kip Longitudinal Wind Load on Vessel = 3.5 kip Longitudinal Wind Load on Pier = 0.5 kip

Table 8-40: Service level load combinations per PIP Load W W Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle EQTrans EQLong Live Erection Comb. Trans Long 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 9 0 0.9 0 0 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0.9 0 0 0 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 11 0.9 0 0 0 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 12 0.9 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 15 0 0 0.83 0 0 0 0 0.415 0 0 0 16 0 0 0.83 0 0 0 0 0 0.415 0 0 17 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 8-41: Strength level load combinations per PIP Load W W Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle EQTrans EQLong Live Erection Comb. Trans Long 1 0 1.4 0 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1.2 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 3 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 0 4 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 5 0 1.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 7 0.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 0 8 0.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 9 0 0.9 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0.9 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 11 0.9 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 12 0.9 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 0.9 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0.9 15 0 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 0.8 0 0 0 16 0 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.8 0 0 17 0.9 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 0 0 0 0

Chapter 8 8.17 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 1 Table 8-42: Service level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier Axial Transverse Longitudinal Load Longitudinal Transverse Load Moment Moment (ftComb. Shear (kip) Shear (kip) (kip) (ft-kip) kip) 1 42.4 0 0 0 0 2 42.4 0 0 0 0 3 42.4 0 5 0 0 4 42.4 2.25 0 0 0 5 42.4 0 7 0 0 6 42.4 10.5 0 0 0 7 36.8 0 5 0 0 8 36.8 2.25 0 0 0 9 38.16 0 4.9 0 0 10 38.16 7.35 0 0 0 11 33.12 0 4.41 0 0 12 33.12 4.9 0 0 0 13 44.0 0 5 0 0 14 44.0 2.25 0 0 0 15 39.176 0 2.075 0 0 16 39.176 0.9338 0 0 0 17 36.8 0 0 0 0 Table 8-43: Strength level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier Axial Transverse Longitudinal Load Longitudinal Transverse Load Moment Moment (ftComb. Shear (kip) Shear (kip) (kip) (ft-kip) kip) 1 59.36 0 0 0 0 2 50.88 0 0 0 0 3 50.88 0 4 0 0 4 50.88 3.6 0 0 0 5 50.88 0 7 0 0 6 50.88 10.5 0 0 0 7 33.12 0 4 0 0 8 33.12 3.6 0 0 0 9 38.16 0 7 0 0 10 38.16 10.5 0 0 0 11 33.12 0 6.3 0 0 12 33.12 7 0 0 0 13 39.60 0 4 0 0 14 39.60 3.6 0 0 0 15 56.64 0 2 0 0 16 56.64 1.8 0 0 0 17 33.12 0 0 0 0

Comparison

Hand Calculation results exactly match the results of STAAD Foundation analysis.

Pier Design Philosophy

Vessel Loads

You are provided an option of making both piers identical, engineering and installation errors can be avoided by doing so. If making them identical does not lead to economical solution, then check applied load distribution, follow PIP 4.3 Operating Load = 150 kip Empty Load = 100 kip Test Load = 160 kip A major difference between pier loads is caused by longitudinal seismic load (i.e., when vessel is located in higher seismic area). Thermal load and bundle pull force also contribute towards the difference. Thermal Load = 0 Bundle Pull Force = 0 Live Load = 0 Erection Load = 110 kip

Anchor bold dia., Db = 1 in BP = 0 kip Bolt spacing = 9 in Bolt edge dist. = 6 in center-to-center = 2 in

Vessel CG from Top of Pier = 7 ft - 6.5ft/2 = 3.75 ft Tan to Tan Length, L = 23.5 ft CL to CL of AB, Lab = 11 ft

Vessel Outer Dim including Insulation = 42 in % Distribution For Vertical Loads At Fixed End = 40% % Distribution For Vertical Loads At Sliding End = 60% Verification Manual 431

Chapter 8 8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2 CG to Bott of Baseplate = 10 ft Empty Load at fixed end = 40 kip Operating Load at fixed end = 60 kip

Earthquake Loads

Location Corona 92880 S1 = 0.882, Spectral Response Acceleration at Short Periods determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1 SS = 2.296, Spectral Response Acceleration at Period of 1 sec determined in accordance with ASCE 7 11.4.1 Site Class = D, Based On Soil Properties In Accordance With ASCE 7 Chapter 20 R = 1, Response modification Coefficient per ASCE 7 Tables 15.4-1 or 15.4-2 I = 1.15, Importance Factor per ASCE 7 11.5.1 T = 6 sec., Fundamental Period of Vessel TL = 12 sec., Long-Period Transition Periods per ASCE 7 12.8.2 Center of Gravity Of Vessel From Top Of Pedestal = 7 ft +10.416 ft - 5 ft = fa = , Short-Period Site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3 fv = , Long-Period site Coefficient per ASCE 7 11.4.3 SDS = 1.53, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at short periods per ASCE 7 11.4.4 SD1 = 0.882, Design Spectral Response Acceleration Parameter at period of 1 sec per ASCE 7 11.4.4 C S = 0.074, Seismic Response Coefficient Per ASCE 7 12.8.1.1 Base Shear Based on Operating Load Condition = 11.029 kip Base Shear Based on Empty Load Condition = 7.352 kip Transverse Earthquake Load Operating Condition = 11.029 kip Longitudinal Earthquake Load Operating Condition Transverse Earthquake Load Empty Condition= 7.352 kip Longitudinal Earthquake Load Empty Condition= 7.352 kip

Wind Loads

Transverse Wind Load on Vessel = 10 kip Bottom of the Base Plate to HPFS (est) = 0.4 Longitudinal Wind Load on Vessel = 3.5 kip Longitudinal Wind Load on Pier = 0.5 kip Transverse Wind Moment at top of pedestal = 20 ft-kip X = long 432 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 8 Plant Foundation 8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2 Z = trans Longitudinal Wind Load at top of pedestal = 10 ft-kip

Table 8-44: Service level load combinations per PIP Load W W Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle EQTrans EQLong Live Erection Comb. Trans Long 1 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 3 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 4 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 5 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 1 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 8 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 9 0 0.9 0 0 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0.9 0 0 0 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 11 0.9 0 0 0 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 0 12 0.9 0 0 0 0 0 0.7 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 1 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 1 15 0 0 0.83 0 0 0 0 0.415 0 0 0 16 0 0 0.83 0 0 0 0 0 0.415 0 0 17 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 Table 8-45: Strength level load combinations per PIP Load W W Empty Operating Test Thermal Bundle EQTrans EQLong Live Erection Comb. Trans Long 1 0 1.4 0 1.4 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 1.2 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 3 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 0 4 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 5 0 1.2 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 6 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 7 0.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 0 8 0.9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 9 0 0.9 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 0.9 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 11 0.9 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 12 0.9 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 0.9 14 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1.6 0 0.9 15 0 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 0.8 0 0 0 16 0 0 1.2 0 0 0 0 0 0.8 0 0 17 0.9 0 0 0 1.6 0 0 0 0 0 0

Chapter 8 8.18 Horizontal Vessel Applied Loads 2 Table 8-46: Service level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier Axial Transverse Longitudinal Load Longitudinal Transverse Load Moment Moment (ftComb. Shear (kip) Shear (kip) (kip) (ft-kip) kip) 1 60 0 0 0 0 2 60 0 0 0 0 3 60 0 2.5 5 0 4 60 1.125 0 0 10 5 60 0 5.404 20.27 0 6 60 5.404 0 0 20.27 7 40 0 2.5 5 0 8 40 1.125 0 0 10 9 54 0 3.783 14.19 0 10 54 3.783 0 0 14.19 11 36 0 2.522 9.457 0 12 36 2.522 0 0 9.457 13 44 0 2.5 5 0 14 44 1.125 0 0 10 15 53.12 0 1.038 2.075 0 16 53.12 0.467 0 0 4.150 17 40 0 0 0 0

Table 8-47: Strength level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier Axial Transverse Longitudinal Load Longitudinal Transverse Load Moment Moment (ftComb. Shear (kip) Shear (kip) (kip) (ft-kip) kip) 1 84 0 0 0 0 2 72 0 0 0 0 3 72 0 4 8 0 4 72 1.8 0 0 16 5 72 0 5.404 20.27 0 6 72 5.404 0 0 20.27 7 36 0 4 8 0 8 36 1.8 0 0 16 9 54 0 5.404 20.27 0 10 54 5.404 0 0 20.27 11 36 0 3.602 13.509 0 12 36 3.602 0 0 13.509 13 39.6 0 4 8 0 14 39.6 1.8 0 0 16 15 76.8 0 2 4 0 16 76.8 0.9 0 0 8 17 36 0 0 0 0

Comparison

Hand Calculation results exactly match the results of STAAD Foundation analysis.

Section 9

The manual test cases in accordance with Chinese standard GB50007-2002 design. PKPM and the Foundation of the input data consistent, easy to check the results

Independent bases for design details This example is included in the \VERIFICATION\CHINESE\ISO_CHN.AFS example file for reference. Overview of tapered design results based on Table 9-1: Overview of cone footing design results Basic Geometry (Conical Base) Node Group Length Width (Z Edge height Number Number Thickness (X Dir.) Dir.) (should be > 0.2 m) 1 1 3.000 m 3.000 m 1.000 m 0.500 m Table 9-2: Reinforcement details Base Number 1 Base Reinforcement Bottom Reinf. Bottom Reinf. Main Stirrups (Mz) (Mx) Bars # 10 @ 60 mm c / # 10 @ 60 mm c / N / A N/A c c Foundation Reinforcement

9.1.1 Problem

Characteristics of Concrete and Steel

Heavy concrete units: 18.000 kN/m3 Compressive strength of concrete: 11.900 N/mm2 Reinforcement strength: 210.000 N/mm2 Minimum bar size: # 6 Maximum bar size: # 50 Minimum bar spacing: 50.00 mm Maximum bar spacing: 500.00 mm Clear Cover Reinforcement layer thickness (F, CL): 50.00 mm

Soil Characteristics

Unit Weight: 18.00 kN/m3 Foundation bearing capacity: 180.00 kPa Surcharge: 0.00 kN/m2 Height of soil above footing: 2000.00 mm

Geometry Information

Initial size of base

Thickness (Ft) : 1000.00 mm Length - X (Fl) : 3000.00 mm Width - Z (Fw) : 3000.00 mm Edge height of the cone footing (St) : 500.00 mm

Column Dimension

Column Shape: Rectangular Column length - X (Pl) : 600.00 mm Column width - Z (Pw) : 600.00 mm

Column Cap

Column cap length - X : N/A Column cap width - Z : N/A

9.1.2 Solution

Table 9-3: Loads for foundation base size estimation -For foundation base (1) Condition Vertical Shear X Shear Z Moment X Moment Z No. Force (KN) (KN) (KN) (kNm) (kNm) 101 1000.000 0.000 0.000 99.998 99.998 Table 9-4: Loads for Punching shear check and reinforcements- For foundation base (1) Vertical Force Shear X Shear Z Moment X Moment Z LC (KN) (KN) (KN) (kNm) (kNm) 102 1000.000 0.000 0.000 99.998 99.998

Basic dimensions

Initial size (Lo) = 3.00 m Initial size (Wo) = 3.00 m Net buoyancy = -0.00 kN Adhesion = 0.00 kN The minimum required base area, Amin = P / fa = 7.356 m2 The initial design area , Ao = LoWo = 9.00 m2

Length (L2) = 3.00 m No. of control condition: # 101 Width (W2) = 3.00 m No. of control condition: # 101 Area (A2) = 9.00 m2

Figure 9-1: Four corners of the calculated stress

If Au equals zero, that means it is small eccentricity, and do not need to adjust the pressure. Otherwise, the pressure needs to be adjusted. The negative pressure should always set as 0. Keep adjusting if necessary. Four corners of the stress adjusted data (if any). Pressure at No. Load Corner1 (q1) Condition (KN/m2) 101 147.1111 101 147.1111 101 147.1111 101 147.1111 Pressure at Corner2 (q2) (KN/m2) 102.6667 102.6667 102.6667 102.6667 Pressure at Corner3 (q3) (KN/m2) 147.1111 147.1111 147.1111 147.1111 Pressure at Corner4 (q4) (KN/m2) 191.5556 191.5556 191.5556 191.5556

If necessary, the bottom will be adjusted accordingly based on size. Zero-pressure area ( if any ) Control the condition number = N / A Foundation area = 9.00 m2 Zero-pressure area = 0.00 m2 Zero-pressure area percentage = 0.00%

Figure 9-2: Elevation of stability forces

Section 9 Chinese Code (GB50007-2002) 9.1 Cone Footing Design Table 9-5: Factor of safety Sliding Factor of Safety Overturning Factor of Safety Load Case No. X Dir. Z Dir. X Dir. Z Dir. 101 N/A N/A 19.763 19.763

Along the X Direction

Critical sliding load case along the X direction: 101 Governing sliding force : 0.000 kN Resisting Force for Sliding: 658.760 kN Minimum sliding coefficient under critical load case: 0.000 Critical Overturning load case along X direction: 101 Critical overturning moment: 99.998 kNm Resisting moment for Overturning: 1976.244 kNm Minimum overturning coefficient under critical load case: 19.763

Critical sliding load case along the Z direction : 101 Governing sliding force : 0.000 kN Resisting Force for Sliding: 658.760 kN Minimum sliding coefficient under critical load case: 0.000 Critical Overturning load case along Z direction : 101 Critical overturning moment: 99.998 kNm Resisting Moment for Overturning: 1976.244 kNm Minimum overturning coefficient under critical load case: 19.763

Following formulae are used per GB50007 - 2002 code for design of building foundations. F 0.7 f a h (Ref. clause 8.2.7 - 1)

l hp t m 0 b

m l

t j l

Positive X Side

Control condition = # 102

l j l

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Negative X Side

Control condition = # 102 Punching shear F = P A = 133.333724774.976 = 96.637 kN

l j l

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Positive Z Side

Control condition = # 102 Punching shear F = P A = 133.333724774.976 = 96.637 kN

l j l

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Negative Z Side

Control condition = # 102 Punching shear F = P A = 88.889724774.976 = 64.424 kN

l j l

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Control condition = # 102 442 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 9 Chinese Code (GB50007-2002) 9.1 Cone Footing Design Punching shear F = P A = 111.1112899099.905 = 322.122 kN

l j l

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

9.1.5 Reinforcement

Reinforcement Along the XDirection

Figure 9-3: Reinforcement parallel to the X-direction

A simplified formula for reinforcement is used per GB50010 2002. No control condition = # 102 Minimum reinforcement ratio [per Cl. 9.5.2], min = 0.15% Cross-sectional area about X-axis, A cross = 2,425,000.005 Minimum reinforcement area Astmin = minA cross- = 0.15 2,425,000.005 = 3,637.500 Calculate moment MI = (A1) 2 [(2l + a ')(pmax + p - 2G / A) + (pmax - p)l] / 12 = 1,200.0002[(23,000.000 +600.000) (0.169 +0.152 - 2324,000.000/9,000,000.000) + (0.169 0.152)3,000.000] / 12 = 20,3519,997.379 kNm Calculate area required A = M / (0.9h f ) = 20,3519,997.379 / (0.9935.000210.000) = 1,139.498

st I 0 y

Select rebar size, db = 10.000 Minimum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smin = 50.000 mm Verification Manual 443

Chapter 9 9.1 Cone Footing Design Maximum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smax = 500.000 mm With actual spacing, S = 60.000 mm Actual area, Ast (Actual) = 3637.500 mm2 Smin S Smax Selected Reinforcement satisfy the requirements. Astmin Ast, with real Selected Reinforcement satisfy the requirements.

Figure 9-4: Reinforcement parallel to the Z-direction

A simplified formula for reinforcement is used per GB50010 2002. No control condition = # 102 Minimum reinforcement ratio [per Cl. 9.5.2], min = 0.15% Cross-sectional area about Z-axis, A cross = 2425000.005 Minimum reinforcement area Astmin = minA cross = 0.15%2425000.005 = 3637.500 Calculate moment MI = (A1) 2 [(2l + a ')(pmax + p - 2G / A) + (pmax - p)l] / 12 = 1200.0002[(23000.000 +600.000) (0.169 +0.152 - 2324000.000/9000000.000) + (0.169 0.152)3000.000] / 12 = 203519997.379 kNm Calculate area required Ast = MI / (0.9h0fy) = 203519997.379 / (0.9935.000210.000) = 1151.685 Select rebar size, db = 10.000 Minimum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smin = 50.000 mm 444 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 9 Chinese Code (GB50007-2002) 9.2 PKPM Isolated Footing Design Maximum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smax = 500.000 mm With actual spacing, S = 60.000 mm Actual area, Ast (Actual) = 3637.500 mm2 Smin S Smax Reinforced selected to meet the requirements . Astmin Ast, with real Reinforcement meet the requirements Reinforcements should be placed at the base bottom.

9.2.1 Problem

Elevation and Plan

Foundation type: cast-in-site cone footing Initial iteration base dimensions: Length = 3000 mm Width = 3000 mm

Height = 500 mm Second iteration Length = 700 mm Width = 700 mm Height = 500 mm Bottom elevation of the basis: -2.0 m Shifts of the base: S Direction: 0 mm B direction: 0 mm Reinforcement at the bottom of the base: Y direction : 10 @ 200 X direction : 10 @ 200 Weight of the foundation and soil:: 18.0 kPa

High column section: 600 mm Column section width: 600 mm Eccentric x : 0 mm Eccentric y : 0 mm Column angle: 0

Loading information

Basic values of vertical load: Nk = 1000 kN Basic value of the moment along X dir.: Mx = 100 kNM Basic value of the moment along Y dir.: My = 100 kNM

9.2.2 Solution

Check Shear

Following formula Per GB5007 - 2002 code for design of building foundation: F 0.7 f a h (Ref. clause 8.2.7 - 1)

l hp t m 0 b

m l

t j l

F = P A (Ref. clause 8.2.7 - 3) Resisting Shear force calculation: X + direction , height H = 1000 F = P A = 133.330.69 = 91.67

l l j l

hp t t b 0

F = P A = 92.590.69 = 63.66

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching Shear check is satisfied in this direction. Y + direction , height H = 1000 F = P A = 92.590.69 = 63.66

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching Shear check is satisfied in this direction. Y- direction , height H = 1000 F = P A = 133.330.69 = 91.67

l j l

hp t t b o

H = 1000. Fl = N - pk(bc +2h0)(hc +2h0) = 1000.00 - 111.1(600.0 + 2950.0)(600.0 +2950.0)1e-6 = 305.56 Kn Fr = 0.7 f a h = 0.70.981270.9(600.0 + 600.0 + 2950.0)950.01e-6 = 5152.76 Kn

hp t m 0

Punching Shear check at edges is satisfied. X + direction , height H = 1000 mm F = P A = 133.330.56 = 74.67

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching Shear check at edges is satisfied. X- direction , height H = 1000 mm F = P A = 91.850.56 = 51.44

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching Shear check at edges is satisfied. Y + direction , height H = 1000 mm F = P A = 91.850.56 = 51.44

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching Shear check at edges is satisfied. Y- direction , height H = 1000 mm F = P A = 133.330.56 = 74.67

l j l

hp t t b o

Bending Reinforcement

The following formula are used Per GB5007 - 2002 code for design of building foundation: M = (1/12)a 2[(2l + a')(P

1 jmax

+ P ) + (P

j

jmax

+ P )l ]

j

Moment calculations x direction, h0 = 940 mm M = (1.20)2[(23.00 + 0.60)(133333.33 + 115555.55) + (133333.33 - 115555.55)3.00] / 12 = 203.52 kNm M =(1.20)2[(23.00 + 0.60)(88888.89 + 106666.66) + (88888.89 - 106666.66)3.00] / 12 = 148.48 kNm y direction , h0 = 940 mm M = (1.20)2[(23.00 + 0.60)(88888.89 + 106666.66) + (88888.89 - 106666.66)3.00] / 12 = 148.48 kNm M = (1.20)2[(23.00 + 0.60)(133333.33 + 115555.55) + (133333.33 - 115555.55)3.00] / 12 = 203.52 kNm x direction , h0 = 940 mm M = (1.20)2[(23.00 + 0.60)(133333.33 + 115555.55) + (133333.33 - 115555.55)3.00] / 12 = 203.52 kNm M = (1.20)2[(23.00 + 0.60)(88888.89 + 106666.66) + (88888.89 - 106666.66)3.00] / 12 = 148.48 kNm y direction , h0 = 940 mm M = (1.20)2[(23.00 + 0.60)(88888.89 + 106666.66) + (88888.89 - 106666.66)3.00] / 12 = 148.48 kNm M = (1.20)2[(23.00 + 0.60)(133333.33 + 115555.55) + (133333.33 - 115555.55)3.00] / 12 = 203.52 kNm Reinforcement calculation: M = 203.520

1

Gx 2

1 0 y

M = 203.520 A

Gy 1

2 0 y

M = 203.520 A

Gx 2

1 0 y

M = 203.520 A

Gy

2 0 y

The area of steel at X direction: 1145.559 The area of steel at Y direction: 1145.559 The initial area of steel along X direction is satisfied.

Section 9 Chinese Code (GB50007-2002) 9.3 Stepped Foundation Design The initial area of steel along Y direction is satisfied. The area of steel required: AgX: 10 @ 200 AgY: 10 @ 200

Node Number 1 Table 9-6: Overview of the stepped foundation design Basic Geometry Dimension (Base Level) Group Length X Dir. Width Z Dir. Height Number Order (M) (M) (M) 1 Total 3.000 m 3.000 m 1.200 m Article 3.000 m 3.000 m 0.400 m (1)Order Article (2)order 2.000 m 2.000 m 0.400 m Article (3)order 1.000 m Table 9-7: Reinforcement details Node Number 1 Base Reinforcement Bottom Reinf. Bottom Reinf. Main Stirrups (Mz) (Mx) Bars # 10 @ 60 mm c / # 10 @ 60 mm c / N / A N/A c c Foundation Reinforcement 1.000 m 0.400 m

9.3.1 Problem

Basic Geometry

Height of the base - (Ft): 1200.00 mm Length of the base - X (Fl): 3000.00 mm Width of the base - Z (Fw): 3000.00 mm

Column Dimension

Column Shape : Rectangular Length of the Column section - X (Pl): 600.00 mm Width of the column section - Z (Pw): 600.00 mm

Base

Base length - X: N / A Base width - Z: N / A

Concrete density: 18.000 kN/m3 Concrete strength: 11.900 N/mm2 Reinforcement strength: 210.000 N/mm2 Minimum bar Size: # 6 Maximum bar size: # 40 Minimum bar spacing : 50.00 mm Maximum bar spacing : 500.00 mm Clear cover (F, CL): 50.00 mm

Soil Properties

Soil type: Drained Density: 18.00 kN/m3 Foundation bearing capacity : 180.00 kPa Surcharge: 0.00 kN/m2 Embedment depth of foundation: 2,000.00 mm Adhesion: 0.00 kN/m2

Basal friction coefficient: 0.50 Safety factor of sliding: 1.50 Safety factor of overturning: 1.50 Table 9-8: Critical loads for base size estimation - standard combination Condition Vertical Shear X Shear Z Moment X Moment Z No. Force (KN) (KN) (KN) (kNm) (kNm) 101 1000.000 0.000 0.000 99.998 99.998 Table 9-9: Loads for foundation design- the basic combination Vertical Force Shear X Shear Z Moment X Moment Z LC (KN) (KN) (KN) (kNm) (kNm) 102 1000.000 0.000 0.000 99.998 99.998

9.3.2 Solution

Foundation Dimensions

The initial length (Lo) = 76.20 m The initial width (Wo) = 76.20 m Buoyancy = -0.00 KN 450 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 9 Chinese Code (GB50007-2002) 9.3 Stepped Foundation Design Adhesion = 0.00 kN Minimum area of steel required Bearing pressure, Amin = P / qmax = 7.356 m2 Initial foundation area , Ao = Lo x Wo = 5806.44 m2

Length of the Base (L2) = 3.00 m Number of load case: # 101 Width of the base (W2) = 3.00 m Number of load case: # 101 Height of the base (D2) = 1.20 m Number of load case: # 101 Area (A2) = 9.00 m2

Corner Stresses

Initial pressure at four corners ( before adjustment )

Figure 9-5: Four corners of the calculated stress

If Au equals zero, that means it is small eccentricity, and do not need to adjust the pressure. Otherwise, the pressure needs to be adjusted. The negative pressure should always set as 0. Keep adjusting if necessary.

No. Load Condition 101 101 101 101 Pressure at Corner1 (q1) (KN/m2) 147.1111 147.1111 147.1111 147.1111 Pressure at Corner2 (q2) (KN/m2) 102.6667 102.6667 102.6667 102.6667 Pressure at Corner3 (q3) (KN/m2) 147.1111 147.1111 147.1111 147.1111 Pressure at Corner4 (q4) (KN/m2) 191.5556 191.5556 191.5556 191.5556

Design condition number = N / A Area of Foundation Base = 9.00 sq.m Zero-pressure area = 0.00 sq.m Zero-pressure area percentage = 0.00%

Factor of Safety table

Table 9-10: Safety factors Sliding Factor of Safety Overturning Factor of Safety Load Case No. X Dir. Z Dir. X Dir. Z Dir. 101 N/A N/A 19.782 19.782

Along the X Direction

Critical sliding load case along X direction: 101 Governing sliding force: 0.000 kN Resisting Force for Sliding: 659.408 kN Minimum sliding coefficient under critical load case: 0.000 Critical Overturning load case along X direction: 101 Critical overturning moment: 99.998 kNm Resisting moment for Overturning: 1978.188 kNm Minimum overturning coefficient under critical load case 19.782

Critical sliding load case along Z direction: 101 Critical sliding force: 0.000 Resisting Force for Sliding: 659.408 kN Minimum sliding coefficient under critical load case: 0.000 Critical Overturning load case along Z direction: 101 Critical overturning moment: 99.998 kNm Resisting Moment for Overturning: 1978.188 kNm Minimum overturning coefficient under critical load case: 19.782

The following formulae are used per GB50007 - 2002 code for design of building foundations. F 0.7 f a h (Ref. clause 8.2.7 - 1)

l hp t m 0 b

m l

t j l

Positive X Direction

Control condition = # 102 Punching shear F = P A = 88.889190774.972 = 16.958 kN

l j l

Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 0.933 1.270 (0.600 + 2.870) / 2 1.135 = 1633.932 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Negative X Direction

Control condition = # 102 Punching shear F = P A = 133.333 190774.972 = 25.437 kN

l j l

Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h =0.7 0.933 1.270 (0.600 +2.870) / 2 1.135 = 1633.932 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Positive Z Direction

Control condition = # 102 Punching shear F = P A = 133.333 190774.972 = 25.437 kN

l j l

Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 0.933 1.270 (0.600 +2.870) / 2 1.135 = 1633.932 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Negative Z Direction

Control condition = # 102 Punching shear F = P A = 88.889 190774.972 = 16.958 kN

l j l

Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 0.933 1.270 (0.600 +2.870) / 2 1.135 = 1633.932 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Control condition = # 102 Punching shear F = P A = 111.111 763099.890 = 84.789 kN

l j l

Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 0.933 1.270 (2.400 +11.480) / 2 1.135 = 6535.727 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Along the XAxis

Figure 9-6: Reinforcement parallel to the X-direction

A simplified formula for reinforcement is used per GB50010 2002. Critical load case number = # 102 Minimum reinforcement ratio [per Cl. 9.5.2], min = 0.15% Cross-sectional area about X-axis, A cross = 2400000.000 Minimum reinforcement area Astmin = 0.15(A cross)- = 0.15(2,400,000.000) = 3600.000 Calculate moment MI = (A1) 2 [(2l + a ') (pmax + p-2G / A) + (pmax - p)l] / 12 = 1,200.0002 [(2 3,000.000 + 600.000) (0.169 + 0.152 - 2 324,000.000/9,000,000.000) + (0.169 - 0.152) 3000.000] / 12 = 203,519,997.379 kNm Calculate the area required A = M / (0.9h f ) = 203,519,997.379 / (0.9 1,135.000 210.000) = 1, 069.687

st I 0 y

Select Rebar size, db = 10.000 Minimum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smin = 50.000 mm Maximum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smax = 500.000 mm Actual spacing, S = 60.000 mm Actual area, Ast (Actual) = 3,600.000 mm2 Smin S Smax Selected Reinforcements satisfy the requirements.

Figure 9-7: Reinforcement parallel to the Z-direction

A simplified formula for reinforcement is used per GB50010 2002. Critical load case number = # 102 Minimal reinforcement ratio [per Cl. 9.5.2], min = 0.15% Cross-sectional area about Z-axis, A cross = 2400000.000 Minimum reinforcement area Astmin = min A cross- = 0.15% 2400000.000 = 3600.000 Calculate moment MI = (A1) 2 [(2l + a ') (pmax + p-2G / A) + (pmax - p)l] / 12 = 1,200.0002 [(2 3,000.000 + 600.000) (0.169 + 0.152 - 2 324,000.000/9,000,000.000) + (0.169 - 0.152) 3000.000] / 12 = 203,519,997.379 kNm Calculate the area required A = M / (0.9h f ) = 203,519,997.379 / (0.9 1,135.000 210.000) = 1,084.241

st I 0 y

Reinforced selected size, db = 10.000 Minimum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smin = 50.000 mm Maximum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smax = 500.000 mm With actual spacing, S = 60.000 mm Actual area, Ast (Actual) = 3600.000 mm2 Smin S Smax Selected Reinforcements satisfy the requirements. 456 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Astmin Ast, with real Selected Reinforcements satisfy the requirements. Reinforcements should be placed at the base bottom.

9.4.1 Problem

Foundation type : Cast-in-place, stepped footing Initial Single base dimensions: Length = 3,000 mm Width = 3,000 mm Height = 400 mm Second Length = 2,000 mm Width = 2,000 mm Height = 400 mm Third Length = 1,000 mm Width = 1,000 mm Height = 400 mm Bottom elevation of the base: -2.0 m Shift the basis of the heart: S Direction : 0 mm B direction : 0 mm Bottom Reinforcement: Y direction : 10 @ 200 X direction : 10 @ 200 Unit self weight of the soil and footing: 18.0 kPa Column section information: Height of the column section: 600 mm Width of the Column section: 600 mm Eccentricity x : 0 mm Eccentricity y : 0 mm Column angle: 0

Loading information

The basic values of vertical load: Nk = 1,000 kN X direction of the basic value of the moment: Mx = 100 kNm Y direction of the basic value of the moment: My = 100 kNm Verification Manual 457

Elevation and plan

9.4.2 Solution

Check Shear

The following formulae are used per GB5007 - 2002 code of design of building foundations: F 0.7 f a h (Ref. clause 8.2.7 - 1)

l hp t m 0 b

m l

t j l

F = P A (Ref. clause 8.2.7 - 3) Calculate resisting Shear force: X + direction , height H = 1000 F = P A = 133.330.69 = 91.67

l l j l

hp t t b 0

Punching shear check is satisfied along this direction X- direction , height H = 1200 F = P A = 89.63 0.15 = 13.22

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching shear check is satisfied along this direction Y + direction , height H = 1200 F = P A = 89.63 0.15 = 13.22

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching shear check is satisfied along this direction Y- direction , height H = 1200 F = P A = 133.33 0.15 = 19.67

l j l

hp t t b o

H = 1200. Fl = N-pk (bc +2 h0) (hc +2 h0) = 1000.00-111.1 (600.0 +2 ******)*( 600.0 +2 ******)* 1e-6 = 65.56 Kn F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 0.97 1270.9 (600.0 +600.0 +2 ******)******* 1e-6 = 6923.04 Kn

l hp t m 0

Sides punching checking meet X + direction , height H = 800 mm F = P A = 133.33 0.69 = 91.67

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching shear check is satisfied along this direction X- direction , height H = 800 mm F = P A = 92.59 0.69 = 63.66

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching shear check is satisfied along this direction Y + direction , height H = 800 mm F = P A = 92.59 0.69 = 63.66

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching shear check is satisfied along this direction Y- direction , height H = 800 mm F = P A = 133.33 0.69 = 91.67

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching shear check is satisfied along this direction X + direction , height H = 400 mm F = P A = 91.11 0.43 = 38.95

l j l

hp t t b o

Chapter 9 9.4 PKPMStepped Footing Design Punching shear check is satisfied along this direction X- direction , height H = 400 mm F = P A = 133.33 0.43 = 57.00

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching shear check is satisfied along this direction Y + direction , height H = 400 mm F = P A = 91.11 0.43 = 38.95

l j l

hp t t b o

Punching shear check is satisfied along this direction Y- direction , height H = 400 mm F = P A = 133.33 0.43 = 57.00

l j l

hp t t b o

Bending Reinforcement

The following formula is used per GB50007 - 2002 code for design of building foundations: M = (1/12)a 2[(2l + a')(P

1 jmax

+ P ) + (P

j

jmax

+ P )l ]

j

Moment calculations x direction , h0 = 340 mm M = 0.50 0.50 [(2 3.00 +0.60) (133,333.33 + 125,925.92) + (133,333.33 - 125,925.92) 3.00] / 12 = 36.11 kNm M = 0.50 0.50 [(2 3.00 +0.60) (88,888.89 + 96,296.30) + (88,888.89 - 96,296.30) 3.00] / 12 = 25.00 kNm y direction , h0 = 340 mm M = 0.50 0.50 [(2 3.00 +0.60) (88,888.89 + 96,296.30) + (88,888.89 - 96,296.30) 3.00] / 12 = 25.00 kNm M = 0.50 0.50 [(2 3.00 +0.60) (133,333.33 + 125,925.92) + (133,333.33 - 125,925.92) 3.00] / 12 = 36.11 kNm x direction , h0 = 740 mm M = 1.00 1.00 [(2 3.00 +0.60) (133,333.33 + 118,518.52) + (133,333.33 - 118,518.52) 3.00] / 12 = 142.22 kNm M = 1.00 1.00 [(2 3.00 +0.60) (88,888.89 + 103,703.70) + (88,888.89 - 103,703.70) 3.00] / 12 = 102.22 kNm y direction , h0 = 740 mm M = 1.00 1.00 [(2 3.00 +0.60) (88,888.89 + 103,703.70) + (88,888.89 - 103,703.70) 3.00] / 12 = 102.22 kNm

M = 1.00 1.00 [(2 3.00 +0.60) (133,333.33 + 118,518.52) + (133,333.33 - 118,518.52) 3.00] / 12 = 142.22 kNm x direction , h0 = 1140 mm M = 1.20 1.20 [(2 3.00 +0.60) (133,333.33 + 115,555.55) + (133,333.33 - 115,555.55) 3.00] / 12 = 203.52 kNm M = 1.20 1.20 [(2 3.00 +0.60) (88,888.89 + 106,666.66) + (88,888.89 - 106,666.66) 3.00] / 12 = 148.48 kNm y direction , h0 = 1140 mm M = 1.20 1.20 [(2 3.00 +0.60) (88,888.89 + 106,666.66) + (88,888.89 - 106,666.66) 3.00] / 12 = 148.48 kNm M = 1.20 1.20 [(2 3.00 +0.60) (133,333.33 + 115,555.55) + (133,333.33 - 115,555.55) 3.00] / 12 = 203.52 kNm Reinforcement calculation: M = 36.111

1

Gx 2

1 0 y

M = 36.111 A

Gy 1

2 0 y

M = 142.222 A

Gx 2

1 0 y

M = 142.222 A

Gy 1

2 0 y

M = 203.520 A

Gx 2

1 0 y

M = 203.520 A

Gy

2 0 y

The area of steel at X direction: 1,016.890 The area of steel at Y direction: 1,016.890 The original area of steel at X direction is satisfied. The original area of steel at Y direction is satisfied. Calculated the areas of steel are: AgX: 10 @ 200 AgY: 10 @ 200

Per Chinese standard GB50007-2002.

Chapter 9 9.5 Combined Foundation Table 9-11: Overview of the design results Left CanRight CanLength Width Height tilever (M) tilever (M) (M) (M) (M) 0.150 2.150 8.300 3.100 0.700

Base Number 1

Table 9-12: Foundation reinforcement details Top LonBottom LonTop Trans- Bottom TransBase gitudinal Rein- gitudinal Rein- verse Reinverse ReinNumber forcement forcement forcement forcement 1 #12 @ 55 mm #12 @ 105 mm #12 @ 105 mm #12 @ 105 mm c/c c/c c/c c/c

Elevation and plan

9.5.1 Problem

Basic Geometry

Column 1

Column dimensions Column Shape : Rectangle Length of the column - X (Pl): 0.30 m Width of the column - Z (Pw): 0.30 m No Column caps

Column 2

Column section size Column Shape : Rectangle Length of the Column - X (Pl): 0.30 m Width of the Column - Z (Pw): 0.40 m No Column cap Left overhanging length : 0.15 m Right cantilevered length : 2.15 m Whether the length of the left cantilever needs design ( or enter a fixed value )? Yes Whether the length of the right cantilever needs design ( or enter a fixed value )? Yes The initial input length (Lo) of the foundation: 1500.00 mm The initial input width (Wo) of the foundation: 3.10 m The initial input of height (Do) of the foundation: 700.00 mm

The thickness of the clear cover for cap : 50.00 mm The thickness of the clear cover for foundation : 50.00 mm Density of the Soil: 25.00 kN/m3 Foundation bearing capacity : 200.00 kN/m2 Additional ground pressure : 0.00 kip/in2 Weight of soil about foundation : 1500.00 mm Groundwater depth : -0.00 KN

Concrete density: 25.000 kN/m3

Chapter 9 9.5 Combined Foundation Compressive strength of concrete : 11.900 N/mm2 Reinforcement strength : 210.000 N/mm2 Minimum bar Size : 12.0 mm Maximum bar size : 50.0 mm Minimum bar spacing : 50.00 mm Maximum bar spacing : 400.00 mm

9.5.2 Solution

Buoyancy generated on the ground = -0.00 kN Minimum area of steel required Amin = Pc / qmax: 13.80 m 2 Specify the initial cross-sectional area Ao = L x W: 25.73 m 2 Final provided foundation dimensions: Length of base , L: 8.30 m Width of base, W: 3.10 m Height of base, Do: 0.70 m Area of base, A: 25.73 m2 Left Cantilever length , Llo: 0.15 m Right Cantilever length , Lro: 2.15 m Table 9-13: Load cases for base dimensions estimation - standard combination Condition Column Axial Shear Shear Moment Moment No. No. Force (KN) X(KN) Z(KN) X (kNm) Z(kNm) 1 1 105076.125 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 2 210152.249 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Table 9-14: Load cases for foundation design - basic combinationn Condition Column Axial Shear Shear Moment Moment No. No. Force (KN) X(KN) Z(KN) X (kNm) Z(kNm) 1 1 105076.125 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1 2 210152.249 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Four corners of the calculated stress Load Case 1 1 1 1 Pressure at Corner1 (q1) (KN/m2) 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 Pressure at Corner2 (q2) (KN/m2) 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 Pressure at Corner3 (q3) (KN/m2) 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 Pressure at Corner4 (q4) (KN/m2) 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 Zero-pressure area (Au) (m2) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Section 9 Chinese Code (GB50007-2002) 9.5 Combined Foundation If Au equals zero, that means it is small eccentricity, and do not need to adjust the pressure. Otherwise, the pressure needs to be adjusted. The negative pressure should always set as zero. Keep adjusting if necessary. Adjusted pressure at corners (if necessary) Pressure at Condition Corner1 (q1) No. (KN/m2) 1 107.2940 1 107.2940 1 107.2940 1 107.2940 Overturning Stability Test Condition No. 1 Moment Moment Resistance Resistance Overturning Overturning StaX Z Moment X Moment Z Stability bility Factor Z (kNm) (kNm) (kNm) (kNm) Factor X 0.000 0.000 4273.272 11441.341 N / A 633,778,703.608 Pressure at Corner2 (q2) (KN/m2) 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 Pressure at Corner3 (q3) (KN/m2) 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 Pressure at Corner4 (q4) (KN/m2) 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940 107.2940

The following formulae are used per GB50007 - 2002 code for design of building foundations. Formula is as follows : F 0.7 f a h (Ref. clause 8.2.7 - 1)

l hp t m 0 b

m l

t j l

Column 1, +X Direction

Control condition = # 1 Punching shear F = P A = 69.96 5,097,642.75 = 356.62 kN

l j l

Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 1.00 1270.00 (0.30 1.56) / 2 0.64 = 523.64 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Column 1, -X Direction

Control condition = # 1 Punching shear F = P A = 69.96 0.00 = 0.0 kN

l j l

Chapter 9 9.5 Combined Foundation Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 1.00 1270.00 (0.30 1.56) / 2 0.64 = 523.64 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Column 1, +Z Direction

Control condition = # 1 Punching shear F = P A = 69.96 1,010,688.00 = 70.70 kN

l j l

Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 1.00 1270.00 (0.30 1.56) / 2 0.64 = 523.64 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Column 1, -Z Direction

Control condition = # 1 Punching shear F = P A = 69.96 1,010,688.00 = 70.70 kN

l j l

Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 1.00 1270.00 (0.30 1.56) / 2 0.64 = 523.64 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Column 2, +X Direction

Control condition = # 1 Punching shear F = P A = 69.96 3,725,275.99 = 260.61 kN

l j l

Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 1.00 1270.00 (0.30 1.66) / 2 0.64 = 579.83 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Column 2, -X Direction

Control condition = # 1 Punching shear F = P A = 69.96 7,548,609.37 = 528.08 kN

l j l

Section 9 Chinese Code (GB50007-2002) 9.5 Combined Foundation Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 1.00 1270.00 (0.30 1.66) / 2 0.64 = 579.83 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Column 2, +Z Direction

Control condition = # 1 Punching shear F = P A = 69.96 163,8475.99 = 114.62 kN

l j l

Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 1.00 1270.00 (0.40 1.56) / 2 0.64 = 551.73 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Column 2, -Z Direction

Control condition = # 1 Punching shear F = P A = 69.96 163,8475.99 = 114.62 kN

l j l

Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 1.00 1270.00 (0.40 1.56) / 2 0.64 = 551.73 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Control condition = # 1 Punching shear F = P A = 139.91 3,559,509.38 = 498.03 kN

l j l

Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 1.00 1270.00 (1.20 4.99) / 2 0.64 = 1,739.48 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Control condition = # 1 Punching shear F = P A = 139.91 7,275,418.66 = 1,017.94 kN

l j l

Chapter 9 9.5 Combined Foundation Punching shear capacity F = 0.7 f a h = 0.7 1.00 1270.00 (1.20 6.46) / 2 0.64 = 2,206.94 kN

u l hp t m 0

hp t m 0

Top Longitudinal Reinforcement

A simplified formula for reinforcement is used in accordance with GB50010-2002. No control condition = # 1 Minimum reinforcement ratio [per Cl. 9.5.2], min = 0.15% Minimum area of steel, Astmin = 3,255.000 mm2 The area of steel required Ast = MI / (0.9 h0 fy) = 740,000,006.857 / (0.9 6,44.000 210.000) = 6,079.727 mm 2 Selected rebar size,db = 12.000 mm Minimum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smin = 50.00 mm Maximum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smax = 400.00 mm Actual spacing, S = 55.00 mm Actual area of steel required, Ast (Actual) = 6220.353 mm2 Smin S Smax Selected Reinforcements satisfy the requirements. Astmin Ast, with actual Selected Reinforcements satisfy the requirements.

A simplified formula for reinforcement is used in accordance with GB50010-2002. No control condition = # 1 Minimum reinforcement ratio [per Cl. 9.5.2], min = 0.15% Minimum area of steel, Astmin = 3,255.000 mm2 The area of steel required Ast = MI / (0.9 h0 fy) = -479,467,391.579 / (0.9 644.000 210.000) = -3,939.231 mm 2 Selected rebar size,db = 12.000 mm Minimum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smin = 50.00 mm Maximum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smax = 400.00 mm Actual spacing, S = 105.00 mm Actual area of steel required, Ast (Actual) = 3279.823 mm2 Smin S Smax 468 STAAD Foundation Advanced V8i

Section 9 Chinese Code (GB50007-2002) 9.5 Combined Foundation Selected Reinforcements satisfy the requirements. Astmin Ast, with actual Selected Reinforcements satisfy the requirements.

A simplified formula for reinforcement is used in accordance with GB50010-2002. No control condition = # 1 Minimum reinforcement ratio [per Cl. 9.5.2], min = 0.15% Minimum area of steel, Astmin = 8715.000 mm2 The area of steel required Ast = MI / (0.9 h0 fy) = 0.000 / (0.9 644.000 210.000) = 0.000 mm 2 Selected rebar size,db = 12.000 mm Minimum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smin = 50.00 mm Maximum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smax = 400.00 mm Actual spacing, S = 105.00 mm Actual area of steel required, Ast (Actual) = 8821.592 mm2 Smin S Smax Selected Reinforcements satisfy the requirements. Astmin Ast, with actual Selected Reinforcements satisfy the requirements.

A simplified formula for reinforcement is used in accordance with GB50010-2002. No control condition = # 1 Minimum reinforcement ratio [per Cl. 9.5.2], min = 0.15% Minimum area of steel, Astmin = 8,715.000 mm2 The area of steel required Ast = MI / (0.9 h0 fy) = 569,032,250.186 / (0.9 644.000 210.000) = 4,675.082 mm 2 Selected rebar size,db = 12.000 mm Minimum allowable reinforcement spacing, Smin = 50.00 mm Maximum allowable reinforcement spacin, Smax = 400.00 mm Actual spacing, S = 105.00 mm Actual area of steel required, Ast (Actual) = 8,821.592 mm2 Smin S Smax Selected Reinforcements satisfy the requirements. Astmin Ast, with actual

Chapter 9 9.6 Pile Foundation Design Selected Reinforcements satisfy the requirements.

A typical pile foundation design example is provided here to verify the pile foundation design per Chinese codes in the program. The Chinese codes implemented are " GB500072002 code for design of building foundations "," GB50009-2001 Load code for design of building structures "," GB50010-2002 Code for design of Concrete Structures "," Technical Code for Building Pile Foundations

9.6.1 Problem

Basic conditions

Rectangular column foundation. Length of the column is 0.5000 m and the width of the column is 0.5000 m. The height of the base is 0.5000 m , the length of the base is 0.8 m, and the width of the base is 0.8. Loads: vertical load is 1500 kN and the basic combination distribution factor is 1.4 ( 1500 X 1.4 will involve in all members and reinforcements design).

Concrete strength: 25 N/mm2 Concrete density: 25 kN/m3 Steel yield strength: 210 N/mm2 Clear cover thickness on sides: 50 mm Clear cover thickness on bottom: 50 mm Depth of pile cap: 75 mm The initial depth of pile cap: 300 mm Minimum bar diameter: 10 Maximum bar diameter: 45

Pile Parameters

Pile layout: 3 row x 3 row = total 9 piles, spacing 1.5 m , center to edge of pile cap edge 0.5 m , pile diameter and 0.5 m , thus base of the cap is 4 m in length and 4 m in width. Pile bearing capacity: lateral capacity is 100 kN , vertical capacity is 500 kN , uplift capacity is 300 kN (both single pile). So the reactions of the pile can be calculated as: Table 9-15: Pile capacities under load case no. 101 Vertical Uplift Lateral -180.888 0.000 0.000 -180.888 0.000 0.000 -180.888 0.000 0.000 -180.888 0.000 0.000

Table 9-16: Pile capacities under load case no. 102 Vertical Uplift Lateral -247.555 0.000 0.000 -247.555 0.000 0.000 -247.555 0.000 0.000 -247.555 0.000 0.000 -247.555 0.000 0.000 -247.555 0.000 0.000 -247.555 0.000 0.000 -247.555 0.000 0.000 -247.555 0.000 0.000

9.6.2 Solution

Pile layout

Column Dimension

Column Shape : Rectangular Column length - X (Pl): 0.500 m Column width - Z (Pw): 0.500 m

Base

A base ? Yes Base Shape : Rectangular Base height (Ph): 0.500 m Base length - X (Pl): 0.800 m Base width - Z (Pw): 0.800 m

Cap geometry

Pile length P CL = 4.000 m Cap width P CW = 4.000 m Initial cap height t I = 0.300 m

Pile geometry

Pile spacing, P s = 1.500 m Distance from the edge of the Pile cap to the center of pile, e = 0.500 m Pile diameter, d P = 0.500 m

Vertical bearing capacity of P P = 500.000 kN Lateral bearing capacity of P L = 100.000 kN Pullout capacity of P L = 300.000 kN

Material Properties

Concrete f ' c = 25,000.004 kN/m2 Concrete f ' t = 1,890.000 kN/m2 Steel f y = 210,000.035 kN/m2

Concrete clear cover on the bottom, CC B = 0.050 m Concrete clear cover on the sides, CC S = 0.050 m Depth of pile cap depth, PC P = 0.075 m Load Case 101 102 Table 9-17: Load about the pile cap Fx Fz Mx (kNMy (kNFy (kN) (kN) (kN) m) m) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 1500.00 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 2100.00 Mz (kNm) 0.000 0.000

The total number of piles N = 9 Coordinates of Piles Pile No. 1 2 3 4 X (m) -1.500 -1.500 -1.500 0.000 Y (m) -1.500 0.000 1.500 -1.500 Reactions Vertical (kN) -247.555 -247.555 -247.555 -247.555 Lateral (kN) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Uplift (kN) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

Coordinates of Piles Pile No. 5 6 7 8 9 X (m) 0.000 0.000 1.500 1.500 1.500 Y (m) 0.000 1.500 -1.500 0.000 1.500

Reactions Vertical (kN) -247.555 -247.555 -247.555 -247.555 -247.555 Lateral (kN) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 Uplift (kN) 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

One Way Punching Shear Along Length

Critical Load Case #102 Influential factor of sectional height

hs

0

x x 0

x

c hs

f b

t

0

Critical Load Case #102 Influential factor of sectional height

hs

0

y y 0

y

c hs

f b

t

0

Maximum Shear Design Value, V = 742.665 kN V < dVc Verification Manual 473

Critical Load Case #102 Shear Span-to-Depth Ratios

0x

= a /h = (1.050/0.300) = 1.000

0x 0

0y

= a /h = (1.050/0.300) = 1.000

0y 0

0x

= 0.84/(

0x

0y

= 0.84/(

0y

Shear Capacity of Pile Cap dV = 2 [ (b + a ) + (h + a )] f h = 2 [0.700 (0.500 + 1.050) + c 0x c 0y 0y c 0x hp t 0 0.700 (0.500 + 1.050)] 1.000 1,890.000 0.300 = 2460.780 kN Maximum Punching Shear Design Value Fl = 1980.440kN F < dV

l c

Hence, Safe

Critical Load Case #102 Shear Span-to-Depth Ratios = a /h = (0.300/0.300) = 1.000

1x 1x 0

1y 1y 0

1x 1x

1y 1y

Shear Capacity of Pile Cap dV = [ (c + a /2) + (c + a /2)] f h = [0.467 (0.700 + 0.300/2) + 0.467 c 1x 2 1y 1y 1 1x hp t 0 (0.700 + 0.300/2)] 1.000 1,890.000 0.300 = 449.820 kN Maximum Punching Shear Design Value Nl = 247.555kN N < dV

l c

Hence, Safe

Reinforcement Calculations

Use the same reinforcement along both top and bottom.

Along XDirection

Critical Load Case #102 Critical Moment M = N x = 816.931 kNm

y i i

sy y y 0

s,min

Bar Diameter, ds = 20 mm Bar Space, S = 80 mm Min Bar Space, Smin = 50 mm Max Bar Space, Smax = 500 mm Actual Bar Area required, As,actual = 49 10 10 = 15,393 mm2 S <S<S

min max

s,min

<A

s,actual

&A <A

sy

s,actual

Hence, Safe

Along YDirection

Critical Load Case #102 Critical Moment M = N x = 816.931 kNm

y i i

sy y y 0

s,min

Bar Diameter, ds = 20 mm Bar Space, S = 80 mm Min Bar Space, Smin = 50 mm Max Bar Space, Smax = 500 mm Actual Bar Area required, As,actual = 49 10 10 = 15,393 mm2 S <S<S

min max

s,min

<A

s,actual

&A <A

sy

s,actual

************************************************************************************************* Design Iterm: Pile Cap-1 ************************************************************************************************* Basic Information 1, cap information Section shape: Stepped Cast-on-site Plane Shape: Rectangular Number of steps: 1-step Elevation at Cap bottom: 0.0m Number of cap edges: 4 Pile height: 300mm Cap eccentric at X direction: 0mm Cap eccentric at X direction: 0mm 2 pile information Pile Diameter: 500mm Pile bearing Capacity: 500.00Kn Pile Coordinate: NUm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 3, Load information X -1500 0 1500 -1500 0 1500 -1500 0 1500 Y -1500 -1500 -1500 0 0 0 1500 1500 1500

Vertical Load: N = 1500. Moment at x direction: Mx = 0.00knm Moment at y direction: My = 0.00knm Shear force at x direction: Qx = 0.00knm Shear force at y direction: Qy = 0.00knm 4, column information Column width: 800mm Column height: 800mm 5, concrete information Concrete class: C50 Concrete density: 25.00kn/m3

Self weight of pile cap and the soil Gk = B * S * H * + B * S * futu =( 4000.0* 4000.0* 9+ 4000.0* 4000.0* 0.0*1.E-6) = 120.0(kn) Xi*Xi = 13500000.0 Pile No. X Net Reaction QN(KN) 1 -1500.0 -1500.0 Y Pile Reaction 13500000.0 Yi*Yi = 300.0*25.0*1.E-

Q(KN)

180.00

166.67

0.0

-1500.0

180.00

166.67

1500.0

-1500.0

180.00

166.67

-1500.0

0.0

180.00

166.67

0.0

0.0

180.00

166.67

1500.0

0.0

180.00

166.67

-1500.0

1500.0

180.00

166.67

0.0

1500.0

180.00

166.67

1500.0

1500.0

180.00

166.67

QP=

1620.0(kN);

QAVE=

180.0(kN)

1x=1.00

300.

1y=900.

1y=1.00

hp=1.00

1y= 0.467

1x=1.00

300.

1y=900.

1y=1.00

hp=1.00

1y= 0.467

1x=1.00

300.

1y=900.

1y=1.00

hp=1.00

1y= 0.467

1x=1.00

300.

1y=900.

1y=1.00

hp=1.00

1y= 0.467

H00= 300.mm x+ xy+ y+ Step 1 h0= 300. h0= 300. h0= 300. h0= 300. H = 400.00MM ox= 300. ox= 300. oy= 300. oy= 300. ox=1.000 ox=1.000 oy=1.000 oy=1.000

***Punching Shear Check for Column*** H00= 350.mm x+ xy+ y+ h0= 350. h0= 350. h0= 350. h0= 350. ox= 350. ox= 350. oy= 350. oy= 350. ox=1.000 ox=1.000 oy=1.000 oy=1.000 oy= 0.70

hc= 800.

bc= 800.

ox= 0.70

ft= 1.89

hp=1.000

QCC = 2*(ox*(bc+oy)+oy(hc+ox))hp*ft*ho

x=2.571

y=2.571

y=2.571

VPL = hs*1.75/(+1.0)*b0*h0*ft

742.500/(0.9*

742.500/(0.9*

742.500/(0.9*

ASY=2806.1mm*mm/M

The Area of Steel at x direction is satisfied, hence, safe. The Area of Steel at y direction is satisfied, hence, safe. Actual Areas of Steel required AGx: 16@100 Com No H(2) 1 2 3 4 2806.1 2455.4 2182.5 1964.3 2806.1 2455.4 2182.5 1964.3 400.0 450.0 500.0 550.0 ASX AGy: 16@100 ASY H(1)

5 6 7

9.6.3 Comparison

Table 9-18: Chinese verification example 6 comparison STAAD FounReference Value of dation Result Result 2 Bearing Pressure 108.94 KN/m 108.63 KN/m2 Resisting force for sliding (x) 313.74 KN 312.867 KN Resisting Moment for Overturning 752.98 KNm 750.87 KNm (z) Resisting force for sliding (z) 313.74 KN 312.867 KN Resisting Moment for Overturning 752.98 KNm 750.87 KNm (x) Percent Difference Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible Negligible

Section 10

Technical Support

These resources are provided to help you answer support questions:

l

Service Ticket Manager http://www.bentley.com/serviceticketmanager Create and track a service ticket using Bentley Systems' online site for reporting problems or suggesting new features. You do not need to be a Bentley SELECT member to use Service Ticket Manager, however you do need to register as a user. Knowledge Base http://appsnet.bentley.com/kbase/ Search the Bentley Systems knowledge base for solutions for common problems. FAQs and TechNotes http://communities.bentley.com/Products/Structural/Structural_Analysis___ Design/w/Structural_Analysis_and_Design__Wiki/structural-product-technotesand-faqs.aspx Here you can find detailed resolutions and answers to the most common questions posted to us by you. Ask Your Peers http://communities.bentley.com/forums/5932/ShowForum.aspx Post questions in the BeCommunity forums to receive help and advice from fellow users.

Chapter 10

357

88

437

125 125

Index

A ACI 318 AS3600 Australian General Combined Footing General Isolated Footing B British Combined Foundation Isolated Foundation 71, 77 201, 321 3 3 14, 16 3, 6

Pile Cap Chinese Code Plant Foundation U United States Code V Vertical Vessel Foundation 1 385 201 470 385

Mat Combined Foundation British Code BS8110 C Canadian Code Chinese Code CSA A23.3 D Deadman Anchors

99 437 99

321

Figures

Figure 1-1: Australian code General isolated foundation Figure 1-2: Plan and Elevation Figure 1-3: Plan and Elevation Figure 1-4: Plan and Elevation Figure 1-5: Graphs of combined strip footing internal forces Figure 2-1: Bending section considered Figure 2-2: One way shear section considered Figure 2-3: Two way shear section considered Figure 2-4: Plan and Elevation Figure 2-5: Sections considered for bending in both directions Figure 2-6: Sections considered for one-way shear in both directions Figure 2-7: Section considered for punching shear Figure 2-8: Plan and Elevation Figure 2-9: Section considered for bending about the Z axis Figure 2-10: Section considered for bending about the Z axis Figure 2-11: Section considered for one-way shear along X direction Figure 2-12: Section considered for one-way shear along z direction Figure 2-13: Section considered for punching shear Figure 2-14: Plan and Elevation Figure 2-15: Section considered for punching shear 4 6 15 17 20 24 24 24 27 28 30 31 33 47 48 50 51 52 63 69

Chapter 12 Figures

Figure 2-16: Plan and Elevation Figure 2-17: Shear force and Bending Moment diagrams Figure 2-18: Plan and Elevation Figure 2-19: Shear force and Bending Moment diagrams Figure 2-20: Plan and Elevation Figure 2-21: Plan and Elevation Figure 2-22: Bending about major axes Figure 3-1: Plan and Elevation Figure 3-2: Plan and Elevation Figure 3-3: Plan and Elevation Figure 3-4: Elevation and Plan, with dimension and loads Figure 3-5: Bending sections considered Figure 3-6: Shear sections considered Figure 3-7: Two-way shear sections considered Figure 3-8: Plan and Elevation Figure 4-1: Plan and Elevation Figure 4-2: Plan of Reinforcement Figure 4-3: Cross Section showing Reinforcement Figure 4-4: Plan and Elevation Figure 4-5: Elevation and Plan showing reinforcement design Figure 4-6: Plan and Elevation Figure 4-7: Plan and Elevation Figure 4-8: Plan and Elevation Figure 4-9: Plan and Elevation Figure 4-10: Plan and Elevation Figure 4-11: Final Plan Dimensions Figure 4-12: Plan and Elevation Figure 4-13: Dimension, Moment, and Shear and diagrams Figure 4-14: Plan and Elevation Figure 4-15: ShearForce andBending Momentdiagrams Figure 4-16: Plan and Elevation Figure 4-17: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams Figure 4-18: Plan and Elevation Figure 4-19: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams Figure 4-20: Plan and Elevation

72 76 78 82 84 89 91 100 106 113 116 117 119 120 123 126 128 129 130 132 134 139 141 146 151 158 159 162 165 169 171 174 177 181 183

Figure 4-21: Plan, Elevation, and Pedestal dimensions Figure 4-22: Footing Plan Figure 4-23: >Loads on Footing Figure 4-24: Shear Force (kN, top) and Bending Moment (kNm, bottom) diagrams Figure 5-1: Elevation and loads Figure 5-2: Considered sections for two-way (bo) and beam (bw) action Figure 5-3: Critical section for moment (long projection) Figure 5-4: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-5: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-6: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-7: Section considered for two-way shear Figure 5-8: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-9: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-10: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-11: Corner pressure values on plan for punching shear Figure 5-12: One-way shear pressure values along x-direction Figure 5-13: One-way shear pressure values along z-direction Figure 5-14: Bending pressure about Z axis Figure 5-15: Bending pressure about X axis Figure 5-16: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-17: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams Figure 5-18: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-19: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams Figure 5-20: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-21: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams Figure 5-22: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-23: Shear Force and Bending Moment diagrams Figure 5-24: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-25: Section considered for punching shear Figure 5-26: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-27: Section considered for two-way shear Figure 5-28: Section considered for one-way shear Figure 5-29: Section considered for bending Figure 5-30: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-31: Section considered for punching shear

190 198 198 200 202 203 204 207 211 216 218 221 230 234 236 237 238 239 239 241 243 247 252 254 255 259 261 265 267 272 274 276 278 281 282 Verification Manual 491

Chapter 12 Figures

Figure 5-32: Section considered for one-way shear Figure 5-33: Section considered for moment Figure 5-34: Elevation and Plan Figure 5-35: Section considered for punching shear Figure 5-36: Section considered for one-way shear Figure 5-37: Section considered for moment Figure 5-38: Elevation and dimensions Figure 5-39: Forces on foundation Figure 5-40: Shear and Bending diagrams Figure 5-41: Plan and Elevation Figure 5-42: Critical section for punching shear is at d/2 Figure 5-43: Critical section for moment is at the face of column Figure 5-44: Plan and Elevation Figure 5-45: Critical section for punching shear at d/2 Figure 6-1: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section Figure 6-2: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram Figure 6-3: Dispersion line diagram Figure 6-4: Top rebar force diagram Figure 6-5: Bending moment diagram - top Figure 6-6: Bending moment diagram - front face Figure 6-7: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section Figure 6-8: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift Figure 6-9: Top rebar force diagram Figure 6-10: Bending moment diagram - top Figure 6-11: Bending moment diagram - front face Figure 6-12: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section Figure 6-13: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram Figure 6-14: Dispersion line diagram Figure 6-15: Top rebar force diagram Figure 6-16: Bending moment diagram - top Figure 6-17: Bending moment diagram - front face Figure 6-18: Deadman Anchor Guy Tension Block section Figure 6-19: Dispersion of soil against vertical uplift diagram Figure 6-20: Top rebar force diagram Figure 6-21: Bending moment diagram - top

283 285 288 290 291 293 296 298 298 303 305 307 313 315 324 325 326 328 328 329 331 333 336 336 337 341 342 344 345 346 346 348 350 353 353

Figure 6-22: Bending moment diagram - front face Figure 7-1: Pier Elevation Figure 7-2: Pier Elevation Figure 7-3: Pier Elevation Figure 7-4: Pier Elevation Figure 7-5: Pier Elevation Figure 7-6: Pier Elevation Figure 8-1: Tank and foundation elevation Figure 8-2: Anchor bolt plan Figure 8-3: One-way shear dimensions Figure 8-4: Two-way shear check Figure 8-5: Tank and foundation elevation Figure 8-6: Anchor bolt plan Figure 8-7: One-way shear dimensions Figure 8-8: Two-way shear check Figure 8-9: Tank and foundation elevation Figure 8-10: Anchor bolt plan Figure 8-11: One-way shear dimensions Figure 8-12: Two-way shear check Figure 9-1: Four corners of the calculated stress Figure 9-2: Elevation of stability forces Figure 9-3: Reinforcement parallel to the X-direction Figure 9-4: Reinforcement parallel to the Z-direction Figure 9-5: Four corners of the calculated stress Figure 9-6: Reinforcement parallel to the X-direction Figure 9-7: Reinforcement parallel to the Z-direction

354 358 363 368 372 377 381 386 386 392 392 395 395 401 401 404 404 410 410 439 440 443 444 451 455 456

Tables

Table 1-1: Australian verification example 1 comparison Table 1-2: Australian verification example 2 comparison Table 1-3: Australian verification example 3 comparison Table 1-4: Australian verification example 4 comparison Table 2-1: British verification example 1 comparison Table 2-2: Table BS2.1 - Column loads Table 2-3: British verification example 2 comparison 5 14 16 22 26 26 32 Verification Manual 493

Chapter 12 Tables

Table 2-4: British verification example 3 comparison Table 2-5: British verification example 4 comparison Table 2-6: British verification example 5 comparison Table 2-7: British verification example 6 comparison Table 2-8: British verification example 7 comparison Table 2-9: British verification example 8 comparison Table 2-10: British verification example 9 comparison Table 2-11: British verification example 10 comparison Table 2-12: British verification example 13 comparisons Table 3-1: CSAverification example 1 comparison Table 3-2: CSA verification example 2 comparison Table 3-3: CSA verification example 3 comparison Table 3-4: CSA verification example 5 comparison Table 3-5: CSA verification example 5 comparison Table 4-1: IS verification example 1 comparison Table 4-2: IS verification example 2 comparison Table 4-3: IS verification example 3 comparison Table 4-4: IS verification example 4 comparison Table 4-5: IS verification example 5 comparison Table 4-6: IS verification example 6 comparison Table 4-7: IS verification example 7 comparison Table 4-8: IS verification example 8 comparison Table 4-9: IS verification example 9 comparison Table 4-10: IS verification example 10 comparison Table 4-11: IS verification example 11 comparison Table 4-12: Pile Locations in Plan Table 4-13: IS verification example 12 comparison Table 4-14: Pile Coordinates in Plan Table 4-15: IS verification example 13 comparison Table 4-16: IS verification example 14 comparison Table 5-1: US verification example 1 comparison Table 5-2: US verification example 2 comparison Table 5-3: US verification example 3 comparison Table 5-4: US verification example 4 comparison Table 5-5: US verification example 5 comparison

38 44 53 62 71 77 83 88 98 105 112 115 122 124 129 133 138 140 145 150 158 164 170 176 182 183 189 191 197 200 206 210 215 220 229

Table 5-6: US verification example 6 comparison Table 5-7: US Verification problem 9 comparison Table 5-8: US verification example 7 comparison Table 5-9: US verification example 8 comparison Table 5-10: US verification example 7 comparison Table 5-11: US verification example 7 comparison Table 5-12: Pile Coordinates in Plan Table 5-13: US verification example 10 comparison Table 5-14: Pile Coordinates in Plan Table 5-15: US verification example 11 comparison Table 5-16: Pile Coordinates in Plan Table 5-17: US verification example 11 comparison Table 5-18: Pile Coordinates in Plan Table 5-19: US verification example 13 comparison Table 5-20: US verification example 12 comparison Table 5-21: US verification example 14 comparison Table 5-22: US verification example 15 comparison Table 6-1: Soil Test Report Summary Table 6-2: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 1 comparison Table 6-3: Soil test report summary Table 6-4: Soil layers Table 6-5: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 2 comparison Table 6-6: Soil test report summary Table 6-7: Soil layers Table 6-8: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 3 comparison Table 6-9: Soil layers Table 6-10: Deadman Anchor (US)verification example 4 comparison Table 7-1: Drilled Pier (API) verification example 1 comparison Table 7-2: Drilled Pier (API) verification example 2 comparison Table 7-3: Drilled Pier (FHWA) verification example 3 comparison Table 7-4: Drilled Pier (FHWA) verification example 4 comparison Table 7-5: Drilled Pier (Vesic) verification example 5 comparison Table 7-6: Drilled Pier (Vesic) verification example 6 comparison Table 8-1: Primary load description Table 8-2: Wind loads

233 240 246 253 258 264 266 271 273 280 281 287 289 295 302 311 320 322 330 331 334 338 339 342 347 348 355 361 366 371 375 380 384 387 388

Chapter 12 Tables

Table 8-3: Applied Load Combinations - Allowable Stress Level Table 8-4: Applied Load Combinations - Strength Level Table 8-5: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level Table 8-6: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Strength Level Table 8-7: Stability Ratio Table 8-8: Soil Bearing Check Table 8-9: Vertical Vessel verification example 1 comparison Table 8-10: Primary load description Table 8-11: Wind loads Table 8-12: Applied Load Combination - Allowable Stress Level Table 8-13: Applied Load Combination - Strength Level Table 8-14: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level Table 8-15: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Strength Level Table 8-16: Stability Ratio Table 8-17: Vertical Vessel verification example 2 comparison Table 8-18: Primary load description Table 8-19: Wind loads Table 8-20: Applied Load Combination - Allowable Stress Level Table 8-21: Applied Load Combination - Strength Level Table 8-22: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Allowable Stress Level Table 8-23: Applied Load at Top of Pedestal - Strength Level Table 8-24: Stability Ratio Table 8-25: Soil Bearing Check Table 8-26: Vertical Vessel verification example 3 comparison Table 8-27: Vertical Vessel verification example 4 comparison Table 8-28: Vertical Vessel verification example 5 comparison Table 8-29: Vertical Vessel verification example 6 comparison Table 8-30: Vertical Vessel verification example 7 comparison Table 8-31: Vertical Vessel verification example 8 comparison Table 8-32: Vertical Vessel verification example 9 comparison Table 8-33: Vertical Vessel verification example 10 comparison Table 8-34: Vertical Vessel verification example 11 comparison Table 8-35: Vertical Vessel verification example 12 comparison Table 8-36: Vertical Vessel verification example 13 comparison Table 8-37: Vertical Vessel verification example 14 comparison

389 389 389 390 391 391 394 396 397 398 398 398 399 400 403 405 406 407 407 407 408 409 409 412 413 414 415 416 418 419 420 421 422 423 424

Table 8-38: Vertical Vessel verification example 15 comparison Table 8-39: Vertical Vessel verification example 16 comparison Table 8-40: Service level load combinations per PIP Table 8-41: Strength level load combinations per PIP Table 8-42: Service level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier Table 8-43: Strength level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier Table 8-44: Service level load combinations per PIP Table 8-45: Strength level load combinations per PIP Table 8-46: Service level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier Table 8-47: Strength level loads applied at the top of the top of the fixed pier Table 9-1: Overview of cone footing design results Table 9-2: Reinforcement details Table 9-3: Loads for foundation base size estimation -For foundation base (1) Table 9-4: Loads for Punching shear check and reinforcements- For foundation base (1) Table 9-5: Factor of safety Table 9-6: Overview of the stepped foundation design Table 9-7: Reinforcement details Table 9-8: Critical loads for base size estimation - standard combination Table 9-9: Loads for foundation design- the basic combination Table 9-10: Safety factors Table 9-11: Overview of the design results Table 9-12: Foundation reinforcement details Table 9-13: Load cases for base dimensions estimation - standard combination Table 9-14: Load cases for foundation design - basic combinationn Table 9-15: Pile capacities under load case no. 101 Table 9-16: Pile capacities under load case no. 102 Table 9-17: Load about the pile cap Table 9-18: Chinese verification example 6 comparison

426 427 429 429 430 430 433 433 434 434 437 437 439 439 441 449 449 450 450 452 462 462 464 464 470 471 472 483

Chapter 12 Tables

Bentley Systems, Incorporated 685 Stockton Drive, Exton, PA 19341 USA +1 (800) 236-8539 www.bentley.com

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